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  • 1.
    Macassa, Gloria
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences. Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Sundin, Örjan
    Mittuniversitetet, Avdelningen för psykologi.
    Viitasara, Eija
    Mittuniversitetet, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Barros, H
    Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, University of Porto Medical School, Porto, Portugal.
    Torres Gonzales, F
    Departmental Section of Psychiatry and Psychological Medicine, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Ioannidi-Kapolou, E
    Department of Sociology, National School of Public Health, Athens, Greece.
    Melchiorre, MG
    Italian National Institute of Health and Science on Aging (INRCA), Ancona, Italy.
    Lindert, J
    Protestant University of Applied Sciences, Ludwigsburg, Germany.
    Stankunas, M
    Department of Health Management, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Soares, Joaquim
    Mittuniversitetet, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Psychological abuse among older persons in Europe: A cross-sectional study2013In: Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, ISSN 1759-6599, Vol. 5, no 1, 16-34 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – Elder abuse is an issue of great concern world-wide, not least in Europe. Older people are increasingly vulnerable to physical, psychological, financial maltreatment and sexual coercion. However, due to complexities of measurement, psychological abuse may be underestimated. The purpose of this study is to investigate the prevalence of psychological abuse toward older persons within a 12 month period.

    Design/methodology/approach – The study design was cross-sectional and data were collected during January-July 2009 in the survey “Elder abuse: a multinational prevalence survey, ABUEL”. The participants were 4,467 randomly selected persons aged 60-84 years (2,559 women, 57.3 per cent) from seven EU countries (Germany, Greece, Italy, Lithuania, Portugal, Spain, Sweden). The sample size was adapted to each city according to their population of women and men aged 60-84 years (albeit representative and proportional to sex-age). The participants answered a structured questionnaire either through a face-to-face interview or a mix of interview/self-response. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics and regression methods.

    Findings – The prevalence of overall psychological abuse was 29.7 per cent in Sweden, followed by 27.1 per cent in Germany; 24.6 per cent in Lithuania and 21.9 per cent in Portugal. The lowest prevalence was reported in Greece, Spain and Italy with 13.2 per cent, 11.5 per cent and 10.4 per cent, respectively. Similar tendencies were observed concerning minor/severe abuse. The Northern countries (Germany, Lithuania, Sweden) compared to Southern countries (Greece, Italy, Portugal, Spain) reported a higher mean prevalence (across countries) of minor/severe abuse (26.3 per cent/11.5 per cent and 12.9 per cent/5.9 per cent, respectively). Most perpetrators (71.2 per cent) were spouses/partners and other relatives (e.g. children). The regression analysis indicated that being from Greece, Italy, Portugal and Spain was associated with less risk of psychological abuse. Low social support, living in rented housing, alcohol use, frequent health care use, and high scores in anxiety and somatic complaints were associated with increased risk of psychological abuse.

    Social implications – Psychological abuse was more prevalent in Northern than Southern countries and factors such as low social support and high anxiety levels played an important role. Further studies are warranted to investigate the prevalence of psychological abuse and risk factors among older persons in other EU countries. Particular attention should be paid to severe abuse. Such research may help policy makers and health planers/providers in tailoring interventions to tackle the ever growing problem of elder abuse.

    Originality/value – The paper reports data from the ABUEL Survey, which collected population based data on elderly abuse.

  • 2.
    Soares, Joaquim J. F.
    et al.
    Stockholm Centre for Public Health, Stockholm, Sweden, and Karolinska Institutet , Stockholm, Sweden .
    Macassa, Gloria
    Karolinska Institutet , Stockholm, Sweden .
    Grossi, Giorgio
    National Institute for Psychosocial Factors and Health , Stockholm, Sweden .
    Viitasara, Eija
    Mittuniversitetet, Mid Sweden University, Department of Health Sciences, Sundsvall, Sweden .
    Psychosocial Correlates of Hopelessness Among Men2008In: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, ISSN 1650-6073, Vol. 37, no 1, 50-61 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined overall hopelessness, explored differences in various variables (e.g. burnout) between men reporting no/mild hopelessness and moderate/severe hopelessness, and scrutinized factors associated with hopelessness. The study design was cross-sectional, and the participants were 517 men randomly selected from the general population. About 12% of men reported moderate/severe hopelessness, and men with moderate/severe hopelessness were more often older, divorced/widowed, low educated, employed in blue-collar positions, on sick leave/other/unemployment/retirement, and financially strained. They also reported more depression, posttraumatic symptoms, and burnout. Only unemployment/retirement, depression, and posttraumatic symptoms were independently associated with an increased risk for moderate/severe hopelessness in the regression analysis, with unemployment and retirement as the most important factors. In conclusion, this study seems to corroborate previous findings and may provide new insights into men's experiences and predictors of hopelessness. More research into the predictors of hopelessness in men is warranted.

  • 3. Soares, Joaquim J.F
    et al.
    Viitasara, Eija
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Macassa, Gloria
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Quality of life among lifetime victimized men2007In: Violence and Victims, ISSN 0886-6708, Vol. 22, no 2, 289-204 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quality of life was compared for lifetime victimized (n = 353) and nonvictimized men (n = 167) for demographic and quality of life variables by a cross-sectional design. The univariate analyses showed that victims compared to nonvictims had a lower quality of life, were younger, more often had upper secondary school education, and were more often blue-collar/low white-collar workers, on student allowances, on unemployment, financially strained, and smokers. The regressions revealed that unemployment, financial strain, smoking, depression, and home/public abuse were associated with reduced quality of life among victimized men. Being a blue-collar/low/intermediate white-collar worker and social support were related to increased quality of life. This study may have provided new insights into the experiences of quality of life of victimized men.

  • 4.
    Soares, Joaquim
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Macassa, Gloria
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Miranda, Jamilette
    Viitasara, Eija
    Mid Sweden Univ, Dept Hlth Sci, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Health among lifetime victimized men2007In: International Journal of Circumpolar Health, ISSN 1239-9736, Vol. 66, no 4, 351-364 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives. We examined differences in demographics/socio-economics, lifestyles and mental/physical health between victimized/non-victimized men, and identified/quantified factors associated with mental/physical health.Study design. The study design was cross-sectional.Methods. The men were assessed in various areas (e.g., depression) by means of a questionnaire.Results. The univariate analyses showed that victims compared with non-victims were younger. They also had higher intermediate education levels, were more often blue-collar/low white-collar workers, were on student allowances and financially strained, smoked more, had a lower BMI, and reported headaches, depression, tension and cognitive difficulties more frequently. The regression analyses showed that financial strain rather than violence was a more important factor for ill-health. Only headaches and cognitive difficulties were associated with violence.Conclusions. Quite an number of men were in a poor physical/mental state, but there were few differences between victims/non-victims. Financial strain was determined to be a more important factor for ill-health than violence. Our data indicate that violence had little effect on men's health. Our findings do not generally support a relationship between poor health and the abuse of men.

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