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  • 1.
    Eklinder Frick, Jens
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies. Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden .
    Eriksson, Lars-Torsten
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Hallén, Lars
    Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Bridging and bonding forms of social capital in a regional strategic network2011In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 40, no 6, 994-1003 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on networks emphasizes the importance of bonds between actors. Social reciprocity strengthens network bonds, which is assumed to have positive effects on business relationships between firms. However,the importance of weak ties is also stressed in network research. An important policy issue is therefore if more attention should be devoted to the creation of bridges to other social groups and loosening bonds between network actors. The difficulty in doing so is described and analyzed in this article focusing on a regional strategic network, which is viewed in three network perspectives. Interview data were collected from all participating managers in a regional strategic network in 2004 and 2010. The findings shed light upon the paradox of using a regional strategic network to counteract over-embeddedness and freeing the involved actors from existing network lock-ins instead of further strengthening such social institutions.

  • 2.
    Eklinder-Frick, Jens
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Eriksson, Lars Torsten
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Hallén, Lars
    Mälardalen Högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Effects of social capital on processes in a regional strategic network2012In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 41, no 5, 800-806 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the role of social capital is vital for implementing cluster policies as regional strategic networks and cluster initiatives are in fluenced by the local socio-economic context and its social capital. Socialbcapital can create value for companies by closure of the network structure (bonding), which maintains internal mutual trust but bonding can also over-embed companies in their social context, whereas sparse networks that provide links to other parts of relevant business networks (bridging) often provide greater innovation benefits. We provide a conceptual framework applied to a case study of a Swedish regional strategic network, and examples mostly of positive effects of bridging social capital and negative effects of the bonding form are identified. This is interpreted against the background of the regional dependenceoriented culture.

  • 3.
    Eklinder-Frick, Jens
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies. Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society, and Engineering, Västerås, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Lars Torsten
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Hallén, Lars
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society, and Engineering, Västerås, Sweden.
    Multidimensional social capital as a boost or a bar to innovativeness2014In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 43, no 3, 460-472 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Innovation does not only demand new ideas, financial resources and knowledge of supplier and user systems, but is also influenced by social capital which has an impact on the innovativeness in business networks. However, social capital is often vague, at times described as a “catch-all notion”. In this paper definitions of social capital are suggested to support the management of innovation in networks. Three dimensions of social capital are ap- plied in a case study of a regional strategic network – the socio-economic, the structural and the actor-oriented dimensions – while focusing on the last one. Data were collected at two points in time, at the start of the regional strategic network in 2004 and at the end of the project in 2010. The application of the concepts and the compar- ison between these two points in time highlight the influence of social capital and how it can hinder or be used to promote innovation processes. 

  • 4.
    Eklinder-Frick, Jens
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Eriksson, Lars Torsten
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Hallén, Lars
    Mälardalens Högskola, Akademin för hållbar teknik- och samhällsutveckling.
    Multidimensional Social Capital as a Boost or a Bar to Innovation2012In: Combining the social and technological aspects of innovation:  Relationships and Networks / [ed] Chiara Cantu, Daniela Corsaro, Annalisa Tunisini, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Innovation does not only demand new ideas, financial resources, and knowledge of supplier and user systems, but also social capital. Social capital facilitates interaction in business networks. However, social capital is often vague, at times described as a “catch-all notion”.  In this paper an operational definition of social capital is suggested to enable network management of business innovations. Three underpinning dimensions of social capital are empirically tested in a regional strategic network – the socio-economic, the network and the actor-oriented dimensions with a focus on the latter one. Empirical case data were collected in 2004 and 2010. The application of the concepts and the comparisons between these two points in time enhance understanding of how social capital can be used to promote innovation processes.

  • 5.
    Eklinder-Frick, Jens
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration. Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    Eriksson, Lars Torsten
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Hallén, Lars
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    Negative effects of the bonding and bridging form of social capital in a regional strategic network2011In: The 27th IMP conference, 31 Aug 2011-03 Sep 2011; University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, United Kingdom, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose of the paper and literature addressed

    Understanding the local socio-economic context is considered by Koschatzky and Kroll (2007) as a precondition for a well designed regional strategic network (RSN). Social capital is often used in research when analyzing such socio-economic contexts (Adler and Kwon 2002, Westlund 2009), and understanding the function and creation of social capital is therefore vital for implementation of policies on cluster initiatives and RSN.

    Adler and Kwon (2002) claim that there are two different ways of creating valuethrough social capital. These approaches are attributed to James Coleman and Ronald Burt, two key contributors within the field. Coleman (1988) claims that closure of the network structure (bonding) facilitates the emergence of effective norms maintainingthe trustworthiness of others. In contrast to Coleman, Burt (1992) does not stress the utility of consistent norms as the main usage of social capital. He argues that a sparse network including few redundant ties (bridging) often provides greater benefits. Social capital may involve norms and trust, but can also serve as a lock-in that isolates from the outside world by over-embedding a network in its own social context (Uzzi 1997, Gargiulo and Benassi 2000, Parra-Requena et al 2009, Molina-Morales and Martínez-Fernández 2009).

    Social capital might therefore not only bring positive effects to regional development, as its drawbacks under some circumstances might outweigh the benefits. Slotte-Kock (2009) argues that all network researchers agree that networks of social or business contacts provide both opportunities and constraints.

    Main contribution

    Molina-Morales and Martínez-Fernández (2009) and Adler and Kwon (2002) claim that there is a lack of empirical research particularly on the negative effects of social capital. The paper adds to the discourse through a case study focusing on the negative influence of social capital on the RSN process.

    Research method

    Representatives of the 15 companies included in an regional strategic network (RSN) project were all interviewed prior to the formation of the project in 2004 and interviewed again six years later (2010) when the formal network project was about to end. The longitudinal aspect of the RSN process is portrayed.

    Research findings

    The organizational lock-ins and network over-embeddedness that the bonding form of social capital might impose upon a network is exemplified in the studied RSN. It is also evident that existing social norms dominate the decision process within the studied RSN more than economic rationality. The creation of bridging linkages imposed by the management group resulting in low relevance of shared information.

  • 6.
    Eklinder-Frick, Jens
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Eriksson, Lars Torsten
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Hallén, Lars
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Social Capital, Individuality and Identity2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Eklinder-Frick, Jens
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration. Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    Eriksson, Lars Torsten
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Hallén, Lars
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    The Impact of Social Capital on Renewal through Cluster Initiatives2011In: Studies in Industrial Renewal: Coping with Changing Contexts / [ed] Esbjörn Segelod, Karin Berglund, Erik Bjurström, Erik Dahlquist, Lars Hallén and Ulf Johanson, Västerås: Mälardalen University , 2011, 129-146 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Eklinder-Frick, Jens
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Eriksson, Lars Torsten
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Hallén, Lars
    Mälardalens Högskola, Akademin för hållbar teknik- och samhällsutveckling.
    Three dimensions of social capital within technological cooperation2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Innovation does not only demand new ideas, financial resources, and knowledge of supplier and user systems, but also social capital. Social capital facilitates interaction in business networks. However, social capital is often vague, at times described as a “catch-all notion”.  In this paper an operational definition of social capital is suggested to enable network management of business innovations. Three underpinning dimensions of social capital are empirically tested in a regional strategic network – the socio-economic, the network and the actor-oriented dimensions with a focus on the latter one. Empirical case data were collected at in 2004 and 2010. The application of the concepts and the comparisons between these two points in time enhance understanding of how social capital can be used to promote innovation processes.

  • 9.
    Eklinder-Frick, Jens
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration. Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    Eriksson, Lars-Torsten
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Hallén, Lars
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    The Firsam cluster initiative: An attempt at regional business development2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    After a small municipality in Sweden was hit not only by the closure of the major industry in the town but also by the dismantling of the air force base which was another major source of local employment, a strategic network (cluster initiative) was set up involving 15 local companies in order to market their skills and know-how. The purpose was counterbalance the loss of the big employers by strengthening cooperation between local small and middle-sized companies. Based on interviews in 2004 and 2010 the relationships between the member companies are mapped out prior to the formation of the strategic network and five years later. The findings illustrate the difficulty to support cluster building for short term commercial success through a top-down approach, but also that such an initiative may create positive effects on social capital and in the end bring about long-term gains for the community.

  • 10.
    Eriksson, Lars Torsten
    Högskolan i Gävle-Sandviken.
    3M-modellen: en modellansats för affärsplanering1984Report (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Eriksson, Lars Torsten
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    Fågel Fenix - ett exklusivt varumärkes pånyttfödelse?2008In: Ekonomisk debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 36, no 8, 62-66 p.Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 12.
    Eriksson, Lars Torsten
    Högskolan i Gävle-Sandviken.
    Strategisk affärsutveckling: utveckling av en referensram som bas för empiriska undersökningar1984Report (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Eriksson, Lars Torsten
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle-Sandviken.
    Cronebratt, Tommy
    Högskolan i Gävle-Sandviken.
    Trend marketing: att segmentera med hjälp av trender och livsstilar1984Report (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Eriksson, Lars Torsten
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    Hauer, Amie
    Mind Map Marketing: A Creative Approach in Developing Marketing Skills2004In: Journal of Marketing Education, ISSN 0273-4753, E-ISSN 1552-6550, Vol. 26, no 2, 174-187 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this conceptual article, the authors describe an alternative course structure that joins learning key marketing concepts to creative problem solving. The authors describe an approach using a convergent-divergent-convergent (CDC) process: key concepts are first derived from case material to be organized in a marketing matrix, which is then used as the platform for creation of a marketing plan through various forms of creativity resulting in four maps developed through mind mapping, the technique of focus for divergent thinking in this article. Finally, the matrix format returns to summarize the key concepts, models, and major decisions identified during the first two phases. The student benefits from theCDCprocess in learning marketing both through the (re)discovery of what is well-established marketing knowledge and also through creative learning to solve practical problems continually in flux.

  • 15.
    Eriksson, Lars Torsten
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    Hultman, Jens
    One digital leap or a step-by-step approach?: a longitudinal study of e-commerce development among Swedish SMEs2005In: International Journal of Electronic Business, ISSN 1470-6067, Vol. 3, no 5, 447-460 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Eriksson, Lars Torsten
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    Hultman, Jens
    Jönköping International Business School.
    The Balancing Acts in SME e-commerce development: a multiple case study2008In: International Journal of Electronic Business, ISSN 1470-6067, Vol. 6, no 5, 476-497 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Eriksson, Lars Torsten
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    Hultman, Jens
    Jönköping International Business School, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Naldi, Lucia
    Jönköping International Business School, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Small Business e-commerce development in Sweden: an empirical survey2008In: Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, ISSN 1462-6004, E-ISSN 1758-7840, Vol. 15, no 3, 555-570 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to empirically explore small business e-commerce development and usage of the emerging ICT-infrastructure for e-commerce in Sweden. For more than a decade firms in countries with appropriate infrastructures in place have generally been able to exploit internet technologies for business purposes. Design/methodology/approach - The paper presents the results from a telephone survey on Swedish small businesses. The 160 firms surveyed were independent manufacturing firms in Sweden with a number of employees ranging from ten to 50 and a turnover not surpassing €10 million. Data analysis was conducted using SPSS. Findings - The paper presents empirical data on e-commerce development among small businesses in Sweden. The study shows that a significant share of the studied firms have adopted internet technologies, but also that more than 70 per cent of the small businesses in the study have more than five years of experience of e-commerce. The study finds that small businesses in Sweden show remarkably high levels of e-commerce adoption. The study shows strong penetration of web site and e-mail use among small businesses in Sweden, but also that advanced applications are still not broadly applied. Originality/value - Statistics presented by the OECD have recurrently shown that the Scandinavian countries are in the lead as regards building an ICT infrastructure. Sweden's leading position in ICT has been confirmed by several studies. Because of scarce resources and lack of knowledge, small businesses are generally known to be lagging in terms of ICT use. This study empirically explores small business e-commerce development in Sweden and contributes to the stream of research aiming at benchmarking e-commerce development.

  • 18.
    Eriksson, Lars Torsten
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    Hultén, Pernilla
    Hultman, Jens
    Kritiskt tänkande2007Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 19.
    Eriksson, Lars Torsten
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    Wiedersheim-Paul, Finn
    Att utreda, forska och rapportera2006 (ed. 8)Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 20.
    Eriksson, Lars Torsten
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    Wiedersheim-Paul, Finn
    Rapportboken: hur man skriver uppsatser, artiklar och examensarbeten2008Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 21.
    Hyder, Akmal S
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    Eriksson, Lars Torsten
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    Success is not enough: The spectacular rise and fall of a strategic alliance between two multinationals2005In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 34, no 8, 783-796 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
1 - 21 of 21
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