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  • 1. Rönnander, Jonas
    et al.
    Ljunggren, Joel
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Hedenström, Erik
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Wright, Sandra Ann Ingela
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Biology. University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Biotransformation of vanillin into vanillyl alcohol by a novel strain of Cystobasidium laryngis isolated from decaying wood2018In: AMB Express, ISSN 2191-0855, E-ISSN 2191-0855, Vol. 8, no 1, article id 137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vanillin is an aromatic aldehyde found as a component of lignocellulosic material, and in the cured pods of orchidaceae plants. Like other phenolic substances, vanillin has antimicrobial activity and can be extracted from lignin either by a thermo-chemical process or through microbial degradation. Vanillin, can serve as a model monomer in biodegradation studies of lignin. In the present study, a yeast isolated from decaying wood on the Faroe Islands, was identified as Cystobasidium laryngis strain FMYD002, based on internal transcribed spacer sequence analysis. It demonstrated the ability to convert vanillin to vanillyl alcohol, as detected by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography–quadrupole-time-of-flight. Structural analysis of vanillyl alcohol was carried out by using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and 1H NMR spectroscopy, and further verified by synthesis. The reduction of vanillin to vanillyl alcohol has been documented for only a few species of fungi. However, to our knowledge, this biotransformation has not yet been reported for basidiomycetous yeast species, nor for any representative of the subphylum Pucciniomycotina. The biotransformation capability of the present strain might prove useful in the industrial utilisation of lignocellulosic residues.

  • 2.
    Wright, Sandra A. I.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Rönnander, Jonas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Novel biodegradation of vanillin by a woodinhabiting isolate of Cystobasidium sp.2018In: Book of abstracts: International Specialized Symposium on Yeasts ISSY 34, 2018, p. 114-114Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cystobasidium species are mostly found in temperate or cold environments. They have been isolated from a wide range of habitats: plants, soils, rocks, aquatic environments and indoor dust. The genus Cystobasidium mainly consists of species of red yeasts in the Rhodotorula minuta clade. These basidiomycetous yeast species are commonly found in temperate to cold regions. In the present study, two strains of Cystobasidium sp. were isolated from decaying wood of housing on the Faroe Islands, where the average yearly temperature ranges from 2°C to 13°C. The sequences of the two strains had two identical gaps within the ITS1ހ5.8SހITS2 region and a second gap within the D1/D2 LSU unit, when aligned to those of C. laryngis CBS 2221, their closest match. The isolates were designated as Cystobasidium sp. Both isolates converted vanillin into vanillyl alcohol in the presence of oxygen. The biotransformation of vanillin into vanillyl alcohol has been documented for only a few species of fungi, but to our knowledge, it has not previously been reported for any basidiomycetous yeast species. Rhodotorula rubra, a distantly related basidiomycetous yeast converts vanillin into vanillic acid. In the present study, the two isolates of Cystobasidium sp. did not produce any trace of vanillic acid, as determined by LC-MS, 1HހNMR and GC. Oxidizing vanillin into vanillic acid should be preferred by the fungi, since it results in more chemical energy, as compared to reducing it to vanillyl alcohol. The fungus may choose this pathway to escape the toxicity of both vanillin and vanillic acid. Vanillin has antimicrobial activity, and vanillic acid is more toxic than vanillyl alcohol. Vanillin is a constituent of the lignin molecule. Cystobasidium species are commonly found in the phyllosphere. Their ability to utilize plant chemicals should render them successful competitors on plants and wood.

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