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  • 1.
    Ahonen-Jonnarth, Ulla
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för datavetenskap.
    Odelstad, Jan
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för datavetenskap.
    Evaluation of simulations with conflicting goals with application to cleaning of young forest stands2006In: Proceedings of ISC 2006 (Forth International Industrial Simulation Conference), 2006, 498-503 p.Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Ahonen-Jonnarth, Ulla
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Odelstad, Jan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Simulation as a tool for the evaluation of forest management treatments2010In: ESM'2010 - The 2010 European Simulation and Modelling Conference / [ed] Gerrit K. Janssens, Katrien Ramaekers and An Caris, Ghent: EUROSIS-ETI , 2010, 426-433 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cleaning of young forest stands is a multicriteria problem with conflicting goals. This kind of forest management treatment is performed by human beings but it is possible that this work may be performed by artificial agents in the future. The artificial agents need detailed information about how to clean a forest stand and/or what are the goals for cleaning. One problem in development of cleaning rules for artificial cleaning agents is that explicit knowledge about good cleaning results is not detailed. In this paper we present a tool for developing and testing rules and judging evaluation functions for cleaning. We illustrate this tool by presenting examples of some ways to clean forest stands in a computer environment and we present how the cleaning results can be evaluated. In order to obtain material for experiments it is also possible to simulate forest stands using this tool.

  • 3.
    Ahonen-Jonnarth, Ulla
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för datavetenskap.
    Odelstad, Jan
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för datavetenskap.
    Simulation of cleaning of young forest stands2005Report (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Hjelmblom, Magnus
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för datavetenskap.
    Odelstad, Jan
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för datavetenskap.
    jDALMAS: A Java/Prolog Framework for Deontic Action-Logic Multi-Agent Systems2009In: Agent and Multi-Agent Systems: Technologies and Applications / [ed] Anne Håkansson, Ngoc Thanh Nguyen, Ronald L. Hartung, Robert J. Howlett and Lakhmi C. Jain, Berlin Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag , 2009, 110-119 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A norm-regulated Deontic Action-Logic Multi-Agent System (DALMAS) is regulated by a normative system consisting of norms, which are expressed in an algebraic notation based on the Kanger-Lindahl theory of normative positions. A general-level Prolog implementation of the abstract DALMAS architecture makes it possible to implement specific systems in Prolog. This work describes jDALMAS, a Java library that may be used to create DALMAS applications in Java. A jDALMAS application has a client/server architecture, where a Prolog implementation of a specific system acts as a logic server. Together, the general-level Prolog implementation and the jDALMAS packages offer a framework for implementation of specific systems. Two examples of such implementations are presented here.

  • 5. Larsson, P
    et al.
    Lehnbom, J
    Ahonen-Jonnarth, Ulla
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för datavetenskap.
    Odelstad, Jan
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för datavetenskap.
    Beståndssimulering. Delrapport inom projektet Skogssimulering: Beskrivning av programmet Beståndssimulator 1.02004Report (Other academic)
  • 6. Lindahl, L
    et al.
    Odelstad, Jan
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för datavetenskap.
    Intermediate Concepts in Normative Systems2006In: DEON 2006, LNAI 4048 / [ed] Lou Goble, John-Jules Ch. Meyer, Berlin: Springer , 2006, 187-200 p.Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In legal theory, a well-known idea is that an intermediate concept like "ownership" joins a set of legal consequences to a set of legal grounds. In our paper we attempt to make the idea of a joining between grounds and consequences more precise by using an algebraic representation of normative systems earlier developed by the authors. In the first main part the idea of intermediate concepts is presented and earlier discussions of the subjects are outlined. Subsequently, in the second main part, we introduce a more rigorous framework and develop the formal theory. In the third part the formal framework is applied to examples and some remarks on a methodology of intermediate concepts are given.

  • 7. Lindahl, L
    et al.
    Odelstad, Jan
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences.
    Normative Positions within an Algebraic Approach to Normative Systems2004In: Journal of Applied Logic, ISSN 1570-8683, E-ISSN 1570-8691, Vol. 2, no 1, 63-91 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8. Lindahl, L
    et al.
    Odelstad, Jan
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för datavetenskap.
    Normative Systems and Their Revision: An Algebraic Approach2004In: Artificial Intelligence and Law, ISSN 0924-8463, E-ISSN 1572-8382, Vol. 11, no 2-3, 81-10 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper discusses normative systems and their revision within an algebraic framework. If a system is logically well-formed, certain norms, called connecting norms, determine the system as a whole. It is maintained that, if the system is well-formed, a relation "at least as low as" determines a lattice or quasi-lattice of its connecting norms. The ideas are presented mainly in the form of comments on a legal example concerning acquisition of movable property by extinction of another person's previous rights.

  • 9.
    Lindahl, Lars
    et al.
    Faculty of Law, University of Lund, Sweden.
    Odelstad, Jan
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för datavetenskap. DSV, KTH, Sweden.
    Intermediaries and intervenients in normative systems2008In: Journal of Applied Logic, ISSN 1570-8683, E-ISSN 1570-8691, Vol. 6, no 2, 229-250 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many concepts in legal texts are "intermediaries", in the sense that they serve as links between statements of legal grounds, on one hand, and of legal consequences, on the other. In our paper, an algebraic representation of normative systems is used for distinguishing between different kinds of intermediaries and making the idea of a joining between grounds and consequences more precise. In Section 1, the idea of intermediaries is presented and earlier discussions of the subjects are outlined. In Section 2, we introduce the algebraic framework and develop the formal theory. After introducing our approach to the representation of a normative system, we here present a theory of "intervenients", seen as a tool for analysing intermediaries. In Section 3, dealing with applications, after presenting a model of the formal theory, suited for the analysis of concepts in normative systems, we apply the theory to a number of examples, introduced in the first part. Finally, in Section 4, we make some remarks on the methodology of intermediate concepts.

  • 10. Lindahl, Lars
    et al.
    Odelstad, Jan
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för datavetenskap.
    Open and closed intermediaries in normative systems2006In: Legal knowledge and information systems: JURIX 2006: the Nineteenth Annual Conference / [ed] Tom M. van Engers, Amsterdam: IOS Press , 2006, 91-99 p.Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 11. Lindahl, Lars
    et al.
    Odelstad, Jan
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för datavetenskap.
    Strata of intervenient concepts in normative systems2008In: Deontic Logic in Computer Science: 9 th International Conference, DEON 2008, Luxembourg, Luxembourg, July 15-18, 2008. Proceedings, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer , 2008, 203-217 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Lindahl, Lars
    et al.
    Lund university.
    Odelstad, Jan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Stratification of normative systems with intermediaries2011In: Journal of Applied Logic, ISSN 1570-8683, E-ISSN 1570-8691, Vol. 9, no 2, 113-136 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Writing a contract with a specific content is a ground for purchase, purchase is a ground for ownership, ownership is a ground for power to dispose. Also power to dispose is a consequence of ownership, ownership is a consequence of purchase, etc. The paper presents a continuation of the authors' previous work on the algebraic representation of ground-consequence chains in normative systems. The paper analyzes different kinds of "implicative closeness" between grounds and consequences in chains of legal concepts, in particular combinations of "weakest ground". "strongest consequence" and "minimal joining". The idea of a concept's being intermediate between concepts of two different sorts is captured by the technical notion of "intervenient", defined in terms of weakest ground and strongest consequence. Lattice theory is used for studying the links between different strata and the structure of intervenient strata. We focus on (1) intervenient minimality, (2) conjunctions and disjunctions of intervenients, (3) organic wholes of intervenients, and (4) a typology of different kinds of intervenients. Also (5), we pay attention to the properties of intervenients in a network of "strata". A legal example concerning grounds and consequences of "ownership" and "trust" is used to illustrate the application of the formal theory. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 13.
    Odelstad, Jan
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för datavetenskap.
    Agents, norms and forest cleaning2007In: Normative multi-agent systems: Dagstuhl seminar 07122, 18.03. - 23.03.2007, 2007, 15- p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The automation of forest cleaning presupposes principles for choosing those trees that ought to be taken away and those that shall be left standing. In this paper, which is a report on a work in progress, the question is raised whether those principles can be structured as a combination of a normative system and a utility function. Of special interest is the possibility that the agent system can evaluate the efficiency of the normative system and the utility function and, furthermore, suggest improvements of them. Earlier works on norms and norm-regulation of agent systems that the author has been involved in are used to elucidate the problem area discussed in the paper.

  • 14.
    Odelstad, Jan
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för datavetenskap.
    An Abstract Architecture for Norm-Regulated Agents2003In: Promote IT 2003, 2003Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Odelstad, Jan
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för datavetenskap.
    An essay on msic-systems2009In: Normative Multi-Agent Systems, Dagstuhl, Germany: Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum fuer Informatik , 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A theory of many-sorted implicative conceptual systems (abbreviated msic-systems) is outlined. Examples of msic-systems include legal systems, normative systems, systems of rules and instructions, and systems expressing policies and various kinds of scientific theories. In computer science, msic-systems can be used in, for instance, legal information systems, decision support systems, and multi-agent systems. In this essay, msic-systems are approached from a logical and algebraic perspective aiming at clarifying their structure and developing effective methods for representing them. Of special interest are the most narrow links or joinings between different strata in a system, that is between subsystems of different sorts of concepts, and the intermediate concepts intervening between such strata. Special emphasis is put on normative systems, and the role that intermediate concepts play in such systems, with an eye on knowledge representation issues. In this essay, normative concepts are constructed out of descriptive concepts using operators based on the Kanger-Lindahl theory of normative positions. An abstract architecture for a norm-regulated multi-agent system is suggested, containing a scheme for how normative positions will restrict the set of actions that the agents are permitted to choose from.

  • 16.
    Odelstad, Jan
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för datavetenskap.
    Intresseavvägning. En beslutsfilosofisk analys med tillämpning på planering2002Book (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Odelstad, Jan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Decision, Risk and Policy Analysis.
    Likvärdigt arbete och teorin om mellanbegrepp2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det är i många fall viktigt att skilja mellan deskriptiva begrepp som används för att uttrycka fakta och normativa begrepp som används för att formulera värderingar och normer. Men det gäller inte att alla begrepp antingen är enbart deskriptiva el. normativa. Istället kan många begrepp sägas vara både och, vilket innebär att de ”ligger mellan” de deskriptiva och de normativa. Dylika mellanbegrepp, också kallade kopplingstermer (på engelska intermediate concepts el. intermediaries), är vanligt förekommande i samband med många mänskliga aktiviteter, t.ex. vid utvärdering, beslutsfattande och regelstyrning. Det hävdas inte sällan att inom juridiken är huvuddelen av de intressanta begreppen mellanbegrepp och i Skandinavien fördes på 40- och 50-talen en djuplodande rättsfilosofisk diskussion om mellanbegreppens funktion vid utformningen av lagar och andra regelsystem. Inte minst diskuterades äganderättsbegreppet.

    I denna rapport presenteras en teori om mellanbegrepp. Enligt denna har mellanbegrepp två sidor, en grundsida som vetter mot det deskriptiva och en följdsida som vetter mot det normativa. Dessa begrepp har därför funktionen att koppla ihop deskriptivt med normativt och har karaktären av en sorts mellanstationer i begreppsbildningen. Som grund för framställningen ligger en logisk och formaliserad teoribildning, men syftet med rapporten är beskriva teorin utan att förutsätta speciella logisk-matematiska förkunskaper. Framställningen fokuserar därför på tillämpning inom ett speciellt problemområde, nämligen arbetsvärdering med fokus på begreppet 'likvärdigt arbete' och därmed sammanhängande begrepp. Rapporten är således avsedd att vara en introducerande framställning av teorin om mellanbegrepp exemplifierad med problemområdet arbetsvärdering. Läsaren kan sedan tillämpa teorin på andra problemområden. Ett tema som berörs i rapporten med relevans för diskussionen om mellanbegrepp är det ofta missförstådda förhållandet mellan mätning och värdering.

    Om man förbiser att ett begrepp egentligen är ett mellanbegrepp så kan det leda till allvarliga begreppsliga och teoretiska oklarheter. När begreppet 'likvärdigt arbete' missförstås i detta avseende leder det till missuppfattning av vad arbetsvärderingsmetoder egentligen är och hur de kan användas. Gällande 'likvärdigt arbete' föreligger inte bara en gängse uppfattning av likvärdigt arbete som är felaktig utan det tycks föreligga minst två vanliga uppfattningar av 'likvärdigt arbete' som är helt olika men båda felaktiga. Den ena uppfattningen skulle kunna kallas realism- el. deskriptivism-misstaget och den andra relativism- el. subjektivism-misstaget. Ett av syftena med denna rapport är att visa att vissa missförstånd gällande 'likvärdigt arbete' och många andra begrepp upplöses om man förstår dem som mellanbegrepp, dvs. begrepp som kopplar deskriptiva grunder till normativa följder.

  • 18.
    Odelstad, Jan
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för datavetenskap.
    Many-Sorted Implicative Conceptual Systems2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A theory of many-sorted implicative conceptual systems (abbreviated msic-systems) is presented. Examples of msic-systems include legal systems, normative systems, systems of rules and instructions, and systems expressing policies and various kinds of scientific theories. In computer science, msic-systems can be used in, for instance, legal information systems, decision support systems, and multi-agent systems. In the thesis, msic-systems are studied from a logical and algebraic perspective aiming at clarifying their structure and developing effective methods for representing them. Of special interest are the most narrow links or joinings between different strata in a system, that is between subsystems of different sorts of concepts, and the intermediate concepts intervening between such strata. Special emphasis is put on normative systems, and the role that intermediate concepts play in such systems, with an eye on knowledge representation issues. Normative concepts are constructed out of descriptive concepts using operators based on the Kanger-Lindahl theory of normative positions. An abstract architecture for a norm-regulated multi-agent system is suggested, containing a scheme for how normative positions will restrict the set of actions that the agents are permitted to choose from. Technical results inlude a characterization of an msic-system in terms of the most narrow joinings between different strata, characterization of the structure of the most narrow joinings between two strata, conditions for the extendability of intermediate concepts, and finally, a specification of the conditions such that the Boolean operations on intermediate concepts will result in intermediate concepts and characterization of most narrow joinings in terms of weakest grounds and strongest consequences.

  • 19.
    Odelstad, Jan
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för datavetenskap.
    Norms for Multi-Agent Systems - The Representation Problem2002In: Promote IT 2002, 2002Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Odelstad, Jan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för datavetenskap.
    Boman, M
    Algebras for Agent Norm-Regulation2004In: Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence, ISSN 1012-2443, E-ISSN 1573-7470, Vol. 42, no 1-3, 141-160 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An abstract architecture for idealized multi-agent systems whose behaviour is regulated by normative systems is developed and discussed. Agent choices are determined partially by the preference ordering of possible states and partially by normative considerations: The agent chooses that act which leads to the best outcome of all permissible actions. If an action is non-permissible depends on if the result of performing that action leads to a state satisfying a condition which is forbidden, according to the norms regulating the multi-agent system. This idea is formalized by defining set-theoretic predicates characterizing multi-agent systems. The definition of the predicate uses decision theory, the Kanger-Lindahl theory of normative positions, and an algebraic representation of normative systems.

  • 21.
    Odelstad, Jan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för datavetenskap.
    Lindahl, L
    The Role of Connections as Minimal Norms in Normative Systems2002In: Legal Knowledge and Information Systems / [ed] Trevor Bench-Capon, 2002Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Odelstad, Jan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Lindahl, Lars
    University of Lund, Faculty of Law.
    The Theory of Joining-Systems2013In: Handbook of Deontic Logic and Normative Systems / [ed] Dov Gabbay, John Horty, Xavier Parent, Ron van der Meyden and Leendert van der Torre, London: College Publications, 2013, 545-634 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
1 - 22 of 22
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