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  • 1.
    Amin, Hadi
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Sjöberg, Lars E.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Evaluation of the Closure of Global Mean Sea Level Rise Budget over January 2005 to August 20162019Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Sea level changes over time because of water mass exchange among the oceans and continents, ice sheets, and atmosphere. It fluctuates also due to variations of seawater salinity and temperature known as the steric contributor. GRACE-based Stokes coefficients provide a valuable source of information, about the water mass exchange as the main contributor to the Earth’s gravity field changes, within decadal scales. Moreover, measuring seawater temperature and salinity at different layers of ocean depth, Argo floats help to model the steric component of Global Mean Sea Level. In this study, we evaluate the Global Mean Sea Level (GMSL) budget closure using satellite altimetry, GRACE, and Argo products. Hereof, considering the most recent released GRACE monthly products (RL06), we examine an iterative remove-restore method to minimize the effect of artifact leaked large signal from ice sheets and land hydrology. In addition, the effect of errors and biases in geophysical model corrections, such as GIA, on the GMSL budget closure is estimated. Moreover, we quantify the influence of spatial and decorrelation filtering of GRACE data on the GMSL budget closure. In terms of the monthly fluctuations of sea level, our results confirm that closing the GMSL budget is highly dependent on the choice of the spatial averaging filter. In addition, comparing the trends and variations for both the global mean sea level time series and those estimated for mass and steric components, we find that spatial averaging functions play a significant role in the sea level budget closure.

  • 2.
    Amin, Hadi
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Sjöberg, Lars
    Division of Geodesy and satellite positioning, KTH.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    A global vertical datum defined by the conventional geoid potential and the Earth ellipsoid parameters2019In: Journal of Geodesy, ISSN 0949-7714, E-ISSN 1432-1394, Vol. 93, no 10, p. 1943-1961Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The geoid, according to the classical Gauss–Listing definition, is, among infinite equipotential surfaces of the Earth’s gravity field, the equipotential surface that in a least squares sense best fits the undisturbed mean sea level. This equipotential surface, except for its zero-degree harmonic, can be characterized using the Earth’s global gravity models (GGM). Although, nowadays, satellite altimetry technique provides the absolute geoid height over oceans that can be used to calibrate the unknown zero-degree harmonic of the gravimetric geoid models, this technique cannot be utilized to estimate the geometric parameters of the mean Earth ellipsoid (MEE). The main objective of this study is to perform a joint estimation of W0, which defines the zero datum of vertical coordinates, and the MEE parameters relying on a new approach and on the newest gravity field, mean sea surface and mean dynamic topography models. As our approach utilizes both satellite altimetry observations and a GGM model, we consider different aspects of the input data to evaluate the sensitivity of our estimations to the input data. Unlike previous studies, our results show that it is not sufficient to use only the satellite-component of a quasi-stationary GGM to estimate W0. In addition, our results confirm a high sensitivity of the applied approach to the altimetry-based geoid heights, i.e., mean sea surface and mean dynamic topography models. Moreover, as W0 should be considered a quasi-stationary parameter, we quantify the effect of time-dependent Earth’s gravity field changes as well as the time-dependent sea level changes on the estimation of W0. Our computations resulted in the geoid potential W0 = 62636848.102 ± 0.004 m2 s−2 and the semi-major and minor axes of the MEE, a = 6378137.678 ± 0.0003 m and b = 6356752.964 ± 0.0005 m, which are 0.678 and 0.650 m larger than those axes of GRS80 reference ellipsoid, respectively. Moreover, a new estimation for the geocentric gravitational constant was obtained as GM = (398600460.55 ± 0.03) × 106 m3 s−2.

  • 3.
    Amin, Hadi
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Sjöberg, Lars E.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    A global vertical datum defined by the conventional geoid potentialand the Earth ellipsoid parameters2020Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    According to the classical Gauss–Listing definition, the geoid is the equipotential surface of the Earth’s gravity field that in a least-squares sense best fits the undisturbed mean sea level. This equipotential surface, except for its zero-degree harmonic, can be characterized using the Earth’s Global Gravity Models (GGM). Although nowadays, the satellite altimetry technique provides the absolute geoid height over oceans that can be used to calibrate the unknown zero-degree harmonic of the gravimetric geoid models, this technique cannot be utilized to estimate the geometric parameters of the Mean Earth Ellipsoid (MEE). In this study, we perform joint estimation of W0, which defines the zero datum of vertical coordinates, and the MEE parameters relying on a new approach and on the newest gravity field, mean sea surface, and mean dynamic topography models. As our approach utilizes both satellite altimetry observations and a GGM model, we consider different aspects of the input data to evaluate the sensitivity of our estimations to the input data. Unlike previous studies, our results show that it is not sufficient to use only the satellite componentof a quasi-stationary GGM to estimate W0. In addition, our results confirm a high sensitivity of the applied approach to the altimetry-based geoid heights, i.e. mean sea surface and mean dynamic topography models. Moreover, as W0 should be considered a quasi-stationary parameter, we quantify the effect of time-dependent Earth’s gravity field changes as well as the time-dependent sea-level changes on the estimation of W0. Our computations resulted in the geoid potential W0 = 62636848.102 ± 0.004 m2s-2 and the semi-major and –minor axes of the MEE,a = 6378137.678 ± 0.0003 m and b = 6356752.964 ± 0.0005 m, which are 0.678 and 0.650 m larger than those axes of the GRS80 reference ellipsoid, respectively. Moreover, a new estimation for the geocentric gravitational constant was obtained as GM = (398600460.55 ± 0.03) × 106 m3s-2.

  • 4.
    Amin, Hadi
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Sjöberg, Lars E.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    A global vertical datum defined by the conventional geoid potentialand the Earth ellipsoid parameters2020Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    According to the classical Gauss–Listing definition, the geoid is the equipotential surface of the Earth’s gravity field that in a least-squares sense best fits the undisturbed mean sea level. This equipotential surface, except for its zero-degree harmonic, can be characterized using the Earth’s Global Gravity Models (GGM). Although nowadays, the satellite altimetry technique provides the absolute geoid height over oceans that can be used to calibrate the unknown zero-degree harmonic of the gravimetric geoid models, this technique cannot be utilized to estimate the geometric parameters of the Mean Earth Ellipsoid (MEE). In this study, we perform joint estimation of W0, which defines the zero datum of vertical coordinates, and the MEE parameters relying on a new approach and on the newest gravity field, mean sea surface, and mean dynamic topography models. As our approach utilizes both satellite altimetry observations and a GGM model, we consider different aspects of the input data to evaluate the sensitivity of our estimations to the input data. Unlike previous studies, our results show that it is not sufficient to use only the satellite componentof a quasi-stationary GGM to estimate W0. In addition, our results confirm a high sensitivity of the applied approach to the altimetry-based geoid heights, i.e. mean sea surface and mean dynamic topography models. Moreover, as W0 should be considered a quasi-stationary parameter, we quantify the effect of time-dependent Earth’s gravity field changes as well as the time-dependent sea-level changes on the estimation of W0. Our computations resulted in the geoid potential W0 = 62636848.102 ± 0.004 m2s-2 and the semi-major and –minor axes of the MEE,a = 6378137.678 ± 0.0003 m and b = 6356752.964 ± 0.0005 m, which are 0.678 and 0.650 m larger than those axes of the GRS80 reference ellipsoid, respectively. Moreover, a new estimation for the geocentric gravitational constant was obtained as GM = (398600460.55 ± 0.03) × 106 m3s-2.

  • 5.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Gido, Nureldin A. A.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    How isostasy explains continental rifting in East Africa?2020Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The principle of isostasy plays an important role to understand the relation between different geodynamic processes. Although, it is difficult to find an exact method that delivers a complete image of the Earth structure. However, gravimetric methods are alternative to provide images of the interior of the Earth. The Earth’s crust parameters, i.e. crustal depth and crust-mantle density contrast, can reveal adequate information about the solid Earth system such as volcanic activity, earthquake and continental rifting. Hence, in this study, a combine Moho model using seismic and gravity data is determined to investigate the relationship between the isostatic state of the lithosphere and seismic activities in East Africa. Our results show that isostatic equilibrium and compensation states are closely correlated to the seismicity patterns in the study area. For example, several studies suggest that African superplume causes the rift valley, and consequently differences in crustal and mantle densities occur. This paper presents a method to determine the crustal thickness and crust-mantle density contrast and consequently one can observe low-density contrast (about 200 kg/m3 ) and thin crust (about 30 km) near the triple junction plate tectonics in East Africa (Afar Triangle), which confirms the state of overcompensation in the rift valley areas. Furthermore, the density structure of the lithosphere shows a large correlation with the earthquake activity, sub-crustal stress and volcanic distribution across East Africa.

  • 6.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Gido, Nureldin A. A.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Sjöberg, Lars E.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Tenzer, Robert
    Hong Kong Polytechnic University.
    Studying permafrost using GRACE and in situ data in the northern high-latitudes regions2019Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    There is an exceptional opportunity of achieving simultaneous and complementary data from a multitude of geoscience and environmental near-earth orbiting artificial satellites to study phenomena related to the climate change e.g. sea level change, ice melting, soil moisture variation, temperature changes, and earth surface deformations. In this study, we focus on permafrost thawing and its associated gravity change, and organic material changes using GRACE data and other satellite- and ground-based observations. The estimation of permafrost changes requires combining information from various sources, particularly using the gravity field change, surface temperature change, and GIA. The most significant factor for careful monitoring of the permafrost thawing is the fact that this process could be responsible for releasing an additional enormous amount of greenhouse gases emitted to the atmosphere, most importantly to mention Carbone dioxide and Methane that are currently stored in the frozen ground. The results of a preliminary numerical analysis reveal a possible existence of a high correlation between the secular trends of greenhouse gases, temperature and equivalent water thickness in the selected regions. Furthermore, according to our estimates based on processing the GRACE data, the groundwater storage attributed to the due to permafrost thawing increased at the annual rates of 3.4, 3.8, 4.4 and 4.0 cm, in Siberia, northern Alaska, and Canada. Despite a rather preliminary character of our results, these findings indicate that the methodology developed and applied in this study should be improved by incorporating the in situ permafrost measurements.

  • 7.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Sjöberg, Lars E.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Amin, Hadi
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Towards a world vertical datum defined by the geoid potential and Earth’s ellipsoidal parameters2018Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable development and digitalization need reliable data. Geospatial data becomes a more and more important tool in society for many kinds of research of immediate use, but also for future planning and enterprise. Harmonization of geodata is very important for data producers and organizations, e.g. for mapping agencies. Establishing a uniform horizontal/vertical reference system is a basic prerequisite for combining data from different sources, and for allowing cross-border presentations and analyzes. If we do not use the same reference for positioning, it is not certain that one can compose reliable geodata from different organizations.

    The overall aim of this study is to provide a theoretical and practical solution to unifying height systems in order to overcome systematic datum inconsistencies in height data and digital terrain models. The study deals with a variety of issues in physical geodesy such as Earth’s gravity field, sea level rise, sea surface topography and GNSS data. The advent of satellite altimetry in the 1970s provided a tool for the realization of a global vertical datum as being the equipotential surface of the Earth’s gravity field that minimizes the sea-surface topography (SST) all over the oceans in a least-squares sense. This leads to a direct determination of the geoid potential (W0) from satellite altimetry and an Earth Gravitational Model (EGM).  In contrast, here we will first determine the Mean Earth Ellipsoid parameters and from these follows W0. This means that once the size of the axes of the globally best-fitting ellipsoid is determined, W0 follows. A major problem with this method is that satellite altimetry is only successful over the oceans, but the method requires global data. This problem is solved by employing satellite altimetry and the EGM in a practical combination.  

  • 8.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    Tenzer, Robert
    Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics, School of Geodesy and Geomatics, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China .
    Comparative analysis of Vening-Meinesz Moritz isostatic models using the constant and variable crust-mantle density contrast – a case study of Zealandia2013In: Journal of Earth System Science, ISSN 0973-774X, Vol. 122, no 2, p. 339-348Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We compare three different numerical schemes of treating the Moho density contrast in gravimetric inverse problems for finding the Moho depths. The results are validated using the global crustal model CRUST2.0, which is determined based purely on seismic data. Firstly, the gravimetric recovery of the Moho depths is realized by solving Moritz’s generalization of the Vening-Meinesz inverse problem of isostasy while the constant Moho density contrast is adopted. The Pratt-Hayford isostatic model is then facilitated to estimate the variable Moho density contrast. This variable Moho density contrast is subsequently used to determine the Moho depths. Finally, the combined least-squares approach is applied to estimate jointly the Moho depths and density contract based on a priori error model. The EGM2008 global gravity model and the DTM2006.0 global topographic/bathymetric model are used to generate the isostatic gravity anomalies. The comparison of numerical results reveals that the optimal isostatic inverse scheme should take into consideration both the variable depth and density of compensation. This is achieved by applying the combined least-squares approach for a simultaneous estimation of both Moho parameters. We demonstrate that the result obtained using this method has the best agreement with the CRUST2.0 Moho depths. The numerical experiments are conducted at the regional study area of New Zealand’s continental shelf.

  • 9.
    Baranov, Alexey
    et al.
    Schmidt Institute of Physics of the Earth, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia; Institute of Earthquake Prediction Theory and Mathematical Geophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS. Division of Geodesy and Geoinformatics, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tenzer, Robert
    Department of Land Surveying and Geo-Informatics, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, China.
    Combined Gravimetric-Seismic Moho Model of Tibet2018In: Geosciences, ISSN 2076-3263, Vol. 8, no 12, article id UNSP 461Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Substantial progress has been achieved over the last four decades to better understand a deep structure in the Himalayas and Tibet. Nevertheless, the remoteness of this part of the world still considerably limits the use of seismic data. A possible way to overcome this practical restriction partially is to use products from the Earth’s satellite observation systems. Global topographic data are provided by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Global gravitational models have been derived from observables delivered by the gravity-dedicated satellite missions, such as the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and the Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE). Optimally, the topographic and gravity data should be combined with available results from tomographic surveys to interpret the lithospheric structure, including also a Moho relief. In this study, we use seismic, gravity, and topographic data to estimate the Moho depth under orogenic structures of the Himalayas and Tibet. The combined Moho model is computed based on solving the Vening Meinesz-Moritz (VMM) inverse problem of isostasy, while incorporating seismic data to constrain the gravimetric solution. The result of the combined gravimetric-seismic data analysis exhibits an anticipated more detailed structure of the Moho geometry when compared to the solution obtained merely from seismic data. This is especially evident over regions with sparse seismic data coverage. The newly-determined combined Moho model of Tibet shows a typical contrast between a thick crustal structure of orogenic formations compared to a thinner crust of continental basins. The Moho depth under most of the Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau is typically within 60-70 km. The maximum Moho deepening of similar to 76 km occurs to the south of the Bangong-Nujiang suture under the Lhasa terrane. Local maxima of the Moho depth to similar to 74 km are also found beneath Taksha at the Karakoram fault. This Moho pattern generally agrees with the findings from existing gravimetric and seismic studies, but some inconsistencies are also identified and discussed in this study.

  • 10.
    Gido, Nureldin A. A.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Amin, Hadi
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Nilfouroushan, Faramarz
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Satellite monitoring of mass changes and ground subsidence in Sudan’s oil fields using GRACE and Sentinel-1 data2020Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Monitoring environmental hazards, due to natural and anthropogenic causes, is one of the important issues, which requires proper data, models, and cross-validation of the results. The geodetic satellite missions, e.g. the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and Sentinel-1, are very useful in this aspect. GRACE missions are dedicated to model the temporal variations of the Earth’s gravity field and mass transportation in the Earth’s surface, whereas Sentinel-1 collects Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data which enables us to measure the ground movements accurately. Extraction of large volumes of water and oil decreases the reservoir pressure, form compaction and consequently land subsidence occurs which can be analyzed by both GRACE and Sentinel-1 data. In this paper, large-scale groundwater storage (GWS) changes are studied using the GRACE monthly gravity field models together with different hydrological models over the major oil reservoirs in Sudan, i.e. Heglig, Bamboo, Neem, Diffra and Unity-area oil fields. Then we correlate the results with the available oil wells production data for the period of 2003-2012. In addition, using the only freely available Sentinel-1 data, collected between November 2015 and April 2019, the ground surface deformation associated with this oil and water depletion is studied. Due to the lack of terrestrial geodetic monitoring data in Sudan, the use of GRACE and Sentinel-1 satellite data is very valuable to monitor water and oil storage changes and their associated land subsidence over our region of interest. Our results show that there is a significant correlation between the GRACE-based GWS change and extracted oil and water volumes. The trend of GWS changes due to water and oil depletion ranged from -18.5 to -6.2mm/year using the CSR GRACE monthly solutions and the best tested hydrological model in this study. Moreover, our Sentinel-1 SAR data analysis using Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) method shows high rate of subsidence i.e. -24.5, -23.8, -14.2 and -6 mm/year over Heglig, Neem, Diffra and Unity-area oil fields respectively. The results of this study can help us to control the integrity and safety of operations and infrastructure in that region, as well as to study the groundwater/oil storage behavior.

  • 11.
    Gido, Nureldin A. A.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Amin, Hadi
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Nilfouroushan, Faramarz
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Satellite monitoring of mass changes and ground subsidence in Sudan’s oil fields using GRACE and Sentinel-1 data2020Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Monitoring environmental hazards, due to natural and anthropogenic causes, is one of the important issues, which requires proper data, models, and cross-validation of the results. The geodetic satellite missions, e.g. the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and Sentinel-1, are very useful in this aspect. GRACE missions are dedicated to model the temporal variations of the Earth’s gravity field and mass transportation in the Earth’s surface, whereas Sentinel-1 collects Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data which enables us to measure the ground movements accurately. Extraction of large volumes of water and oil decreases the reservoir pressure, form compaction and consequently land subsidence occurs which can be analyzed by both GRACE and Sentinel-1 data. In this paper, large-scale groundwater storage (GWS) changes are studied using the GRACE monthly gravity field models together with different hydrological models over the major oil reservoirs in Sudan, i.e. Heglig, Bamboo, Neem, Diffra and Unity-area oil fields. Then we correlate the results with the available oil wells production data for the period of 2003-2012. In addition, using the only freely available Sentinel-1 data, collected between November 2015 and April 2019, the ground surface deformation associated with this oil and water depletion is studied. Due to the lack of terrestrial geodetic monitoring data in Sudan, the use of GRACE and Sentinel-1 satellite data is very valuable to monitor water and oil storage changes and their associated land subsidence over our region of interest. Our results show that there is a significant correlation between the GRACE-based GWS change and extracted oil and water volumes. The trend of GWS changes due to water and oil depletion ranged from -18.5 to -6.2mm/year using the CSR GRACE monthly solutions and the best tested hydrological model in this study. Moreover, our Sentinel-1 SAR data analysis using Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) method shows high rate of subsidence i.e. -24.5, -23.8, -14.2 and -6 mm/year over Heglig, Neem, Diffra and Unity-area oil fields respectively. The results of this study can help us to control the integrity and safety of operations and infrastructure in that region, as well as to study the groundwater/oil storage behavior.

  • 12.
    Gido, Nureldin A. A.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences. Division of Geodesy and Satellite Positioning, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences. Division of Geodesy and Satellite Positioning, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sjöberg, Lars E.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences. Division of Geodesy and Satellite Positioning, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    A gravimetric method to determine horizontal stress field due to flow in the mantle in Fennoscandia2019In: Geosciences Journal, ISSN 1226-4806, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 377-389Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mass changes and flow in the Earth's mantle causes the Earth's crust not only to movevertically, but also horizontally and to tilt, and produce a major stress in the lithosphere.Here we use a gravimetric approach to model sub-lithosphere horizontal stress in theEarth's mantle and its temporal changes caused by geodynamical movements likemantle convection in Fennoscandia. The flow in the mantle is inferred from tectonicsand convection currents carrying heat from the interior of the Earth to the crust. Theresult is useful in studying how changes of the stress influence the stability of crust.The outcome of this study is an alternative approach to studying the stress and itschange using forward modelling and the Earth's viscoelastic models. We show that thedetermined horizontal stress using a gravimetric method is consistent with tectonicsand seismic activities. In addition, the secular rate of change of the horizontal stress,which is within 95 kPa/year, is larger outside the uplift dome than inside.

  • 13.
    Gido, Nureldin A. A.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences. Division of Geodesy and Satellite Positioning, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences. Division of Geodesy and Satellite Positioning, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sjöberg, Lars E.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences. Division of Geodesy and Satellite Positioning, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tenzer, Robert
    Department of Land Surveying and Geo‑Informatics, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
    Studying permafrost by integrating satellite and in situ data in the northern high-latitude regions2019In: Acta Geophysica, ISSN 1895-6572, E-ISSN 1895-7455, Vol. 67, no 2, p. 721-734Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an exceptional opportunity of achieving simultaneous and complementary data from a multitude of geoscience and environmental near-earth orbiting artificial satellites to study phenomena related to the climate change. These satellite missions provide the information about the various phenomena, such as sea level change, ice melting, soil moisture variation, temperature changes and earth surface deformations. In this study, we focus on permafrost thawing and its associated gravity change (in terms of the groundwater storage), and organic material changes using the gravity recovery and climate experiment (GRACE) data and other satellite- and ground-based observations. The estimation of permafrost changes requires combining information from various sources, particularly using the gravity field change, surface temperature change, and glacial isostatic adjustment. The most significant factor for a careful monitoring of the permafrost thawing is the fact that this process could be responsible for releasing an additional enormous amount of greenhouse gases emitted to the atmosphere, most importantly to mention carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane that are currently stored in the frozen ground. The results of a preliminary numerical analysis reveal a possible existence of a high correlation between the secular trends of greenhouse gases (CO2), temperature and equivalent water thickness (in permafrost active layer) in the selected regions. Furthermore, according to our estimates based on processing the GRACE data, the groundwater storage attributed due to permafrost thawing increased at the annual rates of 3.4, 3.8, 4.4 and 4.0 cm, respectively, in Siberia, North Alaska and Canada (Yukon and Hudson Bay). Despite a rather preliminary character of our results, these findings indicate that the methodology developed and applied in this study should be further improved by incorporating the in situ permafrost measurements.

  • 14. Shafiei, Mehdi
    et al.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Sjöberg, Lars E.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    A satellite-based gravimetric approach to GIA modelling2018Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    In view of the GRACE Follow-On mission, we will study the capability of temporal gravity field from the GRACE data to detect the present gravity variation in the process of Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA). Motivated to reducing the dependency of GIA to the knowledge of the ice load history modelling, also, to researching various GRACE-type signal analysis methods

    A number of gravimetric GIA modelling methods are investigated in order to their compatibility with a total number of 515 GPS data points in North America and Fennoscandia. We investigate three mathematical methods, namely regression, principal component, and independent component analysis (ICA) in extracting the GIA signal from the GRACE monthly geoid height. To exploit the GRACE data to their maximum spatial resolution we will utilize some regularization techniques to recover the signal-to-noise ratio of the short wavelengths. One of the results of this investigation is the relative success of the ICA method. We will produce our final gravimetric model using the fast-ICA algorithm of Hyvärinen and Oja (2000). The gravimetric models will be shown to be in a complete agreement with the GPS data and the best GIA forward model for the areas near the centre of the uplifting regions. We will show that the gravimetric method provides a relatively high-resolution GIA model, while largest discrepancies occur in Alaska, and Svalbard collocated with the present ice mass changes.

    Finally, we assimilate the best gravimetric models and the GPS data into a GIA forward model, for North America and Fennoscandia, while the contribution of the forward model is set to minimum and compare it with the ICE-6g_C (Peltier et al. 2015) model. We found that for the whole area subjected to epeirogenic movement, their discrepancies reach to the extrema at -1.8 and +3.3, and -0.45 and +0.75 mm⁄a, respectively. Further improvement of the gravimetric model is achieved after reducing for the strong hydrological gravity signals.

  • 15.
    Sjöberg, Lars
    et al.
    Division of Geodesy and Satellite Positioning KTH.
    Abrehdry, Majid
    Division of Geodesy and Satellite Positioning.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    Division of Geodesy and Satellite Positioning KTH.
    The observed geoid height versus Airy's and Pratt's isostatic models using matched asymptotic expansions2014In: Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica Hungarica, ISSN 1217-8977, E-ISSN 1587-1037, Vol. 49, no 4, p. 473-490Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Isostasy is a key concept in geodesy and geophysics. The classical isostatic models of Airy/Heiskanen and Pratt/Hayford imply that the topographic mass surplus and ocean mass deficit are balanced by mountain roots and anti-roots in the former model and by density variations in the topography and the compensation layer below sea bottom in the latter model. In geophysics gravity inversion is an essential topic where isostasy comes to play. The main objective of this study is to compare the prediction of geoid heights from the above isostatic models based on matched asymptotic expansion with geoid heights observed by the Earth Gravitational Model 2008. Numerical computations were carried out both globally and in several regions, showing poor agreements between the theoretical and observed geoid heights. As an alternative, multiple regression analysis including several non-isostatic terms in addition to the isostatic terms was tested providing only slightly better success rates. Our main conclusion is that the geoid height cannot generally be represented by the simple formulas based on matched asymptotic expansions. This is because (a) both the geoid and isostatic compensation of the topography have regional to global contributions in addition to the pure local signal considered in the classical isostatic models, and (b) geodynamic phenomena are still likely to significantly blur the results despite that all spherical harmonic low-degree (below degree 11) gravity signals were excluded from the study.

  • 16.
    Tenzer, Robert
    et al.
    The Key Laboratory of Geospace Environment and GeodesySchool of Geodesy and Geomatics, Wuhan UniversityWuhanChina.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences. Division of Geodesy and Satellite Positioning.
    Comparative Study of the Uniform and Variable Moho Density Contrast in the Vening Meinesz-Moritz’s Isostatic Scheme for the Gravimetric Moho Recovery2014In: IGFS 2014, Proceedings of the 3rd International Gravity Field Service (IGFS), Shanghai, China, 30 June - 6 July 2014 / [ed] Shuanggen Jin, Riccardo Barzaghi, Springer, 2014, p. 199-207Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In gravimetric methods for a determination of the Moho geometry, the constant value of the Moho density contract is often adopted. Results of gravimetric and seismic studies, however, showed that the Moho density contrast varies significantly. The assumption of a uniform density contrast thus might yield large errors in the estimated Moho depths. In this study we investigate these errors by comparing the Moho depths determined globally for the uniform and variable models of the Moho density contrast. These two gravimetric results are obtained based on solving the Vening Meinesz-Moritz’s inverse problem of isostasy. The uniform model of the Moho density contrast is defined individually for the continental and oceanic lithosphere to better reproduce the reality. The global data of the lower crust and upper mantle retrieved from the CRUST1.0 seismic crustal model are used to define the variable Moho density contrast. This seismic model is also used to validate both gravimetric solutions. Results of our numerical experiment reveals that the consideration of the variable Moho density contrast improves the agreement between the gravimetric and seismic Moho models; the RMS of differences is 5.4 km (for the uniform density contrast) and 4.7 km (for the variable density contrast).

  • 17.
    Tenzer, Robert
    et al.
    Wuhan University, China, Hubei, China.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    Division of Geodesy and Satellite Positioning, KTH.
    Sjöberg, Lars
    Division of Geodesy and Satellite Positioning KTH.
    Novak, Pavel
    University of West Bohemia, Czech Republic, Plzeň, República Checa.
    Isostatic crustal thickness under the Tibetan Plateau and Himalayas from satellite gravity gradiometry data2015In: Earth Sciences Research Journal, ISSN 1794-6190, E-ISSN 2339-3459, Vol. 19, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The global gravity and crustal models are used in this study to determine the regional Moho model. For this purpose, we solve the Vening Meinesz-Moritz's (VMM) inverse problem of isostasy defined in terms of the isostatic gravity gradient. The functional relation between the Moho depth and the second-order radial derivative of the VMM isostatic potential is formulated by means of the (linearized) Fredholm integral equation of the first kind. Methods for a spherical harmonic analysis and synthesis of the gravity field and crustal structure models are applied to evaluate the gravity gradient corrections and the respective corrected gravity gradient, taking into consideration major known density structures within the Earth's crust (while mantle heterogeneities are disregarded). The resulting gravity gradient is compensated isostatically based on applying the VMM scheme. The VMM inverse problem for finding the Moho depths is solved iteratively. The regularization is applied to stabilize the ill-posed solution. The global geopotential model GOCO-03s, the global topographic/bathymetric model DTM2006.0 and the global crustal model CRUST1.0 are used to generate the VMM isostatic gravity gradient with a spectral resolution complete to a spherical harmonic degree of 250. The VMM inverse scheme is used to determine the regional isostatic crustal thickness beneath the Tibetan Plateau and Himalayas (compiled on a 1x1 arc-deg grid). The differences between the isostatic and seismic Moho models are modeled and subsequently corrected for by applying the non-isostatic correction. Our results show that the regional gravity gradient inversion can model realistically the relative Moho geometry, while the solution contains a systematic bias. We explain this bias by more localized information on the Earth's inner structure in the gravity gradient field compared to the potential or gravity fields.

  • 18.
    Tenzer, Robert
    et al.
    Department of Land Surveying and Geo-Informatics, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, China.
    Chen, Wenjin
    Department of Geodesy and Geomatics, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.
    Baranov, Alexey
    Schmidt Institute of Physics of the Earth, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russian Federation; Institute of Earthquake Prediction Theory and Mathematical Geophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russian Federation.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS. Division of Geodesy and Geoinformatics, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gravity maps of Antarctic lithospheric structure from remote-sensing and seismic data2018In: Pure and Applied Geophysics, ISSN 0033-4553, E-ISSN 1420-9136, Vol. 175, no 6, p. 2181-2203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Remote-sensing data from altimetry and gravity satellite missions combined with seismic information have been used to investigate the Earth’s interior, particularly focusing on the lithospheric structure. In this study, we use the subglacial bedrock relief BEDMAP2, the global gravitational model GOCO05S, and the ETOPO1 topographic/bathymetric data, together with a newly developed (continental-scale) seismic crustal model for Antarctica to compile the free-air, Bouguer, and mantle gravity maps over this continent and surrounding oceanic areas. We then use these gravity maps to interpret the Antarctic crustal and uppermost mantle structure. We demonstrate that most of the gravity features seen in gravity maps could be explained by known lithospheric structures. The Bouguer gravity map reveals a contrast between the oceanic and continental crust which marks the extension of the Antarctic continental margins. The isostatic signature in this gravity map confirms deep and compact orogenic roots under the Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains and more complex orogenic structures under Dronning Maud Land in East Antarctica. Whereas the Bouguer gravity map exhibits features which are closely spatially correlated with the crustal thickness, the mantle gravity map reveals mainly the gravitational signature of the uppermost mantle, which is superposed over a weaker (long-wavelength) signature of density heterogeneities distributed deeper in the mantle. In contrast to a relatively complex and segmented uppermost mantle structure of West Antarctica, the mantle gravity map confirmed a more uniform structure of the East Antarctic Craton. The most pronounced features in this gravity map are divergent tectonic margins along mid-oceanic ridges and continental rifts. Gravity lows at these locations indicate that a broad region of the West Antarctic Rift System continuously extends between the Atlantic–Indian and Pacific–Antarctic mid-oceanic ridges and it is possibly formed by two major fault segments. Gravity lows over the Transantarctic Mountains confirms their non-collisional origin. Additionally, more localized gravity lows closely coincide with known locations of hotspots and volcanic regions (Marie Byrd Land, Balleny Islands, Mt. Erebus). Gravity lows also suggest a possible hotspot under the South Orkney Islands. However, this finding has to be further verified.

  • 19.
    Tenzer, Robert
    et al.
    Hong Kong Polytechnic University.
    Foroughi, Ismael
    University of New Brunswick, Canada.
    Sjöberg, Lars E.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences. KTH.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Hirt, Christian
    TU Munich, Germany.
    Pitoňák, Martin
    University of West Bohemia, Czech Republic.
    Theoretical and practical aspects of defining the heights for planets and moons2018Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    In planetary sciences, the geodetic (geometric) heights defined with respect to the reference surface (the sphere or the ellipsoid) or with respect to the center of the planet/moon are typically used for mapping topographic surface, compilation of global topographic models, detailed mapping of potential landing sites, and other space science and engineering purposes. Nevertheless, certain applications, such as studies of gravity-driven mass movements, require the physical heights to be defined with respect to the equipotential surface. Taking the analogy with terrestrial height systems, the realization of height systems for telluric planets and moons could be done by means of defining the orthometric and geoidal heights. In this case, however, the definition of the orthometric heights in principle differs. Whereas the terrestrial geoid is described as an equipotential surface that best approximates the mean sea level, such a definition for planets/moons is irrelevant in the absence of (liquid) global oceans. A more natural choice for planets and moons is to adopt the geoidal equipotential surface that closely approximates the geometric reference surface (the sphere or the ellipsoid). In this study, we address these aspects by proposing a more accurate approach for defining the orthometric heights for telluric planets and moons from available topographic and gravity models, while adopting the average crustal density in the absence of reliable crustal density models. In particular, we discuss a proper treatment of topographic masses in the context of gravimetric geoid determination. In numerical studies, we investigate differences between the geodetic and orthometric heights, represented by the geoidal heights, on Mercury, Venus, Mars, and Moon. Our results reveal that these differences are significant. The geoidal heights on Mercury vary from − 132 to 166 m. On Venus, the geoidal heights are between − 51 and 137 m with maxima on this planet at Atla Regio and Beta Regio. The largest geoid undulations between − 747 and 1685 m were found on Mars, with the extreme positive geoidal heights under Olympus Mons in Tharsis region. Large variations in the geoidal geometry are also confirmed on the Moon, with the geoidal heights ranging from − 298 to 461 m. For comparison, the terrestrial geoid undulations are mostly within ± 100 m. We also demonstrate that a commonly used method for computing the geoidal heights that disregards the differences between the gravity field outside and inside topographic masses yields relatively large errors. According to our estimates, these errors are − 0.3/+ 3.4 m for Mercury, 0.0/+ 13.3 m for Venus, − 1.4/+ 125.6 m for Mars, and − 5.6/+ 45.2 m for the Moon.

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