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  • 1.
    Airey, John
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Eriksson, Urban
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Fredlund, Tobias
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Linder, Cedric
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    On the Disciplinary Affordances of Semiotic Resources2014In: IACS-2014 Book of abstracts, 2014, p. 54-55Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the late 70’s Gibson (1979) introduced the concept of affordance. Initially framed around the needs of an organism in its environment, over the years the term has been appropriated and debated at length by a number of researchers in various fields. Most famous, perhaps is the disagreement between Gibson and Norman (1988) about whether affordances are inherent properties of objects or are only present when they are perceived by an organism. More recently, affordance has been drawn on in the educational arena, particularly with respect to multimodality (see Linder (2013) for a recent example). Here, Kress et al. (2001) have claimed that different modes have different specialized affordances. Then, building on this idea, Airey and Linder (2009) suggested that there is a critical constellation of modes that students need to achieve fluency in before they can experience a concept in an appropriate disciplinary manner. Later, Airey (2009) nuanced this claim, shifting the focus from the modes themselves to a critical constellation of semiotic resources, thus acknowledging that different semiotic resources within a mode often have different affordances (e.g. two or more diagrams may form the critical constellation).

    In this theoretical paper the concept of disciplinary affordance (Fredlund et al., 2012) is suggested as a useful analytical tool for use in education. The concept makes a radical break with the views of both Gibson and Norman in that rather than focusing on the discernment of one individual, it refers to the disciplinary community as a whole. Put simply, the disciplinary affordances of a given semiotic resource are determined by those functions that the resource is expected to fulfil by the disciplinary community. Disciplinary affordances have thus been negotiated and developed within the discipline over time. As such, the question of whether these affordances are inherent or discerned becomes moot. Rather, from an educational perspective the issue is whether the meaning that a semiotic resource affords to an individual matches the disciplinary affordance assigned by the community. The power of the term for educational work is that learning can now be framed as coming to discern the disciplinary affordances of semiotic resources.

    In this paper we will briefly discuss the history of the term affordance, define the term disciplinary affordance and illustrate its usefulness in a number of educational settings.

  • 2.
    Airey, John
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Eriksson, Urban
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Fredlund, Tobias
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Linder, Cedric
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    The Concept of Disciplinary Affordance2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since its introduction by Gibson (1979) the concept of affordance has been discussed at length by a number of researchers. Most famous, perhaps is the disagreement between Gibson and Norman (1988) about whether affordances are inherent properties of objects or are only present when perceived by an organism. More recently, affordance has been drawn on in the educational arena, particularly with respect to multimodality (see Linder (2013) for a recent example). Here, Kress et al (2001) claim that different modes have different specialized affordances.

     

    In this theoretical paper the concept of disciplinary affordance (Fredlund et al., 2012) is suggested as a useful analytical educational tool. The concept makes a radical break with the views of both Gibson and Norman in that rather than focusing on the perception of an individual, it focuses on the disciplinary community as a whole. Put simply, the disciplinary affordances of a given semiotic resource are determined by the functions that it is expected to fulfil for the discipline. As such, the question of whether these affordances are inherent or perceived becomes moot. Rather, the issue is what a semiotic resource affords to an individual and whether this matches the disciplinary affordance. The power of the term is that learning can now be framed as coming to perceive the disciplinary affordances of semiotic resources.

     

    In this paper we will discuss the history of the term affordance, define the term disciplinary affordance and illustrate its usefulness in a number of educational settings.

     

    References

    Airey, J. (2009). Science, Language and Literacy. Case Studies of Learning in Swedish University Physics. Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis. Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology 81. Uppsala  Retrieved 2009-04-27, from http://publications.uu.se/theses/abstract.xsql?dbid=9547

    Fredlund, T., Airey, J., & Linder, C. (2012). Exploring the role of physics representations: an illustrative example from students sharing knowledge about refraction. European Journal of Physics, 33, 657-666.

    Gibson, J. J. (1979). The theory of affordances The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception (pp. 127-143). Boston: Houghton Miffin.

    Kress, G., Jewitt, C., Ogborn, J., & Tsatsarelis, C. (2001). Multimodal teaching and learning: The rhetorics of the science classroom. London: Continuum.

    Linder, C. (2013). Disciplinary discourse, representation, and appresentation in the teaching and learning of science. European Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 1(2), 43-49.

    Norman, D. A. (1988). The psychology of everyday things. New York: Basic Books.

     

     

  • 3.
    Fredlund, Tobias
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Exploring physics education using a social semiotic perspective: the critical role of semiotic resources2013Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Fredlund, Tobias
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Exploring Representations in Physics Teaching and Learning2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Fredlund, Tobias
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Learning science and the selection of apt signifiers: an example from physics2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Fredlund, Tobias
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Multimodality in Students Physics Discussions2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Fredlund, Tobias
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Using a Social Semiotic Perspective to Inform the Teaching and Learning of Physics2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines meaning-making in three different areas of undergraduate physics: the refraction of light; electric circuits; and, electric potential and electric potential energy. In order to do this, a social semiotic perspective was constituted for the thesis to facilitate the analysis of meaning-making in terms of the semiotic resources that are typically used in the teaching and learning of physics. These semiotic resources include, for example, spoken and written language, diagrams, graphs, mathematical equations, gestures, simulations, laboratory equipment and working practices.

    The empirical context of the thesis is introductory undergraduate physics where interactive engagement was part of the educational setting. This setting presents a rich data source, which is made up of video- and audio recordings and field notes for examining how semiotic resources affect physics teaching and learning.

    Theory building is an integral part of the analysis in the thesis, which led to the constitution of a new analytical tool – patterns of disciplinary-relevant aspects. Part of this process then resulted in the development of a new construct, disciplinary affordance, which for a discipline such as physics, refers to the inherent potential of a semiotic resource to provide access to disciplinary knowledge. These two aspects, in turn, led to an exploration of new empirical and theoretical links to the Variation Theory of Learning.

    The implications of this work for the teaching and learning of physics means that new focus is brought to the physics content (object of learning), the semiotic resources that are used to deal with that content, and how the semiotic resources are used to create patterns of variation within and across the disciplinary-relevant aspects. As such, the thesis provides physics teachers with new and powerful ways to analyze the semiotic resources that get used in efforts to optimize the teaching and learning of physics. 

  • 8.
    Fredlund, Tobias
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Airey, John
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Linder, Cedric
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Att välja lämpliga semiotiska resurser2013In: Scientific literacy: teori och praktik / [ed] E. Lundqvist, R. Säljö & L. Östman, Malmö: Gleerups Utbildning AB, 2013, p. 59-70Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Fredlund, Tobias
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Airey, John
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Linder, Cedric
    University of the Western Cape, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Choosing appropriate resources: investigating students’ scientific literacy2012In: ECER 2012, 2012, article id 18275Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Fredlund, Tobias
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Airey, John
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Linder, Cedric
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Critical aspects of scientific phenomena -- to the fore, in the background, or not present in scientific representations2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Fredlund, Tobias
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Airey, John
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Linder, Cedric
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Enhancing the possibilities for learning: Variation of disciplinary-relevant aspects in physics representations2015In: European journal of physics, ISSN 0143-0807, E-ISSN 1361-6404, Vol. 36, no 5, article id 055001Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this theoretical article we propose three factors that can enhance the possibilities for learning physics from representations, namely: (1) the identification of disciplinary-relevant aspects for a particular disciplinary task, such as solving a physics problem or explaining a phenomenon, (2) the selection of appropriate representations that showcase these disciplinary-relevant aspects, and (3) the creation of variation within the selected representations to help students notice these disciplinary-relevant aspects and the ways in which they are related to each other. An illustration of how these three factors can guide teachers in their efforts to promote physics learning is presented.

  • 12.
    Fredlund, Tobias
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Airey, John
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Linder, Cedric
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Exploring the role of physics representations: an illustrative example from students sharing knowledge about refraction2012In: European journal of physics, ISSN 0143-0807, E-ISSN 1361-6404, Vol. 33, no 3, p. 657-666Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has shown that interactive engagement enhances student learning outcomes. A growing body of research suggests that the representations we use in physics are important in such learning environments. In this paper we draw on a number of sources in the literature to explore the role of representations in interactive engagement in physics. In particular we are interested in the potential for sharing disciplinary knowledge inherent in so-called persistent representations (such as equations, diagrams and graphs), which we use in physics. We use selected extracts from a case study, where a group of senior undergraduate physics students are asked to explain the phenomenon of refraction, to illustrate implications for interactive engagement. In this study the ray diagram that was initially introduced by the students did not appear to sufficiently support their interactive engagement. However, the introduction of a wavefront diagram quickly led their discussion to an agreed conclusion. From our analysis we conclude that in interactive engagement it is important to choose appropriate persistent representations to coordinate the use of other representations such as speech and gestures. Pedagogical implications and future research are proposed.

  • 13.
    Fredlund, Tobias
    et al.
    Institutt for lærerutdanning og skoleforskning, Universitetet i Oslo, Norge.
    Knain, Erik
    Institutt for lærerutdanning og skoleforskning, Universitetet i Oslo, Norge.
    Analysing school science group work in terms of multimodal text development and its interplay with the context of situation2018In: 9ICOM Book of Abstracts, 2018, p. 64-64Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Social semiotics terms the immediate environment in which a text functions the ‘context of situation’ – an instance of the context of culture. The context of situation is defined by three parameters, FIELD, TENOR and MODE, which can be operationalized by the WHAT, the WHO and the HOW of a text functioning in a science classroom (Knain, 2015). Text and context mutually enable and constrain each other in acts of meaning. For something to be a text, it must both hang together internally and cohere externally in terms of the three contextual parameters (Halliday & Hasan, 2013). In this paper, we argue that although group work in science classes can be seen as joint text development, what is actually developed is often not a text, but a trajectory of different multimodal texts, each with its own text-context relationship. This is because the students sometimes jump between different topics, which point to different values of the context-parameters. We present an analysis of video recorded student group work where the students produce a trajectory of multimodal texts and move between different contexts of situation – as judged by the values of the contextual parameters. But there is one main thread that they continuously return to. This thread is both internally cohesive and coherent with a (developing) context of situation, and thus constitutes a text. Our analyses suggest that a factor that helps in enabling the students to return to this main thread is a drawing that they produce. A number of aspects of visual grammar are used as indications of the continuous transformation of both the text and its context of situation, including framing, foregrounding and backgrounding. We suggest that this process of multimodal text development is likely to be characteristic for learning trajectories

  • 14.
    Fredlund, Tobias
    et al.
    Institutt for lærerutdanning og skoleforskning, Universitetet i Oslo, Norge.
    Knain, Erik
    Institutt for lærerutdanning og skoleforskning, Universitetet i Oslo, Norge.
    Larsen Furberg, Anniken
    Institutt for lærerutdanning og skoleforskning, Universitetet i Oslo, Norge.
    Teaching science using underdetermined representations: Illustration and implications2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Fredlund, Tobias
    et al.
    Institutt for lærerutdanning og skoleforskning, Universitetet i Oslo, Norge.
    Knain, Erik
    Institutt for lærerutdanning og skoleforskning, Universitetet i Oslo, Norge.
    Larsen Furberg, Anniken
    Institutt for lærerutdanning og skoleforskning, Universitetet i Oslo, Norge.
    The transition from naturalistic to theoretical representations of the greenhouse effect2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper reports on a study of students' interactions and transformations of various forms of representations, textual and visual, related to the concept of the greenhouse effect. Competent participation in representational practices is at the heart of scientific literacy and several studies have documented positive effects of introducing students to complex scientific concepts such as the greenhouse effect by means of engaging with various forms of representations. However, studies also show that even though the topic is related to everyday experience (weather, light, heat), the concept of the greenhouse effect is challenging for students. This is partly because of its many invisible processes, such as the transformation of sunlight into heat radiation and its absorption by greenhouse gases. This paper extends previous knowledge by showing how students' representations develop from naturalistic depiction to scientific abstraction. In particular, it shows how the students' framing, foregrounding and backgrounding relate various naturalistic and scientific aspects in their drawings; connect multiple modes of representation and their affordances in peer and teacher negotiations; and how this enables sustained inquiry. Implications for teaching and learning are discussed.

  • 16.
    Fredlund, Tobias
    et al.
    Institutt for lærerutdanning og skoleforskning, Universitetet i Oslo, Norge.
    Knain, Erik
    Institutt for lærerutdanning og skoleforskning, Universitetet i Oslo, Norge.
    Larsen Furberg, Anniken
    Institutt for lærerutdanning og skoleforskning, Universitetet i Oslo, Norge.
    Using representations to learn about the greenhouse effect2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Fredlund, Tobias
    et al.
    Institutt for lærerutdanning og skoleforskning, Universitetet i Oslo, Norge.
    Knain, Erik
    Institutt for lærerutdanning og skoleforskning, Universitetet i Oslo, Norge.
    Remmen, Kari Beate
    Institutt for lærerutdanning og skoleforskning, Universitetet i Oslo, Norge.
    Two central aspects of sign-making for the learning of science: differentiation and integration2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this theoretical paper, we explore the role that sign-making practices such as differentiation into parts and integration of parts play for successful student learning in science. Taking a social semiotic stance, we view student interest, such as their judgement of what is relevant and appropriate for the situation at hand and of who is the ‘reader’ of the sign, as the basis for their sign-making. Thus, sign making includes judgements of what to say, how to say it, and by what means to say it – viz. speech, writing, drawing, etc. Our explorative investigation is guided by a multimodal approach to sensemaking, and our analyses are illustrated with excerpts from classroom video data collected when first year upper secondary school students attempt to explain an experimental model of the greenhouse effect. The implications for teaching and learning include that in order to enhance student learning in science, learning tasks need to be created that engage students and prompt their sign-making. By supporting students in focusing on differentiation and integration of parts, students get the tools they need to develop their way of knowing. Thus teachers should pay close attention to students’ sign-making and how it can be supported.

  • 18.
    Fredlund, Tobias
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Linder, Cedric
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Making physics learning possible: exploring a variation perspective on representations2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Fredlund, Tobias
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Linder, Cedric
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Naturvetarnas ‘språk’: användandet av figurer, artefakter, ekvationer och ord i studentdiskussioner om fysikaliska fenomen2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Klyftan mellan vardagsspråket och språkbruket i en naturvetenskaplig disciplin, som t.ex. fysik, kan upplevas problematisk av den som inte har tillägnat sig det aktuella vetenskapliga språket. Detta blir extra tydligt om vi utökar definitionen av ”språk” till att också innefatta andra semiotiska resurser än talad och skriven text, som t.ex figurer, grafer, ekvationer och andra ”artefakter” såsom laboratorieutrustning. Olika semiotiska resurser kan antas ha olika styrkor, och lämna kompletterande information. Från ett lärandeperspektiv är det viktigt att veta hur den nämnda språkklyftan kan överbryggas, särskilt när nya fenomen ska introduceras i undervisningen. Finns det för ett visst fenomen någon semiotisk resurs (läs språngbräda) som är särskilt viktig för förståelsen av de vetenskapliga förklaringarna?

    Refraktion är ett fysikaliskt fenomen som innebär att exempelvis ljus ändrar riktning, bryts, när det går från ett medium till ett annat, i vilka ljushastigheterna är olika. Denna riktningsändring ger upphov till att en rak pinne som är delvis i luften och delvis nedsänkt i vatten, ser ut att böjas vid vattenytan. Detta fenomen kan beskrivas av en rad olika semiotiska resurser, som olika typer av diagram och ekvationer. I denna undersökning har jag tittat på vilka semiotiska resurser som används när tre fysikstudenter diskuterar hur de skulle förklara upplevelsen att en pinne delvis nedsänkt i vatten ser ut att böjas vid vattenytan för dels en icke fysik-studerande, dels en kurskamrat i en fysikkurs. Diskussionen har videofilmats och transkriberats. Ytterligare material har insamlats från liknande gruppdiskussioner, där deltagarna fått anteckna sina resultat på papper. Data har analyserats efter vilka semiotiska resurser som förekommer, och vilken betydelse de haft för diskussionen.

    Resultatet av undersökningen kommer att presenteras i form av en poster, där bilder på de använda semiotiska resurserna visas. Den pågående analysen antyder att en viss typ av diagram, som utnyttjar ljusets vågnatur, är av särskild vikt för förståelsen av detta fenomen, och en möjlig nyckel till djupare förståelse av fenomenet.

  • 20.
    Fredlund, Tobias
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Linder, Cedric
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Airey, John
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    A case study of the role of representations in enabling and constraining the sharing of physics knowledge in peer discussions2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Fredlund, Tobias
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Linder, Cedric
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Airey, John
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    A social semiotic approach to identifying critical aspects2015In: International Journal for Lesson and Learning Studies, ISSN 2046-8253, E-ISSN 2046-8261, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 302-316Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    This article proposes a social semiotic approach to analysing objects of learning in terms of their critical aspects.

    Design/methodology/approach

    The design for this article focuses on how the semiotic resources – including language, equations, and diagrams – that are commonly used in physics teaching realise the critical aspects of a common physics object of learning. A social semiotic approach to the analysis of a canonical text extract from optics is presented to illustrate how critical aspects can be identified. 

    Findings

    Implications for university teaching and learning of physics stemming from this social semiotic approach are suggested.

    Originality/value

    Hitherto under-explored similarities between the Variation Theory of Learning, which underpins learning studies, and a social semiotic approach to meaning-making are identified. These similarities are used to propose a new, potentially very powerful approach to identifying critical aspects of objects of learning.

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    Lemke, J.L. (1983), “Thematic analysis, systems, structures, and strategies”, Semiotic Inquiry, Vol. 3 No. 2, pp. 159-187.

    Lemke, J.L. (1990), Talking Science, Ablex Publishing, Norwood, NJ. Lemke, J.L. (1998), “Multiplying meaning: visual and verbal semiotics in scientific text”, in Martin, J.R. and Veel, R. (Eds), Reading Science: Critical and Functional Perspectives on Discourses of Science, Routledge, London, pp. 87-114.

    Lemke, J.L. (2003), “Mathematics in the middle: measure, picture, gesture, sign and word”, in Anderson M., Saenz-Ludlow A., Zellweger S. and Cifarelli V. (Eds), Educational Perspectives on Mathematics as Semiosis: From Thinking to Interpreting to Knowing, Legas, Ottawa, pp. 215-234.

    Linder, C., Fraser, D. and Pang, M.F. (2006), “Using a variation approach to enhance physics learning in a college classroom”, The Physics Teacher, Vol. 44 No. 9, pp. 589-592.

    Lo, M.L. (2012), Variation Theory and the Improvement of Teaching and Learning, Göteborgs Universitet, Gothenburg.

    Lo, M.L. and Marton, F. (2011), “Towards a science of the art of teaching: using variation theory as a guiding principle of pedagogical design”, International Journal for Lesson and Learning Studies, Vol. 1 No. 1, pp. 7-22.

    Mahoney, M.S. (1994), The Mathematical Career of Pierre de Fermat, 1601-1665, Princeton University Press, Princeton, MA.

    Marton, F. (2006), “Sameness and difference in transfer”, The Journal of the Learning Sciences, Vol. 15 No. 4, pp. 499-535.

    Marton, F. (2015), Necessary Conditions of Learning, Routledge, New York, NY.

    Marton, F. and Booth, S. (1997), Learning and Awareness, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, NJ.

    Marton, F. and Pang, M.F. (2013), “Meanings are acquired from experiencing differences against a background of sameness, rather than from experiencing sameness against a background of difference: putting a conjecture to the test by embedding it in a pedagogical tool”, Frontline Learning Research, Vol. 1 No. 1, pp. 24-41.

    Marton, F. and Tsui, A.B.M. (2004), Classroom Discourse and the Space of Learning, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, London.

    Marton, F., Runesson, U. and Tsui, A.B.M. (2004), “The space of learning”, in Marton, F. and Tsui, A.B.M. (Eds), Classroom Discourse and the Space of Learning, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, London, pp. 3-40.

    New London Group (1996), “A pedagogy of multiliteracies: designing social futures”, Harvard Educational Review, Vol. 66 No. 1, pp. 60-93. Norris, S.P. and Phillips, L.M. (2003), “How literacy in its fundamental sense is central to scientific literacy”, Science Education, Vol. 87 No. 2, pp. 224-240.

    O’Halloran, K.L. (2005), Mathematical Discourse: Language, Symbolism and Visual Images, Continuum, London.

    Pang, M.F. and Marton, F. (2013), “Interaction between the learners’ initial grasp of the object of learning and the learning resource orded”, Instructional Science, Vol. 41 No. 6, pp. 1065-1082.

    Van Leeuwen, T. (2005), Introducing Social Semiotics, Routledge, New York, NY.

    Warrell, D. A. (1994), “Sea snake bites in the Asia-Pacific region”, in Gopalakrishnakone, P. (Ed.), Sea Snake Toxinology, Singapore University Press, Singapore, pp. 1-36. 

    Wignell, P., Martin, J.R. and Eggins, S. (1993), “The discourse of geography: ordering and explaining the experiential world”, in Halliday, M.A.K. and Martin, J.R. (Eds), Writing Science: Literacy and Discursive Power, The Falmer Press, London, pp. 151-183.

    Wood, K. (2013), “A design for teacher education based on a systematic framework of variation to link teaching with learners’ ways of experiencing the object of learning”, International Journal for Lesson and Learning Studies, Vol. 2 No. 1, pp. 56-71.

    Young, H.D. and Freedman, R.A. (2004), University Physics with Modern Physics, Pearson, San Francisco, CA.

  • 22.
    Fredlund, Tobias
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Linder, Cedric
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Airey, John
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Exploring knowledge representation in terms of the enactment of idealized patterns of disciplinary-relevant aspects2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Disciplinary knowledge has been described as consisting of a number of “dimensions of variation” (cf. Marton & Booth, 1997), where the variation along each dimension is qualitatively unique. In order for students to holistically experience disciplinary knowledge each of these dimensions of variation need be enacted (i.e. expressed with representations).

    We suggest it is possible to construct an idealized pattern of the dimensions of variation that are deemed to be relevant for a given field of knowledge in a given discipline. We call such patterns “idealized patterns of disciplinary relevant aspects,” IPDRA. Each of the dimensions that together constitute an IPDRA can be said to enter discourse in terms of particular configurations, partly prescribed by the “rules” governing the representational format at hand (such as grammar for language). The resultant discursive configurational patterns (cf. Lemke's, 1990, "thematic patterns"; and Tang et al.'s, 2011, "multimodal thematic patterns") can then be compared with the IPDRA to see if the needed dimensions of variation have been enacted.

    The specialization of representations to express certain (combinations) of dimensions of variation (what we have called “disciplinary affordances”, see Fredlund, Airey, & Linder, 2012) determines which representations that can do which work in terms of representing the knowledge described by an IPDRA. Thus students need to learn to choose representations with appropriate disciplinary affordances to enact a given IPDRA. In this paper we demonstrate the different disciplinary affordances of representations and how changing representation can lead to the possibility to enact different dimensions of disciplinary knowledge.

     

    References

    Fredlund, T., Airey, J., & Linder, C. (2012). Exploring the role of physics representations: an illustrative example from students sharing knowledge about refraction. Eur. J. Phys., 33, 657-666.

    Lemke, J. L. (1990). Talking Science. Norwood, New Jersey: Ablex Publishing.

    Marton, F., & Booth, S. (1997). Learning and Awareness. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

    Tang, K. S., Tan, S. C., & Yeo, J. (2011). Students' multimodal construction of the work-energy concept. International Journal of Science Education, 33(13), 1775-1804. 

  • 23.
    Fredlund, Tobias
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Linder, Cedric
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Airey, John
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Learning in terms of the semiotic enactment of patterns of disciplinary-relevant aspects2014In: IACS-2014 Book of abstracts, 2014, p. 94-94Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Student learning typically takes place in a range of situational contexts. In this paper we consider “sets of situations that have certain relevant aspects in common” (Marton, 2006, p. 503) where each aspect involved is qualitatively unique. We argue that in order for students to come to holistically experience the relevant disciplinary knowledge, they need to become familiar with enacting those relevant aspects (i.e. expressing them with semiotic resources, such as spoken and written language, equations and images.).

    We suggest it is possible to construct idealized patterns of the aspects that a discipline deems to be relevant for a given field of knowledge – thus characterizing its typical situations and phenomena. We call such a pattern an “idealized pattern of disciplinary relevant aspects” (IPDRA). Each of the aspects that together constitute an IPDRA can be seen to be manifested in discourse in terms of particular configurations, partly prescribed by the “rules” governing the semiotic resource at hand (such as grammar for language). The discursive configurational patterns (cf. Lemke's, 1990, "thematic patterns"; and Tang et al.'s, 2011, "multimodal thematic patterns") that can be empirically found in student discourse can then be compared with the IPDRA to see whether the required aspects have been enacted.

    The semiotic resources that are used in a scientific discipline are often highly specialized. Any given semiotic resource may therefore be more appropriate for expressing certain (combinations of) situational aspects (what we have called its “disciplinary affordances”, see Fredlund, Airey, & Linder, 2012). We argue it is the disciplinary affordances that determine which semiotic resources that can do which work in terms of representing the knowledge captured by an IPDRA. A pedagogical implication of this is that students need to become fluent in, and learn to choose, those semiotic resources that have the most appropriate disciplinary affordances for enacting a given IPDRA.

    In this paper we demonstrate how different semiotic resources have different disciplinary affordances and thus how changing the semiotic resource can lead to the possibility to enact different aspects of disciplinary knowledge. 

    References

    Fredlund, T., Airey, J., & Linder, C. (2012). Exploring the role of physics representations: an illustrative example from students sharing knowledge about refraction. Eur. J. Phys., 33, 657-666. doi: 10.1088/0143-0807/33/3/657

    Lemke, J. L. (1990). Talking Science. Norwood, New Jersey: Ablex Publishing.

    Marton, F. (2006). Sameness and difference in transfer. The Journal of the Learning Sciences, 15(4), 499-535. 

    Tang, K. S., Tan, S. C., & Yeo, J. (2011). Students' multimodal construction of the work-energy concept. International Journal of Science Education, 33(13), 1775-1804. 

  • 24.
    Fredlund, Tobias
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Linder, Cedric
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Airey, John
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Reverse rankshift: Towards an appreciation of the disciplinary affordances of representations2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Communication in any discipline depends on the use of disciplinary-specific representations. In most cases, the information that each of these representations provides is not immediately available to disciplinary outsiders because it has been “packed”. For example, in language rankshift packs information that was initially expressed by one or more clauses into a single word. Such packing facilitates participation in new clauses, allowing new meanings to be made (cf. Halliday, 1998). It has been argued that similar rankshifts take place in other representational modes, e.g. mathematics (O'Halloran, 2008).

     

    Whilst the packed nature of representations increases their disciplinary affordance (Fredlund et al., 2012), it simultaneously contributes to making their meaning impenetrable to a newcomer to the discipline. Moreover, from an educational point of view it has been shown that lecturers tend to underestimate the difficulties experienced by students in coming to appropriately experience disciplinary meaning that these representations signify (Northedge, 2002; Tobias, 1986).

     

    In this presentation we problematize learning in terms of uncovering the disciplinary affordances of representations through a process of reverse rankshift. We first illustrate packing in a range of representational modes in physics. We then use examples of how physics representations can be subjected reverse rankshift in order to facilitate the appreciation of their disciplinary affordances.

     

    References

    Fredlund, T., Airey, J., & Linder, C. (2012). Exploring the role of physics representations: an illustrative example from students sharing knowledge about refraction. Eur. J. Phys., 33, 657-666.

    Halliday, M. A. K. (1998). Things and relations : Regrammaticising experience as technical knowledge. In J. R. Martin & R. Veel (Eds.), Reading science : critical and functional perspectives on discourses of science (pp. 185-236). London: Routledge.

    Northedge, A. (2002). Organizing Excursions Into Specialist Discourse Communities: A Sociocultural Account of University Teaching. In G. Wells & G. Claxton (Eds.), Learning for Life in the 21st Century (pp. 252-264). Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.

    O'Halloran, K. L. (2008). Mathematical discourse : language, symbolism and visual images. London: Continuum International Publishing.

    Tobias, S. (1986). Peer Perspectives: On the Teaching of Science. Change, 18(2), 36-41. 

  • 25.
    Fredlund, Tobias
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Linder, Cedric
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Airey, John
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Towards addressing transient learning challenges in undergraduate physics: An example from electrostatics2015In: European journal of physics, ISSN 0143-0807, E-ISSN 1361-6404, Vol. 36, no 5, article id 055002Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we characterize transient learning challenges as learning challenges that arise out of teaching situations rather than conflicts with prior knowledge. We propose that these learning challenges can be identified by paying careful attention to the representations that students produce. Once a transient learning challenge has been identified, teachers can create interventions to address it. By illustration, we argue that an appropriate way to design such interventions is to create variation around the disciplinary-relevant aspects associated with the transient learning challenge.

  • 26.
    Fredlund, Tobias
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Linder, Cedric
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Airey, John
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Variation as a method for perceiving the disciplinary affordances of physics representations2014In: IACS-2014 Book of Abstracts, 2014, p. 32-33Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The sharing of knowledge in physics uses representations that the discipline has built a great deal of information into. In many cases, much of this information is not immediately visible because it has been “packed” in ways that can only be accessed by specific disciplinary ways of seeing. For example, consider the de Sitter space represented by a particular hyperboloid.

    This is a powerful representation for physicists working in the field of string theory because, inter alia, it can provide de Sitter space with a multiplicity of coordinate systems (Domert, 2006, p. 30). At the same time such a representation can present challenges to student learning; students would have to learn to “see” what “lies behind” the representation. In this case, for example, how R is related to the concept of a de Sitter horizon.

    While for physicists such a representation might evoke a rich awareness (or perhaps rather help constraining that awareness, cf. Ainsworth, 2006), it conceivably evokes little appropriate disciplinary meaning when first met by students. Northedge (2002) argues that physics teachers may not be aware that what they have learnt to “see” is not directly accessible to learners. That is, while physicists have developed a competency that allows them to immediately see the “disciplinary affordances” of a representation (“the inherent potential of that representation to provide access to disciplinary knowledge”, Fredlund, Airey, & Linder, 2012, p. 658) they fail to recognize that their students may not, or even cannot, see what lies behind that representation.

    Much research has shown that students often learn surprisingly little from traditional teaching resources such as talk-and-chalk followed by problem solving (Redish, 2003). To deal with this challenge several research-informed resources have been developed and empirically shown to enhance students’ learning outcomes. Widely used examples include Tutorials (McDermott & Shaffer, 2002), Active Learning (Van Heuvelen & Etkina, 2006) and Peer Instruction (Crouch & Mazur, 2001). However, these resources have not been accompanied with a theoretical framing that would enable physics teachers to develop their own teaching resources. We believe that such a theoretical framing exists: creating the explicit experience of dimensions of variation (Marton & Booth, 1997). 

    In this presentation we develop this argument and illustrate it using examples of how representations can be varied in ways that facilitate the noticing of educationally critical aspects.

    References

    Ainsworth, S. (2006). DeFT: A conceptual framework for considering learning with multiple representations. Learning and Instruction, 16(3), 183-198.

    Crouch, C. H., & Mazur, E. (2001). Peer Instruction: Ten years of experience and results. Am. J. Phys., 69(9), 970-977.

    Domert, D. (2006). Explorations of university physics in abstract contexts: from de Sitter space to learning space. PhD thesis, Uppsala University, Uppsala.

    Fredlund, T., Airey, J., & Linder, C. (2012). Exploring the role of physics representations: an illustrative example from students sharing knowledge about refraction. Eur. J. Phys., 33, 657- 666.

    Marton, F., & Booth, S. (1997). Learning and Awareness. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. 

  • 27.
    Fredlund, Tobias
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Linder, Cedric
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Airey, John
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Linder, Anne
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Unpacking physics representations: Towards an appreciation of disciplinary affordance2014In: Physical Review Special Topics : Physics Education Research, ISSN 1554-9178, E-ISSN 1554-9178, Vol. 10, no 2, article id 020129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This theoretical article problematizes the access to disciplinary knowledge that different physics representations have the possibility to provide; that is, their disciplinary affordances. It is argued that historically such access has become increasingly constrained for students as physics representations have been rationalized over time. Thus, the case is made that such rationalized representations, while powerful for communication from a disciplinary point of view, manifest as learning challenges for students. The proposal is illustrated using a vignette from a student discussion in the physics laboratory about circuit connections for an experimental investigation of the charging and discharging of a capacitor. It is concluded that in order for students to come to appreciate the disciplinary affordances of representations, more attention needs to be paid to their “unpacking.” Building on this conclusion, two questions are proposed that teachers can ask themselves in order to begin to unpack the representations that they use in their teaching. The paper ends by proposing directions for future research in this area.

  • 28.
    Fredlund, Tobiasd
    et al.
    Universitetet i Oslo.
    Erik, Knain
    Universitetet i Oslo.
    Science students' noticing of appropriate frames2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this theoretical paper we draw on two constructs that we argue are related to the appropriate interpretation of many representations in science education: frames and structures of awareness. By representations is meant, for example, images, diagrams and models. The idea of frames is taken from social semiotics and the idea of structures of awareness is taken from the variation theory of learning. Using both an everyday example and examples from science education we make the argument that students need to become explicitly aware of tacitly held structures of awareness that frame their interpretation of representations. A task for science educators would be to investigate the possibility to produce representations that could aid students in this work.

  • 29.
    Knain, Erik
    et al.
    Institutt for lærerutdanning og skoleforskning, Universitetet i Oslo, Norge.
    Fredlund, Tobias
    Institutt for lærerutdanning og skoleforskning, Universitetet i Oslo, Norge.
    Larsen Furberg, Anniken
    Institutt for lærerutdanning og skoleforskning, Universitetet i Oslo, Norge.
    Making the invisible visible across modes and representations2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Knain, Erik
    et al.
    Institutt for lærerutdanning og skoleforskning, Universitetet i Oslo, Norge.
    Fredlund, Tobias
    Institutt for lærerutdanning og skoleforskning, Universitetet i Oslo, Norge.
    Larsen Furberg, Anniken
    Institutt for lærerutdanning og skoleforskning, Universitetet i Oslo, Norge.
    Mathiassen, Ketil
    Institutt for lærerutdanning og skoleforskning, Universitetet i Oslo, Norge.
    Remmen, Kari Beate
    Institutt for lærerutdanning og skoleforskning, Universitetet i Oslo, Norge.
    Ødegaard, Marianne
    Institutt for lærerutdanning og skoleforskning, Universitetet i Oslo, Norge.
    Representing to learn in science education: Theoretical framework and analytical approaches2017In: Acta Didactica Norge - tidsskrift for fagdidaktisk forsknings- og utviklingsarbeid i Norge, ISSN 1504-9922, E-ISSN 1504-9922, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Being able to engage with science representations, such as graphs, drawings, animations, gestures and written and verbal texts lies at the heart of scientific literacy. This article introduces the design-based research project Representations and Participation in School Science (REDE), which aims to investigate new aspects of how representations create learning and teaching opportunities in school science in lower and secondary school. It does so by scrutinising the role of representations in three areas of science education: the learning of science content, socio-scientific issues (SSI) and the nature of science. Central to the REDE project is the development of teaching designs whereby students’ and teachers’ engagement with various forms of representations are at the core of learning activities. The teaching designs are developed by teachers together with the researchers in REDE and are tested by the teachers and their students at three partner schools. In this article, we outline the theoretical framework of the project, which is based on scientific literacy and the notion of a ‘third space’. We also introduce the design principles that inform the development of the teaching designs, as well as the two main analytical approaches that we use to analyse students’ and teachers’ engagement with science representations: multimodal analysis and interaction analysis. Finally, we illustrate the potential of the theoretical framework, the design principles and the multimodal analysis in contributing to the investigations in REDE. We do so by presenting and discussing analyses of three empirical cases from classrooms where students worked with teaching designs that focus on representations.

  • 31.
    Knain, Erik
    et al.
    Institutt for lærerutdanning og skoleforskning, Universitetet i Oslo, Norge.
    Remmen, Kari Beate
    Institutt for lærerutdanning og skoleforskning, Universitetet i Oslo, Norge.
    Fredlund, Tobias
    Institutt for lærerutdanning og skoleforskning, Universitetet i Oslo, Norge.
    Representations in students’ argumentation on SSI2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Knain, Erik
    et al.
    Institutt for lærerutdanning og skoleforskning, Universitetet i Oslo, Norge.
    Remmen, Kari Beate
    Institutt for lærerutdanning og skoleforskning, Universitetet i Oslo, Norge.
    Fredlund, Tobias
    Institutt for lærerutdanning og skoleforskning, Universitetet i Oslo, Norge.
    The role of representations in students' argumentation on SSI2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on a study that investigates how visual representations support students’ learning in the context of socio-scientific issues (SSI). SSI often require students to apply science knowledge in order to deal with conflicts of interest. An aspect of SSI teaching and learning that is commonly held to be important is argumentation, where claims are supported with evidence. However, almost no studies have been carried out that focus on the use of evidence afforded by visual representations. In Norway, there is currently a conflict between the government and non-governmental organisations regarding whether Norwegian off-shore oil exploration should be extended or not. Two recent chronicles – one from each part in the conflict, made the starting point for the educational setting from which our data was collected. Groups of students wrote texts arguing either for or against further exploration. A range of visual representations related to the topic had been collected by the teacher and the researchers. The students made a selection from this collection and incorporated the selected representations into their texts. Video data was collected using head-mounted cameras. Analysis suggests that student learning is enhanced when they get opportunities to create, critique and revise their representations and texts. Such opportunities were therefore included in the design for learning. Our analyses reveal processes involved when the students selected and orchestrated multimodal representations into their argumentative texts. However, an implication from our study is that students appear to be more familiar with the create phase, than with the critique and revise phases. These results suggest that students need more instructional support in, and practice of, these phases.

  • 33.
    Suhr Lunde, Mai Lill
    et al.
    Institutt for lærerutdanning og skoleforskning, Universitetet i Oslo, Norge.
    Mathiassen, Ketil
    Institutt for lærerutdanning og skoleforskning, Universitetet i Oslo, Norge.
    Fredlund, Tobias
    Institutt for lærerutdanning og skoleforskning, Universitetet i Oslo, Norge.
    Knain, Erik
    Institutt for lærerutdanning og skoleforskning, Universitetet i Oslo, Norge.
    Lærerstudenters erfaringer med bruk av representasjoner i praksis2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Suhr Lunde, Mai Lill
    et al.
    Institutt for lærerutdanning og skoleforskning, Universitetet i Oslo, Norge.
    Mathiassen, Ketil
    Institutt for lærerutdanning og skoleforskning, Universitetet i Oslo, Norge.
    Fredlund, Tobias
    Institutt for lærerutdanning og skoleforskning, Universitetet i Oslo, Norge.
    Knain, Erik
    Institutt for lærerutdanning og skoleforskning, Universitetet i Oslo, Norge.
    Representations and Students Teachers’ Experiences from Teacher Practice2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Suhr Lunde, Mai Lill
    et al.
    Institutt for lærerutdanning og skoleforskning, Universitetet i Oslo, Norge.
    Mathiassen, Ketil
    Institutt for lærerutdanning og skoleforskning, Universitetet i Oslo, Norge.
    Fredlund, Tobias
    Institutt for lærerutdanning og skoleforskning, Universitetet i Oslo, Norge.
    Knain, Erik
    Institutt for lærerutdanning og skoleforskning, Universitetet i Oslo, Norge.
    Student teachers’ perspective of representations in science teaching and learning2018In: 9ICOM Book of Abstracts, 2018, p. 104-104Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Representations such as writing, speech, graphs, diagrams, gestures and simulations are important tools for teaching and learning in science (Knain, 2015). Representations are also valuable tools for making student understanding visible for sharing, discussion and mentoring. In this study, our aims were to study student teachers’ conceptualization of representations as tools for student learning, the importance of representations related to their own field of science and their experiences with representations during teaching practice. We performed focus group interviews with student teachers before and after teaching practice, along with group discussions on selected representations. We also studied exam papers from a small number of student teachers focusing on representations. The data was analysed by thematic analysis using software for qualitative analysis, ATLAS.ti. Preliminary findings suggest that before teacher practice the student teachers were familiar with the concept of representations and the importance of representations as tools for learning in science. They were aware of challenges related to interpretation of representations, and that different representations and combinations of representations can support student learning in science. During teacher practice the student teachers seem to have developed a greater awareness of the nature of representations, what students need to know and that they should be able to interpret and make their own representations. However, student teachers also report on limited possibilities to focus on representations during their teacher practice. We conclude that working with representations for teachers and student teachers is related to the development of an awareness of representations as fundamental tools and forms of expression in science learning. An important task is to enable the student teachers to study their own teaching practice by building a bridge between subject, pedagogical content knowledge and teaching practice, creating a “third space” as an arena for the student teachers’ professional development as teachers.

1 - 35 of 35
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