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  • 1.
    Aboagye, Emmanuel
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Institute of Environmental Medicine, Unit of Intervention and Implementation Research for Worker Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Björklund, Christina
    Gustafsson, Klas
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Division of Insurance Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. .
    Hagberg, Jan
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University.
    Marklund, Staffan
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Division of Insurance Medicine, Karolinska Institutet.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Institute of Environmental Medicine, Unit of Intervention and Implementation Research for Worker Health, Karolinska Institutet.
    Exhaustion and impaired work performance in the workplace: Associations with presenteeism and absenteeism2019Inngår i: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1076-2752, E-ISSN 1536-5948, Vol. 61, nr 11, s. e438-e444Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between presenteeism and absenteeism during the previous year and the current levels of exhaustion and impaired work performance in a Swedish university setting.

    METHODS: In a study of 3525 employees, an ordinal logistic regression and general linear model was used to examine the association between presenteeism and absenteeism during the previous year and the current exhaustion and impaired work performance, respectively.

    RESULTS: Presenteeism, but not absenteeism, during the previous year independently increased the risk of having moderate or severe exhaustion. Presenteeism, absenteeism, and exhaustion remained positively associated with impaired work performance when health status and other confounders had been adjusted for.

    CONCLUSIONS: Presenteeism, but not absenteeism, was associated with exhaustion. Both presenteeism and absenteeism were the salient correlates of impaired work performance.

  • 2.
    Aboagye, Emmanuel
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Karolinska institutet.
    Gustafsson, Klas
    Karolinska institutet.
    Jensen, Irene
    Karolinska institutet.
    Hagberg, Jan
    Karolinska institutet.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholms universitet.
    Marklund, Staffan
    Karolinska institutet.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Karolinska institutet.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Karolinska institutet.
    What is number of days in number of times? Associations between, and responsiveness of, two sickness presenteeism measures.2020Inngår i: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1076-2752, E-ISSN 1536-5948, Vol. 62, nr 5, s. e180-e185Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations between SP reported as number of days with SP reported as number of times and to evaluate their responsiveness.

    METHODS: The study population (n = 454) consisted of employed individuals, at risk of long-term sickness absence. Correlation analyses were performed to examine associations between the two SP measures and external constructs such as work performance, general health and registered sick leave. Both SP constructs were measured several times to examine responsiveness.

    RESULTS: The SP measures are moderately correlated. They moderately correlated with work performance and health status measures. SP reported as number of times seem to be more sensitive than number of days in detecting changes after rehabilitation.

    CONCLUSIONS: Numerical or categorical constructs are valid sources of data on SP. However, categorized SP seem to be more responsive.

  • 3.
    Axén, Iben
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Björk Brämberg, Elisabeth
    Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg; Karolinska Institutet.
    Vaez, Marjan
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Lundin, Andreas
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Karolinska Institutet.
    Interventions for common mental disorders in the occupational health service: a systematic review with a narrative synthesis2020Inngår i: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Common mental disorders (CMD) are leading causes of decreased workability in Sweden and worldwide. Effective interventions to prevent or treat such disorders are important for public health.

    Objective

    To synthesize the research literature regarding occupational health service (OHS) interventions targeting prevention or reduction of CMD among employees. The effect on workability (sickness absence, return-to-work and self-reported workability) and on CMD symptoms was evaluated in a narrative analysis.

    Data sources

    The literature search was performed in four electronic databases in two searches, in 2014 and in 2017.

    Eligibility criteria (using PICO)

    Population: studies investigating employees at risk or diagnosed with CMD, as well as preventive workplace intervention targeting mental health. Intervention: studies where the recruitment or the intervention was delivered by the OHS or OHS personnel were included. Control: individuals or groups who did not receive the target intervention. Outcome: all types of outcomes concerning sickness absence and psychological health were included.

    Study quality was assessed using a Swedish AMSTAR-based checklist, and results from studies with low or medium risk of bias were narratively synthesized based on effect or absence thereof.

    Results

    Thirty-three studies were included and assessed for risk of bias. Twenty-one studies had low or medium risk of bias. In 18 studies, rehabilitation interventions were evaluated, 11 studies concerned interventions targeting employees at risk for developing CMD and four studies investigated preventive interventions. Work-focused cognitive behavioral therapy and problem-solving skill interventions decreased time to first return-to-work among employees on sick leave for CMD in comparison with treatment-as-usual. However, effect on return to full-time work was not consistent, and these interventions did not consistently improve CMD symptoms. Selective interventions targeting employees at risk of CMD and preventive interventions for employees were heterogeneous, so replication of these studies is necessary to evaluate effect.

    Limitations

    Other workplace interventions outside the OHS may have been missed by our search. There was considerable heterogeneity in the included studies, and most studies were investigating measures targeting the individual worker. Interventions at the workplace/organizational level were less common.

    Conclusions and implication of key findings

    Return-to-work and improvement of CMD symptoms are poorly correlated and should be addressed simultaneously in future interventions. Further, interventions for CMD administered through the occupational health service require further study. Rehabilitative and preventive strategies should be evaluated with scientifically robust methods, to examine the effectiveness of such interventions.

  • 4.
    Berthelsen, Hanne
    et al.
    Malmö universitet.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholms universitet.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Karolinska institutet.
    Burr, Hermann
    Federal Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (BAuA), 10317 Berlin, Germany.
    Validation of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire Version III and Establishment of Benchmarks for Psychosocial Risk Management in Sweden.2020Inngår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 17, nr 9, artikkel-id E3179Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents the Swedish standard version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire, COPSOQ III, and investigates its reliability and validity at individual and workplace levels with the aim of establishing benchmarks for the psychosocial work environment. Cross-sectional data from (1) a random sample of employees in Sweden aged 25-65 years (N = 2847) and (2) a convenience sample of non-managerial employees at 51 workplaces (N = 1818) were analysed. Internal consistency reliability was evaluated as well as the effects of sex, work sector and blue/white-collar work. Population benchmarks and mean scores for major occupational groups were computed based on weighted data. ICC(1) and ICC(2) estimates were computed to evaluate aggregation to the workplace level and Pearson inter-correlations to evaluate construct validity at individual and aggregated levels. The reliability and scale characteristics were satisfactory, with few exceptions, at both individual and workplace levels. The strength and direction of correlations supported the construct validity of the dimensions and the amount of variance explained by workplace justified aggregation to the workplace level. The present study thus supports the use of COPSOQ III for measurement at the workplace level and presents benchmarks for risk management as well as for research purposes.

  • 5.
    Björk Brämberg, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Unit of Intervention and Implementation Research for Worker Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden; Närhälsan, Region of Västra Götaland, Hisings-Backa, Sweden .
    Holmgren, Kristina
    Närhälsan, Region of Västra Götaland, Hisings-Backa, Sweden; Department of Health and Rehabilitation, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden .
    Bültmann, Ute
    Department of Health Sciences, University Medical Center Groningen, Community and Occupational Medicine, Groningen, Netherlands.
    Gyllensten, Hanna
    Division of Insurance Medicine, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Institute of Health and Care Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Hagberg, Jan
    Unit of Intervention and Implementation Research for Worker Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sandman, Lars
    National Centre for Priorities in Health, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Unit of Intervention and Implementation Research for Worker Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Increasing return-to-work among people on sick leave due to common mental disorders: Design of a cluster-randomized controlled trial of a problem-solving intervention versus care-as-usual conducted in the Swedish primary health care system (PROSA)2018Inngår i: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 18, nr 1, artikkel-id 889Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Common mental disorders affect about one-third of the European working-age population and are one of the leading causes of sick leave in Sweden and other OECD countries. Besides the individual suffering, the costs for society are high. This paper describes the design of a study to evaluate a work-related, problem-solving intervention provided at primary health care centers for employees on sick leave due to common mental disorders. Methods: The study has a two-armed cluster randomized design in which the participating rehabilitation coordinators are randomized into delivering the intervention or providing care-as-usual. Employees on sick leave due to common mental disorders will be recruited by an independent research assistant. The intervention aims to improve the employee's return-to-work process by identifying problems perceived as hindering return-to-work and finding solutions. The rehabilitation coordinator facilitates a participatory approach, in which the employee and the employer together identify obstacles and solutions in relation to the work situation. The primary outcome is total number of sick leave days during the 18-month follow-up after inclusion. A long-term follow-up at 36 months is planned. Secondary outcomes are short-term sick leave (min. 2 weeks and max. 12 weeks), psychological symptoms, work ability, presenteeism and health related quality of life assessed at baseline, 6 and 12-month follow-up. Intervention fidelity, reach, dose delivered and dose received will be examined in a process evaluation. An economic evaluation will put health-related quality of life and sick leave in relation to costs from the perspectives of society and health care services. A parallel ethical evaluation will focus on the interventions consequences for patient autonomy, privacy, equality, fairness and professional ethos and integrity. Discussion: The study is a pragmatic trial which will include analyses of the intervention's effectiveness, and a process evaluation in primary health care settings. Methodological strengths and challenges are discussed, such as the risk of selection bias, contamination and detection bias. If the intervention shows promising results for return-to-work, the prospects are good for implementing the intervention in routine primary health care. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03346395 Registered January, 12 2018. © 2018 The Author(s).

  • 6.
    Boström, Maria
    et al.
    Karolinska institutet.
    Björklund, Christina
    Karolinska institutet.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Karolinska institutet.
    Nybergh, Lotta
    Karolinska institutet.
    Schäfer Elinder, Liselotte
    Karolinska institutet.
    Stigmar, Kjerstin
    Lunds universitet.
    Wåhlin, Charlotte
    Karolinska institutet; Linköpings universitet.
    Jensen, Irene
    Karolinska institutet.
    Kwak, Lydia
    Karolinska institutet.
    Health and work environment among female and male Swedish elementary school teachers - A cross-sectional study2020Inngår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 17, nr 1, artikkel-id E227Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Changes in teachers' work situation in Sweden since the 1990s may have contributed to an increase in common mental disorders (CMDs) and burnout. However, there is a lack of research in this field. The aim was to describe how Swedish elementary school teachers experience their health, organizational and social work environment, and the psychosocial safety climate at the workplace, and especially differences and similarities between female and male teachers.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were collected with the COPSOQ, OLBI, UWES and PSC-12 from 478 elementary teachers, 81.0% of them women, from twenty schools. The response rate was 96.4%.

    RESULTS: Teachers reported relatively good general health but experienced high stress, high work pace and emotional demands, low influence at work and a poor psychosocial safety climate. These factors were especially prominent among female teachers. Both women and men experienced good development possibilities and high work engagement.

    CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study can help us to develop a more sustainable work environment for female and male teachers. A more sustainable work environment might attract more people to the profession and incentivize existing teachers to remain in the profession.

  • 7.
    Gustafsson, Klas
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Division of Insurance Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Institute of Environmental Medicine, Unit of Intervention and Implementation Research for Worker Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Marklund, Staffan
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Division of Insurance Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Aboagye, Emmanuel
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Institute of Environmental Medicine, Unit of Intervention and Implementation Research for Worker Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Presenteeism as a predictor of disability pension: A prospective study among nursing professionals and care assistants in Sweden2019Inngår i: Journal of Occupational Health, ISSN 1341-9145, E-ISSN 1348-9585, Vol. 61, nr 6, s. 453-463Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to examine how presenteeism affects the risk of future disability pension among nursing professionals and care assistants (assistant nurses, hospital ward assistants, home-based personal care workers, and child care assistants). A specific objective was to compare health and social care employees with all other occupations.

    METHODS: The study was based on a representative sample of working women and men (n = 43 682) aged 16-64 years, who had been interviewed between 2001 and 2013 for the Swedish Work Environment Survey conducted every second year since 1989. Information on disability pension was obtained from the Social Insurance Agency's database (2002-2014). The studied predictors were related to disability pension using Cox's proportional hazard regression with hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) and selected confounders were controlled for. The follow-up period was 6.7 years (SD 4.2).

    RESULTS: Health and social care employees with frequent presenteeism showed a particularly elevated risk of future disability pension after adjusting for sex, sociodemographic variables, physical and psychosocial working conditions, and self-rated health symptoms. In the amalgamated occupational group of nursing professionals and care assistants, the impact on disability pension of having engaged in presenteeism four times or more during the prior year remained significant (HR = 3.72, 95% CI = 2.43-5.68).

    CONCLUSIONS: The study suggests that frequent presenteeism contributes to an increased risk of disability pension among nursing professionals and care assistants as well as among all other occupations.

  • 8.
    Gustafsson, Klas
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Marklund, Staffan
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Karolinska Institutet.
    Aboagye, Emmanuel
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Karolinska Institutet.
    Helgesson, Magnus
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Presenteeism, psychosocial working conditions and work ability among care workers - a cross-sectional Swedish population-based study2020Inngår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 17, nr 7, artikkel-id 2419Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Presenteeism, attending work while ill, has been examined in different contexts in the last few decades. The aim was to examine whether poor psychosocial working conditions and perceived work ability are associated with increased odds ratios for presenteeism, focusing on nursing professionals and care assistants. A cross-sectional population-based study was conducted. The selected individuals were extracted from representative samples of employees, aged 16–64, who participated in the Swedish Work Environment Surveys between 2001 and 2013 (n = 45,098). Three dimensions of psychosocial working conditions were measured: job demands, job control, and job support. Presenteeism and perceived work ability was measured. Using multiple logistic regression analyses, odds ratios for presenteeism with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated. While nurses (n = 1716) showed the same presenteeism level as all the other occupation groups (n = 37,125), it was more common among care assistants (n = 6257). The odds ratio for presenteeism among those with high job demands (OR = 2.37, 95% CI 2.21–2.53), were higher among women than among men. For nursing professionals and care assistants, the odds ratios for presenteeism were highest among those with the lowest work ability level. The problems of presenteeism and low work ability among many health and care workers may be lessened by a reduction in psychosocial demands.

  • 9.
    Helgadottir, Bjorg
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Div Insurance Med, Berze Liusvag 3, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Narusyte, Jurgita
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Div Insurance Med, Berze Liusvag 3, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Ropponen, Annina
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Div Insurance Med, Berze Liusvag 3, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.;Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Helsinki, Finland..
    Bergström, Gunnar
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Intervent & Implementat Res Worker Hlth Unit, Stockholm, Sweden.;Univ Gavle, Ctr Musculoskeletal Res, Dept Occupat & Publ Hlth Sci, Gavle, Sweden..
    Mather, Lisa
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Div Insurance Med, Berze Liusvag 3, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Blom, Victoria
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Div Insurance Med, Berze Liusvag 3, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.;Swedish Sch Sport & Hlth Sci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Svedberg, Pia
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Div Insurance Med, Berze Liusvag 3, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden..
    The role of occupational class on the association between sickness absence and disability pension: A Swedish register-based twin study2019Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 45, nr 6, s. 622-630Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives The aim of this study was to examine the association between long-term sickness absence (LTSA) due to mental disorders and musculoskeletal disorders and all-cause disability pension (DP) among blue- and white-collar workers. A secondary objective was to examine the influence of familial factors on the associations. Methods This was a prospective twin cohort study of 42 984 individuals (21-64 years at baseline), 3017 of whom had a new LTSA spell (>14 days) due to mental or musculoskeletal disorders in 2005-2006. Average follow-up time was 5.4 years. Survey data on occupational class and register data on LTSA and DP were used. Cox proportional hazards regression was applied to calculate hazards ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results During follow-up, 989 participants went on disability. LTSA due to mental disorders and musculoskeletal disorders led to similar HR for DP among both white- and blue-collar workers when compared to white-collar workers not on LTSA (reference group). LTSA >= 6 months due to musculoskeletal disorders was associated with a higher risk of DP for white-collar (HR 31.50, 95% CI 20.45-48.52) than blue-collar (HR 17.64, 95% CI 13.08-23.78) workers when compared to the reference group. HR were lower in the discordant twin pair models for LTSA due to mental disorders than in the whole cohort. Conclusions White-collar workers on LTSA due to musculoskeletal disorders are especially vulnerable to all-cause DP. This pattern was not present for LTSA due to mental disorders. Familial factors seem to influence the association between LTSA due to mental disorders and all-cause DP.

  • 10.
    Helgadóttir, Björg
    et al.
    Division of Insurance Medicine, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Svedberg, Pia
    Division of Insurance Medicine, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mather, Lisa
    Division of Insurance Medicine, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Unit of Intervention and Implementation Research for Worker Health, The Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Blom, Victoria
    Division of Insurance Medicine, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The association between part-time and temporary employment and sickness absence: a prospective Swedish twin study2019Inngår i: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 29, nr 1, s. 147-153Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Sickness absence (SA) is becoming a major economic problem in many countries. Our aim was to investigate whether type of employment, including temporary employment or part-time employment, is associated with SA while controlling for familial factors (genetic and shared environment). Differences between men and women and across employment sectors were explored.

    Methods: This is a prospective twin study based on 21 105 twins born in Sweden 1959-85. The participants completed a survey in 2005 with follow-up of SA (≥15 days), using register data, until end of 2013. The data were analyzed with logistic regression, with results presented as odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI).

    Results: Temporary employment involved higher odds of SA (OR=1.21 95% CI=1.04-1.40) compared to full-time employment. Both part-time workers (OR=0.84 95% CI=0.74-0.95) and the self-employed (OR=0.77 95%CI=0.62-0.94) had lower odds of SA. Stratifying by sex showed lower odds for part-timers (OR=0.82 95% CI=0.73-0.94) and self-employed women (OR=0.65 95% CI=0.47-0.90), but higher odds for men in temporary employment (OR=1.33 95% CI=1.03-1.72). Temporary employees in county councils (OR=1.73 95% CI=1.01-2.99) and municipalities (OR=1.41 95% CI=1.02-1.96) had higher odds while part-timers employed in the private sector had lower odds (OR=0.77 95% CI=0.64-0.93). Familial factors did not confound the association between employment type and SA.

    Conclusions: Employment type is associated with SA, with temporary employment involving a higher risk compared to permanent full-time employment while both part-time employment and self-employment involved a lower risk. The associations vary between women and men and across sectors.

  • 11.
    Januario, Leticia
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap.
    Karstad, Kristina
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Dk.
    Rugulies, Reiner
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Dk.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Dk.
    Hallman, David
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Association between psychosocial working conditions and perceived physical exertion among eldercare workers: a cross-sectional multilevel analysis of nursing homes, wards and workers2019Inngår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 16, nr 19, artikkel-id 3610Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This cross-sectional multilevel study aims at investigating the associations between psychosocial working conditions of different workplace levels and perceived physical exertion among eldercare workers. Data were obtained from the ‘Danish Observational Study of Eldercare work and musculoskeletal disorderS’ (DOSES) study, including 536 eldercare workers, nested in 126 wards and 20 nursing homes. Psychosocial working conditions were measured by the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ). The physical workload was measured with a self-administered scale (0–10) rating perceived physical exertion. Multilevel linear mixed models were used to determine associations of psychosocial conditions between nursing homes, wards, and workers with physical exertion. Most of the variance in the perceived physical exertion was explained by differences between workers (83%), but some variance was explained by wards (11%) and nursing homes (6%). Workers employed in nursing homes with low influence (p = 0.01) and poor leadership (p = 0.02), and in wards with high quantitative demands (p = 0.03), high work pace (p < 0.001), and low justice (p = 0.01) were at increased risk of reporting higher physical exertion. The strongest associations were found for low influence, low quality of leadership, and high work pace at nursing homes and ward levels. In conclusion, improving specific psychosocial working conditions at nursing home and ward levels may be of particular importance to reduce excessive physical workload in eldercare workers

  • 12.
    Keus van de Poll, Marijke
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Miljövetenskap. Karolinska Institutet, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Division of Intervention and Implementation Research in Worker Health.
    Nybergh, L
    Karolinska Institutet, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Division of Intervention and Implementation Research in Worker Health.
    Lornudd, C
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics (LIME).
    Kwak, L
    Karolinska Institutet, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Division of Intervention and Implementation Research in Worker Health.
    Lohela Karlsson, M
    Uppsala University, Department of Medical Science.
    Hagberg, J
    Karolinska Institutet, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Division of Intervention and Implementation Research in Worker Health.
    Torgén, M
    Uppsala University, Department of Medical Science.
    Jensen, I
    Karolinska Institutet, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Division of Intervention and Implementation Research in Worker Health.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Karolinska Institutet, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Division of Intervention and Implementation Research in Worker Health.
    Preventing sickness absenteeism among employees with common mental disorders or stress-related symptoms at work: A cluster RCT conducted at the occupational health services2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 13.
    Keus van de Poll, Marijke
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Miljövetenskap. Karolinska Institutet, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Division of Intervention and Implementation Research in Worker Health.
    Nybergh, L
    Karolinska Institutet, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Division of Intervention and Implementation Research in Worker Health.
    Lornudd, C
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics (LIME).
    Kwak, L
    Karolinska Institutet, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Division of Intervention and Implementation Research in Worker Health.
    Lohela Karlsson, M
    Uppsala University, Department of Medical Science.
    Hagberg, J
    Karolinska Institutet, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Division of Intervention and Implementation Research in Worker Health.
    Torgén, M
    Uppsala University, Department of Medical Science.
    Jensen, I
    Karolinska Institutet, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Division of Intervention and Implementation Research in Worker Health.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Karolinska Institutet, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Division of Intervention and Implementation Research in Worker Health.
    Preventing sickness absenteeism among employees with common mental disorders or stress-related symptoms at work: A cluster RCT conducted at the occupational health services2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 14.
    Keus van de Poll, Marijke
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Miljövetenskap. Karolinska Institutet.
    Nybergh, Lotta
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Lornudd, Caroline
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Hagberg, Jan
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Bodin, Lennart
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Kwak, Lydia
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Jensen, Irene
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Lohela-Karlsson, Malin
    Uppsala universitet.
    Torgén, Margareta
    Uppsala universitet.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Karolinska Institutet.
    Preventing sickness absence among employees with common mental disorders or stress-related symptoms at work: a cluster randomised controlled trial of a problem-solving-based intervention conducted by the Occupational Health Services2020Inngår i: Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1351-0711, E-ISSN 1470-7926Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives. Common mental disorders (CMDs) are among the main causes of sickness absence and can lead to suffering and high costs for individuals, employers and the society. The occupational health service (OHS) can offer work-directed interventions to support employers and employees. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect on sickness absence and health of a work-directed intervention given by the OHS to employees with CMDs or stress-related symptoms.

    Methods. Randomisation was conducted at the OHS consultant level and each consultant was allocated into either giving a brief problem-solving intervention (PSI) or care as usual (CAU). The study group consisted of 100 employees with stress symptoms or CMDs. PSI was highly structured and used a participatory approach, involving both the employee and the employee’s manager. CAU was also work-directed but not based on the same theoretical concepts as PSI. Outcomes were assessed at baseline, at 6 and at 12 months. Primary outcome was registered sickness absence during the 1-year follow-up period. Among the secondary outcomes were self-registered sickness absence, return to work (RTW) and mental health.

    Results. A statistical interaction for group × time was found on the primary outcome (p=0.033) and PSI had almost 15 days less sickness absence during follow-up compared with CAU. Concerning the secondary outcomes, PSI showed an earlier partial RTW and the mental health improved in both groups without significant group differences.

    Conclusion. PSI was effective in reducing sickness absence which was the primary outcome in this study.

  • 15.
    Kwak, Lydia
    et al.
    Karolinska institutet.
    Lornudd, Caroline
    Karolinska institutet.
    Björklund, Christina
    Karolinska institutet.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Karolinska institutet.
    Nybergh, Lotta
    Karolinska institutet.
    Schäfer Elinder, Liselotte
    Karolinska institutet.
    Stigmar, Kjerstin
    Lunds universitet.
    Wåhlin, Charlotte
    Linköpings universitet.
    Jensen, Irene
    Karolinska institutet.
    Implementation of the Swedish Guideline for Prevention of Mental ill-health at the workplace: study protocol of a cluster randomized controlled trial, using multifaceted implementation strategies in schools2019Inngår i: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 19, artikkel-id 1668Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Given today’s high prevalence of common mental disorders and related sick leave among teachers, an urgent need exists for a more systematic approach to the management of social and organizational risk factors within schools. In 2015, we launched the first Swedish occupational health guideline to support a structured prevention of these risks at the workplace. The existence of guidelines does however not guarantee their usage, as studies show that guidelines are often underused. Knowledge is therefore needed on effective implementation strategies that can facilitate the translation of guidelines into practice. The primary aim of the randomized waiting list-controlled trial described in this study protocol is to compare the effectiveness of a multifaceted implementation strategy versus a single implementation strategy for implementing the Guideline for the prevention of mental ill-health at the workplace within schools. The effectiveness will be compared regarding the extent to which the recommendations are implemented (implementation effectiveness) and with regard to social and organisational risk factors for mental ill-health, absenteeism and presenteeism (intervention effectiveness).

  • 16.
    Mather, Lisa
    et al.
    Division of Insurance Medicine, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Narusyte, J.
    Division of Insurance Medicine, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ropponen, A.
    Division of Insurance Medicine, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Unit of Intervention and Implementation Research for Worker Health, The Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Blom, V.
    Division of Insurance Medicine, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Helgadóttir, B.
    Division of Insurance Medicine, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Svedberg, P.
    Division of Insurance Medicine, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sick leave due to mental disorders, morbidity and mortality: a prospective study of discordant twin pairs2020Inngår i: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, ISSN 0933-7954, E-ISSN 1433-9285, Vol. 55, s. 25-32Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To investigate if sick leave due to mental disorders increases the risk of morbidity measured by inpatient and specialized outpatient care, and mortality among women and men, independent of familial factors. Methods: An open cohort study of 4979 twin pairs discordant for sick leave due to mental disorders was conducted in 2005–2013. Twins were followed up in the cause of death and national patient registries until the end of study, emigration, death, and inpatient and specialized outpatient care. Conditional Cox proportional hazard regression, adjusting for the familial factors shared by the twins, was used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). In case of non-proportional hazards, time-varying covariates were used. Results: Sick leave due to mental disorders increased the risk for inpatient care among men (HR: 1.90, CI 1.66–2.17) and women (HR: 1.39, CI 1.27–1.51). For men, the risk of outpatient care was higher the first 2 years (HR: 2.08, CI 1.87–2.31), after which it was attenuated (HR: 1.32, CI 1.02–1.70). For women, the HR was 1.57 (CI 1.47–1.68) for the whole study time. There was an increased risk of death among men (HR: 2.91, CI 1.70–4.99), but not among women (HR: 0.84, CI 0.53–1.35). Conclusions: Sick leave due to mental disorders was a risk factor for mortality for men only, and increased the risk of inpatient and specialized outpatient care among both women and men, but the risks were higher for men when stratifying for sex. 

  • 17.
    Svedberg, Pia
    et al.
    Division of Insurance Medicine, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mather, Lisa
    Division of Insurance Medicine, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Division of Intervention and Implementation Research for Worker Health, The Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Blom, Victoria
    Division of Insurance Medicine, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Time pressure and sleep problems due to thoughts about work as risk factors for future sickness absence2018Inngår i: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 91, nr 8, s. 1051-1059Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: This study investigated whether time pressure or sleep problems due to thoughts about work are associated with future sickness absence (SA) among women and men employed in different sectors, also when adjusting for confounders including familial factors (genetics and shared environment).

    METHODS: The study sample included 16,127 twin individuals (52% women), aged 19-47 years who in 2005 participated in an online survey including questions regarding time pressure, sleep, work and health. Register data on SA (> 14 days) were obtained from the National Social Insurance Agency and individuals were followed from date of survey response until 12/31/2013. Associations between time pressure, sleep problems due to thoughts about work and future SA were investigated using logistic regression analyses to assess odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI).

    RESULTS: In total 5723 (35%) individuals had an incident SA spell during follow-up. Sleep problems due to thoughts about work were associated with SA in the fully adjusted model (OR 1.22, CI 1.10-1.36). Stratified by sector, the highest estimate was found for state employees (OR 1.54, CI 1.11-2.13). Familial factors did not seem to influence the associations. We found no statistically significant associations between time pressure and SA. No sex differences were found.

    CONCLUSIONS: Results indicated that sleep problems due to thoughts about work is a risk factor for future SA. This follows previous research showing that sleep length and sleep disturbances, regardless of reason, are associated with SA. But, experiences of work-related time pressure seem to have no effect on SA.

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