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  • 1.
    Kalinina, Ekaterina
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola.
    Voronova, Liudmila
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, Media and communication studies.
    War films and gendered nostalgia for the WWII2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article seeks to explore the common ground between bio-politics, gender, patriotism and war nostalgia. Taking off from the Foucaldian notion of biopolitics as a control apparatus exerted over a population, we provide an insight into the modern construction of Russian nation, where personal and collective sacrifice, traditional femininity and masculinity, orthodox religion andwar become the basis for patriotism. On carefully chosen case studies we will show how the state directly and indirectly regulates peoples lives by producing narratives, which are translated into media discourses and with a core of time create specific “gender norms” – women are seen as fertile mothers giving birth to new soldiers, while men are shown as fighters and defenders of their nation. In the constructed discourses nostalgia for a war plays one of the central roles and becomes a ground of a creation of an idea of a nation as one biological body, where brothers and sisters are united together. In these popular culture narratives people’s bodies become a battlefield of domestic politics. Popular culture hence produces a narrative of a healthy nation to ensure the healthy work- and military force. The authors tackle the above-mentioned aims by conducting visual analysis of several films, where the main characters are women in contrast to the majority of films about war. (Batallion (2015), A zori zdes’ tikhie (2015)). 

  • 2.
    Voronova, Liudmila
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, Media and communication studies.
    From gendering to intersectional labelling. Russian and Swedish political journalists' perspective on discriminating and promoting mechanisms in the media content2015In: Communication Papers. Media Literacy & Gender Studies, ISSN 2014-6752, Vol. 4, no 7, p. 64-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper suggests to study the phenomena of gendering in political journalism from intersectionality perspective (Davis, 2008; McCall, 2005) in order to understand gendering in the framework of other discriminatory and promoting mechanisms in political news. Gendering is understood as the perceived imprint of gender on the media portrayal of politics and politicians, as well as the processes whereby gendered media representations materialize ( V oronova, 2014). The paper is based on forty semi-structured interviews with political journalists working for the quality press in Russia and Sweden. The choice of the countries is driven by the wish to explore the difficulties and similarities of the journalists’ conceptualizations of gendering and other discriminatory and promoting mechanisms in two very different political and cultural contexts. The paper shows that the journalists in both countries highlight the importance of not only gender mainstreaming, but diversity in the content as a democratic value, where gender stands in the same row with other difference-making categories (such as ethnicity, sexuality etc.). The paper highlights the difficulties and contradictions the Russian and Swedish political journalists face trying to achieve their diversity ideal. The paper suggests a definition of intersectional labelling in political journalism, and proposes that it is an ambiguous process, which can be either discriminatory or promoting, depending on its manifestations. Moreover, its application is contextual, and is related to the journalists’ vision of ethics, commercial benefits of the media organization, and press freedom. 

  • 3.
    Voronova, Liudmila
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, Media and communication studies.
    Ot gendera k intersektsional'nosti: o neobkhodimosti ispol'zovaniya matritsy kategoriy v media-issledovaniyakh: From gender to intersectionality: On the need of using the matrix of categories in media studies2016In: Zhurnalistika v 2015 godu. Informatsionnyj potentsial obschestva i resursy mediasistemy: Journalism in 2015: Informational potential of the society and the media system resources / [ed] Vartanova, E. L. & Zassoursky, Y. N., Moscow: MediaMir, Faculty of Journalism, Moscow State University , 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [ru]

    В то время как гендерные исследования СМИ стали признанной областью медиа-исследований, использование т.н. интерсекционального подхода (Davis, 2008; McCall, 2005) встречается редко. Интерсекциональный подход предполагает, что вместо отдельной категории «гендер» исследователь обращает внимание на всю «матрицу доминирования» (Collins, 2000) - пересечение таких категорий, как гендер, класс, этническая и расовая принадлежность, религиозные взгляды, сексуальные предпочтения, физическая и умственная полноценность и т.д. Это позволяет исследователю лучше понять дискриминационные механизмы и механизмы продвижения определенных акторов и групп. Матрица доминирования может использоваться как в исследованиях медиа-контента (например, для получения представлений о стереотипах, присутствующих в новостном или развлекательном контенте), так и в исследованиях медиа-организаций (для того, чтобы понять, какие группы имеют доступ к производству медиа и на основании чего в разных контекстах выстраивается «стеклянный потолок», который не позволяет представителям определенных групп продвигаться по карьерной лестнице в медиа-индустрии).

    Как показало основанное на интервью исследование процесса гендеринга в политической журналистике в качественной прессе России и Швеции (который характеризуется присвоением гендерных категорий политикам и политическим процессам - см. Voronova, 2014), сами журналисты в обоих контекстах заявляют о неотрывности категории гендера от других категорий (этническая и расовая принадлежность, класс, сексуальные предпочтения, религиозные взгляды и т.д.), которые могут быть задействованы в производстве новостей. Как и гендеринг, акцентирование других категорий может носить как дискриминационный, так и позитивный характер. Российские журналисты отмечали, что высказывания зарубежных женщин-политиков часто подаются как особенно чуждые в связи с пересечением двух категорий (гендер и национальность), а шведские журналисты говорят о высмеивании российских мужчин-политиков в прессе Швеции, связанным с несоответствием их характеристик мужественности тем, что приняты в Швеции. Журналисты, работающие в качественной прессе, в обеих странах сталкиваются с проблемой несоответствия их убеждений о демократической роли СМИ с реалиями медиа-ландшафта. Если в российском контексте разнообразие (diversity) в медиа-контенте и обсуждение разнообразия как общественной задачи зачастую не считается выгодным с точки зрения рекламных продаж и конкуренции на медиа-рынке («стереотипы продаются лучше»), в Швеции гендерная проблематика сегодня вытесняется обсуждением вопросов, связанных с категориями этнической и расовой принадлежности, что неоднозначно воспринимается журналистами: разнообразие важно, но ведь и гендерное равенство все еще не достигнуто. Более того, медиа-контент во многом является, по мнению журналистов, отражением интерсекциональной иерархии в медиа-организации, которая также должна стать более открытой и неоднородной.

    Таким образом, с точки зрения журналистов, для борьбы со стереотипами в медиа-контенте и преодоления дискриминационных механизмов в медиа-индустрии, необходимо обращать внимание не только на категорию гендера, но на всю «матрицу доминирования». Этот же подход, несмотря на методологические сложности (см. Lünenborg and Fürsich, 2014), можно рекомендовать для рассмотрения и медиа-исследователям, особенно в пост-советском пространстве, где включение категории социального класса традиционно считается важным.

  • 4.
    Voronova, Liudmila
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, Media and communication studies.
    The mediated “Russian world”: gender perspective2016In: Baltic Rim Economies, ISSN 1459-9759, no 1, p. 60-60, article id 1948Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 5.
    Voronova, Liudmila
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, Media and communication studies.
    Ultimate Gendering of the Image of Russia: Political Journalism in the Times of Conflict in Ukraine2015In: 15th Annual Aleksanteri Conference: Culture and Russian Society, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Army marching towards the European capitals, missiles with sarcastic yellow smileys on their boards, arrows depicting the distance between Moscow and the potential targets of Russia's "friendly" invasion – the TV news cast by the national Pyatyj channel of the Russian television (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SemPHeiamBo) raised a broad discussion both inside and outside of the Russian borders. Should this and similar messages be read as an outright threat to the West, a mockery, or as populist flirting with the Russian citizens (see Schreck 2015)? From the perspective of gender media studies, understanding political journalism as "gender-politics" in itself (Kitzinger 1998), such messages can be viewed as an ultimate case of gendering in political journalism (Voronova 2014). Represented by thousands of male soldiers, Russia appears as a man, or even the Man – ready to penetrate and explode, come and take, enter and appropriate. This paper explores political news broadcast on the Russian state-controlled TV-channels – Pervyj, Rossiya-1, Rossiya-24, Russia Today and NTV starting from January 2015. Year 2015 is chosen due to two reasons. First, the news constantly follow the continuing conflict in Ukraine and escalation of the tensions between Russia and Europe. The conflict here is viewed as an accelerator for masculinization of the image of the country. Second, this year sees the 70th anniversary of the victory in the Great Patriotic War, which becomes yet another reason for discussions of the military image of Russia. The news are analyzed with the use of multimodal discourse analysis (Wildfeuer 2014) and some elements of feminist critical discourse analysis (Lazar 2005). The study applies intersectional perspective (Davis 2008; McCall 2005) and observes a broader tendency in the Russian political news of constructing a homogeneous image of Russia as a Slavic, heterosexual, orthodox Christian man.

  • 6.
    Voronova, Liudmila
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, Media and communication studies.
    Widestedt, Kristina
    Stockholms universitet.
    Gendering the country’s image: Russian and Swedish political journalism in the times of conflict2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Army marching towards the European capitals, missiles with sarcastic yellow smileys on their boards, arrows depicting the distance between Moscow and the potential targets of Russia’s “friendly” invasion – the TV news cast by the national Pyatyj channel of the Russian television (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SemPHeiamBo) raised a broad discussion both inside and outside of the Russian borders. Should this and similar messages be read as an outright threat to the West, a mockery, or as populist flirting with the Russian citizens (see Schreck 2015)? At the same time, in Sweden, the media turn to the discussion of gender mainstreaming as a “weapon” that a “feminine” country like Sweden can use for handling the conflict situations with more “masculine” countries like Saudi Arabia (http://sverigesradio.se/sida/avsnitt/522139?programid=1300).

    From the perspective of gender media studies, understanding political journalism as “gender-politics” in itself (Kitzinger 1998), such messages created in the times of external conflict or confrontation can be viewed as ultimate cases of gendering in political journalism (Voronova 2014). Represented by thousands of male soldiers, Russia appears as a man – ready to penetrate and explode, come and take, enter and appropriate, while Sweden appears as a woman – educating, caring, encouraging and using manipulative power rather than force.

    This paper explores Russian and Swedish political journalism constructing gendered images of the countries in the time of external conflict or confrontation. The chosen period is year 2015 that provides possibility for analyzing two different conflictual situations that are viewed as accelerators for gendering of the images of the countries involved: the war conflict in Ukraine that Russia is directly involved in, and the diplomatic conflict between Sweden and Saudi Arabia.

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