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  • 1.
    Engström, Ingemar
    et al.
    Universitetssjukvårdens forskningscentrum, Örebro.
    Bremberg, Sven
    Karolinska institutet.
    Wikman, Sofia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Criminology.
    Dåligt stöd för att psykiska sjukdomar ökar bland unga (DN Debatt)2019In: Dagens Nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447, no 21 majArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Socialstyrelsen presenterar en katastrofal ökning av psykisk ohälsa bland unga och tolkar det som en reell ökning av psykiska sjukdomar. Vilket leder till rubriker med ord som epidemi. Men slutsatsen håller inte rent vetenskapligt. Vi måste ta signalerna från unga på allvar, men risken för en medikalisering av normala livserfarenheter är uppenbar, skriver tre forskare.

  • 2.
    Engström, Ingemar
    et al.
    Örebro universitet.
    Bremberg, Sven
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Wikman, Sofia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Criminology.
    Socialstyrelsens snabba slutsatser är bristfälligt underbyggda (slutreplik): slutreplik DN Debatt 22/52019In: Dagens Nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447, no 29 majArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    SLUTREPLIK DN DEBATT 22/5. Olivia Wigzell och Thomas Lindén från Socialstyrelsen har kommenterat vårt inlägg när det gäller psykisk ohälsa bland barn och unga. Det framkommer inte något nytt i deras svar som i stort sett repeterar innehållet i myndighetens rapporter i ämnet under senare år, skriver forskarna Ingemar Engström, Sven Bremberg och Sofia Wikman.

  • 3.
    Estrada, Felipe
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Kriminologiska institutionen.
    Nilsson, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Kriminologiska institutionen.
    Jerre, Kristina
    Stockholms universitet, Kriminologiska institutionen.
    Wikman, Sofia
    Stockholms universitet, Kriminologiska institutionen; Institutet för framtidsstudier.
    Violence at Work: The Emergence of a Social Problem2010In: Journal of Scandinavian Studies in Criminology and Crime Prevention, ISSN 1404-3858, E-ISSN 1651-2340, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 46-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyses trends in violence at work on the basis of victim surveys, work-environment surveys, and press material. It proceeds from the two most common explanations of why violence at work appears to have increased over recent decades. These emphasize shifts in working conditions that have increased employees' victimization risk, and a broadened view of what is regarded as work-related violence. The empirical analyses provide support for both these explanations, and the various dimensions examined—increased reporting propensities, expanded definitions, a reduced tolerance of violence, and altered working conditions—are linked to one another.

  • 4.
    Estrada, Felipe
    et al.
    Institutet för framtidsstudier, Stockholm.
    Nilsson, Anders
    Institutet för framtidsstudier, Stockholm.
    Wikman, Sofia
    Stockholms universitet, Kriminologiska institutionen.
    Det ökade våldet i arbetslivet: En analys utifrån de svenska offerundersökningarna2007In: Nordisk Tidsskrift for Kriminalvidenskab, ISSN 0029-1528, Vol. 94, no 1, p. 56-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Victim surveys from both Sweden and her Nordic neighbours show that the proportion reporting exposure to violence at work has increased during the 1990s. This article examines the question of how this trend should be understood. Does the increase reflect a rise in the number of people exposed to such violence, or is it rather due to an increase in the focus on violence and a broadening of the way violence is defined? On the basis of Swedish victim surveys covering the period 1984 - 2001, the article examines whether the character of this problem has changed as regards the seriousness of the violence, the occupational groups exposed to such violence, and the extent to which victims have contacted the police. The study shows that there has been an increase in exposure to threats and violence at work. This increase is found primarily in relation to violence and not to threats, among women, and in particular those working with some form of care provision. One surprising finding is that the propensity to report work-related violence has diminished somewhat, something that is not true for other types of violence. We thus find a high propensity to report when levels of exposure are low, and a lower reporting propensity once exposure to violence has increased. This trend is conceptualized against the background of a shift in and broadening of the type of incidents reported in the context of victim surveys. Acts of violence against persons employed in the health sector, schools and in care provision are less likely to be reported to the police than violence perpetrated against members of other occupational groups. Thus as care workers come to account for an increasing proportion of both violent incidents and the victims of violence, the aggregate propensity to report such incidents decreases. When the focus is limited to those individuals working in the care sector who have themselves been exposed to violence, there are no signs of a reduction in their reporting propensity.

  • 5.
    Gallo, Carina
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Lundgren, Moa
    Gothenburg University.
    Wikman, Sofia
    KTH, Filosofi.
    Preventing school violence: Comparing policies in Sweden (Gothenburg) and US (Oakland)2015In: Association for Women in Psychology 2015 National Conference: Feminism and Restorative Justice, Association for Women in Psychology , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on content analysis of steering documents and interviews with principals in primary schools, this paper examines measures to prevent violence in Sweden and US. In comparison, US has implemented more preventive measures, from federal and state laws to restorative justice but is still struggling with much higher levels of violence.

  • 6.
    Georgieva, Irina
    et al.
    Independent Researcher, Bulgaria.
    Whittington, Richard
    St Olav’s University Hospital, Forensic Department Brøset Centre for Research and Education in Forensic Psychiatry, Norway; Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Norway; University of Liverpool, UK.
    Lauvrud, Christian
    St Olav’s University Hospital, Forensic Department Brøset Centre for Research and Education in Forensic Psychiatry, Norway.
    Steinert, Tilman
    Ulm University, Clinic for Psychiatry and Psychotherapy I, Germany; Centres for Psychiatry Sued Wuerttemberg, Ulm University, Germany.
    Wikman, Sofia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Criminology.
    Lepping, Peter
    Centre for Mental Health and Society, Bangor University, UK; Mysore Medical College and Research Institute, India; Betsi Cadwaladr University Health Board, Liaison Psychiatry, Wrexham Maelor Hospital, UK.
    Duxbury, Joy
    Manchester Metropolitan University, UK.
    Snorrason, Jon
    University Hospital of Iceland, Department of Psychiatry, Iceland.
    Mihai, Adriana
    University of Medicine and Pharmacy Tg Mures, Romania.
    Lauge Berring, Lene
    Psychiatric Research Unit, Denmark; Faculty of Health, University of Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Gowda, Raveesh
    Department of Psychiatry, Mysore Medical College and Research Institution, India.
    Vesselinov, Roumen
    University of Maryland, USA.
    International variations in mental health law regulating involuntary commitment of psychiatric patients as measured by the Mental Health Legislation Attitudes Scale (MHLAS)2019In: Medicine, Science and the Law, ISSN 0025-8024, E-ISSN 2042-1818, Vol. 59, no 2, p. 104-114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research illustrated that the laws regulating involuntaryplacement and treatment of persons with mental health problems arevery diverse across countries. International studies comparingsatisfaction levels between countries are rare. We compared the opinionsof professionals and family members about the operation of the nationalmental health law regulating forcibly admission and treatment ofpsychiatric patients in eleven countries: Ireland, Iceland, England &Wales, Romania, Slovenia, Denmark, Germany, Sweden, Norway andIndia. An online survey design was adopted using a Mental HealthLegislation Attitude Scale (MHLAS). This brief 9-item questionnaire wasdistributed via e-mail to psychiatrists, general practitioners, acute andcommunity mental health nurses, tribunal members, police officers and family members in each collaborating country. The levels ofagreement/disagreement were measured on a Likert- scale. Data wereanalysed both per question and with regard to a total MHLAS ‘approval’score computed as a sum of the 9 questions. We found that respondentsin England & Wales and Denmark expressing strongest approval for theirnational legislation (76 and 74% respectively), with those in India andIreland expressing the least approval (65 and 64% respectively). Almostall countries had a more positive attitude in comparison with Ireland onthe admission criteria for involuntary placement and the way people aretransferred to psychiatric hospitals. There are significant variationsacross Europe and beyond in terms of approval for how the nationalmental health law framework operates in each country.

  • 7.
    Heber, Anita
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Stockholm.
    Tiby, EvaStockholms universitet, Kriminologiska institutionen.Wikman, SofiaStockholms universitet, Kriminologiska institutionen.
    Viktimologisk forskning: brottsoffer i teori och metod2012Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Skoog Waller, Sara
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Psychology.
    Wikman, Sofia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Criminology.
    Measuring gender differences in exposure to domestic abuse in Sweden - taking account of coercive control, impact of violence and patterns over time2019In: Resisting state-corporate crimes and facing repression: Toward a theory of insurrection, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The controversy over gender differences in exposure to domestic violence (DV) seems to be a never-ending story. Researchers on one side of the debate argue that men and women are equally victimized (gender symmetry), while researches on the other side of the debate argue that women are victimized to larger extent, and with greater severity (gender asymmetry). Evidence for gender symmetry is based mainly on quantitative data from a plentitude of surveys measuring gender differences in perpetration and exposure to intimate partner violence. The asymmetry perspective, on the other hand, emphasizes investigation of contextual factors (e.g. the impact and meaning of violence) but have been based on studies that to a lesser extent include both men and women. Hence, there are conceptual and methodological differences between studies that find gender symmetry and those that propose gender asymmetry. We will present a survey performed to measure the prevalence of exposure to DV among men and women in the municipality of Gävle, Sweden. The presentation will highlight the significance of coercive control, temporal aspects, and impact of violence in measurement and understanding of gender differences in exposure to DV. Results from the survey suggest that women had been more exposed than men to all types of violence measured (psychological, sexual, physical, economicalmaterial, latent violence and negligence), that female exposure were more often repeated, and lead to more severe consequences than did male exposure to DV. We also found that having children with the perpetrator, which was more common among women, was a stronger predictor of negative consequences than any single type of violence. We will also present results concerning children of DV victims and experiences of help seeking and reporting violence.

  • 9.
    Skoog Waller, Sara
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Wikman, Sofia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Criminology.
    Langeborg, Linda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Measuring gender differences in exposure to domestic abuse –: taking account of coercive control, impact of violence and patterns over time2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The controversy over gender differences in exposure to domestic violence (DV) seems to be a never-ending story. Researchers on one side of the debate argue that men and women are equally victimized (gender symmetry), while researches on the other side of the debate argue that women are victimized to larger extent, and with greater severity (gender asymmetry). Evidence for gender symmetry is based mainly on quantitative data from a plentitude of surveys measuring gender differences in perpetration and exposure to intimate partner violence. The asymmetry perspective, on the other hand, emphasizes investigation of contextual factors (e.g. the impact and meaning of violence) but have been based on studies that to a lesser extent include both men and women. Hence, there are conceptual and methodological differences between studies that find gender symmetry and those that propose gender asymmetry.

    We will present a survey performed to measure the prevalence of exposure to DV among men and women in the municipality of Gävle, Sweden. The presentation will highlight the significance of coercive control, temporal aspects, and impact of violence in measurement and understanding of gender differences in exposure to DV. Results from the survey suggest that women had been more exposed than men to all types of violence measured (psychological, sexual, physical, economical-material, latent violence and negligence), that female exposure were more often repeated, and lead to more severe consequences than did male exposure to DV. We also found that having children with the perpetrator, which was more common among women, was a stronger predictor of negative consequences than any single type of violence. We will also present results concerning children of DV victims and experiences of help seeking and reporting violence.

  • 10.
    Wikman, Sofia
    KTH, Filosofi.
    Analyses of violence at work as a social problem2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Wikman, Sofia
    Stockholms universitet, Kriminologiska institutionen.
    Arbetslivet som arena för våld: en lägesbeskrivning2012In: Viktimologisk forskning: brottsoffer i teori och metod / [ed] Anita Heber, Eva Tiby, Sofia Wikman, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2012, 1, p. 27-54Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Wikman, Sofia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Criminology.
    Att förebygga hot och våld i svenska statliga myndigheter: en jämförelse mellan två perspektiv på säkerhetsarbete2019In: / [ed] Nordisk samarbejds for kriminologi, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Våld och hot i arbetslivet är inte enbart ett arbetsmiljöproblem utan även ett demokratiproblem. Hantering av arbetsrelaterat våld och hot regleras i arbetsmiljölagen och Arbetsmiljöverkets föreskrifter. Arbetsgivaren är ansvarig för det förebyggande arbetet som ska utföras i samarbete med skyddsombud och medarbetare. En utgångspunkt i arbetsmiljölagen är att kartlägga de risker som finns i verksamheten. Betoningen av den stabila, formella sidan av arbetsmiljöarbete sker dock ofta på bekostnad av en utveckling i form av arbetstagarmedverkan. Styrning som inte tar kontextuell hänsyn till arbetstagare eller klienter medför negativa konsekvenser. Strategier som inte harmonierar med det faktiska arbetet och regler som hämmar kreativitet och anpassning innebär en begränsning - inte bara för de scenarion vi i förebyggande syfte kan föreställa oss, utan också för att vi berövas en källa till tillit, diversitet och innovation. Den här artikeln beskriver hur två perspektiv hämtade från fältet ”resilience engineering” kan komplettera kriminologin för att användas för att analysera hur arbetsmiljölagen implementeras på olika arbetsplatser i syfte för att förebygga hot och våld.

  • 13.
    Wikman, Sofia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Criminology.
    Att förebygga våld i skolan: en jämförelse mellan säkerhetsarbete i svenska och amerikanska skolor2018In: FALF konferens 2018: Arbetet – problem eller potential för en hållbar livsmiljö? / [ed] Per Lindberg, Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2018, p. 121-121Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Wikman, Sofia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Criminology.
    Att skapa kunskap för att förebygga hot och våld i statliga myndigheter: En jämförelse mellan två perspektiv på säkerhet.2017In: FALF KONFERENS 2017: Arbetslivets utmaningar  i staden och på landsbygden, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    År 2010 knivskars en kvinnlig vårdare till döds av en intagen klient på ett LVU-hem. Två chefer dömdes till i hovrätten till villkorlig dom för arbetsmiljöbrott genom vållande till annans död därför att rätten ansåg att cheferna inte gjort en tillräcklig riskbedömning (2010-B-2098). Det var inte knivdådet i sig som betraktades vara ett brott, utan straffbarheten låg i att arbets-givaren inte har förebyggt risken i tillräckligt hög grad.  Vissa samhällsfunktioner, till exempel förvaring och internering av klienter, kan inte fullgöras om inte arbetstagarna utsätts för vissa former av risker som kan leda till ohälsa eller olycksfall. Den verksamheten är inte kriminell i sig, förutsatt att riskbedömningar kontinuerligt genomförs och åtgärder vidtas i förebyggande syfte. Det som är straffbart enligt arbetsmiljölagen 8§ är att underlåta att göra en noggrann riskbedömning av verksamheten. Varje arbetsgivare har enligt alltså enligt arbetsmiljölagen (AFS 2001:1) ansvar att bedriva ett systematiskt arbetsmiljöarbete. I det systematiska arbetsmiljöan-svaret ingår att det ska finnas en arbetsmiljöpolicy som beskriver hur arbetsförhållandena ska vara för att ”ohälsa och olycksfall i arbetet ska förebyggas och en tillfredsställande arbetsmiljö uppnås” (5§).

    I Arbetsmiljöverkets allmänna råd om tillämpningen av föreskrifterna anges att en viktig utgångspunkt i arbetsmiljöpolicyn är de risker som finns i verksamheten Fokus för den här studien är hur dessa risker identifieras i statliga myndigheter där krävande klientkontakter är vanligt förekommande.I studien beskrivs två perspektiv på säkerhet, stabil och habil. Perspektiven används som verktyg för att analysera hur arbetsmiljölagen implementeras i statliga myndigheters arbete med att göra riskbedömningar för att förebygga våld och hot. Ett genomgående fokus för analysen är en eventuell närvaro av ett arbetstagarperspektiv i säkerhetsarbetet. Kännetecknande för det stabila perspektivet är standardisering av säkerhetsarbetet. Målsättningen är att arbetstagare ska avvika från rutiner i så liten utsträckning som möjligt. Inom det habila perspektivet är arbets-tagarperspektivet centralt för att säkerhetsarbetet ska vara adekvat i relation till hur arbetet ser ut i praktiken. Först beskrivs arbetsmiljö-lagstiftningen som anger hur säkerhetsarbetet ska gå till. Därefter analyseras en gruppintervju med tio huvudskyddsombud från olika statliga myn-digheter för att undersöka hur huvudskyddsombuden upplever att lagstiftningen fungerar i det dagliga arbetet. Analysen görs med riktad innehållsanalys. En genomgång av arbetsmiljölagstift-ningen visar att arbetsgivare uppmanas att utnyttja arbetstagares kunskaper och erfarenheter. Huvudskyddsombuden vittnar dock om att arbetstagares möjligheter till input i säkerhetsarbe-tet saknas i praktiken och att arbetstagarnas faktiska möjlighet till deltagande i säkerhetsarbetet därmed inte motsvarar arbetsmiljölagens syfte. Orsakerna till detta härleds till organisatoriska aspekter samt till en konflikt mellan två olika styrningsideal

  • 15.
    Wikman, Sofia
    Stockholms universitet.
    Diskriminering i samband med psykisk ohälsa: en kunskapsöversikt2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Projektet Din Rätt har varit en treårig satsning hos Nationell Samverkan för Psykisk Hälsa, mot diskriminering av personer med psykisk ohälsa. Den här skriften är en systematisk kunskapssammanställning av ett decenniums rapporter och studier om risker för sådan diskriminering. Några av de samhällsområden som vi går igenom är arbetslivet, vården, psykiatrin, ekonomin och skolan. Vi hoppas att den ska läsas av alla som möter eller tar beslut som påverkar tillvaron för personer med psykisk hälsa, oavsett om det är som handläggare, vårdgivare eller politiker.

    I kunskapssammanställningen hittas även berättelser från verkligheten och projektets egna kommentarer kring varje samhällsområde. Den avslutas med förslag på åtgärder för att stoppa diskriminering av personer med psykisk ohälsa - något som med gemensamma krafter är fullt möjligt.

  • 16.
    Wikman, Sofia
    Stockholms universitet, Kriminologiska institutionen.
    Hot och våld i vård och omsorg: åtgärdsförslag i arbetsskadeanmälningar 1987, 1997 och 20072012In: Socialvetenskaplig tidskrift, ISSN 1104-1420, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 3-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Workplace violence is a complex occupational hazard that nursing staff are facing in today's health care environment. This study examines staff recommended safety measures in the wake of violence and threat- related injuries. The result suggest that interventions measures concerning psychosocial factors and structural job aspects such as adequate staffing to be far more important than surveillance, staff training and penal sanctions.

  • 17.
    Wikman, Sofia
    Stockholms universitet, kriminologiska institutionen.
    Hårdare tag i arbetslivet?: Beskrivningar av föreslagna åtgärder mot våld i arbetslivet i facklig press 1978-2004.2009In: NSfk:s 51th Research Seminar Gilleleje, Denmark 2009: “Efter løsladelse” ”Nyere forskning i ungdomskriminalitet””Kriminalitetskontrol og nordisk kriminalpolitik/-Nordisk komparativ forskning” ”Ungdomskriminalitet – nye kriminalpolitiske tendenser” / [ed] Kristin Hobson, Oslo: Nordisk Samarbeidsråd for Kriminologi , 2009, p. 91-101Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Wikman, Sofia
    Stockholms universitet, Kriminologiska institutionen.
    Hårdare tag i arbetslivet?: Åtgärder mot arbetsrelaterat våld i facklig press 1978-20042011In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 48, no 3, p. 51-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Preventing violence at work. A study of descriptions of safety measures in Swedish trade union journals 1978-2004

    The purpose of this study is to examine if perceptions of interventions aimed at violence in the workplace have changed since the 1970s. In the beginning of the study period, structural factors are seen as the dominating explanation for workplace violence. The crime perspective rises in the 1990’s and methods of intervention becomes the control- and justice functions of larger society. The result shows search for accountability to be a salient factor for understanding the development towards an increasing use of penal sanctions.

  • 19.
    Wikman, Sofia
    Department of Criminology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Joel, P. E., Mad-doctors in the dock: Defending the diagnosis, 1760–1913, Baltimore, MD: John Hopkins University Press, 20162017In: International Criminal Justice Review, ISSN 1057-5677, E-ISSN 1556-3855, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 222-223Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Wikman, Sofia
    Stockholms universitet, Kriminologiska institutionen.
    Mer personal -TACK!: En studie över åtgärder som hot och våldsutsatta vård- och omsorgsanställda anger i arbetsskadeanmälningar 1987, 1997 och 20072011In: NSfKs 53. forskerseminar Balingsholm, Sverige 2011: Kriminalpolitik og højrepopulisme, prostitution, aktuel forskning / [ed] Ragnheiður Bragadóttir, Nordisk Samarbejdsråd for Kriminologi , 2011, p. 79-93Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Workplace violence is a complex occupational hazard that nurses are facing working in today's health care environment. Workplace safety is also undergoing a process of ‘responsibilization’. The purpose of this study is to examine the character of the incidents reported as occupational injuries due to violence and threats, over time and what safety measures that are recommended by the staff. The result suggest interventions measures concerning psychosocial factors and structural job aspects such as adequate staffing to be far more important than surveillance, staff training and penal sanctions.

  • 21.
    Wikman, Sofia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Criminology.
    Nyansera debatten om ungas psykiska hälsa2018In: Tidningen Mind - En tidning från Mind för psykisk hälsa, ISSN 0033-3212, Vol. -, no 3, p. 40-41Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 22.
    Wikman, Sofia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology. University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science.
    Om skolattacken i Finland:: ”Hårdare tag i skolan, ger oönskad effekt”2019In: SVT Opinion, no 02-oktArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    “Research on preventing violence at school is about simple things, such as safeguarding relationships and making sure that both yourself and others are doing well. According to the research, there is support that a systematic work environment work in everyday life can prevent violence ”, writes Sofia Wikman.

  • 23.
    Wikman, Sofia
    Stockholms universitet, Kriminologiska institutionen.
    Peter Kruize, David W.M Sorensen & David Dreyer Lassen: Vold mod offentligt ansatte. Rockwool Fonden og Syddansk Universitetsförlag, 2008, 168 sidor2009In: Nordisk Tidsskrift for Kriminalvidenskab, ISSN 0029-1528, Vol. 96, no 3, p. 305-307Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Wikman, Sofia
    Stockholms universitet, Kriminologiska institutionen.
    Preventing Violence at Work: Descriptions of Safety Measures from Swedish Trade Union Journals 1978-20042010In: 67th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Criminology: Crime and Social Institutions, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increased focus on the crime victim in the political sphere, has made it possible to develop an individualized criminal policy, where responsibility is emphasized. The main purpose of this study is to examine whether perceptions of interventions aimed at violence in the workplace have changed since the 1970s as portrayed by Swedish trade union journals. The occupational health perspective is the most common. Here threats and violence are seen as something preventable, and are mainly dealt with within the workplace. In the beginning of the study period, structural factors are seen as the dominating explanation for workplace violence and methods of intervention take this perspective. The crime perspective rises in the 1990s – even though the “perpetrator” now can be non-traditional (such as nurses or the elderly). It is characterized by individualization and an increasing focus on the crime victim. Within this perspective, the method of intervention becomes the control- and justice functions of larger society. Interestingly, organizational violence (corporate neglect) emerges as a new form of violence that challenges individualization as the major explanation to this development. The result shows search for accountability as a salient factor for understanding the development towards an increasing use of penal sanctions.

  • 25.
    Wikman, Sofia
    KTH, Filosofi.
    Proposed measures to combat violence in Swedish occupational injury reports 1987, 1997 and 20072014In: Violence in the Health Sector. Fourth International Conference on Violence in the Health Sector: Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Violence in the Health Sector. Towards safety, security and wellbeing for all / [ed] Ian Needham, Mireille Kingma, Kevin McKenna, Odile Frank, Carol Tuttas, Stuart Kingma and Nico Oud, Amsterdam: Kavanah , 2014, p. 240-241Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the advantages associated with studying occupational injury reports is that they provide an opportunity to examine the views regarding preventive measures held by the victims themselves. In addition, they have also been collected for a long period, which allows us to examine whether there have been changes over time. The current study focuses on 1.400 reports from three specific years: 1987, 1997 and 2007.

  • 26.
    Wikman, Sofia
    KTH, Filosofi.
    Secondary victimization of professionals accused of white-collar crime2015In: Finance, harm and white collar crime: An international workshop: Abstracts, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The social-constructionist line of criminology has accelerated since 1963 when Howard Becker argued that those who draw the lines between acceptable and unacceptable behaviour perhaps are more interesting than those who cross them. “Deviance is created by society, not a quality of the act the person commits, but rather a consequence of the application by others of rules and sanctions to an ‘‘offender’’. From this position, culpability arises out of our ways of seeing and describing acts. For all acts, including those seen as unwanted, there are dozens of possible alternatives. The criminal prosecution of professional mistake is seen as growing problem in a number of safety-critical domains such as healthcare and finance, as it may seriously threaten safety initiatives in these fields. But at the same time, secondary victimization of professionals accused of crime also meet obstacles related to victimology, as well as the epistemological propensities in criminology.

  • 27.
    Wikman, Sofia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Criminology.
    Säkerhetsarbete i statliga myndigheter - stabilt men inte tillräckligt hablit2018In: CTA - Centrum för tillämpad arbetslivsforskning och utvärdering: Konferens 2018 / [ed] Projektgrupp: Cecilia Franzén, Martin Geisler, Camilla Lekebjer, Tuija Muhonen, Kettil Nordesjö. Lisbeth Rydén Ewa-Marie Siwerson Louise Tregert, Malmö, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    En utgångspunkt i arbetsmiljölagen är att kartlägga de risker som finns i verksamheten. För att undersöka om det finns en diskrepans mellan vad lagen stadgar gällande arbetstagares rätt till deltagande i säkerhetsarbetet, och i vilken utsträckning det sker i praktiken, har vi intervjuat tio huvudskyddsombud på statliga myndig-heter med krävande klientkontakter. I studien används två perspektiv på säkerhet som vi hämtat från säkerhetsforskning, stabil och habil.Perspektiven används för att analysera hur arbetsmiljölagen implementeras i statliga myndigheters arbete med att göra riskbedömningar för att förebygga våld och hot. Huvudskyddsombuden efterfrågar mer habilitet och ett större inflytande i säkerhetsarbetet. Varför arbetstagarperspektivet inte integreras i den utsträckning som lagen gör gällande förklaras med att betoningen av den stabila, formella sidan av arbetsmiljöarbete sker på bekostnad av en utveckling i form av arbetstagarmedverkan.

  • 28.
    Wikman, Sofia
    KTH, Filosofi.
    The Juridification of Workplace Violence (WPV)2015In: Workplace Violence and Aggression: Special panel on Workplace Violence, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Since perceptions and definitions of violence are context-dependant; the amount of attention society directs at a given social problem affects both how it is perceived and the extent to which it becomes visible in official statistics. But the way in which a problem is defined is also of significance in relation to the measures that are proposed as a means of coming to terms with it.

    Aims: The objective is to analyse how the development of WPV as a social problem might be understood.

    Methods: On the basis of a contextual constructivist approach, the extent of and trends in complex social problems are viewed as being linked to both actual changes in underlying conditions (the objective explanation) and shifts in perceptions of what the problem consists in and how it should be dealt with (the constructionist explanation). The study of these two explanations requires different types of data. The data employed in this project are drawn from nationally representative victim surveys, articles published in trade journals and occupational injury reports in Sweden.

    Results: Defining violence as a societal problem produces a situation where the problem must be resolved by means of legal strategies, which leads to the concealment of the underlying causes. Knowledge appears to exist at workplaces themselves, but these are not given the resources they need to resolve the problem. What we are failing to address are the underlying factors that serve to structure the framework in which these interactions take place.

    Conclusion: Although more attention is now being focused on WPV, it appears to be a “top-down” perspective that is determining which measures should be introduced. Defining violence as a societal problem produces a situation where the problem must be resolved by means of legal strategies, which leads to the concealment of the underlying causes of the problem.

    Goals: Although the objective of crime prevention today has considerable legitimacy and is furnished with relatively substantial resources, we are at risk of completely failing to prevent violence as a result of having an overly simplistic understanding of the problem. To the extent that we lack both an analysis of the negative effects of social change on the prevalence of WPV and any interest in using measures other than legal strategies focused on individuals, we risk finding ourselves in a situation where measures to combat WPV are restricted to a focus on personal interactions between staff and clients. 

     

  • 29.
    Wikman, Sofia
    KTH, Filosofi.
    Threats and Violence in the Care Sector Proposed Safety Measures in Swedish Occupational Injury Reports 1987, 1997, and 20072014In: International Criminal Justice Review, ISSN 1057-5677, E-ISSN 1556-3855, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 172-193Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Workplace violence is a complex occupational hazard that health care staffs are facing in today’s work environment. This study examines the safety measures recommended by staff in occupational injury reports filed in the wake of violence- and threat-related injuries. The results suggest that measures relating to psychosocial factors and structural factors such as adequate staffing are much more important than surveillance, staff training, and penal sanctions.

  • 30.
    Wikman, Sofia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Criminology.
    Unga mår allt sämre - eller?: Kunskapsöversikt om ungas psykiska hälsa i Sverige 20182018Report (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Wikman, Sofia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Criminology.
    Unga mår allt sämre - eller? Kunskapsöversikt om ungas psykiska hälsa i Sverige 2018: Kortversion2018Report (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Wikman, Sofia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Criminology.
    Using resilience engineering to manage school violence2018In: The Stockholm Criminology Symposium: Program & Abstracts, Stockholm: The Swedish National Council for Crime Prevention (Brå) , 2018, p. 172-172Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Safety has never been as bureaucratized as it is today. Over the past two decades we have seen the blooming of safety rules and legislation, and schools do not follow short. But at the same time, since the Columbine High School massacre set off a nationwide moral panic in 1999, there have been ten school shootings in which four or more people were killed. Including the death or suicide of the perpetrators, these mass shootings have resulted in 122 fatalities. In order to prevent school violence, several safety measures have been created. However, school violence has not disappeared and ranges from severe and lethal incidents such as the events this year in Florida, Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School to more lenient but still unwanted forms making everyday school life difficult for students and staff members alike. This project discusses the insights from the so-called resilience engineering school, and apply these understandings to how school violence is managed. The theory suggests that remarkable safety performance on minor incidents tends to increase the risk of events of larger magnitude. By eradicating the minor events through tightening safety protocols, the possibility to learn from these events is lost, together with the full potential of human resourcefulness that could be harnessed towards creating safety success. Thus, safety research has shown that the link between minor and major accidents is not always there. It questions the “theory” of broken windows, which seems to be the general idea behind many school violence prevention approaches, that is, by controlling every minor occurrence of school violence, more severe school violence could be prevented.

  • 33.
    Wikman, Sofia
    KTH, Filosofi.
    Varför ökar det arbetsrelaterade våldet?2016In: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 49-66Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Kriminologer brukar samstämmigt hävda att våldet över tid har minskat. För några arenor gäller inte detta mönster. Arbetslivet är till exempel ett undantag där våldet syns öka sedan 1990-talet. Varför då? Syftet med den här artikeln är att beskriva omfattning och utveckling av våld i arbetslivet, hur våld i arbetslivet uppmärksammats samt vilka åtgärder som föreslås för att komma till rätta med problemet.

  • 34.
    Wikman, Sofia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Criminology.
    Violence and risk assessments in state agencies in Sweden – comparing two perspectives2017In: The European Group for the Study of Deviance and Social Control 45th Annual Conference: Uncovering Harms: States, Corporations and Organizations as Criminals, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to the Swedish Work Environment Act, the primary responsibility for ensuring a safe and healthy work environment is placed with the employer. The current project aims at studying state agencies in the light of this responsibility. The authorities that was analyzed in this project - for example the Social Insurance Agency, the Migration Board and the National Board of Institutional Care has in common that their clients’ personal welfare is affected by the decisions made by these authorities. The analysis is based around of how to create knowledge about violence and threats in risk assessments in government agencies.

    The common occurrence of negative decisions in these authorities is a known risk factor for producing threats and violence aimed at the public officials responsible for the decisions. At the same time these are authorities whose performance and impartiality is vital to maintain a democratic society. This project aims at providing a deeper understanding of how the knowledge that forms the base for the risk-assessment of threats and violence in these authorities is gathered and produced.

    Since the explanatory models for violence at work must be sought in complex causal relationships involving both the individual and surrounding systems, it has been relevant to look for inspiration in the knowledge produce by other research traditions. Two perspective from safety science perspective that I call stabile and habile did assist the systematic charting of the correlations between exposure to violence at work and the situational conditions that contribute to producing incidents of threats and violence.

    One result of the study is that safety management has so far paid relatively little attention to the habile perspective and thus the aim of the Swedish Work Environment Act is not fulfilled.

  • 35.
    Wikman, Sofia
    Stockholms universitet, Kriminologiska institutionen.
    Violence in Healthcare: A Study of Occupational Injury Incidents in Sweden 1987, 1997 and 20072011In: 68th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Criminology, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Workplace violence is a complex occupational hazard that nurses are facing working in today's health care environment. Workplace safety is also said to be undergoing a process of ‘responsibilization’. The purpose of this study is to examine the character of the incidents reported as occupational injuries due to violence and threats, over time and what safety measures that are recommended by the staff. The result suggest interventions measures concerning psychosocial factors and structural job aspects such as adequate staffing to be far more important than surveillance, staff training and penal sanctions.

  • 36.
    Wikman, Sofia
    Stockholms universitet.
    Violence in healthcare: safety measures in occupational injury reports 1987, 1997 and 20072014In: The American Society of Criminology 70th Annual Meeting: Criminology at the Intersections of Oppression, American Society of Criminology , 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Wikman, Sofia
    KTH, Filosofi.
    Violence risk assessments and ethics in three Swedish government agencies2014In: Eurocrim 2014, 14th Annual Conference of the ESC, Prague, 10–13 September, 2014: Criminology of Europe: Inspiration by Diversity. Book of Abstracts, European Society of Criminology , 2014, p. 501-502Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to the Swedish Work Environment Act, the responsibility for ensuring a safe work environment is placed with the employer. This project aims at studying three state agencies in the light of this responsibility. The three authorities - the Social Insurance Agency, the Migration Board and the National Board of Institutional Care has in common that their clients’ personal welfare is affected by the decisions made by these authorities. The common occurrence of negative decisions in these authorities is a known risk factor for producing violence aimed at the public officials. The project is aimed at providing a deeper understanding of how the knowledge that forms the base for the risk-assessment of violence in these authorities is gathered.

    Three studies will be performed, each analyzing different source: 1) Guidelines 2) Interviews with employees responsible for safety issues in the authorities 3) Incident reports or occurrence investigations. Questions are directed towards understanding the production of knowledge about violence. What assumptions about violence are visible? What occurrence of violence do the authorities have to handle? What factors are causing the problems of violence? Can the roots of violence be trace to the inside or the outside of the authority? What activities will be risk-assessed (or not)? When do the rights of the clients and employees collide? How can harms be avoided?

  • 38.
    Wikman, Sofia
    Stockholms universitet, Kriminologiska institutionen.
    Våld i arbetslivet: ett samhällsproblems uppkomst, utveckling och struktur2006In: Våld - med eller utan mening — Violence. Brottsprevention — Crime prevention: NSfK:s 48th Research Seminar Reykholt, Iceland 2006 / [ed] Mia Söderbärj, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Wikman, Sofia
    KTH, Filosofi.
    Våld i arbetslivet: Utveckling, uppmärksamhet och åtgärder2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet är att mot bakgrunden av att våld i arbetslivet enligt flera indikatorer framstått som ett allt större samhällsproblem utifrån ett kontextuellt konstruktivistiskt perspektiv svara på hur det enligt riksrepresentativa surveyundersökningar ökande våldet i arbetslivet kan förklaras. I fyra delstudier beskrivs och analyseras omfattningen och utvecklingen av utsatthet för våld i arbetslivet, enlig ULF (I), hur våld i arbetslivet som samhällsproblem uppmärksammats i facklig press (II) och vilka åtgärder som förespråkas i facklig press (III) samt i arbetsskadeanmälningar av de utsatta själva (IV).

     

    I den första studien visas att utsatthet för arbetsrelaterat hot och våld i de så kallade ULF-undersökningarna sedan 1980-talets början har ökat. När denna ökning sker ligger övrigt våld, enligt offerundersökningar, kvar på en stabil nivå. Ökningarna är störst för de kvinnodominerade jobben inom välfärdssektorerna vård, skola och omsorg. Studie II visar att uppmärksamheten för våld har ökat och att våld i arbetslivet sedan 1970-talet omfattar mycket mer än ”bara” bank- och butiksrån.

     

    Sammantaget kan det ökade våldet inte bara förstås utifrån vidgade definitioner av vilka händelser som kan anses vara våld utan det är även nya grupper som uppmärksammas som offer och förövare. Arbetsförhållandena inom i synnerhet omsorgsyrkena har mycket oftare börjat beskrivas som våldsrelaterade. Det är rimligt att denna förändrade inställning till våld i arbetslivet fått återverkningar på problemets synlighet i olika typer av statistik, inklusive vad människor svarar i offerundersökningar.

     

    Våld i arbetslivet har gått från att ses som ett problem som skall lösas internt på arbetsplatsen som en arbetsmiljöfråga till att allt oftare ses som ett problem som ska lösas externt med polis och rättsväsende. Resurser i form av tid och personal för att utföra arbetet efterfrågas gång på gång men den kunskap som finns hos personalen på de lokala arbetsplatserna uppmärksammas inte.

     

    Genom att ”fel” åtgärder uppmärksammas kan detta bidra till en ytterligare ökad känsla av snävt handlingsutrymme för personal vilket kan göra att problem förvärras. Säkerhetsforskningen kan bidra med kunskapen om att ett problems åtgärder kan komma uppifrån, från politiskt håll eller nedifrån från gräsrötterna men också från ett inifrånperspektiv som förutsätter normalitet eller från ett utifrånperspektiv som konstruerar avvikelse. 

  • 40.
    Wikman, Sofia
    Stockholms universitet, Kriminologiska institutionen.
    Våld i arbetslivet: Utveckling, uppmärksamhet och åtgärder2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the past two decades, violence at work has become the object of an increasing level of attention. The objective of the thesis is to analyse how the development of violence at work as a social problem might be understood. The studies in the thesis examine trends in exposure to violence at work among different occupational groups (I), the attention focused on violence at work in trade journals (II), the measures proposed to combat the problem in trade journal articles (III) and in the occupational injury reports made by the victims themselves (IV).

    The first study shows that, according to victim surveys, levels of exposure to work-related violence have increased since the beginning of the 1980s. The increases are greatest in relation to the female-dominated occupations found in the care provision sectors. Study II presents a quantitative content analysis of trade journals from the period 1978–2004. The results show that there has been an increase in the amount of attention focused on violence at work. The results indicate that definitions of violence have expanded and that attention has become focused on new groups of victims and perpetrators. Study III examines the ways in which trade journals describe measures to combat violence at work. The results indicate that there has been a shift from viewing violence as a problem that should be resolved at the workplace as a health-and-safety issue, to increasingly viewing it as a problem that should be resolved externally with the help of the justice system. Study IV is based on an analysis of occupational injury reports from staff in the care sector who have been exposed to violence at work. Irrespective of the nature of the risk situation that preceded the violent incident, the staff who have been exposed to violence at work would prefer to see the problem resolved internally at the workplace.

  • 41.
    Wikman, Sofia
    Stockholms universitet, Kriminologiska institutionen; Institutet för framtidsstudier.
    Våld på jobbet: Beskrivningar av våld i arbetslivet 1978-2004 i facklig press2008In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 45, no 3, p. 6-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Violence at work as a social problem. A study of the media coverage on workplace violence in Swedish trade union journals 1978-2004.

    The main purpose of this study was to find out the extent of the unions media coverage on workplace violence and the ways in which the topic was framed. The study shows that the reporting of violence in the workplace described in journals is on a stable level during the period 1978-98. However from the year 2000 and onwards, there is a clear increase in the attention. Four categories of workplace violence were used to identify and recognize different types of violence: intrusive-, consumer-, relationship- and organizational violence. This shows that much of the attention over time has shifted from intrusive violence to organizational violence and consumer violence. What seems to have happened is that workplace violence has become more than just robberies and assaults in the retail business. The stereotypical image of the criminal is challenged by non-traditional criminals like nurses, elderly people and companies. Certain groups, e g care workers, come to account for an increasing proportion of attention, both as perpetrators and victims of violence. This study is an important step in understanding the increased reports of workplace violence in Sweden.

  • 42.
    Wikman, Sofia
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Workplace violence in victim surveys: same questions but different answers2014In: The Stockholm Criminology Symposium 2014: Program & Abstracts, The Swedish National Council for Crime Prevention (Brå) , 2014, p. 166-166Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An analysis based on a comparison of three Swedish victim surveys examines violence at work on the basis of the questions on exposure to threats and violence. The questions that are included are very similar in all three of surveys: Statistics Sweden’s surveys of The Swedish population’s living conditions (ULF), Swedish Work Environment Authority’s survey The Work environment and Swedish National Council for Crime Prevention’s survey The Swedish Crime Survey (NTU). However the prevalence’s are very different. How can this be explained?

  • 43.
    Wikman, Sofia
    KTH, Filosofi.
    Workplace Violence (WPV) – the Emergence and Juridification of a Social Problem2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Since perceptions and definitions of violence are context-dependant; the amount of attention society directs at a given social problem affects both how it is perceived and the extent to which it becomes visible in official statistics. But the way in which a problem is defined is also of significance in relation to the measures that are proposed as a means of coming to terms with it.

    Aims: The objective is to analyse how the development of WPV as a social problem might be understood.

    Methods: On the basis of a contextual constructivist approach, the extent of and trends in complex social problems are viewed as being linked to both actual changes in underlying conditions (the objective explanation) and shifts in perceptions of what the problem consists in and how it should be dealt with (the constructionist explanation). The study of these two explanations requires different types of data. The data employed in this project are drawn from nationally representative victim surveys, articles published in trade journals and occupational injury reports in Sweden.

    Results: Defining violence as a societal problem produces a situation where the problem must be resolved by means of legal strategies, which leads to the concealment of the underlying causes. Knowledge appears to exist at workplaces themselves, but these are not given the resources they need to resolve the problem. What we are failing to address are the underlying factors that serve to structure the framework in which these interactions take place.

    Conclusion: Although more attention is now being focused on WPV, it appears to be a “top-down” perspective that is determining which measures should be introduced. Defining violence as a societal problem produces a situation where the problem must be resolved by means of legal strategies, which leads to the concealment of the underlying causes of the problem.

    Goals: Although the objective of crime prevention today has considerable legitimacy and is furnished with relatively substantial resources, we are at risk of completely failing to prevent violence as a result of having an overly simplistic understanding of the problem. To the extent that we lack both an analysis of the negative effects of social change on the prevalence of WPV and any interest in using measures other than legal strategies focused on individuals, we risk finding ourselves in a situation where measures to combat WPV are restricted to a focus on personal interactions between staff and clients. 

     

  • 44.
    Wikman, Sofia
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Kriminologiska institutionen.
    Estrada, Felipe
    Stockholms universitet, Kriminologiska institutionen.
    Nilsson, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Kriminologiska institutionen.
    Våld i arbetslivet: en kriminologisk kunskapsöversikt2010Report (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Wikman, Sofia
    et al.
    KTH, Filosofi.
    Gallo, Carina
    Berkeley SF, USA.
    Lundgren, Moa
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    From Kungälv to Sandy Hook: Strategies to prevent violence in schools in Sweden and the USA2015In: The Stockholm Criminology Symposium 2015: Program & Abstracts, The National Council for Crime Prevention, Sweden , 2015, p. 72-72Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Policies to prevent school violence in Sweden and in the United States are different, yet alike. In the US, school violence seems to be a growing problem but in Sweden it is decreasing. Not only have the US had substantially more school shootings; they have also implemented more preventive measures to combat school violence. This paper examines how school violence is handled in Sweden and the United States. The study is based on qualitative content analysis of educational steering documents and interviews with middle and high school principals. Both in Sweden and the US, a crime perspective (that students increasingly are subjected to zero tolerance policies that are used primarily to punish, repress and exclude them), dominates how violence are treated and handled in schools. In the US students are increasingly subjected to a “crime complex” where harsh disciplinary practices by security staff increasingly replace normative functions teachers once provided both in and outside of the classroom. One obvious difference between the two countries is the emergence of a great number of federal and state laws in the US, such as the Gun-Free Schools Act of 1994. Schools in the US are also increasingly turning towards alternative methods like restorative justice as a mean for creating safer schools and social equity. One main point of the paper is also that the key to violence prevention might be found in a comparison of how normalized masculinity is operating in everyday dynamics, rather than differences in policies.

  • 46.
    Wikman, Sofia
    et al.
    KTH, Filosofi.
    Gallo, Carina
    University of California, Berkeley, USA.
    Lundgren, Moa
    Gothenburg University, Sweden.
    Preventing school violence in Sweden and the US: What can we learn from Kungälv and Sandy Hook?2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Policies to prevent school violence in Sweden and in the United States are different, yet alike. In the US, school violence seems to be a growing problem but in Sweden it is decreasing. Not only has the US had substantially more school shootings; they have also implemented more preventive measures to combat school violence. This paper examines how school violence is handled in Sweden and the United States. The study is based on qualitative content analysis of educational steering documents and interviews with middle school and high school principals. Both in Sweden and the US, a crime perspective (where students are increasingly subjected to zero tolerance policies that are used primarily to punish, repress and exclude them), dominates how violence is treated and handled in schools. In the US students are increasingly subjected to a “crime complex” where harsh disciplinary practices by security staff increasingly replace normative functions teachers once provided both in and outside of the classroom. One obvious difference between the two countries is the emergence of a great number of federal and state laws in the US, such as the Gun-Free Schools Act of 1994. Schools in the US are also increasingly turning towards alternative methods like restorative justice as a mean for creating safer schools and social equity. One main point of the paper is also that the key to violence prevention might be found in a comparison of how normalized masculinity is operating in everyday dynamics, rather than differences in policies.

  • 47.
    Wikman, Sofia
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Rickfors, Ulrika
    Lunds universitet.
    Att förebygga hot och våld i statliga myndigheter - en jämförelse mellan två perspektiv på säkerhet2017In: Arbetsliv i omvandling, ISSN 1404-8426, no 2, p. 1-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Våld och hot i statliga myndigheter är inte enbart ett arbetsmiljöproblem utan även ett demokratiproblem. Hantering av arbetsrelaterat våld och hot regleras i arbetsmiljölagen och Arbetsmiljöverkets föreskrifter. Arbetsgivaren är ansvarig för det förebyggande arbetet som ska utföras i samarbete med skyddsombud och medarbetare.

    För att undersöka hur kunskap skapas i säkerhetsarbetet mot hot och våld har vi genomfört en gruppintervju med huvudskyddsombud på ett tiotal statliga myndigheter med krävande klientkontakter. Vi använder två perspektiv hämtade från fältet ”resilience engineering” för att analysera hur arbetsmiljölagen implementeras.

    Studien visar att det föreligger betydande diskrepanser mellan vad lagen stadgar gällande arbetstagares rätt till input i säkerhetsarbetet, och i vilken utsträckning det sker i praktiken. En välfungerande organisation förutsätter regler och kontroll, men regelstyrning och formalisering måste balanseras mot ett tillvaratagande av medarbetares omdöme och kompetens. Att arbetstagares input saknas innebär att säkerhetsarbetet inte motsvarar arbetsmiljölagens syfte.

    Styrning som inte tar kontextuell hänsyn till arbetstagare eller klienter medför negativa konsekvenser. Strategier som inte harmonierar med det faktiska arbetet och regler som hämmar kreativitet och anpassning innebär en begränsning - inte bara för de scenarion vi i förebyggande syfte kan föreställa oss, utan också för att vi berövas en källa till tillit, diversitet och innovation.

  • 48.
    Wikman, Sofia
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Rickfors, Ulrika
    Stockholms universitet.
    Preventing violence against public servants2016In: 2016 Stockholm Criminology Symposium: Program and abstracts, Stockholm: Brottsförebyggande rådet , 2016, p. 149-150Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Preventing violence against public servants

    From safety science, we have learned that in light of increasing demands and system complexity, we must adapt our approach to safety. We have to include new practices to look for what goes right, focus on frequent events, remain sensitive to the possibility of failure, to be thorough as well as efficient, and to view an investment in safety as an investment in productivity. But most people still think of safety as the absence of accidents and incidents (or as an acceptable level of risk). In this perspective, which is termed Safety-I, safety is defined as a state where as few things as possible go wrong. According to Safety-I, things go wrong due to technical, human and organizational causes – failures and malfunctions. Humans are viewed predominantly as a liability or hazard. The safety management principle is to respond when something happens or is categorized as an unacceptable risk. Accordingly, the purpose of accident investigation is to identify the causes and contributory factors of adverse outcomes, while risk assessment aims to determine their likelihood. Both approaches then try to eliminate causes or improve barriers, or both. However, the Safety-I view does not explain why human performance practically always goes right. The reason that things go right is not people behave as they are told to, but that people can adjust their work so that it matches the conditions. As systems continue to develop, these adjustments become increasingly important for successful performance. The challenge for safety improvement is to understand these adjustments, beginning by understanding how performance usually goes right. Despite the obvious importance of things going right, safety management has so far paid relatively little attention to this view – Safety-II.

  • 49.
    Wikman, Sofia
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, kriminologiska institutionen.
    Tiby, Eva
    Stockholms universitet, Kriminologiska institutionen.
    Heber, Anita
    Stockholms universitet, Kriminologiska institutionen.
    Inledning2012In: Viktimologisk forskning: brottsoffer i teori och metod / [ed] Anita Heber, Eva Tiby & Sofia Wikman, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2012, 1, p. 17-24Chapter in book (Other academic)
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