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  • 1.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Beijer Institute, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Borgström, Sara
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Colding, Johan
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; The Beijer Institute, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; The Beijer Institute, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gren, Åsa
    The Beijer Institute, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Reconnecting Cities to the Biosphere: Stewardship of Green Infrastructure and Urban Ecosystem Services2014In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 43, no 4, p. 445-453Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within-city green infrastructure can offer opportunities and new contexts for people to become stewards of ecosystem services. We analyze cities as social-ecological systems, synthesize the literature, and provide examples from more than 15 years of research in the Stockholm urban region, Sweden. The social-ecological approach spans from investigating ecosystem properties to the social frameworks and personal values that drive and shape human interactions with nature. Key findings demonstrate that urban ecosystem services are generated by social-ecological systems and that local stewards are critically important. However, land-use planning and management seldom account for their role in the generation of urban ecosystem services. While the small scale patchwork of land uses in cities stimulates intense interactions across borders much focus is still on individual patches. The results highlight the importance and complexity of stewardship of urban biodiversity and ecosystem services and of the planning and governance of urban green infrastructure.

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  • 2. Barthel, Stephan
    et al.
    Berghauser-Pont, Meta
    Chalmers.
    Colding, Johan
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Gren, Åsa
    Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
    Legeby, Ann
    KTH.
    Marcus, Lars
    Chalmers.
    Miljonprogram - unik chans att lösa flera frågor2016In: Dagens Nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Dolt värde av enorma mått. Ett nytt miljonprogram kan förskräcka, men kan vara just vad Sverige behöver. Men vi ska inte upprepa misstagen från förra gången. I stället måste politikerna nu ta fasta på denna unika chans att ta itu med vår tids stora utmaningar som integration, tillväxt och hållbarhet, skriver sex forskare.

  • 3.
    Barthel, Stephan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science. Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Berghauser-Pont, Meta
    Chalmers.
    Colding, Johan
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Gren, Åsa
    Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
    Legeby, Ann
    KTH.
    Marcus, Lars
    Chalmers.
    Nytt miljonprogram - unik chans att lösa flera frågor2016In: Dagens Nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447, no 25-aprArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Dolt värde av enorma mått. Ett nytt miljonprogram kan förskräcka, men kan vara just vad Sverige behöver. Men vi ska inte upprepa misstagen från förra gången. I stället måste politikerna nu ta fasta på denna unika chans att ta itu med vår tids stora utmaningar som integration, tillväxt och hållbarhet, skriver sex forskare.

  • 4.
    Berghauser Pont, Meta
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Barthel, Stephan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science. Stockholm Resilience Centre, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University.
    Colding, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm.
    Gren, Åsa
    Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm.
    Legeby, Ann
    Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    Marcus, Lars
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Editorial: Social-ecological urbanism: Developing discourse, institutions and urban form for the design of resilient social-ecological systems in cities2022In: Frontiers in Built Environment, E-ISSN 2297-3362, Vol. 8, article id 982681Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 5.
    Causevic, Amar
    et al.
    The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    LoCastro, Matthew
    Economic Research Institute for ASEAN and East Asia, Indonesia.
    David, Dharish
    Singapore Institute of Management, Singapore.
    Selvakkumaran, Sujeetha
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation.
    Gren, Åsa
    The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Financing resilience efforts to confront future urban and sea-level rise flooding: Are coastal megacities in Association of Southeast Asian Nations doing enough?2021In: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, ISSN 2399-8083, Vol. 48, no 5, p. 989-1010Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Continued greenhouse gas emissions will lead to a rise in temperatures, accompanied by rising sea levels threatening low-lying coastal cities. This vulnerability is especially acute in developing countries’ cities. This study reviews whether Bangkok, Manila, and Jakarta, less prepared emerging urban centers of developing countries, are investing in adaptation projects for resilience against sea-level rise and urban flooding. Sea-level rise and urban flooding resilience projects were identified in the selected cities through secondary research methods, data on multilateral climate funds, and other aggregated funding databases such as Aid Atlas, Cities Adaptation Action, and City Risk Index. Our findings show that even though these cities do have some adaptation projects to address coastal flooding and rising sea-level threats, the funding has been disparate and dispersed due to a lack of continuous, sizeable, and diverse financing options and does not come close to the requirement, given the risks, of covering potential disaster-related losses. Our findings further highlight the need to expand financing beyond multilateral funds and bilateral funding agreements and to include financial mechanisms that incentivize potential stakeholders to invest in projects that ordinarily are considered nonrevenue generating.

  • 6.
    Colding, Johan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science. Beijerinstitutet för Ekologisk Ekonomi, KVA.
    Gren, Åsa
    Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
    Barthel, Stephan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science. Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University.
    The Incremental Demise of Urban Green Spaces2020In: Land, E-ISSN 2073-445X, Vol. 9, no 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    More precise explanations are needed to better understand why public green spaces are diminishing in cities, leading to the loss of ecosystem services that humans receive from natural systems. This paper is devoted to the incremental change of green spaces—a fate that is largely undetectable by urban residents. The paper elucidates a set of drivers resulting in the subtle loss of urban green spaces and elaborates on the consequences of this for resilience planning of ecosystem services. Incremental changes of greenspace trigger baseline shifts, where each generation of humans tends to take the current condition of an ecosystem as the normal state, disregarding its previous states. Even well-intended political land-use decisions, such as current privatization schemes, can cumulatively result in undesirable societal outcomes, leading to a gradual loss of opportunities for nature experience. Alfred E. Kahn referred to such decision making as ‘the tyranny of small decisions.’ This is mirrored in urban planning as problems that are dealt with in an ad hoc manner with no officially formulated vision for long-term spatial planning. Urban common property systems could provide interim solutions for local governments to survive periods of fiscal shortfalls. Transfer of proprietor rights to civil society groups can enhance the resilience of ecosystem services in cities.

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  • 7.
    Colding, Johan
    et al.
    Beijerinstitutet för ekologisk ekonomi, Stockholm; Stockholm resilience centre, Stockholms unviersitet, Stockholm.
    Marcus, Lars
    KTH arkitekturskolan .
    Andersson, Erik (Contributor)
    Gren, Åsa (Contributor)
    Borgström, Sara (Contributor)
    Ekosystemtjänster i Stockholmsregionen: Ett underlag för diskussion och planering2013Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 8.
    Colding, Johan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science. The Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
    Samuelsson, Karl
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Marcus, Lars
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Gren, Åsa
    The Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
    Legeby, Ann
    School of Architecture, KTH.
    Berghauser Pont, Meta
    Barthel, Stephan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science. Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University.
    Frontiers in Social–Ecological Urbanism2022In: Land, E-ISSN 2073-445X, Vol. 11, no 6, article id 929Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a new approach in urban ecological design, referred to as social- ecological urbanism (SEU). It draws from research in resilience thinking and space syntax in the analysis of relationships between urban processes and urban form at the microlevel of cities, where social and ecological services are directly experienced by urban dwellers. The paper elaborates on three types of media for urban designers to intervene in urban systems, including urban form, institutions, and discourse, that together function as a significant enabler of urban change. The paper ends by presenting four future research frontiers with a potential to advance the field of social-ecological urbanism: (1) urban density and critical biodiversity thresholds, (2) human and non-human movement in urban space, (3) the retrofitting of urban design, and (4) reversing the trend of urban ecological illiteracy through affordance designs that connect people with nature and with each other.

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  • 9.
    Egegård, Colin Hultgren
    et al.
    Tingsryds kommun, Sweden.
    Lindborg, Maja
    Ljusdal Energi, Ljusdal, Sweden.
    Gren, Åsa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science. The Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Marcus, Lars
    Department of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Pont, Meta Berghauser
    Department of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Colding, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science. The Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Climate Proofing Cities by Navigating Nature-Based Solutions in a Multi-Scale, Social–Ecological Urban Planning Context: A Case Study of Flood Protection in the City of Gothenburg, Sweden2024In: Land, E-ISSN 2073-445X, Vol. 13, no 2, article id 143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to unsustainable land management and climate change, floods have become more frequent and severe over the past few decades and the problem is exacerbated in urban environments. In the context of climate-proofing cities, the importance of nature-based solutions (NBSs), obtaining relevant outcomes in the form of ecosystem services, has been highlighted. Although the role of ecosystem services in building resilience against negative climate change effects is widely recognized and there is an identified need to better integrate ecosystem services into urban planning and design, this has proven difficult to operationalize. A critical limitation is that modeling is a time-consuming and costly exercise. The purpose is to roughly estimate the ecosystem service of water run-off mitigation through simplified, cost-effective, and user-friendly modelling at three nested biophysical scales, under four climate change scenarios. Using the Swedish city of Gothenburg as an example, we propose an approach for navigating NBS-oriented flooding adaptation strategies, by quantifying the ecosystem service of water run-off mitigation at three nested biophysical scales, under four climate change scenarios, hence, proposing an approach for how to navigate nature-based solutions in a multi-scale, social–ecological urban planning context against present and future flooding events. Our findings validate the effectiveness of employing an ecosystem service approach to better comprehend the significant climate change issue of flooding through user-friendly and cost-efficient modeling.

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  • 10.
    Engström, Gustav
    et al.
    Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
    Gren, Åsa
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Li, Chuan-Zhong
    Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences; Uppsala University; Sichuan University, China.
    Krishnamurthy, Chandra Kiran B.
    Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences; SLU.
    Valuing biodiversity and resilience: an application to pollinator diversity in the Stockholm region2020In: Spatial Economic Analysis, ISSN 1742-1772, E-ISSN 1742-1780, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 238-261Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper characterizes the value of biodiversity and ecosystem resilience by formalizing a stochastic dynamic bioeconomic model of pollinator diversity under climate changes, with an application to oil rapeseed production in the Stockholm region of Sweden. It studies the optimal provision of semi-natural habitat for two different pollinator bee species: bumble bees and solitary wild bees. It is found that, despite being less effective, solitary bees hold considerable resilience value due to the differences in how the two species respond to temperature shocks. The paper also discusses the role of spatial aspects, in particular the reduced pollination effectiveness due to spatially uneven allocation of semi-natural habitats. It is found that spatial unevenness leads to an increase in the habitat provision, with an attendant reduction in the resilience value of solitary bees.

  • 11.
    Gren, Åsa
    et al.
    Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
    Andersson, Erik
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Being efficient and green by rethinking the urban-rural divide-Combining urban expansion and food production by integrating an ecosystem service perspective into urban planning2018In: Sustainable cities and society, ISSN 2210-6707, Vol. 40, p. 75-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A pressing issue for mankind is how to combine urban expansion and food production for present and future generations. Using a case study example -the Stockholm County in Sweden-we illustrate how incorporating an ecosystem service perspective into urban planning may help us rethink the urban-rural divide in order to facilitate a sustainable development of the urban agricultural landscape of Stockholm. In our case study we show that semi-natural pollinator habitats will be 12 times as affected by the planned urban expansion than farmland. Hence, the fate and management of semi-natural pollinator habitats need to be prioritized at least as much as saving productive areas for farming in the urban expansion process. We also show that urban green areas, through their potential to act as semi-natural habitats, provide a tangible link between the pollination service and the urban planning process, contributing to a better grounding of the urban expansion in an ecosystem service reality. Also, acknowledging that land use types typically classified as urban, such as urban green areas, can ecologically support many rural ecosystem services, like pollination and food production, contributes to overcoming the, often unconstructive, urban-rural divide. We conclude that beneath the apparent direct trade-offs between finding suitable land for urban expansion and preserving land for food production, there is potential for compromises, opportunities and synergies.

  • 12.
    Gren, Åsa
    et al.
    The Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Colding, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science. The Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden; The Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Berghauser-Pont, Meta
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Marcus, Lars
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    How smart is smart growth?: Examining the environmental validation behind city compaction2019In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 48, no 6, p. 580-589Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Smart growth (SG) is widely adopted by planners and policy makers as an environmentally friendly way of building cities. In this paper, we analyze the environmental validity of the SG-approach based on a review of the scientific literature. We found a lack of proof of environmental gains, in combination with a great inconsistency in the measurements of different SG attributes. We found that a surprisingly limited number of studies have actually examined the environmental rationales behind SG, with 34% of those studies displaying negative environmental outcomes of SG. Based on the insights from the review, we propose that research within this context must first be founded in more advanced and consistent knowledge of geographic and spatial analyses. Second, it needs to a greater degree be based on a system's understanding of urban processes. Third, it needs to aim at making cities more resilient, e.g., against climate-change effects.

  • 13. Haase, Dagmar
    et al.
    Larondelle, Neele
    Andersson, Erik
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Artmann, Martina
    Borgström, Sara
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Breuste, Jürgen
    Gomez-Baggethun, Erik
    Gren, Åsa
    Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
    Hamstead, Zoé
    Hansen, Rieke
    Kabisch, Nadja
    Kremer, Peleg
    Langemeyer, Johannes
    Lorance Rall, Emily
    McPhearson, Timon
    Pauleit, Stephan
    Qureshi, Salman
    Schwarz, Nina
    Voigt, Annette
    Wurster, Daniel
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    A Quantitative Review of Urban Ecosystem Service Assessments: Concepts, Models, and Implementation2014In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 43, no 4, p. 413-433Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although a number of comprehensive reviews have examined global ecosystem services (ES), few have focused on studies that assess urban ecosystem services (UES). Given that more than half of the world's population lives in cities, understanding the dualism of the provision of and need for UES is of critical importance. Which UES are the focus of research, and what types of urban land use are examined? Are models or decision support systems used to assess the provision of UES? Are trade-offs considered? Do studies of UES engage stakeholders? To address these questions, we analyzed 217 papers derived from an ISI Web of Knowledge search using a set of standardized criteria. The results indicate that most UES studies have been undertaken in Europe, North America, and China, at city scale. Assessment methods involve bio-physical models, Geographical Information Systems, and valuation, but few study findings have been implemented as land use policy.

  • 14.
    Lindborg, Regina
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för naturgeografi.
    Gordon, Line J.
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Malinga, Rebecka
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Bengtsson, Jan
    Peterson, Garry
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Bommarco, Riccardo
    Deutsch, Lisa
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Gren, Åsa
    Beijer Institute, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
    Rundlöf, Maj
    Smith, Henrik G.
    How spatial scale shapes the generation and management of multiple ecosystem services2017In: Ecosphere, ISSN 2150-8925, E-ISSN 2150-8925, Vol. 8, no 4, article id e01741Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The spatial extent of ecological processes has consequences for the generation of ecosystem services related to them. However, management often fails to consider issues of scale when targeting ecological processes underpinning ecosystem services generation. Here, we present a framework for conceptualizing how the amount and spatial scale (here discussed in terms of extent) of management interventions alter interactions among multiple ecosystem services. First, we identify four types of responses of ecosystem service generation: linear, exponential, saturating, and sigmoid, and how these are related to the amount of management intervention at a particular spatial scale. Second, using examples from multiple ecosystem services in agricultural landscapes, we examine how the shape of these relationships can vary with the spatial scale at which the management interventions are implemented. Third, we examine the resulting scale-dependent consequences for trade-offs and synergies between ecosystem services as a consequence of interventions. Finally, to inform guidelines for management of multiple ecosystem services in real landscapes, we end with a discussion linking the theoretical relationships with how landscape configurations and placement of interventions can alter the scale at which synergies and trade-offs among services occur.

  • 15.
    Marcus, Lars
    et al.
    KTH, Stadsbyggnad.
    Berghauser Pont, Meta
    KTH, Stadsbyggnad.
    Gren, Åsa
    The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
    Can spatial form support urban ecosystem services: representing patches and connectivity zones for bees using space syntax mehodology2013In: Proceeding - 9th international space syntax symposium / [ed] Young, K., Park, H. and Seo, H., Sejong University Press , 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the broad research field of sustainable urban development, we can identify a movement from a first generation of research and practice, primarily addressing mitigation strategies, to a second generation, broadening the field to also encompass strategies of adaptation. Most sustainable urban growth concepts (e.g. new urbanism, urban containment and smart growth) built on the findings from the first generation of research and have a strong focus on the transport-land use relation, aiming atreducing private (car) mobility and related CO2- emissions and air pollution. Research shows that higher density, land-use diversity and pedestrian-friendly designs generally reduce trip rates and encourage non-car mobility, although the results are still ambiguous (Colding et al, forthcoming). Creeping global environmental changes, natural catastrophes and volatile financial markets, highlight the need to put emphasis also on strategies of adaptation as a complement to environmental mitigation strategies of cities (Vale et al 2005). This type of research concerns the understanding of the resilience of urban systems in which urban systems are seen as integrated social-ecological systems, bridging the ancient dichotomy between human and ecological systems. Research shows that green spaces and its fragmentation are crucial for biodiversity and other ecosystem services.

  • 16.
    Noring, Maria
    et al.
    KTH.
    Hasselström, Linus
    Enveco Environmental Economics Consultancy, Sweden.
    Håkansson, Cecilia
    KTH, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Soutukorva, Åsa
    Gren, Åsa
    Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
    Valuation of oil spill risk reductions in the Arctic: 2016In: Journal of Environmental Economics and Policy, ISSN 2160-6544, E-ISSN 2160-6552, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 298-317Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, data from a contingent valuation (CV) study in Lofoten, Norway, are used to assess the value of ecosystem services at risk from oil spills in the Arctic. It is investigated to which extent subjective opinion about the probability of a potential oil spill steers respondents’ willingness to pay (WTP) for reducing risk. The respondents’ preferences are analysed for ecosystem services. Finally, differences in WTP for two hypothetical spill scenarios are considered: one where measures are taken to reduce the probability of a spill and one where measures are taken to reduce the probability and impacts in the event of an accident. The findings indicate that measures should focus on alleviating the impacts of oil spills on ecosystem services generally, rather than on any specific ecosystem service. Furthermore, respondents’ perception of risk is higher than the estimated objective risk. The findings also suggest that respondents are more concerned about preventing the occurrence of oil spill accidents (usually considered to be more frequent than they actually are) compared to preventing the impacts of a spill. One policy implication is to focus more on policies that decrease the probability of spills than on policies that decrease the subsequent ecological impact.

  • 17.
    Troell, Max
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Naylor, Rosamond L.
    Metian, Marc
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Beveridge, Malcolm
    Tyedmers, Peter H.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Arrow, Kenneth J.
    Barrett, Scott
    Crépin, Anne-Sophie
    Ehrlich, Paul R.
    Department of Biology, Stanford University.
    Gren, Åsa
    Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
    Kautsky, Nils
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och botanik.
    Levin, Simon A.
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Princeton University.
    Nyborg, Karine
    Department of Economics, University of Oslo.
    Österblom, Henrik
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Polasky, Stephen
    Department of Applied Economics, University of Minnesota.
    Scheffer, Marten
    Department of Environmental Sciences, Wageningen University, The Netherlands.
    Walker, Brian H.
    The Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation Sustainable Ecosystems, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia.
    Xepapadeas, Tasos
    Department of International and European Economic Studies, Athens University of Economics and Business.
    de Zeeuw, Aart
    Center for Economic Research and Tilburg Sustainability Center, Tilburg University, 5000 LE, Tilburg, The Netherlands.
    Does aquaculture add resilience to the global food system?2014In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 111, no 37, p. 13257-13263Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aquaculture is the fastest growing food sector and continues to expand alongside terrestrial crop and livestock production. Using portfolio theory as a conceptual framework, we explore how current interconnections between the aquaculture, crop, livestock, and fisheries sectors act as an impediment to, or an opportunity for, enhanced resilience in the global food system given increased resource scarcity and climate change. Aquaculture can potentially enhance resilience through improved resource use efficiencies and increased diversification of farmed species, locales of production, and feeding strategies. However, aquaculture's reliance on terrestrial crops and wild fish for feeds, its dependence on freshwater and land for culture sites, and its broad array of environmental impacts diminishes its ability to add resilience. Feeds for livestock and farmed fish that are fed rely largely on the same crops, although the fraction destined for aquaculture is presently small (similar to 4%). As demand for high-value fed aquaculture products grows, competition for these crops will also rise, as will the demand for wild fish as feed inputs. Many of these crops and forage fish are also consumed directly by humans and provide essential nutrition for low-income households. Their rising use in aquafeeds has the potential to increase price levels and volatility, worsening food insecurity among the most vulnerable populations. Although the diversification of global food production systems that includes aquaculture offers promise for enhanced resilience, such promise will not be realized if government policies fail to provide adequate incentives for resource efficiency, equity, and environmental protection.

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