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  • 1.
    Dorio, Nunzio, Jason
    et al.
    University of California, Los Angeles, USA .
    Francia, Guadalupe
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Pedagogik.
    Edling, Silvia
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Ayik, Bilgehan
    University of California, Los Angeles, USA .
    Abagat Liboon, Christine
    University of California, Los Angeles, USA .
    Children at Our Walls : Dehumanizing Discourses and Policies Challenging the Rights of Asylum-Seeking Minors in the United States and Sweden2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 2.
    Edling, Silvia
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Biffi, Elisabetta
    University of Milano-Bicocca Department of Human Sciences for Education Milano.
    Francia, Guadalupe
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Pedagogik.
    Montà, Chiara Carla
    Università degli Studi Milano Bicocca Scienze Umane per la Formazione Riccardo Massa Roasio.
    Children’s right not to be subjected to violence – a comparative discourse analysis of educational policy between Sweden and Italy2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The desire to protect children from violence is clearly formulated in the Children’s Right Convention (CRV). For example, the right of children to be protected from:” /…/all forms of physical or mental violence, injury or abuse, neglect or negligent treatment, maltreatment or exploitation, including sexual abuse, while in the care of parent(s), legal guardian(s) or any other person who has the care of the child is clearly stated in Article 19 of the CRC, which was ratified by Sweden in 1989 (United Nations, 1989). The right of children not to be subjected to various forms of violence is also emphasized in other international treaties signed and/or ratified by the Swedish state (the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the European Convention of Human Rights, the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities 2010, the Treaty of Lisbon). In order to assure this right, the Swedish legal framework (Prop., 2009/10:232) stipulates that the subjection of children to violence should be avoided at all cost. Italy assures the right of a childhood free from violence thanks to its legal framework as well. Italy’s legal framework is made up of the international documents previously cited, the CRC (ratified in 1991 with the LEGGE 27 maggio 1991, n. 176. Italy’s legal framework is also made up of national laws, in particular by the founding one: the Constitution. Art. 3. This article is used as a base for the creation of national policy to prevent the subjection of children to violence.

    In this study, the word violence is used in a broad sense to cover the numerous situations in which people are at risk of being physically and psychologically damaged (Hamby and Grych, 2013), such as in cases of discrimination, bullying, violation, or harassment (cf. Greeff and Grobler, 2008; Parkes, 2007). The ambition to oppose and counteract violence through juridification in schools has increased in Sweden through the introduction of the Discrimination Act (SFS, 2008:567) and the paragraph regarding the treatment of others in the Education Act (SFS, 2010:800, paragraph 6). For what concerns the treatment of others and discrimination, Italy refers to the National Plan for educating to the respect of others (Rispetta le differenze. Piano nazionale per l’educazione al rispetto). This plan aims at promoting the values stated in the 3rd article of the Constitution by educating and training students, teachers and families.

    There are several studies conducted in Italy and Sweden about how this particular right is approached in policy (Francia and Edling, 2016, Edling and Francia, 2017, Biffi, 2017). Although, children’s right not to be subjected to violence is given attention in many countries today it is still a question of negotiation as concerns how these rights are materialized in each country’s educational policy as well as why they are described as important to consider. Whereas Sweden is described as a highly secular (previously protestant) and individualistic country, Italy is pictured as a non-secular, catholic country premiering the collective (see Meyer, 2014; Integrationsverket, 2005).  

    Against this background, it becomes of interest to compare how two different countries like Sweden and Italy approach children’s right not to be subjected to various forms of violence by analysing educational policy that presents motifs and directives for teachers in different stages. In Italy, the plan for the 2016-2019 teacher training in chapter 4.6 (Piano per la formazione dei docenti 2016-2019) declares that teachers have to be trained in order to teach them how to promote respect for others in their classrooms in order to prevent violence.

    Method

    The following questions are asked: 1. How do the different policy documents in Sweden and Italy describe and explain teachers’ responsibilities to oppose violence in school? 2. Are there any similarities and/or differences between the countries as regards the question above? If so what kind of similarities and/or differences? To conduct a comparative study, both linkages and differences need to be taken into account. Linkages are created by posing similar questions to the material analysed and differences imply awareness that all comparisons always contain cultural and contextual differences and contestations that need to be addressed (e.g. No´voa & Yariv-Mashal, 2003). As regards linkages, Kazamias (2001) points to the need to use theoretical concepts as lenses to make more 200 coherent comparisons (p. 446) – in this case theoretical understandings of violence. This paper is based on a critical discourse analysis (CDA) of educational policy highlighting teachers’ responsibilities to promote children’s right not to be subjected to violence. Based on Fairclough (1992, 2000, 2001), we argue that CDA facilitates an understanding of the dialectical relation between discourse and social practice. Following Fairclough (2000), the interpretation of the data encompasses three dimensions: (a) text analysis (description), (b) processing analysis (interpretation), and (c) social analysis (explanation). In our study, these dimensions correspond to our research questions.

    Expected outcomes

    The study aims to distinguish how teachers’ responsibilities to oppose violence towards children is expressed and motivated by the various policy documents. The comparison makes it possible to discuss plausible similarities and differences between the countries as well as discuss cultural and political explanations for the findings that can help combat child violence. 

    References

    Biffi, Elisabetta. (2017). Protecting minors against violence: from strategy to practice. Education Sciences & Society. 1, 47-64. Fairclough, Norman. (1989). Language and power. London: Longman. London: Longman. Fairclough, Norman. (1992). Discourse and Social Change. Cambridge: Polity Press. Francia, Guadalupe, & Edling, Silvia. (2016). Children's rights and violence: A case analysis at a Swedish boarding school. Childhood, in process. Greeff, P., & Grobler, A. (2008). Bullying during the intermediate school phase. Childhood 15(1), 127-144. Hamby, Sherry , & Grych, John (2013). The Web of Violence Exploring Connections Among Different Forms of Interpersonal Violence and Abuse. New York, London: Springer Dordrecht Heidelberg. Kazamias, Andreas M. . (2001). ‘Re-inventing the Historical in Comparative Education: Reflection on a Protean Episteme by a Contemporary Player’. Comparative Education, 37(4), 439-450. LEGGE 27 maggio 1991, n. 176 Ratifica ed esecuzione della convenzione sui diritti del fanciullo, fatta a New York il 20 novembre 1989. (GU n.135 del 11-6-1991 - Suppl. Ordinario n. 35-), The Universal Declaration of Human Rights; The European Convention of Human Rights; The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities 2010, and the Treaty of Lisbon. Linee Guida Nazionali -art. 1 comma 16 L. 107/2015- Educare al rispetto: per la parità tra i sessi, la prevenzione della violenza di genere e di tutte le forme di discriminazione Linee di orientamento per la prevenzione e il contrasto del cyberbullismo nelle scuole -art. 4 L. 71/2017- Meyer, Erin. (2014). The cultrure map. Breaking Through the Invisible Boundaries of Global Business. NY: PublicAffairs US. Nóvoa, Antonio , & Yariv-Mashal, Tali (2003). Comparative Research in Education: A Mode of Governance or a Historical Journey? Comparative Education, 39(4), 423-438. Parkes, Jenny. (2007). The multiple meanings of violence. Children's talk about life in a South African neighbourhood. Childhood 14(4), 401-414. Prop. (2009/10:232). Strategi för att stärka barnets rättigheter i Sverige. Stockholm. SFS. (2008:567). Diskrimineringslag. SFS. (2010:800). Skollag.

  • 3.
    Edling, Silvia
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för kultur-, religions- och utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Francia, Guadalupe
    Department of Education, Uppsala University.
    How are EU-policies regarding social inclusion of Roma populations adapted in national governments?: Comparing Spanish and Swedish policies for Roma education2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 4.
    Edling, Silvia
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för kultur-, religions- och utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Francia, Guadalupe
    Uppsala Universitet, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Methodological and Ethical Implications in Studying the Child's Perspective2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 5.
    Edling, Silvia
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Francia, Guadalupe
    Uppsala universitet.
    Newly arrived pupils and violence: a CDA analysis of political advices regarding strategies and responsibilities for various actors in Swedish education2017Ingår i: Education Sciences and Society, ISSN 2038-9442, Vol. 8, nr 1, s. 137-153Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the Convention of the right of the Child (CRC) it is stated that all children should be protected from all kinds of violence. However war, social conflicts and climatic catastrophes have placed immigrant children at risk to object for violence. The purpose of this paper is to study how Sweden politically advice actors within the educational field to approach newly arrived pupils in education by placing it in relation to research about violence. What is particularly payed attention to in the policy document is need to oppose the following risks: b)being in risk of exclusion, c) facing perceptions of assimilation, and f) a lack of clear responsibilities amongst the actors assisting the immigrant children. A fuzziness of responsibilities is at time created with concepts such as “the school should”.

    Education for the Other is the most dominant strategy emphasizing that the newly arrived child’s needs in education should be recognized as well as the importance to distribute what is lacking to promote the pupil’s development. The advices do not say anything about the content of knowledge required amongst various actors in order to do analysis of processes.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 6.
    Edling, Silvia
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Francia, Guadalupe
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Private or public good?: Exploring violent acts at a boarding school in Sweden from a children’s right perspective2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 7.
    Edling, Silvia
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Francia, Guadalupe
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Pedagogik.
    Public or private governance of school violence: a leadership perspective2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 8.
    Edling, Silvia
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Francia, Guadalupe
    Division of Education, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Mälardalen University, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Publicor private governance of School violence: A leadership perspective2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Research question/objective

    Starting from a social justice perspective within the field of leadership (Shields 2007, 2010) this paper aims to contribute in understanding various conceptions of leadership in relation to violent cases at a Swedish boarding school.  More specifically the paper asks the following question: How do leaders in various positions describe their responsibilities as leaders in relation to violent cases that took place at a Swedish boarding school?

    Methodological framework:

    The paper is based on a Fairclough’s critical discourse analysis (CDA) (1992, 2000, 2001) of different educational and media documents concerning cases of violence at a boarding Swedish schools. This analysis involves following three dimensions: (a) text analysis (description), (b) processing anal- sis (interpretation), and (c) social analysis (explanation). In our study, these dimensions correspond to our research questions.

    The expected conclusions/results

    This study shows that school violence is perceived both as a public or a private matter. When school violence is conceived as a private matter, the leaders point out the necessity of protecting and honoring the privacy of the school. In these cases pupils’ education is considered as a private good and therefore the competency to deal with violent acts is considered as a “family” outside the governance of the public
Based on the libertarian conception of childhood. On the contrary when the school violence is described as a public matter, the leaders claims for government intervention to protect the rights of children as stipulated in Swedish national steering documents and in national and international legislation on children’s rights.

    This result of the study indicates that systemic violence at the boarding school in question can be interpreted as a part of a socialization culture of privileged classes aiming to educate leaders that can maintain and reproduce power positions and privileges in the Swedish society. Four different discourses of child violence emerged in the analysis, namely: (1) violence is created because some few people break the rule, (2) the victims of violence don’t behave properly, (3) boy scams happen but are harmless, and (4) because quarrels are part of family (the private) life. The study provides with examples of a hidden curriculum that endorses leadership models that are not compatible with the development of democracy and diversity in the Swedish society. Taken account that a considerable percentage of boarding school students will have power positions in different areas of the Swedish society in the future, it is important to reflect on the possibilities for democratic, and hence non-violent, socialization the models of leadership presented in this study promote. 

  • 9.
    Edling, Silvia
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Francia, Guadalupe
    Uppsala Universitet, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Roma in Europe: Policies and Roma Voices : Exploring and Comparing the Voices of Roma People Expressed on Three Roma Advocacy Webpages2015Ingår i: Educational Internationalisation: Academic Voices and Public Policy / [ed] Olson, Jennifer R., Biseth, Heidi and Ruiz, Guillermo, Rotterdam: Sense Publishers, 2015, s. 149-166Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 10.
    Edling, Silvia
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Francia, Guadalupe
    Luzón, Antonio
    University of Granada.
    Parker-Jenkins, Marie
    University of Limmerick.
    ¿Existe una política educativa de apoyo a los derechos de los menores refugiados? Reflexiones desde Suecia, República de Irlanda y España2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 11.
    Edling, Silvia
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Jenkins-Parker, Marie
    University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland.
    Francia, Guadalupe
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Education of the Other: education policies targeted to Muslim refugees children in UK and Sweden2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 12.
    Francia, Guadalupe
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för pedagogik, didaktik och utbildningsstudier.
    Alla barn får inte likvärdig utbildning i Sverige2011Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 13.
    Francia, Guadalupe
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    An Equitable Education System’s Achilles Heel?: Intercultural Education in the Swedish Context2015Ingår i: Intercultural Education in the European Context: theories, experiences, challenges / [ed] M. Catarci & M. Fiorucci, Farnham: Ashgate, 2015, s. 229-246Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 14.
    Francia, Guadalupe
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Childrens’ right to equitable education: A welfare state’s goal in times of Neoliberalism2011Ingår i: Education Inquiry, ISSN 2000-4508, E-ISSN 2000-4508, Vol. 2, nr 3, s. 401-419Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article employs Social Representations Theory as a theoretical instrument to analyse the right of children to an equitable education. It analyses how social representations of students and students’ performances can be used by political actors as an interpretation system to manage contradictions in the equity education policies implemented in Sweden. A textual analysis of website propaganda of eight political parties produced for the Swedish electoral campaign in 2010 is used as research methodology. It is suggested that social representations of students and student performance in the Swedish 2010 electoral campaign function as an interpretation system that enables political parties to deal with the contradiction between the goal of equitable education for all children and the goal of developing diversity and free choice. The absence of a critical perspective about the negative impacts of market-oriented strategies on children’s right to equity characterised the analysed texts. Further, the dominance of representations of students as individuals with a right to an individualised education according to their own capacities, interests, learning times and styles makes it difficult to critically question the neoliberal model based on the vision of "one school for each student".

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 15.
    Francia, Guadalupe
    Örebro universitet.
    Conflicts between conceptions and practices in the process of public founded independent schools in Sweden2006Ingår i: Enacting Equity in Education: Towards a comparison of equitable practices in different European local contexts / [ed] L. Moreno Herrera, G. Jones & J. Rantala, Helsinki: Research Centre for Social Studies Education, University of Helsinki , 2006, s. 132-155Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyses the conflicts between the National Agency for Education and fourteen municipalities in regard the practices for approval of the establishment of independent school in Sweden. Nineteen records from the National Agency for Education were use for text analysis concerning these practices during the period 2002-2003. These records include the pronouncements with regard to these establishments from the municipalities, the National Agnecy for Education, the national courts and the involved independent schools. The analysis of these conflicts exemplifies the redistribution-recognition dilemma present in the concepts of equity, social justice and equivalence. For some actors the opening of independent is an instrument to develop diversity and cultural justice. For others, the growth of indepedent schools can be seen as the gradual disappearance o public shools as a common sphere to all citizens. By closing or reducting common public spaces, there is a risk to have higher segregation and inequality in Sweden. The analysis of the redistribution-recognition dilemma is necessary in order to become aware of how much we are ready to lose of the right to equality in order to obtain an increase of educational diversity.

  • 16.
    Francia, Guadalupe
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för pedagogik, didaktik och utbildningsstudier.
    Det intertextuella perspektivet inom pedagogisk forskning2001Ingår i: Perspektiv och förståelse / [ed] H. Montgomery H. & B. Qvarsell, Stockholm: Carlsson Bokförlag, 2001, s. 224-234Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 17.
    Francia, Guadalupe
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Dilemmas in the Implementation of Children’s Right to Equity in Education in the Swedish Compulsory School2011Ingår i: European Educational Research Journal (online), ISSN 1474-9041, E-ISSN 1474-9041, Vol. 10, nr 1, s. 102-117Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to illustrate and discuss the impacts of neo-liberal educational policies on equity, this article analyses the effects of different kinds of decentralisation strategies on the implementation of children’s right to an equitable education in Sweden. It begins with a comprehensive overview of the changes implemented in the Swedish compulsory school system during the last two decades. It analyses the processes of transfer of authority and responsibility and discusses the complexity of interpreting these processes in terms of equity. This article examines the complex and contextual nature and consequences of decentralisation and centralisation strategies in order to better understand the implementation of children’s right to equity in school practice. Although this analysis is based on the Swedish experience, it can contribute to a better understanding of the impacts of neo-liberal educational policies on equity in other European contexts.

  • 18.
    Francia, Guadalupe
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Education Reform in Sweden: From “One School for All Children” to “One school for Each Child”2014Ingår i: Educational Reform in Europe: History, Culture, and Ideology / [ed] Richard R. Verdugo, Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing, 2014, s. 25-40Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 19.
    Francia, Guadalupe
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Pedagogik.
    El discurso de la ultraderecha en el marco de la formación de políticas públicas de educación inclusiva y equitativa en España y Suecia2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [es]

     La Agenda 2030 para el Desarrollo Sostenible establece en su objetivo 4 el deber de todos los estados nacionales de garantizar el derecho de educación inclusiva y equitativa de calidad y promover oportunidades de aprendizaje permanente para todos.

    Al mismo tiempo que autoridades educativas de alto nivel se comprometen en la

    implementación de políticas educativas a nivel regional y nacional para alcanzar dicho objetivo, en la práctica, se aprecia que el resultado de elecciones en diferentes países europeos y americanos muestra un avance de la ultraderecha al poder político.

    Caracterizado por el nativismo, autoritarismo y populismo (Mude, 2013) el discurso político de la ultraderecha está basado en la xenofobia etno-nacionalista y el regreso a los valores más tradicionales, el fascismo y el nacionalismo (Akkerman, 2012; Rydgren & van der Meidenv, 2016; Rydgren 2018).  Además, como asevera Kováts & Põim (2015) estos movimientos políticos han comenzado abiertamente una misión casi religiosa de poner fin a la ideología de genero. A su vez los avances de la ultraderecha tienen efectos colaterales en los otros partidos tradicionales que tienden a seguir el discurso migratorio restrictivo para evitar perder los votos de sus electores potenciales.

     

    Con el fin de discutir las posibles implicaciones del avance del discurso de la ultraderecha en la formación de las políticas públicas de educación inclusiva y equitativa, esta ponencia analiza las estrategias educativas propuestas en programas políticos a nivel nacional y regional de dos partidos de ultraderecha emergentes en España y Suecia.

    Partiendo de la concepción teórica de política educativa como texto y discurso (Touraine, 2000, Ball et alt (2012), Rizvi & Lingard, 2013, Dubet, 2016) el estudio presentado en esta ponencia está basado en un análisis crítico de discurso (Fairclough, 1995, Wodak y Meyer, 2003, Pini, 2009, Van Dijk, 2000, 2009 y 2012. ) de programas electorales a nivel regional, nacional y europeo del partido español Vox y el partido sueco Sverigedemokraterna durante el periodo 2018-2019.

     

    Principales resultados

    En la formación de políticas públicas de educación la propuesta de la ultraderecha es el establecimiento de un currículo monocultural y monolingüista basado en la cultura de la mayoría, con un enfoque nacional.  A nivel de gestión su propuesta sigue las tendencias políticas internacionales neoliberales incentivando tanto la privatización como la libertad de elección de centro. Pero también estas políticas de la ultraderecha suponen una paradoja a los principios más elementales de educación inclusiva y equitativa. Supone la finalización de políticas comprehensivas que promueven la equidad. Se apuesta por políticas que refuercen el mérito y capacidad individual.

    En esta ponencia se discute también la posibilidad de extender este análisis al estudio de la formación de políticas públicas de educación inclusiva y equitativa en otros contextos nacionales europeos y americanos donde se registre un avance importante de la ultraderecha en el gobierno y el parlamento.

     

  • 20.
    Francia, Guadalupe
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Equidad, inclusión social y capacidad individual2015Ingår i: Foro de Educación : Pensamiento, ISSN 1698-7799, E-ISSN 1698-7802, Vol. 13, nr 18, s. 5-12Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 21.
    Francia, Guadalupe
    Mälardalen University.
    Intertextuality in the analysis of the right of equity in Education in Sweden2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The contribution aims to discuss intertextuality as theoretical and methodological strategy in the analysis of equity in educational policies. Starting from the idea of equity as a multifaceted phenomenon this contribution analyses the various meanings of this concept from the systematic study of the interactions between texts created in different political areas.

    Intertextuality as theoretical and methodological starting point claims to read each text in a dialogical relation to other texts, so called intertexts (Kristeva 1969, 1970). Even if the concept of intertextuality has its origins in fields other than education (cf. Kristeva 1969, 1970, Fairclough 1992, Riffaterre 1999), the utility of intertextuality in the analysis of complex and multifaceted educational phenomena has also been highlighted by earlier educational research (Lemke 1992, Francia 1999, 2008; Maguire M. Ball S. And Braun A. 2011) Riffaterre (1990) notion of limited intertextuality is used in this contribution as theoretical and methodological strategy for the analysis. The use of limited intertextuality includes only those intertexts related to each other by a logical or pragmatic relationship in the intertextual dialogue.

    Starting from this limited intertextuality perspective (Riffaterre 1990), this contribution proposes therefore the analysis of different political documents that regulated central political areas for the implementation of the goal of equity in education for all children in Sweden. With this purpose, this contribution discusses examples of the intertextual dialogical reading of following national and international policy documents concerning children’s right to equitable education: The Swedish School Act, National curricula, National budget proposals and European and international agreements concerning the rights of refugee children in Sweden.

    This intertextual analysis provides a complex dimension to the study of equity because highlights limitations and contradictions of policies for equity implemented in Sweden during the last ten years. This contribution shows how intertextuality as a conceptual and methodological tool allows us to understand the contradictory nature of the educational policies that seldom are homogeneous package of measures for or against equity.

    References

    Fairclough, N. (1992). Discourse and Social Change. Cambridge: Polity Press.

    Francia, G. (1999). Policy som text och som praktik. En analys av likvärdighetsbegreppet i 1990taletsutbildningsreform för det obligatoriska skolväsendet. Doctoral Thesis. Stockholm: Pedagogiska institutionen. Stockholms universitet.

    Francia, Guadalupe (2008) La Intertextualidad en las reformas educativas: reflexiones sobre la equidad en la reforma escolar sueca. Archivos Analíticos de Políticas Educativas, 16 (7). Retrieved from: https://epaa.asu.edu/ojs/article/view/32 [20171221]

    Kristeva, J. (1969). Semeiotike: Recherches pour une sémanalyse (extraits). Paris: Seuil.

    Kristeva, J. (1970). Le texte du Roman. Paris: The Hague.

    Lemke, J. L. (1992). Intertextuality and Educational Research. Linguistics and Education, 4, pp. 257-267.

    Maguire M. Ball S. And Braun A. (2011) How School Do Policy. Policy Enactments in Secondary Schools London: Routledge

    Riffaterre, M. (1990). Compulsory reader response: the intertextual drive. En M. Worton & J. Still, Intertextuality Theories and Practices. Manchester: Manchester University Press.

    57

  • 22.
    Francia, Guadalupe
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för pedagogik, didaktik och utbildningsstudier.
    Islamiska skolor: en väg till likvärdig utbildning?1998Ingår i: Pedagogisk forskning i Sverige, ISSN 1401-6788, E-ISSN 2001-3345, Vol. 3, nr 4, s. 192-210Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 23.
    Francia, Guadalupe
    Uppsala university, Sweden.
    La intertextualidad en las reformas educativas: Reflexiones sobre la equidad en la reforma escolar sueca [Intertextuality in Educational Reform: Reflections on Equity in Swedish School Reform]2008Ingår i: Education Policy Analysis Archives, ISSN 1068-2341, E-ISSN 1068-2341, Vol. 16, s. 1-25, artikel-id 7Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article proposes intertextuality as a conceptual instrument for the deeper understanding of the phenomenon of equity in educational Reform in times of decentralization. This analysis starts from a dynamic vision of education reforms as interactions of texts. To illustrate the use of intertextual analysis of equity in education, this article introduces and discusses the analyzed examples of the educational national policy and of educational practice in the educational reform implemented in the 90’s and currently in force in the compulsory school in Sweden. It is argued that the meaning of equity is never a fixed one; it varies according to the interactions between political texts at a national level and texts of educational practice at communal and school levels.

  • 24.
    Francia, Guadalupe
    Örebro universitet.
    La marche vers l’équité: le modèle suédois2005Ingår i: Vers une école juste et efficace: 26 contributions sur les systèmes d’enseignement et de formation / [ed] Demeuse, M., Baye, A., Straeten, M.-H., Nicaise, J., Matoul, A., Bruxelles: De Boeck , 2005, s. 217-232Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 25. Francia, Guadalupe
    L’enseignement en Suède: D’une école pour tous à une école pour chacun2018Ingår i: Entre tronc commun et filières, quelle école commune ? Etude comparative. / [ed] Baluteau F., Dupriez V., Verhoeven M. (dir.), Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgique): Thélème (Académia-L'Harmattan), 2018 (à paraître) , 2018, s. 203-236Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 26.
    Francia, Guadalupe
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Likvärdighet, betyg och kunskapsbedömningar2008Ingår i: Vadå likvärdighet?: Studier i utbildningspolitisk språkanvändning / [ed] T. Englund & A. Quennerstedt, Göteborg: Daidalos, 2008, 1, s. 99-123Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 27.
    Francia, Guadalupe
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för pedagogik, didaktik och utbildningsstudier.
    Likvärdighetens vägval2011Ingår i: Vägval i skolans historia, nr 2, s. 3-5Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 28.
    Francia, Guadalupe
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för pedagogik, didaktik och utbildningsstudier.
    L’école en Suède: égalité, libéralisme et privatisation1998Ingår i: L’enseignement privé en Europe (I) / [ed] R. Herin, Caen, France: Université de Caen , 1998Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 29.
    Francia, Guadalupe
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Omfördelning eller erkännande?: ett dilemma i uttolkningen av likvärdighet2008Ingår i: Vadå likvärdighet?: studier i utbildningspolitisk språkanvändning / [ed] T. Englund och A. Quennerstedt, Göteborg: Daidalos, 2008, 1, s. 59-73Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 30.
    Francia, Guadalupe
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för pedagogik, didaktik och utbildningsstudier.
    Policy som text och praktik : En analys av likvärdighetsbegreppet i 1990-talets utbildningsreform för det obligatoriska skolväsendet1999Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 31.
    Francia, Guadalupe
    Mälardalens högskola, Utbildningsvetenskap och Matematik.
    Posibilidades y desafíos para la enseñanza del español como lengua extranjera en el contexto escolar nórdico: el caso de Suecia2017Ingår i: Revista redELE, ISSN 1571-4667, E-ISSN 1571-4667, nr Número Especial. Enero 2017, s. 1-22Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Se analiza y discute la implementación de las medidas políticas para el desarrollo del plurilingüismo creadas por la Unión Europea y el Consejo de Europa en contextos nacionales partiendo del análisis de la situación del idioma español como materia curricular en Suecia. Partiendo de una concepción teórica de política educativa que pone el énfasis en el estudio de la naturaleza política como resultado de luchas entre diferentes actores en diferentes contextos el artículo discute las dificultades, amenazas, fortalezas y oportunidades que diversos contextos ofrecen para el desarrollo del español como asignatura de idioma moderno en la escuela sueca. El artículo está basado en investigación de la Universidad de Upsala durante el período 2011-2013 que analiza la situación de los profesores, los resultados de los alumnos y las posibilidades de desarrollo del español basado en un análisis de estadísticas nacionales, de documentos de la política educativa y lingüística a nivel nacional y europeo, así como en entrevistas a representantes de autoridades suecas y españolas, sindicatos y asociaciones de profesores y entrevistas individuales con profesores. Se incluye también un análisis de estadísticas recientes publicadas durante el periodo 2014-2016 por la Agencia Nacional para la Educación de Suecia.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
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  • 32.
    Francia, Guadalupe
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Svenska som andraspråk (Sva): Literacypraktik för likvärdighet eller för social differentiering?2013Ingår i: Literacy-praktiker i och utanför skolan / [ed] S. Bagga-Gupta, A.-C. Evaldsson, C. Liberg och R. Säljö, Malmö: Gleerups Utbildning AB, 2013, 1, s. 107-126Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 33.
    Francia, Guadalupe
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Pedagogik.
    The advance of Anti-gender agenda in Swedish media debate on higher education.2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Conservative and Far Right movements around the world have openly started a nearly religious mission to “put end to the gender ideology” in all areas in society. In Europe this anti-gender agenda was successively introduced and developed by different conservative and fair right parties BLOCK VI g 168 in Germany, Hungary, Poland, France, Slovakia since 2006 (Kováts & Põim 2015). With the purpose to develop a deeper understanding of the advance of this anti-gender agenda, this contribution analyses media and social media debates concerning the role and the position of gender studies in the Swedish higher education. The methodology used in this research is argument analysis of articles published in Swedish press (Svenska Dagbladet) and social media (Högskoleläckan) during the period November 2017 to December 2018. Paying attention to ethical issues in the analysis of social media data the names of the individuals concerned in the selected data has been removed. Preliminary findings of the study show that in this anti-gender agenda gender theories are considered as a dominant knowledge regime in Swedish higher education policy. This anti-gender agenda puts in question the role and the position of gender studies in higher education by criticizing its methodology and quality research as well as its existence as scientific field. However, this agenda is not only limited to criticize gender studies at higher education. It puts even in question research based on critical and postcolonial theories as well as current Swedish research in the Education field. 

  • 34.
    Francia, Guadalupe
    Uppsala university, Sweden.
    The impacts of individualization on equity educational policies2013Ingår i: Journal of New Approaches in Educational Research, ISSN 2254-7399, Vol. 2, nr 1, s. 17-22Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The present article has as its aim to illustrate and discuss the impacts of individualization strategies on equity educational policies through the analysis of individualized teaching strategies applied within the framework of educational priority policies in Sweden. The methodology used in our research work includes: (a) the study of research literature about the individualization of teaching implemented in the Swedish comprehensive compulsory school; and (b) the study of research literature about educational priority policies aimed at children from socially and ethnically segregated areas. Comparative research of educational policies considers the individualization of teaching carried out in the Swedish comprehensive compulsory school as a relevant explanation for the successful application of equitable educational policies in that country. However, research studies published during the 2000s in Sweden show a more complex perspective regarding the effects of individualized teaching strategies. This contribution reviews European comparative research studies on individualization strategies followed in the context of equity policies. It raises questions about the lack of analyses referring to the impacts of individualization on schools located in socially and ethnically segregated areas. It argues that this ideology tends to reduce the issue of school failure to ethnic segregation and individualized teacher support. This article claims that individualization strategies based on differentiated curricula for students run the risk of increasing the discrimination of students for reasons of language or ethnic background. Even though the present study focuses on the Swedish experience, it can lead to a better understanding of the impacts caused by individualization strategies on equity in other European countries.

  • 35.
    Francia, Guadalupe
    Uppsala universitet, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    The Negotiation of the Right of the Child to Education in the Name of Religion2007Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses the negotiation process of Muslim Swedish girls’ right to knowledge in the name of cultural justice. The National Syllabus for The Swedish Compulsory School stipulates that all Swedish children must learn to swim before the 6th school year. However, some schools sign contracts with Muslim families that authorise Muslim girls not to take part in the compulsory swimming lessons at school. This paper aims to analyse how the National goals for the Compulsory Swedish School are shaped and reshaped at the municipality and school level in relation to the pupils’ religion and gender. It analyses also the question of how far the adaptation of the Compulsory National Goals can go without missing the right to equity of all pupils. The problems of negotiating the Muslims girls’ right to learn to swim in the name of cultural justice is also considered. The dilemma of multiculturalism and women’s right as well as the conflict between distributive justice and cultural justice are also presented. This contribution includes the analysis of the National Curriculum for the compulsory system, the Physical education and health syllabus, the National Swedish Education Act and material from the National Education Agency as well as School contracts with certain Muslim families and Muslim organisations in one Swedish Municipality. The schools’ and municipalities’ strategies to avoid responsibility in the question of Muslims girls’ swimming lessons put these pupils’ right to an equitable education at risk. Instead of creating practical solutions to allow these girls to enjoy the swimming lessons, some schools and municipalities leave the responsibility for the swimming lessons to the parents. If the schools have not possibilities to control if these pupils have learnt to swim, the right of all children to have the same access to knowledge is put in jeopardy in Sweden.

  • 36.
    Francia, Guadalupe
    Uppsala universitet.
    The Negotiation of the Right of the Child to Education in the Name of Religion2009Ingår i: Your Heritage or Mine: Teaching in a Multi-Religious Classroom / [ed] Lena Roos & Jenny Berglund, Uppsala: Swedish Science Press , 2009Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 37.
    Francia, Guadalupe
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för pedagogik, didaktik och utbildningsstudier.
    The right of equality of results and its implications on the Swedish Educational System of the XXIst2004Ingår i: Educational policies – Implications for equity, equality and equivalence / [ed] L. Moreno Herrera & G. Francia, Örebro: Örebro University, Department of Education , 2004, s. 13-23Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 38.
    Francia, Guadalupe
    Uppsala university, Sweden.
    Utvärdering av försöksverksamheten för Collegeutbildning vid Örebro Universitet2010Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 39.
    Francia, Guadalupe
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Edling, Silvia
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för kultur-, religions- och utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    A Child Perspective in the Study of Bullying in Swedish Boarding Elite’s Schools2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a research study of bullying in Swedish private Boarding schools with focus on a child perspective. It analyses even the Education of the Swedish Power Elites starting point from Bourdieu s’ sociological research and from the Convention on the Rights of the Child.

    This study is based on the analysis of cases of bullying in three private boarding schools in Sweden during 2011-2012. This contribution analyses in which way the child perspective is presented in description of bullying and practices against bullying produced by different actors

    Method

    This contribution is based on analysis of texts produced by Swedish Education authorities, Polices authorities, Boarding schools staff, parents, pupils and media.

    Expected Outcomes

    This contribution shows how bullying practices in Swedish boarding elite’s schools are legitimized in terms on traditions and socialization patters for leadership in the Swedish Society. It argues on policies and practices against bullying that pay attention to a child perspective. Even though this analysis focuses on the Swedish experience, it can lead to a better understanding of the need to pay attention on a child perspective in the analysis on policies and practices against bullying in other European educational contexts.

  • 40.
    Francia, Guadalupe
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Pedagogik.
    Edling, Silvia
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    A Children's Rights Perspective on Traditional Schooling and Education for Sustainable Development2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In times of uncertainity when war conflicts, climate catastrophes, austerity and anti-migration policies in particularly affect children we need to develop sustainabiliby policies that pay attention to the best interests of the child.

    Consequently, a  successful accomplishment of the Agenda 2030 for sustainable development is strongly related to the success to put in practice the rights enshrined by the Convention on the Rights of the Child (Children’s Rights international Network, CRIN 2018).

    However, to pay attention to the intima relation between the sustainable development goals to the rights of the Child claims even to start from a holistic conception of Sustainability that involves ecological, economic and social dimensions of development. Furthermore, this holistic conception of development (McKenzie, 2004; Ketschau 2015; UNESCO 12; SWEDESD 2017) point out that justice issues are highly crucial and should be taken into consideration in order to stimulate sustainable development in local contexts and the world in general. 

    At the same time,  the success to develop Sustainability are related to our competence to develop Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) at all levels. Furthermore, ESD needs to be understood in its broadest sense and includes “…  improving quality basic education, reorienting education to address sustainability, improving public awareness, and providing training to many sectors of society (UNESCO 2005:11). One of sector of society in which ESD training is central is higher education (UNESCO 2005, 2012, 2017, SWEDESD 2017). Furthermore, the development of ESD in higher education (Blanco-Portela, Benayas, Pertierra & Lozano 2017) needs both of external pressures as well as local actions backed up by national polices. 

    This contribution aims to discuss about the role of higher education to develop and disseminate research knowledge on the rights on the Child in and to Education in their work to promote Sustainable Development (SD) and Sustainable Development Education (SDE). With this purpose it introduces a thematic analysis of a national evaluation concerning the Swedish higher education institutions (HEI) work to promote  SD and SDE with focus on the convention of the Rights of the Child. The focuses on this analysis is not to evaluate the HEI:s work. It focuses instead on the analysis on which way the HEI:s work to promote SD and SDE involves the rights of the Child in education and to education.

     

     

     

     

    Method

    The Swedish Higher Education Authority (UKÄ) evaluated higher education institutions (HEI) university colleges work to promote sustainable development (SD) and sustainable development in education (SDE). Based on the Swedish institutions own self-evaluations concerning their work, an assessment panel made this evaluation that only led to recommendations for the development of SD and SDE at higher education. Thematic analysis (Braun & Clarke 2006) of these of self-evaluation reports as well as the assessment panels evaluation are selected as methodology for this study. In this thematic analysis we identified themes (patterns) within the data stating from following research questions: *How are children’s rights to and in education treated in the universities self-evaluations concerning their work to promote sustainable development? *In which way is Agenda 2030 related to the Convention of the Rights of the Child? *In which disciplines are children’s rights to and in education related to Sustainable development? *Which kind of strategies are used by these disciplines to related children’s right to education in their work to promote sustainable development? *Which are the potential areas to development in the work to related children’s right to education in their work to promote sustainable development?

    Expected Outcomes

    This research is an ongoing study that shows the following preliminary result: Only 7 of the 22 self-evaluation reports include The Convention of the Right of the Child as education content related to SDE at higher education level. Furthermore, the analysis shows that only a reduced number of higher education programs/disciplines relates CRC with SDE in these 7 self-evaluation reports. These disciplines/programs are: education science, teacher education and arts studies for teachers. The thematic analysis shows that CRC is related to democracy education as well as knowledge about children's life conditions.Focusing on teacher education, SDE in these 7 universities aims to develop teacher students’ competence to: *to act at the school practice paying attention to CRC. *to reflect over children’s life conditions in relation to Agenda 2030 *to reflect over the relation of SDE, CRC and Democracy *to reflect over esthetics, social and scientific aspects of SDE paying attention to CRC The preliminary analysis of this research shows a limited number and forms of SDE teaching activities at higher education that pay attention to the CRC. This lack of interrelation between SDE and CRC risks the development of SDE from a holistic perspective at the higher education level. This study is based on an analysis of SDE in Sweden. However, the findings of this study can be relevant for other national contexts because it discusses about the role of higher education to develop and to disseminate research knowledge on Sustainable Development (SD) that pay attention to the best interests of the child. This discussion contributes even to develop scientific knowledge about the relation between the Agenda 2030 and the CRC in Higher education institutions' work to promote SD.

    References

    Braun, V. & Clarke, V. (2006) Using thematic analysis in psychology, Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3:2, 77-101 Child Rights International Network, CRIN (2018) Protection of the rights of the child and the 2030 agenda for sustainable development https://www.crin.org/en/library/publications/protection-rights-child-and-2030-agenda-sustainable-development Ketschau, J. (2015). Social Justice as a Link between Sustainability and Educational Sciences. Sustainability 2015, 7, 15754 -15771. McKenzie, S. (2004). Social sustainability: towards some definitions. Hawke Research Institute Working Paper Series N°27. South Australia: University of South Australia Magill Portela B., Benayas J. Pertierra L.R. Lozano R. (2017) Towards the integration of sustainability in Higher Education Institutions: A review of drivers of and barriers to organizational change and their comparison against those found of companies. Journal Cleaner Production. Februari 2017 World Commission on Environment and Development,1987; UNESCO (2005) International Implementation Scheme (IIS) for the DESD.Paris, UNESCO. https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000148654 UNESCO, (2012) Shaping the education of tomorrow: 2012 full length report on the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000216472 SWEDESD (Swedish International Centre of Education for Sustainable Development) (2017) Visby Recommendations for enhancing ESD in Teacher Education, THE CONFERENCE ‘BRIDGING THE GAP - EDUCATORS AND TRAINERS’ VISBY 21-24 AUG 2016 http://swedesd.uu.se/digitalAssets/611/c_611672-l_1-k_report_btg2017.pdf

  • 41.
    Francia, Guadalupe
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Edling, Silvia
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Can school leaders make a difference in the protection of children’s rights against violence? : A Critical Discourse Analysis of Different leadership strategies at boarding school in Sweden2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 42.
    Francia, Guadalupe
    et al.
    Department of Education, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Edling, Silvia
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Children's rights and violence: A case analysis at a Swedish boarding school2017Ingår i: Childhood, ISSN 0907-5682, E-ISSN 1461-7013, Vol. 24, nr 1, s. 51-67Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing on the Convention on the Rights of the Child, the article highlights various conceptions of violence at a Swedish boarding school and is based on a critical discourse analysis of different educational and media documents. The investigation indicates that ambitions to protect children from violence need to overcome the dichotomy of private and public in order to protect children affected by violence in the borderland between the private and public spheres.

  • 43.
    Francia, Guadalupe
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Pedagogik.
    Edling, Silvia
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Neoliberal policy paradigm in Teacher Education in Argentina and Sweden : Strategy for increase quality and teacher profession status?2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 44.
    Francia, Guadalupe
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Pedagogik.
    Edling, Silvia
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Unaccompanied Afghan minors’ rights when restrictive transnational migration policies are in force: The case of Sweden2019Ingår i: The International Journal of Children's Rights, ISSN 0927-5568, E-ISSN 1571-8182Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 45.
    Francia, Guadalupe
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Pedagogik.
    Edling, Silvia
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    When The Convention of The Rights of the Child is Not Enough: Civil Disobedience from a Research Perspective2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The weaker juridical nature of the Convention of the Rights of the Child (CRC) in relation of national laws is often an obstacle when it comes to implement the articles in European national contexts. For instance, Sweden has a national legal structure that gives priority to Swedish acts in favour of international conventions. Only National acts and ordinances as well as certain EU acts are binding sources of law. Therefore, except for certain EU acts, national acts always prevails before international jurisdiction, such as the Convention of the Rights of the Child (Schiratzki 2013).

    In addition, CRC stipulates several rights that are difficult to interpret on a national level (Schiratzki 2013). Several of the CRS rights, such as education, care and health, belong to the so-called second-generation human rights that require active action by the state to ensure their existence in practice.

    Unlike first-generation rights (also called freedoms or civic and political rights) that aimed to protect individuals from state interference, second-generation human rights (social, economic and cultural rights) are heavily dependent on the state's allocation of public resources. Consequently, there are often less strict implantations of second-generation rights in national contexts (Willems & Vernimmen 2017).

    Furthermore, previous research (Ahrnér 2006) shows that the CRC contains formulations that are ambiguous, diffuse and have different meanings in different contexts. Experience from Norway also (Schiratzki 2013) shows that incorporation of the CRC s in a national Act is not enough to defend childrens’ rights at national contexts. What is more, there is no international court that can punish a state that does not respect the convention. The UN Committee on the Rights of the Child (Child Rights Committee), located in Geneva, has the task of overseeing that States members implementation of CRC. However, the only possible sanctions that this UN committee can implement against a state that does not respect CRC are criticisms and pressures.(The Ombudsman for Children in Sweden 2015). 

    The weaker juridical nature of the CRC makes it interesting to investigate the existence of other strategies to guarantee Children’s rights within various national contexts that are not taken into consideration by national Acts. One of this strategy is civil disobedience.

    According to Brownlee (Fall 2017) “… on the most widely accepted account of civil disobedience, famously defended by John Rawls (1971), civil disobedience is a public, non-violent and conscientious breach of law undertaken with the aim of bringing about a change in laws or government policies. On this account, people who engage in civil disobedience are willing to accept the legal consequences of their actions, as this shows their fidelity to the rule of law. Civil disobedience, given its place at the boundary of fidelity to law, is said to fall between legal protest, on the one hand, and conscientious refusal, revolutionary action, militant protest and organised forcible resistance, on the other hand.” (Brownlee, Fall 2017)

    Starting from this most widely accepted account of civil disobedience (see Brownlee, Fall 2017) this contribution aims to introduce and discuss a research review about international research on civil disobedience as strategy to guarantee Childrens’ rights in education in national contexts. 

    Method

    Quantitative and qualitative thematic text analysis of peer review articles published in scientific journals found in ERIC (Education Resources Information Center), Web of Science Core Collection and Scopus, Legal Classic Library, Lexpress databases is used as methodology. The concepts “civil disobedience”, “children’s rights”, “Convention of the Rights of the Child” are used as keywords for the selection of the articles in these databases. Only articles in English, Swedish, Spanish, French and Hungarian published during the period 2010-2017 are selected. Starting from Hanna Arendts (1973, 2006) understanding of individual responsibility as theoretical stating point this research review focuses on the following research questions: • How is civil disobedience conceptualized in the selected articles? • Which theoretical starting points are used to study civil disobedience in relation to children’s rights in education in the selected articles? • In which extension is citizens’ individual responsability discussed in the analysis of civil obedience and children’s rights in education in the selected research articles? • Which research methodological starting points are used to study civil disobedience in relation to children’s rights in education in the selected articles? • Which ethical aspects are necesary to pay attention in the study of civil disobedience as strategy to guarantee childrens’ rights in education according to the selected articles? • What does international resesarch show about the reasons to use civil disobedience as strategy to guarantee children’s rights in education? • What does international research show about the impacts of civil disobendice on the implementation of children’s rights in education at national levels? This contribution will particularly pay attention in analysis of the research strategies used in the selected articles in order to deal with ethical aspects in the study on civil disobedience and children’s rights in education. Hanna Arendt (1973, 2006) understanding of individual responsibility is used as theoretical starting point to understand the reasons and the impacts of civil disobedience as a strategy to guarantee children’s right to education. 

    Expected Outcomes

    Focusing on Hanna Arendt’s (1973, 2006) understanding of individual responsibility, this research review contributes with new insights on the reasons and the impacts of Civil obedience as strategy to guarantee children’s rights in education. It contributes even to develop new knowledge about theoretical, methodological and ethical aspects in the field of children’ rights with focus on civil disobedience as strategy to implement CRC.

    References

    Ahrnér, E. (2006) Barns inflytande i förskolan – Problem eller möjlighet för de vuxna? En studie av ett utvecklingsarbete och dess betydelse för att förändra pedagogers förhållningssätt till barns initiativ. Licentiatavhandlingar vid Pedagogiska institutionen. Örebro universitet 3. Orebro 2006.

    Arendt, H. (1973). The origins of totalitarianism. (New ed. with added prefaces). New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich

    Arendt, H. (2006). Eichmann in Jerusalem: a report on the banality of evil. New York, N.Y.: Penguin Books.

    Brownlee, K. (Fall 2017), "Civil Disobedience", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (, Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = .

    Schiratzki, J. (2013) Välfärdsrätt i Sverige Juridisk Tidskrift, Vol. 2012/13, nr 4, 796-805 s.

    The Ombudsman for Children in Sweden (2015). Barnkonsekvensanalyser - Uppnå kvalitet i beslut som rör barn och unga. Hämtad från https://www.barnombudsmannen.se/barnombudsmannen/publikationer/genomfora-barnkonventionen/barnkonsekvensanalyser-uppna-kvalitet-i-beslut-som-ror-barn-och-unga/ [2017-11-21]

    Willems, K. & Vernimmen, J. (2017 ) The fundamental human rights to education for refugees: some legal remarks. European Educational Research Journal. ISSN 14-74-9041

  • 46.
    Francia, Guadalupe
    et al.
    Mälardalen University.
    Edling, Silvia
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Sund, Louise
    Mälardalen University.
    What does research tell us on the interrelation between justice, sustainability and teacher education?2018Ingår i: / [ed] Nordic Centre of Excellence ”Justice through Education in the Nordic Countries” (NCoE JustEd), 2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Justice issues are highly crucial and should be taken into consideration in order to stimulate social sustainable development in society (McKenzie, 2004; Ketschau 2015). At the same time previous research indicates that institutions of teacher education are an important arena for preparing future educators to create deep understanding and help address justice issues in social sustainable development within every day practice and on structural levels (McDonald, 2005; Apple, 2011; Kaur, 2012).

    In order, to develop new knowledge about the interrelation between justice, sustainable development and teacher education this contribution introduces a research overview about how justice issues are understood in peer review articles on social sustainability in teacher education.

    Frasers’ three-dimensional conception of justice based on the interrelation between the redistribution economic resources, the recognition of cultural differences and the political representation of different groups in society (1995; 1997; 2000; 2010) is used as theoretical starting point for the study.

    Quantitative and qualitative thematic text analysis of peer review articles published in scientific journals in ERIC (Education Resources Information Center), Web of Science Core Collection and Scopus databases is used as methodology. The concepts “sustainability”, “sustainable development”, “justice” and “teacher education” are used as keywords for the selection of the articles in these databases. Only articles published in English, Swedish, Spanish or French during the period 2015-2017 are selected. Based on Fraser’s three justice dimensions, the reading of the data focuses on:

    • How justice issues are conceptualized in the selected articles?

    • Which research methodologies are used to study justice the selected articles?

    Focusing on Frazer’s’ theory of justice, the research review introduced in this paper contributes to develop new theoretical starting points for the study of sustainable development in teacher education. The findings contribute to new insights in how the relationship between following fields of research can be grasped: Sustainable development (SD); Education in Sustainable Education (ESD), Research on Justice in Education and Research on Teacher Education

    References

    Apple, W.M. (2011) Global Crises, Social Justice, and Teacher Education. Journal of Teacher Education62(2) 222–234.

    Fraser, N. (1995) From Redistribution to Recognition? Dilemmas of Justice in a 'Post Socialist' Age New Left review 1(212):68-93 · July 1995

    Fraser, N. (1997). Justice interruptus: critical reflections on the "postsocialist" condition. London: Routledge.

    Fraser, N. (2000). Rethinking Recognition. New Left review 3 May-June 2000-2 p. 107-120

    Fraser, N. (2010). Scales of Justice, edited by Nancy Fraser, Columbia University: Press.

    Kaur, B. (2012) Equity and social justice in teaching and teacher education. Teaching and Teacher Education 28 (2012) 485e492

    Ketschau, J. (2015). Social Justice as a Link between Sustainability and Educational Sciences. Sustainability 2015, 7, 15754 -15771.

    McDonald, M. (2005). The integration of Social Justice in Teacher Education. Dimensions of Prospective teacher’s opportunities to learn. Journal of Teacher Education, Vol. 56, No. 5, November /December 2005 418-435

    McKenzie, S. (2004). Social sustainability: towards some definitions. Hawke Research Institute Working Paper Series N°27. South Australia: University of South Australia.

  • 47.
    Francia, Guadalupe
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Sweden.
    Moreno Herrera, Lazaro
    Örebro universitet, Sweden.
    Les politiques d’éducation prioritaire suédoises en période de décentralisation et d’individualisation2008Ingår i: Les politiques d’éducation prioritaire en Europe: Tome I: Conceptions, mises en œuvre, débats / [ed] Marc Demeuse, Daniel Frandji, David Greger et al., Lyon: ENS Editions, 2008, 1, s. 363-406Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 48.
    Francia, Guadalupe
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Moreno Herrera, Lazaro
    Stockholms universitet.
    Sweden: Priority Education Policies in Times of Decentralisation and Individualisation2012Ingår i: Educational Policies and Inequalities in Europe / [ed] Marc Demeuse, Daniel Frandji, David Greger, Jean-Yves Rochex, London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012, s. 259-287Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 49.
    Francia, Guadalupe
    et al.
    Örebro universitet.
    Moreno Herrera, Lázaro
    Örebro universitet.
    Englund, Tomas
    Örebro universitet.
    L’équité dans les pays nordiques: une réflexion sur la notion d’équivalence dans le système éducatif suédois2005Ingår i: Vers une École Juste et Efficace: 26 contributions sur les systemes d’ enseignement et de formation / [ed] M. Demeuse, A. Baye, M.-H. Straeten, J. Nicaise & A. Matoul, Bruxelles: De Boeck , 2005, s. 171-189Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 50.
    Francia, Guadalupe
    et al.
    Department of Education, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Parker-Jenkins, Marie
    University of Limmerick, Limmerick, Republic of Ireland.
    Edling, Silvia
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Developing education policy to support the rights of refugee Children to Education: Reflections from Sweden and the Republic of Ireland2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper draws on research designed to provide an understanding of the Convention of the Right of the Child and policy strategies targeted to assist newly arrived refugee children in Ireland and Sweden.  The study analyses the responses of these two  European welfare states and the use of political strategies to support new refugee children’s right to education at a time of increased social, ethnic and religious conflict in the world. .

    We utilise ‘Social Representations Theory’ as a useful theoretical starting point for understanding education policy processes targeting specific groups and communities. In line with Moscovici (2001), Chaib & Orfali (Eds.) (2000), Jodelet (2011, 2015), we argue that the analysis of social representations gives relevant knowledge about how groups and individuals construct, communicate and share different versions of the world. Social representations are values, norms and knowledge systems that enable individuals to orientate themselves in their social world (Moscovici, 1984, 2000, 2001). These rep­resentation systems function as common explanations of the real world constructed and shared by members of a social group and are communicated through words, media images, objects and behaviours. Social representations are socially shared practical knowledge that aims to inform  social behaviours and communications and help individuals everyday transactions in a complex social world (Jodelet, 1989, 2011;2015) and deal with contradictions in relation to policies targeted for vulnerable groups (Gilly 1989).

    Method

    Methodologically, key political documents regarding current national strategies implemented by Irish and Swedish national authorities were analysed. The documents were analysed by posing the following questions: • Which social representations of refugee children are present in the education policies/ suggested in these texts? • Which strategies to guaranteed refugee children’s ‘right to education’ are related to social representations? • What do the responses of Sweden and Ireland tell us about regarding the relationship between social representations and strategies? Further, in relation to these questions, the reading of the texts focused on a number of aspects, such as: Descriptions of newly arrived refugee children in the political texts; arguments to legitimise the introduction of strategies. The extent of education policy on education for refugee children is included in these arguments; the emphasis on ‘children’s rights’ and the underpinning of human rights law in the form of the European Convention on Human Rights to which both countries are a party; references to leading research on Children’s rights and on Newly arrived refugee children in these descriptions and arguments for strategies. The analysed documents are the following: • The European Convention on Human Rights, • The Convention of the Right of the Child • The European Union Charter of Fundamental Rights, • The European Social Charter and UN Human Rights Treaties • The Irish constitution (Ireland) • The Aliens Act 1935& The Aliens Order 1946 (Ireland) • The amended regulations implementing the EU Rights of Residence Directives (Ireland) • The Immigration Act 1999 (Ireland) • National Budget for Ireland and Sweden 2014-2016 • National School Acts and school regulation documents for Ireland and Sweden • Swedish School Inspectore report 2014:03 Education for newly arrived refugee pupils Quality Evaluation [Skolinspektionens rapport 2014:03 Utbildningen för nyanlända elever, Kvalitetsgranskning](Sweden) • The Swedish National Agency for Education documents target to newly arrived refugees pupils (Sweden)

    Expected Outcomes

    This on-going research study demonstrates how social representations of child refugees can be used by political actors in leading education policy processes as an interpretation system to manage immediate political needs and to reconcile with European treaty obligations. Finally, the paper shows how education research focused on Children Rights can be used in the development of leading education policies targeted to assist vulnerable groups in Europe at a time of significant of global conflicts.

    References

    Capps R., Newland K., Fratzke S., Groves S., Fix M., McHugh M., and Auclair G. (2015) The Integration Outcomes of U.S. Refugees: Successes and Challenges. . Brussels: Migration Policy Institute Europe http://www.migrationpolicy.org/research/integration-outcomes-us-refugees-successes-and-challenges. Chaib, M. & Orfali, B. (2000) (Eds). Social Representations and Communicative Processes. Jönköping:Jönköping University Press. Gilly, M. (1989). Les représentations sociales dans le champ éducatif. In D. Jodelet (ed). Les représentations sociales.(363-386). Paris: Presses Universitaires de France. Jodelet, D. (1989) Représentations sociales: un domaine en expansion. In D. Jodelet, D. (ed). Les représentations sociales.(31-60). Paris: Presses Universitaires de France. Jodelet, D. (2011) Aportes del enfoque de las representaciones sociales al campo de la educación [Contributions from the Social Representations Approach to the Field of Education] Espacios en Blanco - Serie indagaciones - Nº 21 - Junio 2011 (133-154)http://www.scielo.org.ar/pdf/eb/v21n1/v21n1a06.pdf Jodelet, D, (2015) Représentations sociales et mondes de vie. Textes édités par Nikos Kalampalikis. Collection Psycologie du Social. Paris, Éditions des Archives Contemporaines. Kumin J. (2015) Kumin J. (2015) Welcoming Engagement: How Private Sponsorship Can Strengthen Refugee Resettlement in the European Union. Brussels: Migration Policy Institute Europe. http://www.migrationpolicy.org/research/welcoming-engagement-how-private-sponsorship-can-strengthen-refugee-resettlement-european McHugh M. and Sugarman J. (2015) Transatlantic Symposium Report: Improving Instruction for Immigrant and Refugee Students in Secondary Schools Brussels: Migration Policy Institute Europe. http://www.migrationpolicy.org/research/transatlantic-symposium-report-improving-instruction-immigrant-and-refugee-students Moscovici, S. (1984). Social representations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Moscovici, S. (2000). Social representations. Explorations in Social Psychology. Oxford: Black¬well. Moscovici, S. (2001). Why a Theory of Social Representations. In K. Deaux & G.Philogène (eds.). Representations of the Social. 8-35. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers. Papademetriou D.G. (2015) Beyond Asylum: Rethinking Protection Policies to Meet Sharply Escalating Needs (Transatlantic Council Statement) Brussels: Migration Policy Institute Europe http://www.migrationpolicy.org/research/beyond-asylum-rethinking-protection-policies-meet-sharply-escalating-needs-transatlantic

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