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  • 1.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Borgström, S.
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Colding, Johan
    The Beijer Institute, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Elmqvist, Tomas
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; The Beijer Institute, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gren, A.
    The Beijer Institute, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Reconnecting cities to the biosphere: Stewardship of green infrastructure and urban ecosystem services2016Inngår i: Sustainable Cities: Urban Planning Challenges and Policy, CRC Press , 2016, s. 29-45Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 2.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Beijer Institute, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Borgström, Sara
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Colding, Johan
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; The Beijer Institute, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; The Beijer Institute, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gren, Åsa
    The Beijer Institute, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Reconnecting Cities to the Biosphere: Stewardship of Green Infrastructure and Urban Ecosystem Services2014Inngår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 43, nr 4, s. 445-453Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Within-city green infrastructure can offer opportunities and new contexts for people to become stewards of ecosystem services. We analyze cities as social-ecological systems, synthesize the literature, and provide examples from more than 15 years of research in the Stockholm urban region, Sweden. The social-ecological approach spans from investigating ecosystem properties to the social frameworks and personal values that drive and shape human interactions with nature. Key findings demonstrate that urban ecosystem services are generated by social-ecological systems and that local stewards are critically important. However, land-use planning and management seldom account for their role in the generation of urban ecosystem services. While the small scale patchwork of land uses in cities stimulates intense interactions across borders much focus is still on individual patches. The results highlight the importance and complexity of stewardship of urban biodiversity and ecosystem services and of the planning and governance of urban green infrastructure.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Colding, Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Understanding how built urban form influences biodiversity2014Inngår i: Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, ISSN 1618-8667, E-ISSN 1610-8167, Vol. 13, nr 2, s. 221-226Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study seeks to contribute to a more complete understanding of how urban form influences biodiversity by investigating the effects of green area distribution and that of built form. We investigated breeding bird diversity in three types of housing development with approximately the same amount of tree cover. No significant differences in terms of bird communities were found between housing types in any of the survey periods. However, detached housing, especially with interspersed trees, had more neotropical insectivores and higher overall diversity of insectivores. Based on our results and theory we suggest a complementary approach to managing biodiversity in urban landscapes - instead of maximising the value and quality of individual patches efforts could go into enhancing over-all landscape quality at the neighbourhood scale by splitting up part of the green infrastructure. The relatively small differences in bird communities also suggest that different stakeholder groups may be engaged in management.

  • 4.
    Baltscheffsky, Susanna
    Svenska dagbladet.
    Bygget som förstärker naturen2010Inngår i: Svenska dagbladetArtikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett gammalt industriområde vid Stockholms universitet kan bli ett föredöme för hur byggprojekt kan ge mer till naturen än vad det förstör. Men om området byggs för tätt förstörs viktiga värden i Nationalstadsparken, varnar kritiker.

  • 5. Barthel, Stephan
    et al.
    Berghauser Pont, M.
    Colding, Johan
    Gren, Å.
    Legeby, A.
    Marcus, L.
    DN Debatt: ”Nytt miljonprogram – unik chans att lösa flera frågor”2016Inngår i: Dagens nyheterArtikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 6.
    Barthel, Stephan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Miljöteknik.
    Colding, Johan
    Stockholms Universitet.
    A Critical Perspective on the “Smart City” Model2017Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    As urban ecologists we support developing smoother traffic systems, providing citizens with more easily accessible information, and of course promoting citizen-participation and local democracy in political decision-making. However, and as is normally the common destiny when new models for sustainable development are appearing, investments in these “smarter” models run the risk of making people blind to problems that need more immediate concern. In short, governance is a matter of prioritizing among different goals. Governance is also about making sure that strong and powerful enterprises and business interests do not hijack the public debate

  • 7.
    Barthel, Stephan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Colding, Johan
    Beijer International Institute of Ecological Economics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Elmqvist, Tomas
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    History and local management of a biodiversity-rich, urban cultural landscape2005Inngår i: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 10, nr 2, artikkel-id 10Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban green spaces provide socially valuable ecosystem services. Through an historical analysis of the development of the National Urban Park (NUP) of Stockholm, we illustrate how the coevolutionary process of humans and nature has resulted in the high level of biological diversity and associated recreational services found in the park. The ecological values of the area are generated in the cultural landscape. External pressures resulting in urban sprawl in the Stockholm metropolitan region increasingly challenge the capacity of the NUP to continue to generate valuable ecosystem services. Setting aside protected areas, without accounting for the role of human stewardship of the cultural landscape, will most likely fail. In a social inventory of the area, we identify 69 local user and interest groups currently involved in the NUP area. Of these, 25 are local stewardship associations that have a direct role in managing habitats within the park that sustain such services as recreational landscapes, seed dispersal, and pollination. We propose that incentives should be created to widen the current biodiversity management paradigm, and actively engage local stewardship associations in adaptive co-management processes of the park and surrounding green spaces. Copyright © 2005 by the author(s). Published here under license by the Resilience Alliance.

  • 8. Barthel, Stephan
    et al.
    Colding, Johan
    Erixon, Hanna
    Ernstson, Henrik
    KTH, Historiska studier av teknik, vetenskap och miljö.
    Grahn, Sara
    Kärsten, Carl
    Marcus, Lars
    Torsvall, Jonas
    Principles of Social Ecological Design: Case study Albano Campus, Stockholm2013Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 9.
    Barthel, Stephan
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Colding, Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Ernstson, Henrik
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    QBook4-Hållbarhet: Albano Resilient Campus2010Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 10. Barthel, Stephan
    et al.
    Colding, Johan
    Ernstson, Henrik
    KTH, Historiska studier av teknik, vetenskap och miljö.
    Grahn, Sara
    KTH, Arkitektur.
    Erixon, Hanna
    KTH, Arkitektur.
    Marcus, Lars
    KTH, Stadsbyggnad.
    Kärsten, Carl
    Torsvall, Jonas
    Chans sätta Stockholm på kartan2011Inngår i: Svenska dagbladetArtikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 11.
    Barthel, Stephan
    et al.
    Natural Resource Management, Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Resilience Center, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Folke, Carl
    Natural Resource Management, Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Resilience Center, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Colding, Johan
    Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Resilience Center, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Social-ecological memory in urban gardens-Retaining the capacity for management of ecosystem services2010Inngår i: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 20, nr 2, s. 255-265Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Many ecosystem services are in decline. Local ecological knowledge and associated practice are essential to sustain and enhance ecosystem services on the ground. Here, we focus on social or collective memory in relation to management practice that sustains ecosystem services, and investigate where and how ecological practices, knowledge and experience are retained and transmitted. We analyze such social-ecological memory of allotment gardens in the Stockholm urban area, Sweden. Allotment gardens support ecosystem services such as pollination, seed dispersal and pest regulation in the broader urban landscape. Surveys and interviews were preformed over a four-year period with several hundreds of gardeners. We found that the allotment gardens function as communities-of-practice, where participation and reification interact and social-ecological memory is a shared source of resilience of the community by being both emergent and persistent. Ecological practices and knowledge in allotment gardens are retained and transmitted by imitation of practices, oral communication and collective rituals and habits, as well as by the physical gardens, artifacts, metaphors and rules-in-use (institutions). Finally, a wider social context provides external support through various forms of media, markets, social networks, collaborative organizations, and legal structures. We exemplify the role of urban gardens in generating ecosystem services in times of crisis and change and conclude that stewards of urban green areas and the social memory that they carry may help counteract further decline of critical ecosystem services. .

  • 12.
    Barthel, Stephan
    et al.
    Department of History, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Resilience Center, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Parker, John
    National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis, University of California, Santa Barbara, USA; Barrett Honors College, Arizona State University, Tempe, USA.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm Resilience Center, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Colding, Johan
    Stockholm Resilience Center, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Urban gardens: pockets of social-ecological memory2014Inngår i: Greening in the Red Zone: Disaster, Resilience, and Community Greening Part II / [ed] Keith G. Tidball and Marianne E. Krasny, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands , 2014, s. 145-158Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well known that urban allotment gardens provide important ecosystem services. Their potential to act as sources of local resilience during times of crisis is less appreciated, despite the role they have played as areas of food security during times of crisis in history. Their ability to provide such relief, however, requires that the skills and knowledge needed for effective gardening can be transmitted over time and across social groups. In short, some portion of urban society must remember how to grow food. This chapter proposes that collectively managed gardens function as ‘pockets’ of social-ecological memory in urban landscapes by storing the knowledge and experience required to grow food. Allotment gardeners operate as ‘communities of practice’ with ecosystem stewardship reflecting long-term, dynamic interactions between community members and gardening sites. Social-ecological memories about food production and past crises are retained and transmitted through habits, traditions, informal institutions, artifacts and the physical structure of the gardens themselves. Allotment gardens thus serve as incubators of social-ecological knowledge with experiences that can be accessed and transferred to other land uses in times of crisis, contributing to urban resilience. Conversely, failure to protect these pockets of social-ecological memory could result in a collective ‘forgetting’ of important social-ecological knowledge and reduce social-ecological resilience.

  • 13.
    Bendt, Pim
    et al.
    Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden; .
    Barthel, Stephan
    Stockholm Resilience Center, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of History, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Colding, Johan
    Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Resilience Center, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Civic greening and environmental learning in public-access community gardens in Berlin2013Inngår i: Landscape and Urban Planning, ISSN 0169-2046, E-ISSN 1872-6062, Vol. 109, nr 1, s. 18-30Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyse environmental learning in public-access community gardens (‘PAC-gardens’) in Berlin, representing public green spaces that are collectively managed by civil society groups. Through extensive fieldwork, and drawing upon social theories of learning, we describe learning communities in four PAC-gardens and analyse factors that influence participation and boundary interaction, that is when experiences brought in from the outside encounter socially defined competences. Results show that these PAC-gardens have self-generated social and physical structures, which to different degrees inhibit or facilitate boundary interactions, whereas skills of individuals to put those to work, in combination with the quality of the surrounding neighbourhoods, can be ascribed for creating broader participation and greater diversity in the content of learning about local sustainability. Identified learning streams included learning about gardening and local ecological conditions; about urban politics, and about social entrepreneurship. We discuss results in relation to environmental learning that combats the generational amnesia in cities about our dependence on nature, where PAC-gardens clearly distinguish themselves from more closed forms of urban gardening such as allotment gardens and gated community gardens. We conclude that PAC-gardens that intertwine gardening with social, political and economic practices can create broader and more heterogeneous learning about social–ecological conditions, and help develop sense-of-place in degraded neighbourhoods.

  • 14.
    Berkes, F.
    et al.
    Natural Resources Institute, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada.
    Colding, Johan
    Natural Resources Management, Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Beijer International Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Folke, Carl
    Natural Resources Management, Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Beijer International Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rediscovery of Traditional Ecological Knowledge as adaptive management2000Inngår i: Ecological Applications, ISSN 1051-0761, E-ISSN 1939-5582, Vol. 10, nr 5, s. 1251-1262Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Indigenous groups offer alternative knowledge and perspectives based on their own locally developed practices of resource use. We surveyed the international literature to focus on the role of Traditional Ecological Knowledge in monitoring, responding to, and managing ecosystem processes and functions, with special attention to ecological resilience. Case studies revealed that there exists a diversity of local or traditional practices for ecosystem management. These include multiple species management, resource rotation, succession management, landscape patchiness management, and other ways of responding to and managing pulses and ecological surprises. Social mechanisms behind these traditional practices include a number of adaptations for the generation, accumulation, and transmission of knowledge; the use of local institutions to provide leaders/stewards and rules for social regulation; mechanisms for cultural internalization of traditional practices; and the development of appropriate world views and cultural values. Some traditional knowledge and management systems were characterized by the use of local ecological knowledge to interpret and respond to feedbacks from the environment to guide the direction of resource management. These traditional systems had certain similarities to adaptive management with its emphasis on feedback learning, and its treatment of uncertainty and unpredictability intrinsic to all ecosystems.

  • 15.
    Berkes, Fikret
    et al.
    Natural Resources Institute, University of Manitoba, Canada.
    Colding, Johan
    Centre for Research on Natural Resources and the Environment, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Beijer International Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Folke, Carl
    Centre for Research on Natural Resources and the Environment (CNM), Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Systems Ecology Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Beijer International Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Introduction2002Inngår i: Navigating Social-Ecological Systems: Building Resilience for Complexity and Change / [ed] Berkes, F., Colding, J. and Folke, C., Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002, 1, , s. 393s. 1-29Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A common perspective until recently was that our problem-solving abilities have been improving over the years. In the area of resource and environmental management, for example, there was a great deal of faith in our growing scientific understanding of ecosystems, our bag of increasingly sophisticated tools and technologies, and the application of market mechanisms to problems such as air pollution control and fishery management through individually allocated quotas. However, the experience over the last few decades does not support such optimism (e.g., Clark and Munn, 1986; Ludwig, Hilborn, and Walters, 1993; Gunderson, Holling, and Light, 1995). Many of our resource and environmental problems are proving resistant to solutions. A gap has developed between environmental problems and our lagging ability to solve them. This is coming at a time when the Earth has become an increasingly human-dominated system. Many of the changes in the biosphere, including the modification of landscapes, loss of biodiversity and, according to some, climate change, are driven by human activities. Furthermore, changes are occurring at an increasingly faster rate than previously experienced in human history.

    There is an emerging consensus regarding the need to look for broader approaches and solutions, not only with resource and environmental issues but along a wide front of societal problems. A survey of senior American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) scientists revealed an intriguing insight.

  • 16.
    Berkes, Fikret
    et al.
    Natural Resources Institute, University of Manitoba, Canada.
    Colding, Johan
    Centre for Research on Natural Resources and the Environment, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Beijer International Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Folke, Carl
    Centre for Research on Natural Resources and the Environment (CNM), Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Systems Ecology Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Beijer International Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Living with disturbance: Building resilience in social-ecological systems2002Inngår i: Navigating Social-Ecological Systems: Building Resilience for Complexity and Change / [ed] Berkes, F., Colding, J. and Folke, C., Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002, 1, , s. 393s. 163-186Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Disturbances such as fire, cyclones, and pest outbreaks create variation in natural systems and ecosystem renewal that may be important for the maintenance of biological diversity. Many natural disturbances are inherent in the internal dynamics of ecosystems, and often set the timing of ecosystem renewal processes fundamental for maintaining resilience in ecosystems (Holling et al., 1995).

    By disturbance we mean ‘any relatively discrete event in time that disrupts ecosystem community or population structure and changes resources, substrate availability, or the physical environment’ (White and Pickett, 1985: 7). We distinguish between abiotic and biotic disturbances. Abiotic disturbances are those where the direct cause of disturbance is generated by nonbiotic agents. Examples include fires, hurricanes, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, flooding, and drought. Examples of biotic disturbances include insect and pest attacks, predators, invasion of exotic species, and the grazing and browsing of herbivores.

    Conventional resource management, based on economic production targets, commonly seeks to reduce natural variation in target resources, because fluctuations impose problems for the industry dependent on the resource (Holling and Meffe, 1996). Control of resource stock variability and flows can be achieved in a number of ways. For instance, by increasing financial investments in technologies for harvesting, a modern fishing industry can invest in larger fleets and more effective gear in order to maintain an even flow of production. Maintenance of high and even flows of monoculture crops in large-scale agriculture may be achieved by investing in various energy inputs, such as insecticides, pesticides, and irrigation.

  • 17.
    Berkes, Fikret
    et al.
    University of Manitoba, Canada.
    Colding, JohanBeijer International Institute of Ecological Economics, Stockholm, Sweden.Folke, CarlBeijer International Institute of Ecological Economics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Navigating Social-Ecological Systems: Building Resilience for Complexity and Change2002Collection/Antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the effort towards sustainability, it has become increasingly important to develop conceptual frames to understand the dynamics of social and ecological systems. Drawing on complex systems theory, this book investigates how human societies deal with change in linked social-ecological systems, and build capacity to adapt to change. The concept of resilience is central in this context. Resilient social-ecological systems have the potential to sustain development by responding to and shaping change in a manner that does not lead to loss of future options. Resilient systems also provide capacity for renewal and innovation in the face of rapid transformation and crisis. The term navigating in the title is meant to capture this dynamic process. Case studies and examples from several geographic areas, cultures and resource types are included, merging forefront research from natural sciences, social sciences and the humanities into a common framework for new insights on sustainability.

  • 18.
    Berkes, Fikret
    et al.
    Natural Resources Institute, University of Manitoba, Canada.
    Colding, Johan
    Centre for Research on Natural Resources and the Environment, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Beijer International Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Folke, Carl
    Centre for Research on Natural Resources and the Environment (CNM), Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Systems Ecology Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Beijer International Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Synthesis: Building Resilience and Adaptive Capacity in Social-Ecological Systems2002Inngår i: Navigating Social-Ecological Systems: Building Resilience for Complexity and Change / [ed] Berkes, F., Colding, J. and Folke, C., Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002, 1, , s. 393s. 352-387Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A weekly magazine on business development issued an analysis of Madonna, the pop star, and raised the question ‘How come Madonna has been at the very top in pop music for more than 20 years, in a sector characterized by so much rapid change?’ A few decades ago, successful companies developed their brand around stability and security. To stay in business this is no longer sufficient, according to the magazine. You must add change, renewal, and variation as well. However, change, renewal, and variation by themselves will seldom lead to success and survival. To be effective, a context of experience, history, remembrance, and trust, to act within, is required. Changing, renewing, and diversifying within such a foundation of stability and maintaining high quality have been the recipe for success and survival of Madonna, and for rock stars such as Neil Young and U2. It requires an active adaptation to change, not only responding to change, but also creating and shaping it. In the same spirit, Sven-Göran Eriksson, coach of several soccer teams in Europe, claimed that it is the wrong strategy not to change a winning team. A winning team will always need a certain amount, but not too much, of renewal to be sustained as a winning team. Sustaining a winning team requires a context for renewal, or ‘framed creativity,’ borrowing from the language of the advertiser.

  • 19.
    Colding, Johan
    Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Analysis of hunting options by the use of general food taboos1998Inngår i: Ecological Modelling, ISSN 0304-3800, E-ISSN 1872-7026, Vol. 110, nr 1, s. 5-17Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A hypothetical model was built, using the STELLA II software program, to test several hunting options for a human hunting group. Different outcomes of possible hunting modes are analysed, such as a change in hunting rate, prey hunted, or species avoided or not avoided by taboos. The model consists of five sectors that reflect a short food chain in an upper Amazonian ecosystem. There is a vegetation sector, a predator sector, and two sectors consisting of browsers and grazers. The last sector represents a human group, known as the Ecuador Achuar. The critical factor analysed is how differences in hunting rate affect a target resource, and how this resource may be affected by general food taboos. The major results of the model are that general food taboos may not be an adaptive short term strategy for hunters, but that a 'moderate' hunting mode may be the most effective option for the human group. Since the model is a simplification of the real world, no general conclusions for management should be drawn from the results.

  • 20.
    Colding, Johan
    Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Creating incentives for increased public engagement in ecosystem management through urban commons2011Inngår i: Adapting Institutions: Governance, Complexity and Social-Ecological Resilience / [ed] Boyd, E. and Folke, C., Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press , 2011, 1, s. 101-124Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Over half the world's population currently lives in urban areas; by 2030, nearly five billion people are expected to live in cities (Ash et al. 2008). Between 2010 and 2030, the amount of the built mass on the earth is predicted to double, creating ever-greater demands on the services that nearby and distant ecosystems provide (Grimm et al. 2008). With a greater proportion of humans living in metropolitan areas, urban ecosystems will experience increased land-use and land-cover change. Currently, urbanisation endangers more species and is more geographically ubiquitous than any other human activity; urban sprawl is rapidly transforming critical habitats of global value, such as the Atlantic Forest Region of Brazil, the Cape of South Africa and coastal Central America (Elmqvist et al. 2008). Urbanisation leads not only to increased homogenisation of fauna and flora (McKinney 2002) but also to an impoverished biology in metropolitan areas, which arguably serves as a constant reminder of the presumed unimportance of biodiversity and so may contribute to ‘environmental generational amnesia’ among the greater public (Miller 2005). To gain the much-needed broad-based public support for a sustainable use of ecosystems, both within and outside cities, the places where people live and work need to offer opportunities for meaningful interactions with functioning ecosystems (Rosenzweig 2003, Miller 2005, Andersson et al. 2007, Colding 2007). In this respect, and to help mitigate the growing disconnection of urban residents from nature (Pyle 1978, 1993), the dynamics of property rights determining human relationships to land can have powerful ramifications and be worthy of scholarly analysis to provide propositions about both the manner in which land ownership in cities evolves (Webster 2003) and its potential outcomes, such as the provision of the ecosystem services critical to human well-being (Daily 1997, Millennium Ecosystem Assessment 2005). It is increasingly recognised that today's institutions match current changes in ecosystems and their dynamics poorly (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment 2005, Folke et al. 2007).

  • 21.
    Colding, Johan
    The Beijer International Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    ‘Ecological land-use complementation’ for building resilience in urban ecosystems2007Inngår i: Landscape and Urban Planning, ISSN 0169-2046, E-ISSN 1872-6062, Vol. 81, nr 1-2, s. 46-55Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 22.
    Colding, Johan
    Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ecologists as the new management elite?2000Inngår i: Conservation ecology, ISSN 1195-5449, E-ISSN 1195-5449, Vol. 4, nr 2, s. XXV-XXVIArtikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 23.
    Colding, Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Ekosystem sliter i städer2011Inngår i: Miljöforskning : Formas tidning för ett uthålligt samhälle, ISSN 1650-4925, nr 9Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Trots att grönområden har stor betydelse för städers klimat och för människors välbefinnande är kunskap om detta bristfällig bland stadsplanerare. Pollinering av växter och grödor, fröspridning eller vatten- och luftrening är arbete som naturen utför och som vi är beroende av i våra samhällen. Hur man med hjälp av ekosystemtjänster kan planera och bygga mer hållbara städer studeras i ett stort internationellt projekt SUPER (Sustainable Urban Planning for Ecosystems Services and Resilience).

  • 24.
    Colding, Johan
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ekosystem sliter i städer2011Inngår i: Miljöforskning : Formas tidning för ett uthålligt samhälle, ISSN 1650-4925, nr 9Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Trots att grönområden har stor betydelse för städers klimat och för människors välbefinnande är kunskap om detta bristfällig bland stadsplanerare. Pollinering av växter och grödor, fröspridning eller vatten- och luftrening är arbete som naturen utför och som vi är beroende av i våra samhällen. Hur man med hjälp av ekosystemtjänster kan planera och bygga mer hållbara städer studeras i ett stort internationellt projekt SUPER (Sustainable Urban Planning for Ecosystems Services and Resilience).

  • 25.
    Colding, Johan
    Beijer International Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Local Assessment of Stockholm: Revisiting the Stockholm Urban Assessment2013Inngår i: Urbanization, Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services: Challenges and Opportunities: A Global Assessment / [ed] Thomas Elmqvist, Michail Fragkias, Julie Goodness, Burak Güneralp, Peter J. Marcotullio, Robert I. McDonald, Susan Parnell, Maria Schewenius, Marte Sendstad, Karen C. Seto, and Cathy Wilkinson, New York: Springer Netherlands , 2013, 1, s. 313-335Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the year 2003, the Stockholm Urban Assessment (SUA) was selected as a sub-global assessment within the global Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA, Ecosystems and human well-being: synthesis. Island Press, Washington, DC, 2005). This chapter revisits SUA and fills in important knowledge gaps in the assessment as well as provides insights on urban resilience building. The chapter applies a critical perspective on the present urban development trajectory of the Stockholm metropolitan area. It emphasizes the need to understand ways in which informally managed green spaces contribute to ecological functions in urban settings. The chapter provides a background of the Stockholm region and the current challenges it faces, followed by a synthesis of the major insights conveyed in SUA related to informal ecosystem management. The chapter concludes by proposing policy recommendations of general implications for urban resilience building.

  • 26.
    Colding, Johan
    Stockholms universitet.
    Local institutions, biological conservation and management of ecosystem dynamics2001Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis analyze local institutions and management practices related to natural resources and ecosystem dynamics, with an emphasis on "traditional ecological knowledge" systems. Papers I, II and III analyze ‘resource and habitat taboos’ (RHTs) with the objective to synthesize knowledge about informal institutions behind resource management. Papers IV and V focus on resource management practices and social mechanisms with a capacity to confer resilience in ecosystems. Ecological resilience is the buffering capacity of ecosystems to incorporate disturbance and yet continue to provide biodiversity and ecological services critical to societal development. Cases for the synthesis were mainly derived from the literature. Examples of RHTs could be grouped in six different categories depending on their potential management and conservation functions. These included both use-taboos and non-use taboos. The former regulates access to, and methods and withdrawal of subsistence resources. These appear to be closely related to traditional ecological knowledge, as it is defined in this thesis. The latter prohibits human use of species and habitats, and is closely related to religious and cosmological belief systems. As discussed, both groups of taboos can be comparable to ethics of academic conservation biology, although rationales behind such ethics differ. RHTs have effects that may contribute to the conservation of habitats, local subsistence resources, and ‘threatened’, ‘endemic’ and ‘keystone’ species, although some may run contrary to conservation and notions of sustainability. It is asserted that under certain circumstances, RHTs, and possibly other types of informal institutions may offer advantages relative to formal measures of conservation. These benefits include non-costly, voluntary compliance features. Results of papers IV and V revealed that there exists a diversity of traditional practices for ecosystem management. These include multiple species management, resource rotation, ecological monitoring, succession management, landscape patchiness management, and practices of responding to and managing pulses and ecological surprises. Social mechanisms behind these practices included a number of adaptations for the generation, accumulation, and transmission of knowledge; dynamics of institutions; mechanisms for cultural internalization of traditional practices; and the development of appropriate world views and cultural values. These traditional systems had certain similarities to adaptive management with its emphasis on feedback learning, and its treatment of uncertainty and unpredictability to ecosystems. Furthermore, there existed practices that seem to reduce social-ecological crises in the events of large-scale natural disturbance. These included practices that create small-scale ecosystem renewal cycles, practices that spread risks, and practices for nurturing sources of ecosystem renewal. These practices are linked to social mechanisms such as flexible user rights and land tenure. It is concluded that ecological monitoring appears to be a key element in the development of many of the practices. Management practices in local communities are framed by a social context, with informal institutions and other social mechanisms, and supported by a worldview that does not de-couple people from their dependence on natural systems. Since management of ecosystems is associated with uncertainty about their spatial and temporal dynamics and due to incomplete knowledge about such dynamics, these practices may provide useful ‘rules of thumb’ for resource management with an ability to confer resilience and tighten environmental feedbacks of resource exploitation to local levels. To link local institutions in cross-scale polycentric co-management arrangements may be a viable option for improving current resource management systems.

  • 27.
    Colding, Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Super: Sustainable urban planning for ecosystem services and resilience2010Inngår i: The URBAN-NET Research Anthology, s. 35-40Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 28.
    Colding, Johan
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Sweden; Department of History, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Super: Sustainable urban planning for ecosystem services and resilience2010Inngår i: URBAN-NET Research Anthology / [ed] June Graham, Edinburgh: Scotland & Northern Ireland Forum for Environmental Research (SNIFFER) , 2010, s. 35-40Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 29.
    Colding, Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    The role of ecosystem services in contemporary urban planning2011Inngår i: Urban Ecology: patterns, processes and applications / [ed] Jari Niemelä, Jürgen H. Breuste, Thomas Elmqvist, Glenn Guntenspergen, Philip James, and Nancy E. McIntyre, Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press , 2011, s. 228-237Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban sprawl is often characterised as a serious land use problem. It refers to the spread of urban congestion into adjoining suburbs and rural areas, often resulting in the loss of ecosystems and their services. This chapter reviews two of the most prevalent planning strategies proposed to combat urban sprawl, i.e. smart growth (or new urbanism) and green infrastructure planning. The former is predominantly derived from a frustration over the failure of American planning projects, and is increasingly adopted among planners in North American and European metropolitan regions. The latter is predominantly proposed by ecologists and biodiversity conservationists, and has shaped conservation planning in many countries. Both planning strategies propose compact urban development as a way to combat adverse effects of urban sprawl. However, and as pointed out in this chapter, many types of ecosystem services are generated in the developed landscape, also in sprawling suburban settings. It is also important to account for ecosystem services in smart growth projects and to engage a wider set of urban residents in management of these services in order to mitigate ecological illiteracy. The chapter elucidates some of the key characteristics and propositions of both approaches and provides examples of urban designs that hold potential to work as frameworks in contributing to sustainable governance of ecosystem services.

  • 30. Colding, Johan
    Träd i staden minskar luftföroreningar2016Inngår i: Svenska dagbladetArtikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 31.
    Colding, Johan
    Beijerinstitutet, Stockholm, Sverige; Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholms universitet, Stockholm.
    Urbana samfälligheter för hållbar fysisk planering2010Inngår i: Det urbana landskapet: Konferens 17–18 september 2009 på Kungliga vetenskapsakademin, Stockholm, ordnad av Svenska IALE i samarbete med Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholms universitet, Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, SLU Uppsala och Centrum för biologisk mångfald (CBM), samt Stockholms läns landstings regionplanekontor och Riksantikvarieämbetet / [ed] Ebba Lisberg-Jensen, Uppsala: Centrum för biologisk mångfald , 2010, s. 55-59Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 32.
    Colding, Johan
    et al.
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; The Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Miljöteknik. Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    An urban ecology critique on the "Smart City" model2017Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 164, s. 95-101Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this letter is to raise some critical concerns and gaps in the booming literature on Smart Cities; concerns that we think deserve greater attention from scientists, policy makers and urban planners. Using an urban ecology lens, we provide some reflections that need to forgo any wider-scale implementation of the Smart City-model with the goal to enhance urban sustainability. We discuss that the Smart City literature must better include analysis around social sustainability issues for city dwellers. Focus here should start on health issues and more critical analysis about whom the Smart City is for. Also, the literature must address issues of resilience and cyber security, including how Smart City solutions may affect the autonomy of urban governance, personal integrity and how it may affect the resilience of infrastructures that provide inhabitants with basic needs, such as food, energy and water security. A third major gap in this literature is how smart city developments may change human-nature relations. Focus here should start on how Smart City technologies may hinder or support children’s learning towards a stronger psychological connection with nature. Discussions are also needed on how the Smart City model may affect pro-environmental behavior more broadly.

  • 33.
    Colding, Johan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Miljövetenskap. The Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden; Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Miljövetenskap. Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Exploring the social-ecological systems discourse 20 years later2019Inngår i: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 24, nr 1, s. 423-432, artikkel-id 2Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the 20-year evolution of the social-ecological systems framework (SESs). Although a first definition of SES dates back to 1988, Berkes and Folke more thoroughly used the concept in 1998 to analyze resilience in local resource management systems. Since then studies of interlinked human and natural systems have emerged as a field on its own right, promoting interdisciplinary dialogue and collaboration in a wide set of fields and practices. As the SES concept celebrates its 20-year existence we decided to make an overview of how authors use the concept in relation to research that deals with social and ecological linkages. Hence, we conducted a review of the SES concept using the Scopus database, analyzing a random set of journal articles on social-ecological systems (n = 50) regarding definitions of SES, authors’ main sources of inspiration in using the concept, as well as document type, subject area, and other relevant information. Although there is a steady increase of SES publications, we found that 61% of the papers analyzed did not even provide a definition of the term social-ecological system(s), a shortcoming that makes case comparisons difficult and reduces the usefulness of the concept. We also found three common SES frameworks that authors seem to be most commonly inspired by, referred to here as the original, the robustness, and multitier frameworks, respectively. The first can be characterized as a descriptive framework, the latter two more as diagnostic frameworks, useful for modeling. Although it would be a bit presumptuous of us to come up with a more thorough definition of the SES concept in this paper, we urge SES scholars to be more meticulous in making explicit what they mean by a social-ecological system when conducting SES research. 

  • 34.
    Colding, Johan
    et al.
    The Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, The Royal Swedish Academy of Science; Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Miljöteknik. Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Resilience and Sustainable Development2017Inngår i: Dreams and Seeds: The role of campuses in sustainable urban development / [ed] Schewenius, M., Keränen, P., al Rawaf, R., Stockholm: Stockholm Resilience Centre and Metropolia University of Applied Sciences , 2017, 1, s. 28-29Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 35.
    Colding, Johan
    et al.
    The Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Barthel, Stephan
    The Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of History, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The potential of ‘Urban Green Commons’ in the resilience building of cities2013Inngår i: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 86, s. 156-166Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    While cultural diversity is increasing in cities at a global level as a result of urbanization, biodiversity is decreasing with a subsequent loss of ecosystem services. It is clear that diversity plays a pivotal role in the resilience building of ecosystems; however, it is less clear what role cultural diversity plays in the resil- ience building of urban systems. In this paper we provide innovative insights on how common property sys- tems could contribute to urban resilience building. Through a review of recent findings on urban common property systems and the relevant literature, we deal with urban green commons (UGCs) and discuss their potential to manage cultural and biological diversity in cities. We describe three examples of UGCs, i.e. col- lectively managed parks, community gardens, and allotment areas, with a focus on their institutional characteristics, their role in promoting diverse learning streams, environmental stewardship, and social– ecological memory. We discuss how UGCs can facilitate cultural integration through civic participation in urban land-management, conditions for the emergence of UGCs, the importance of cognitive resilience building, and what role property-rights diversity plays in urban settings. We conclude by elucidating some key insights on how UGCs can promote urban resilience building.

  • 36.
    Colding, Johan
    et al.
    The Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Resilience Center, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Miljöteknik. Stockholm Resilience Center, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The Role of University Campuses in Reconnecting Humans to the Biosphere2017Inngår i: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 9, nr 12, artikkel-id 2349Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we explore the potential for integrating university campuses in a global sustainability agenda for a closer reconnection of urban residents to the biosphere. This calls for a socio-cultural transition that allows universities and colleges to reconnect to the biosphere and become active stewards of the Earth System. Recognizing their pivotal role of fostering coming generations of humans, university campuses represent a unique socio-cultural setting to promote sustainable development in practice. Among others, this involves the nurturing of biodiversity and ecosystem services in the Antropocene era, which is characterized by ongoing climate change and massive loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services. We explore the traditional campus setting, its role as a community for rejuvenating town planning and its role as a governance authority that may promote or retard sustainable development with an ecological focus. We explore the “sustainable” university and describe the campus as an ecosystem and how a resilient campus can be designed to meet the novel and critical challenges of the Anthropocene. We conclude by providing some policy recommendations for higher educational institutes to speed up their ambitions in the area of sustainable biosphere management.

  • 37.
    Colding, Johan
    et al.
    The Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Barthel, Stephan
    The Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of History, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bendt, Pim
    The Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Snep, Robbert
    Alterra, Wageningen UR, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    van der Knaap, Wim
    Wageningen University, Land Use Planning Group, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Ernstson, Henrik
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; African Centre for Cities, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, South Africa.
    Urban green commons: Insights on urban common property systems2013Inngår i: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 23, nr 5, s. 1039-1051Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to shed new light on urban common property systems. We deal with urban commons in relation to urban green-space management, referring to them as urban green commons. Applying a property-rights analytic perspective, we synthesize information on urban green commons from three case-study regions in Sweden, Germany, and South Africa, and elaborate on their role for biodiversity conservation in urban settings, with a focus on business sites. Cases cover both formally established types of urban green commons and bottom-up emerged community-managed habitats. As our review demonstrates, the right to actively manage urban green space is a key characteristic of urban green commons whether ownership to land is in the private, public, the club realm domain, or constitutes a hybrid of these. We discuss the important linkages among urban common property systems, social–ecological learning, and management of ecosystem services and biodiversity. Several benefits can be associated with urban green commons, such as a reduction of costs for ecosystem management and as designs for reconnecting city-inhabitants to the biosphere. The emergence of urban green commons appears closely linked to dealing with societal crises and for reorganizing cities; hence, they play a key role in transforming cities toward more socially and ecologically benign environments. While a range of political questions circumscribe the feasibility of urban green commons, we discuss their usefulness in management of different types of urban habitats, their political justification and limitation, their potential for improved biodiversity conservation, and conditions for their emergence. We conclude by postulating some general policy advice.

  • 38.
    Colding, Johan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Miljöteknik. Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Colding, Magnus
    Colding Digital Teknik AB, Sweden.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Miljöteknik. Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    The smart city model: A new panacea for urban sustainability or unmanageable complexity?2018Inngår i: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, ISSN 2399-8083Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite several calls in this journal of debating the rapid growth of the literature on “smart cities”, such a debate has in large been absent. Smart cities are often un-critically launched as a sustainable way of developing cities. When cities become increasingly complex as its features are wired into the Internet, theories for their understanding is lagging behind. As it is prospected that a greater number of people and things will become connected by Information and Computer Technology, the complexity of urban systems will over time increase. Historical insights reveal that as complexity in societies increase, growth in energy consumption tends to follow. In this paper, we discuss whether complexity carried too far could lead to diminishing returns of energy saving and create unmanageable urban systems. As part of initiating such a debate, this commentary asks whether the smart cities development has a bearing on the issue whether a society can erode its capacity of sustaining itself? We pose this question against the backdrop that no one actually knows what type of society the smart cities model in the end will generate.

  • 39.
    Colding, Johan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Miljöteknik. Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Colding, Magnus
    Colding Digital Teknik AB, Sweden.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Miljöteknik. Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    The smart city model: A new panacea for urban sustainability or unmanageable complexity?2018Inngår i: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, ISSN 2399-8083Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite several calls in this journal of debating the rapid growth of the literature on ‘‘smart cities’’, such a debate has in large been absent. Smart cities are often un-critically launched as a sustainable way of developing cities. When cities become increasingly complex as its features are wired into the Internet, theories for their understanding is lagging behind. As it is prospected that a greater number of people and things will become connected by Information and Computer Technology, the complexity of urban systems will over time increase. Historical insights reveal that as complexity in societies increase, growth in energy consumption tends to follow. In this paper, we discuss whether complexity carried too far could lead to diminishing returns of energy saving and create unmanageable urban systems. As part of initiating such a debate, this commentary asks whether the smart cities development has a bearing on the issue whether a society can erode its capacity of sustaining itself? We pose this question against the backdrop that no one actually knows what type of society the smart cities model in the end will generate.

  • 40.
    Colding, Johan
    et al.
    Centre for Research on Natural Resources and the Environment and Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Folke, Carl
    Centre for Research on Natural Resources and the Environment and Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Comment on Ruttan, L. M. and Borgerhoff Mulder, M. (1999) Are East African Pastoralists Truly Conservationists?1999Inngår i: Current Anthropology, ISSN 0011-3204, E-ISSN 1537-5382, Vol. 40, nr 1, s. 638-639Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 41.
    Colding, Johan
    et al.
    Department of Systems Ecology, Center for Research on Natural Resources and the Environment, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Beijer International Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Folke, Carl
    Department of Systems Ecology, Center for Research on Natural Resources and the Environment, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Beijer International Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Social taboos: "Invisible" systems of local resource management and biological conservation2001Inngår i: Ecological Applications, ISSN 1051-0761, E-ISSN 1939-5582, Vol. 11, nr 2, s. 584-600Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Social taboos exist in most cultures, both Western and non-Western. They are good examples of informal institutions, where norms, rather than governmental juridical laws and rules, determine human behavior. In many traditional societies throughout the world, taboos frequently guide human conduct toward the natural environment. Based on a survey of recent literature, we synthesize information on such taboos. We refer to them as "resource and habitat taboos" (RHTs). Examples are grouped in six different categories depending on their potential nature conservation and management functions. We compare RHTs with contemporary measures of conservation and identify and discuss some key benefits that may render them useful in partnership designs for conservation and management. We conclude that many RHTs have functions similar to those of formal institutions for nature conservation in contemporary society but have not been sufficiently recognized in this capacity. We suggest that designs for conservation of biological diversity and its sustainable use in developing countries focus more on informal institutions, like social taboos, because they may offer several advantages compared to conventional measures. These include non-costly, voluntary compliance features implicit in the taboo system.

  • 42.
    Colding, Johan
    et al.
    Beijer International Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Folke, Carl
    Beijer International Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The relations among threatened species, their protection, and taboos1997Inngår i: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 1, nr 1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyzed the role of taboos for the protection of species listed as "threatened" by the World Conservation Union (IUCN), and also for species known to be endemic and keystone. The study was limited to taboos that totally avoid or prohibit any use of particular species and their populations. We call them specific-species taboos. Through a literature review, 70 currently existing examples of specific-species taboos were identified and analyzed. The species avoided were grouped into biological classes. Threat categories were determined for each species, based on the IUCN Red Data Book. We found that ≃ 30% of the identified taboos prohibit any use of species listed as threatened by IUCN. Of the specific-species taboos, 60% are set on reptiles and mammals. In these two classes, ≃ 50% of the species are threatened, representing all of the threatened species in our analysis, with the exception of one bird species. Both endemic and keystone species that are important for ecosystem functions are avoided by specific-species taboos. Specific-species taboos have important ecological ramifications for the protection of threatened and ecologically important populations of species. We do not suggest that specific-species taboos are placed on species because they are, or have been, endangered; instead, we emphasize that species are avoided for a variety of other reasons. It is urgent to identify and analyze resource practices and social mechanisms of traditional societies, such as taboos, and to investigate their possible ecological significance. Although it may provide insights of value for conservation, not only of species,

  • 43.
    Colding, Johan
    et al.
    Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Folke, Carl
    Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The Role of Golf Courses in Biodiversity Conservation and Ecosystem Management2009Inngår i: Ecosystems (New York. Print), ISSN 1432-9840, E-ISSN 1435-0629, Vol. 12, s. 191-206Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We assessed the ecological value of golf courses based on a quantitative synthesis of studies in the scientific literature that have measured and compared biota on golf courses to that of biota in green-area habitats related to other land uses. We found that golf courses had higher ecological value in 64% of comparative cases. This pattern was consistent also for comparisons based on measures of species richness, as well as for comparisons of overall measures of birds and insectsthe fauna groups most widely examined in the studies. Many golf courses also contribute to the preservation of fauna of conservation concern. More broadly, we found that the ecological value of golf courses significantly decreases with land types having low levels of anthropogenic impact, like natural and nature-protected areas. Conversely, the value of golf courses significantly increases with land that has high levels of anthropogenic impact, like agricultural and urban lands. From an ecosystem management perspective, golf courses represent a promising measure for restoring and enhancing biodiversity in ecologically simplified landscapes. Furthermore, the review suggests that golf courses hold a real potential to be designed and managed to promote critical ecosystem services, like pollination and natural pest control, providing an opportunity for joint collaboration among conservation, restoration and recreational interests.

  • 44.
    Colding, Johan
    et al.
    Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Center for Research on Natural Resources and the Environment, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Beijer International Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Folke, Carl
    Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Center for Research on Natural Resources and the Environment, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Beijer International Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The taboo system: Lessons about informal institutions for nature management2000Inngår i: Georgetown International Environmental Law Review, ISSN 1042-1858, Vol. 12, nr 2, s. 413-445Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 45.
    Colding, Johan
    et al.
    The Beijer International Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Folke, Carl
    The Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Elmqvist, Tomas
    The Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Social institutions in ecosystem management and biodiversity conservation2003Inngår i: Tropical Ecology, ISSN 0564-3295, Vol. 44, nr 1, s. 25-41Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This synthesis addresses local institutions and associated management practices related to natural resources and ecosystem dynamics, with an emphasis on traditional ecological knowledge systems. Traditional practices for ecosystem management include multiple species management, resource rotation, ecological monitoring, succession management, landscape patchiness management and practices of responding to and managing pulses and ecological surprises. There exist practices that seem to reduce social-ecological crises in the events of large-scale natural disturbance such as creating small-scale ecosystem renewal cycles, spreading risks and nurturing sources of ecosystem reorganization and renewal. Ecological knowledge and monitoring among local groups appears to be a key element in the development of many of the practices. The practices are linked to social mechanisms such as flexible user rights and land tenure; adaptations for the generation, accumulation and transmission of ecological knowledge; dynamics of institutions; mechanisms for cultural internalization of traditional practices; and associated worldviews and cultural values. We dive deeper into the role of informal social institutions in resource management, such as many taboo systems. We find that taboos may contribute to the conservation of habitats, local subsistence resources and 'threatened', 'endemic' and 'keystone' species, although some may run contrary to conservation and notions of sustainability. It is asserted that under certain circumstances, informal institutions may offer advantages relative to formal measures of conservation. These benefits include non-costly, voluntary compliance features. Since management of ecosystems is associated with uncertainty about their spatial and temporal dynamics and due to incomplete knowledge about such dynamics, local management practices and associated institutions may provide useful 'rules of thumb' for resource management with an ability to confer resilience and tighten environmental feedbacks of resource exploitation to local levels.

  • 46.
    Colding, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish Sub-Global Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, Sweden; Resilience Alliance, Sweden; Beijer International Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lundberg, Jakob
    Centre for Transdisciplinary Environmental Research, Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Folke, Carl
    Resilience Alliance, Sweden; Beijer International Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden; Centre for Transdisciplinary Environmental Research, Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Incorporating Green-Area User Groups in Urban Ecosystem Management2006Inngår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 35, nr 5, s. 237-244Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyze the role of urban green areas managed by local user groups in their potential for supporting biodiversity and ecosystem services in growing city-regions, with focus on allotment areas, domestic gardens, and golf courses. Using Stockholm, Sweden, as an example city-region, we compile GIS data of its spatial characteristics and relate these data to GIS data for protected areas and "green wedges" prioritized in biodiversity conservation. Results reveal that the three land uses cover 18% of the studied land area of metropolitan Stockholm, which corresponds to more than twice the land set aside as protected areas. We review the literature to identify ecosystem functions and services provided by the three green areas and discuss their potential in urban ecosystem management. We conclude that the incorporation of locally managed lands, and their stewards and institutions, into comanagement designs holds potential for improving conditions for urban biodiversity, reducing transaction costs in ecosystem management, and realizing local Agenda 21.

  • 47.
    Colding, Johan
    et al.
    The Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden; he Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; .
    Lundberg, Jakob
    he Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lundberg, Stefan
    The Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Andersson, Erik
    Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, Sweden.
    Golf courses and wetland fauna2009Inngår i: Ecological Applications, ISSN 1051-0761, E-ISSN 1939-5582, Vol. 19, nr 6, s. 1481-1491Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Golf courses are often considered to be chemical‐intensive ecosystems with negative impacts on fauna. Here we provide evidence that golf courses can contribute to the support and conservation of wetland fauna, i.e., amphibians and macroinvertebrates. Comparisons of amphibian occurrence, diversity of macroinvetebrates, and occurrence of species of conservation concern were made between permanent freshwater ponds surveyed on golf courses around Sweden's capital city, Stockholm, and off‐course ponds in nature‐protected areas and residential parklands. A total of 71 macroinvertebrate species were recorded in the field study, with no significant difference between golf course ponds and off‐course ponds at the species, genus, or family levels. A within‐group similarities test showed that golf course ponds have a more homogenous species composition than ponds in nature‐protected areas and ponds in residential parkland. Within the macroinvertebrate group, a total of 11 species of odonates were identified, with no difference detected between the categories of ponds, nor any spatial autocorrelation. Significant differences were found between pond categories in the occurrence of five species of amphibians, although anuran occurrence did not differ between ponds. The great crested newt (Triturus cristatus) was significantly associated with golf course ponds, but the smooth newt (Triturus vulgaris) was not. We found no evidence of any correlation between pond size and occurrence of amphibians. Among the taxa of conservation concern included in the sample, all amphibians are nationally protected in Sweden, with the internationally threatened T. cristatus more frequently found in golf course ponds. Among macroinveterbrates of conservation status, the large white‐faced darter dragonfly (Leucorrhinia pectoralis) was only detected in golf course ponds, and Tricholeiochiton fagesi (Trichoptera) was only found in one off‐course pond. GIS results revealed that golf courses provide over a quarter of all available permanent, freshwater ponds in central greater Stockholm. We assert that golf courses have the potential to contribute to wetland fauna support, particularly in urban settings where they may significantly contribute to wetland creation. We propose a greater involvement of ecologists in the design of golf courses to further bolster this potential.

  • 48.
    Colding, Johan
    et al.
    Beijerinstitutet för ekologisk ekonomi, Stockholm; Stockholm resilience centre, Stockholms unviersitet, Stockholm.
    Marcus, Lars
    KTH arkitekturskolan .
    Andersson, Erik ()
    Gren, Åsa ()
    Borgström, Sara ()
    Ekosystemtjänster i Stockholmsregionen: Ett underlag för diskussion och planering2013Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 49.
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    et al.
    Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Colding, Johan
    Beijer International Institute of Ecolological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Borgström, Sara
    CTM, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Duit, Andreas
    CTM, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lundberg, Jakob
    Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Andersson, Erik
    Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ahrné, Karin
    Department of Ecology and Crop Production Science, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Ernstson, Henrik
    Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Folke, Carl
    Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bengtsson, Janne
    Department of Ecology and Crop Production Science, Uppsala, Sweden .
    The Dynamics of Social-Ecological Systems in Urban Landscapes2004Inngår i: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, ISSN 0077-8923, E-ISSN 1749-6632, Vol. 1023, s. 308-322Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study addresses social-ecological dynamics in the greater metropolitan area of Stockholm County, Sweden, with special focus on the National Urban Park (NUP). It is part of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) and has the following specific objectives: (1) to provide scientific information on biodiversity patterns, ecosystem dynamics, and ecosystem services generated; (2) to map interplay between actors and institutions involved in management of ecosystem services; and (3) to identify strategies for strengthening social-ecological resilience. The green areas in Stockholm County deliver numerous ecosystem services, for example, air filtration, regulation of microclimate, noise reduction, surface water drainage, recreational and cultural values, nutrient retention, and pollination and seed dispersal. Recreation is among the most important services and NUP, for example, has more than 15 million visitors per year. More than 65 organizations representing 175,000 members are involved in management of ecosystem services. However, because of population increase and urban growth during the last three decades, the region displays a quite dramatic loss of green areas and biodiversity. An important future focus is how management may reduce increasing isolation of urban green areas and enhance connectivity. Comanagement should be considered where locally managed green space may function as buffer zones and for management of weak links that connect larger green areas; for example, there are three such areas around NUP identified. Preliminary results indicate that areas of informal management represent centers on which to base adaptive comanagement, with the potential to strengthen biodiversity management and resilience in the landscape.

  • 50.
    Elmqvist, Tomas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Alfsen, C.
    UNESCO, New York, NY, USA.
    Colding, Johan
    Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Urban Systems2008Inngår i: Encyclopedia of Ecology / [ed] Sven Erik Jørgensen and Brian D. Fath, Oxford: Academic Press, 2008, s. 3665-3672Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Urbanization is a global multidimensional process which manifests itself through rapidly changing human population densities and changing land cover. Urbanization is viewed today as endangering more species and as more geographically ubiquitous than any other human activity and also the major driving force for increased homogenization of fauna and flora. The concept of ecosystem services has proven useful in describing human benefits from urban ecosystems. For example, urban vegetation may significantly reduce air pollution, mitigate the urban heat island effect, reduce noise, and enhance recreational and cultural values, of importance for urban citizen’s wellbeing. New opportunities lie in that urban landscapes are the very places where knowledge, innovation, and human and financial resources for getting solutions to global environmental problems are likely to be found.

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