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  • 1.
    Björkman, Annica
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    The bidirectional mistrust: Callers’ online discussions about their experiences of using the national telephone advice service.2017In: Internet Research, ISSN 1066-2243Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Eklund, Rakel
    et al.
    Department of Health Care Sciences, Ersta Sköndal University College, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    An integrative review of the literature on how eating disorders among adolescents affect the family as a system - complex structures and relational processes2016In: Mental Health Review Journal, ISSN 1361-9322, E-ISSN 2042-8758, Vol. 21, no 3, 213-230 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The aim of this literature review is to describe how eating disorders among adolescents affect family relationships and the family’s daily living conditions and to describe the family’s experienced need for professional support.

    Design/methodology/approach

    An integrative literature review based on the method of Whittemore and Knafl (2005). 15 articles with both qualitative and quantitative approaches were reviewed.

    Findings

    The results are presented in two main themes: A disharmonic family and The need for input from healthcare professionals. The results are discussed using Callista Roy's adaptation model and the adaptive modes; Group Identity Mode, Role Function and Interdependence.

    Originality/value

    This review article will be of interest to clinical nurses and other professionals who encounter families to clarify how the relationships and roles change within the family. To our knowledge, no integrative review has paid attention to how the relational aspects of the family members, their social roles and role constructions within the family affect daily living.

  • 3.
    Erikson, Henrik
    et al.
    Department of Nursing and Care, Swedish Red Cross University College, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Future Challenges of Robotics and Artificial Intelligence in Nursing: What Can We Learn from Monsters in Popular Culture?2016In: The Permanente Journal, ISSN 1552-5767, E-ISSN 1552-5775, Vol. 20, no 3, 15-243Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is highly likely that artificial intelligence (AI) will be implemented in nursing robotics in various forms, both in medical and surgical robotic instruments, but also as different types of droids and humanoids, physical reinforcements, and also animal/pet robots. Exploring and discussing AI and robotics in nursing and health care before these tools become commonplace is of great importance. We propose that monsters in popular culture might be studied with the hope of learning about situations and relationships that generate empathic capacities in their monstrous existences. The aim of the article is to introduce the theoretical framework and assumptions behind this idea. Both robots and monsters are posthuman creations. The knowledge we present here gives ideas about how nursing science can address the postmodern, technologic, and global world to come. Monsters therefore serve as an entrance to explore technologic innovations such as AI. Analyzing when and why monsters step out of character can provide important insights into the conceptualization of caring and nursing as a science, which is important for discussing these empathic protocols, as well as more general insight into human knowledge. The relationship between caring, monsters, robotics, and AI is not as farfetched as it might seem at first glance.

  • 4.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    et al.
    Röda Korset Högskola.
    Christiansen, Mats
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Holmgren, Jessica
    Röda Korset Högskola; Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Engström, Annica
    Mälardalens Högskola.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Oslo University Hospital.
    Nursing under the skin: a netnographic study of metaphors and meanings in nursing tattoos2014In: Nursing Inquiry, ISSN 1320-7881, E-ISSN 1440-1800, Vol. 21, no 4, 318-326 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aims of this study were to present themes in nursing motifs as depicted in tattoos and to describe how it reflects upon nursing in popular culture as well as within professional nursing culture. An archival and cross-sectional observational study was conducted online to search for images of nursing tattoos that were freely available, by utilizing the netnographic methodology. The 400 images were analyzed in a process that consisted of four analytical steps focusing on metaphors and meanings in the tattoos.

    The findings present four themes: angels of mercy and domination; hegemonic nursing technology; embodying the corps; and nurses within the belly of the monster. The tattoos serve as a mirror of popular culture and the professional culture of nurses and nursing practice within the context of body art. Body art policy statements have been included in nursing personnel dress code policies. Usually these policies prohibit tattoos that are sexist, symbolize sex or could contribute and reproduce racial oppression. The results show that the tattoos can be interpreted according to several layers of meanings in relation to such policies. We therefore stress that this is an area highly relevant for further analyses in nursing research.

  • 5.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    et al.
    Röda Korsets Högskola.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Cyber nursing: a conceptual framework2016In: Journal of Research in Nursing, ISSN 1744-9871, E-ISSN 1744-988X, Vol. 21, no 7, 505-514 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There have been few attempts to express in words and conceptualise ‘the Internet’ and ‘health’ within a framework. The aim of this study was to present a conceptual framework concerning virtual self-care and online caring. The results show that the concepts of virtual communities, virtual self-care and torrenting frame these very specific interactions and environments and that the concepts of keyboard cowboy, cyber aid and health interests trader stipulate different ways in which to express expertise in cyber nursing. Alongside cyber-bullying, cyber nursing is also present in virtual arenas. Nursing researchers need to explore and monitor cyber nursing activities using concepts developed within the field of nursing.

  • 6.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    et al.
    Röda Korsets Högskola.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    Cyber nursing—Health ‘experts’ approaches in the post-modern era of virtual performances: A nethnography study2013In: International Journal of Nursing Studies, ISSN 0020-7489, E-ISSN 1873-491X, Vol. 50, no 3, 335-344 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The imperative to gather information online and to become an ‘expert’ by locating effective advice for oneself and others is a fairly new support phenomenon in relation to health advice. The creation of new positions for health ‘experts’ within the space of the Internet has been addressed as a cybernursing activity. A focused analysis of communication in health forums might give insight into the new roles that are available for health experts in cyberspace.

    Aim

    The aim of this study is to describe approaches to being an ‘expert’ in lifestyle health choice forums on the Internet and to elaborate on the communicative performances that take place in the forums.

    Method

    An archival and cross-sectional observational forum study was undertaken using principles for conducting ethnographic research online. 2640 pages of data from two health Internet forums were gathered and analyzed.

    Findings

    The results reveal three distinctive types of experts that emerge in the forums: (1) those that build their expertise by creating a presence in the forum based on lengthy and frequent postings, (2) those who build a presence through reciprocal exchanges with individual posters with questions or concerns, and (3) those who build expertise around a “life long learning” perspective based on logic and reason.

    Discussion

    The results suggest that experts not only co-exist in the forums, but more importantly they reinforce each others’ positions. This effect is central; alongside one another, the posts of the three types of experts we identify constitute a whole for those seeking the forum for advice and support. Users are provided with strong opinions and advice, support and Socratic reasoning, and a problem-oriented approach. The Internet is now an integral part of everyday living, not least of which among those who seek and offer support in cyberspace. As such, cyber nursing has become an important activity to monitor, and formal health care professionals and nursing researchers must stay abreast of developments.

  • 7.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    et al.
    Department of Nursing and Care, The Red Cross University College, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    The digital generation and nursing robotics: a netnographic study about nursing care robots posted on social media2017In: Nursing Inquiry, ISSN 1320-7881, E-ISSN 1440-1800, Vol. 24, no 2, e12165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to present the functionality and design of nursing care robots as depicted in pictures posted on social media. A netnographic study was conducted using social media postings over a period of 3 years. One hundred and Seventy-two images were analyzed using netnographic methodology. The findings show that nursing care robots exist in various designs and functionalities, all with a common denominator of supporting the care of one's own and others' health and/or well-being as a main function. The results also show that functionality and design are influenced by recent popular sci-fi/cartoon contexts as portrayed in blockbuster movies, for example. Robots'designs seem more influenced by popular sci-fi/cartoon culture than professional nursing culture. We therefore stress that it is relevant for nursing researchers to critically reflect upon the development of nursing care robots as a thoughtful discussion about embracing technology also might generate a range of epistemological possibilities when entering a postmodern era of science and practice.

  • 8.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    et al.
    Swedish Red Cross University College.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Turning to monster to learn about humanity: presentation of findings from caring monsters - the research project2015In: Human Rights and Health and the Astrid Janzon Symposium: Abstract Book, 2015, 22-22 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Popular culture; literature, movies and comics, is full of monsters. Monsters that both scare and amuse. Through history people has been fascinated, feared and amused by the idea of mysterious creatures, the monsters. Passing stories and constructing the “monsters” are part of all cultures and over times, although the representation of monsters are projected in variance over time and are historical and contextual bounded. Just as monsters are the binary opposition of the ‘good citizen’, monsters also perform as embodied representations of the “Other”. Monster is therefore best understood as embodiment of difference, a breaker of categories and a resistant other. Monsters are “tricksters” challenging our coding of the world by challenging our knowledge. The monster ask us how we as humans perceive the world and about our perception of difference. The aim of this project is to explore the caring activities of monsters in popular culture. The project will catalog monsters’ caring activities around the globe and analyze why, when and under what circumstances monster characters actually do care. In this presentation the initial analyzes of data gathered from the project website (http://www.caringmonsters.com/) will be presented. The initial readings based on a straight forward content analysis of why monsters sometimes go out of character and suddenly engage in some kind of caring activities will be presented. The result will contribute to a critical discussion of the impact of caring and the ethics of caring from which we could learn about humanity, when reflecting upon it from an “outside” and monstrous perspective.

  • 9.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    et al.
    Röda Korsets Högskola.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Twitter discussions as predicament of robots in geriatric nursing and forecast of nursing robotics in older care2017In: Contemporary Nurse: health care across the lifespan, ISSN 1037-6178, E-ISSN 1839-3535Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: People use social media to express perceptions, attitudes and a wide range of concerns regarding human life. Aim: This study aims at analysing the ongoing discussions on the internet microblog Twitter and offers some coming predicaments regarding developments in geriatric nursing regarding nursing robots. Methods: Data were retrospectively collected from Twitter. 1322 mentions were included in the final analyses, where principles of interpreting data by using netnography were utilized. Results: Many ideas are presented expressing functional, psychological and social aspects of robots in nursing care. Most postings come from metropolitan cities around the globe. The discussion focuses on market-driven, science fiction solutions for aged care. Twitter users overall seem to be positive using various nursing robots in aged care. These discussions offer a window into the attitudes and ideas of this group of users. Conclusion: We suggest that monitoring Twitter discussions on social media can provide valuable insights into current attitudes as well as forecast coming trends.

  • 10.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    et al.
    Röda Korsets Högskola; Mälardalens högskola.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Oslo University Hospital.
    Pringle, Keith
    Uppsala universitet; London Metropolitan University.
    Virtual Invisible Men: privacy and invisibility as forms of privilege in online venues for fathers during early parenthood2014In: Culture, Society and Masculinities, ISSN 1941-5583, E-ISSN 1941-5591, Vol. 6, no 1, 52-68 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Given the proliferation of support technology for men entering parenthood in virtual forums this project’s aim was to explore a virtual forum exclusively for fathers and elaborate on gendered questions for men’s parenthood within that milieu. An archival forum study was undertaken using principles for nethnography. The categories presented in the results overall indicate that the online venue creates a privileged invisibility from experiences in “real life” gender relations. This suggests that both horizontal and vertical homo-social dimensions are present in the forum support/negotiations which occur among the forum posters, whereby issues of invisibility and entitlement in some cases take a central position. We suggest that being virtual invisible men entails participation in both a marketplace of opinions and a homo-social competition.

  • 11.
    Gustafsson, Niclas
    et al.
    Ersta-Sköndal College University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Effect of Complex Working Conditions on Nurses Who Exert Coercive Measures in Forensic Psychiatric Care2016In: Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, ISSN 0279-3695, E-ISSN 1938-2413, Vol. 54, no 9, 37-43 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nurses who exert coercive measures on patients within psychiatric care are emotionally affected. However, research on their working conditions and environment is limited. The purpose of the current study was to describe nurses' experiences and thoughts concerning the exertion of coercive measures in forensic psychiatric care. The investigation was a qualitative interview study using unstructured interviews; data were analyzed with inductive content analysis. Results described participants' thoughts and experiences of coercive measures from four main categories: (a) acting against the patients' will, (b) reasoning about ethical justifications, (c) feelings of compassion, and (d) the need for debriefing. The current study illuminates the working conditions of nurses who exert coercive measures in clinical practice with patients who have a long-term relationship with severe symptomatology. The findings are important to further discuss how nurses and leaders can promote a healthier working environment.

  • 12.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Are nurses superfluous in PICUs?2015In: Journal of Psychiatric Intensive Care, ISSN 1742-6464, E-ISSN 1744-2206, Vol. 11, no s1, e4Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Comments on an article What are PICUs for? by Len Bowers (2012). Len Bowers held that traditional psychiatric intensive care units (PICUs) are under threat due to organisational changes in the health care system. In addition, PICUs are often assessed when exploring cost-cutting measures, since a traditional 10-bed PICU is almost never occupied by ten patients with a need for PICU environment. The author argues that developing a PICU cultural-specific language and teaching nurses to become more self-reflective in their roles in the PICU care culture may not only justify the existence of PICU; it may also shift the view of PICU as a whole, from being 'the punitive ward' to becoming 'the elite ward' where competence flourishes.

  • 13.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Cyberomvårdnad i virtuella miljöer2014In: Vårdvetenskap och postmodernitet: en introduktion / [ed] Henrik Eriksson, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2014, 145-188 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Enculturation into academic culture through Active Participation in Professional Conferences2014In: International Journal of Nursing Didactics, ISSN 2231-5454, Vol. 4, no 7, 18-25 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on academic cultures and specifically on the activity of attending conferences is sparse. The aim of this article is to describe the academic cultural activity of actively attending professional conferences and to provide novice researchers with structured guidance. The data is based on my own experiences of attending several conferences. The main goals of Active Participation in Professional Conferences (APPC) are to spread research results, gain insight from other researchers and their research, networking and, attaining merits. APPC is presented here as comprising three main phases: pre-conference preparation, on-site participation and post-conference review. In this study, APPC is viewed as an activity through which the identity of a researcher is socially constructed, involving disciplinary processes of being enculturated into the scientific culture, its norms and values.

  • 15.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Fra rigiditet til fleksibilitet2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Intensivpsykiatrisk omvårdnad: att skapa stabilitet och motverka turbulens2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Limiting patients as a nursing practice in psychiatric intensive care units to ensure safety and gain control2015In: Perspectives in psychiatric care, ISSN 0031-5990, E-ISSN 1744-6163, Vol. 51, no 4, 241-252 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The aim of this study was to describe how the limitation of patients is being practiced in psychiatric intensive care units.

    Design and Methods

    A focused ethnographic methodology was applied. To gather data, the author conducted fieldwork involving participant observation.

    Findings

    The results of the study are presented in two categories, which describe the limited access patients had to items and in the ward environments.

    Practice Implications

    It is advisable for practitioners to critically reflect upon local regulations and policies related to the practice of limiting patients during the worst phase of their mental illness.

  • 18.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Mental health nurses’ use of Twitter for professional purposes during conference participation #acmhn20162017In: International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, ISSN 1445-8330, E-ISSN 1447-0349Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scholars across different disciplines use Twitter to promote research and to communicate with society. Most conferences nowadays have their unique hashtag in which participants can communicate in real time. Previous research has reported on conference participants' use of Twitter, but no such studies are available in the field of mental health nursing. Thus, the explicit aim of the present study was to examine conference participants' use of Twitter during the 42nd International Mental Health Nursing Conference. Freely-accessible data were mined via a social media platform under the hashtag #acmhn2016. The total dataset consisted of 1973 tweets, and was analysed with descriptive statistics and a directed content analysis. The results demonstrated that 37% of the tweets were original posts, and 63% were engagements. In total, 184 individual accounts engaged in Twitter during the conference, and 16.4 tweets were posted hourly. Most tweets were categorized as conference/session-related content, but Twitter was also used for socializing with other participants. The most frequently-used words mirror a clear connection to a person-centred approach, and deviate from the biomedical terminology. However, not all of the conference participants engaged on Twitter, and might thereby risk being excluded from this backchannel.

  • 19.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Nursing Practice in Intensive Psychiatry: Moving From Rigidity To Flexibility2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Omvårdnad i intensiv- och akutpsykiatri - ta del av senaste forskningen och utveckla ditt bemötande och förhållningssätt!2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    • Akut omvårdnad – ta del av konkreta åtgärder att ta till i olika situationer

    • Hur kan du arbeta för att reducera tvångsåtgärder?

    • Hur bemöter och hanterar du olika tillstånd – ta del av olika exempel!

    • Att skapa en hållbar relation genom flexibilitet

  • 21.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Pleie i intensiv psykiatri: psykiatri rytmer og bevegelser i en stabilitetskultur2014In: Sykepleien Forskning, ISSN 1890-2936, E-ISSN 1891-2710, Vol. 9, no 2, 196-197 p.Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 22.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Prosperity of nursing care robots: An imperative for the development of new infrastructure and competence for health professions in geriatric care2017Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 23.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Psykiatrisk omvårdnad i Turkiet2014In: Psyche, ISSN 0033-2623, no 4, 18- p.Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Det kändes som om jag hade kunnat byta om, stämpla in och börja jobba på avdelningen”. I samband med en konferens om psykiatrisk omvårdnad i Ankara passade forskaren och psykiatrisjuksköterskan Martin Salzmann-Erikson på att besöka en psykiatrisk slutenvårdsavdelning.

  • 24.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Space invaders: A netnographic study of how artefacts in nursing home environments exercise disciplining structures2016In: Nursing Inquiry, ISSN 1320-7881, E-ISSN 1440-1800, Vol. 23, no 2, 138-147 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to present culturally situated artefacts as depicted in nursing home environments and to analyze the underlying understandings of disciplining structures that are manifested in these kinds of places. Our personal geographies are often taken for granted, but when moving to a nursing home, geographies are glaringly rearranged. The study design is archival and cross-sectional observational, and the data is comprised of 38 photos and 13 videos showing environments from nursing homes. The analysis was inspired by the methodological steps in Roper’s and Shapira’s description of conducting an ethnography. The results are presented in four categories: 1) public areas, 2) orderliness, 3) staff’s places and 4) devices. The rearrangement of geography implies a degrading of agency and loss of authority over one’s place. The places should be understood in their relation to the agents and their temporarily claims upon them. The material and immaterial artefacts, that is the items, people and behaviours, transform the nursing staff into “space invaders”. Future inquiries may take into consideration the ways that space invasion in participative space intersect and construct the identities of the agents it invades upon.

  • 25.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Medical and nursing science.
    Spice up your life: virtual communication on the experiences from using synthetic cannabinoids2016In: Sestrinski glasnik/Nursing Journal, ISSN ISSN 1331-7563, E-ISSN 1848-705X, Vol. 21, no 2, 112-116 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The body of evidence about synthetic cannabinoids and their harmful physiological and psychological effects is increasing due to laboratory research and clinical case reports. However, little attention in research has been paid to users’ perceived intoxication experiences. Therefore, the insider perspective is accounted in this paper. Purpose: The study aims to explore and describe anecdotal communication about “spice”, a synthetic cannabinoid, among users. Methods: A netnographic methodology was applied using data from forum discussions. Results: The findings are presented in two categories: 1th) communication sharing experience-based knowledge from intoxication and 2nd) communication sharing attitudes, norms and values. The analysis that follows posits that there is near-consensus among the posters (users who has submitted a message) that synthetic cannabinoids are associated with negative experiences and should be avoided. Conclusions: The performativity of interactivity may be pivotal in helping frightened users make sense of their experiences. Therefore, a platform for communication among Spice users has important intrinsic value.

  • 26.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Ersta-Sköndal Högskola, Oslo Universitetssjukhus.
    Stabilitet, rytm och rörelser: att konstruera vårdande i intensiv psykiatri2014In: Vårdande vid psykisk ohälsa: på avancerad nivå / [ed] Lena Wiklund Gustin, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2014, 2, 343-360 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Talking about “the problematic patient” does not benefit recovery2016In: SESTRINSKI GLASNIK / Nursing Journal, ISSN ISSN 1331-7563, Vol. 21, 82- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Using participatory action research to develop a work model that enhances psychiatric nurses' professionalism: the architecture of stability2017In: Administration and Policy in Mental Health, ISSN 0894-587X, E-ISSN 1573-3289, Vol. 44, no 6, 888-903 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ward rules in psychiatric care aim to promote safety for both patients and staff. Simultaneously, ward rules are associated with increased patient violence, leading to neither a safe work environment nor a safe caring environment. Although ward rules are routinely used, few studies have explicitly accounted for their impact. To describe the process of a team development project considering ward rule issues, and to develop a working model to empower staff in their daily in-patient psychiatric nursing practices. The design of this study is explorative and descriptive. Participatory action research methodology was applied to understand ward rules. Data consists of audiorecorded group discussions, observations and field notes, together creating a data set of 556 text pages. More than 100 specific ward rules were identified. In this process, the word rules was relinquished in favor of adopting the term principles, since rules are inconsistent with a caring ideology. A linguistic transition led to the development of a framework embracing the (1) Principle of Safety, (2) Principle of Structure and (3) Principle of Interplay. The principles were linked to normative guidelines and applied ethical theories: deontology, consequentialism and ethics of care. The work model reminded staff about the principles, empowered their professional decision-making, decreased collegial conflicts because of increased acceptance for individual decisions, and, in general, improved well-being at work. Furthermore, the work model also empowered staff to find support for their decisions based on principles that are grounded in the ethics of totality.

  • 29.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Virtual communication about psychiatric intensive care units: social actor representatives claim space on Twitter2016In: International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, ISSN 1445-8330, E-ISSN 1447-0349Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Psychiatric intensive care units (PICU) provide care for those with the worst phases of mental illness. What defines a PICU is often decided locally at hospitals. The aim of the present study was to explore and describe a contemporary discourse on how PICU are socially constructed from virtual discussions. An explorative and descriptive study design was applied for this qualitative inquiry using discourse methodology. The data were collected in Twitter's search string and consists of 215 Twitter postings. A framework of social actor representatives that form the discourse was established and presented in three categories: (i) hospital and agencies communicating about PICU; (ii) health-care professionals communicating about PICU; and (iii) service users and relatives communicating about PICU. Hospitals, agencies, and health-care professionals hold great power and responsibility for informing the public about PICU. 

  • 30.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Vårdmiljön inom PIVA främjar proaktiv vård2014In: Dagens Medicin, no 2014-02-11Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 31.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Work life and family life collide: new fathers seek online support about concerns related to parental leave2017In: Workplace Health & Safety, ISSN 2165-0799, Vol. 65, no 6, 248-252 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this investigation was to analyze online discussions about parental leave in relation to the work lives and private lives of new fathers. A netnographic study of nearly 100 discussion threads from a freely accessible online forum for fathers was conducted.  Data were coded, sorted and categorized by qualitative similarities and differences. The results of the study indicate that new fathers seek Internet forums to discuss work-related topics. Parental leave can provoke worries and anxiety related to management and co-worker attitudes which can provoke concern that they should be back at work. The results are presented in two categories: (1) Attitudes expressed by employers and colleagues, and (2) Leaving work but longing to be back.  The phenomenon of parental leave for fathers is more complex than simply “for” or “against” attitudes. Fathers can use Internet forums to discuss their experiences, fears and anxiety and provide reasonable accommodations for both work and family life. 

  • 32.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Bjuhr, Marie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Mårtensson, Gunilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Developing, Implementing, and Evaluating the Educational Module Students Active Learning via Internet Observations (SALIO) in Undergraduate Nursing Education2017In: Perspectives in psychiatric care, ISSN 0031-5990, E-ISSN 1744-6163, Vol. 53, no 2, 104-110 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    This study aimed not only to describe the development and implementation of the module but also to evaluate the nursing students' perceptions.

    Design and Methods

    A cross-sectional design including 101 students who were asked to participate and answer a survey. We describe the development of the pedagogic module Students Active Learning via Internet Observations based on situated learning.

    Findings

    The findings show that learning about service users' own lived experiences via web-based platforms was instructive according to the students: 81% agreed to a high or very high degree. Another important finding was that 96% of students responded that the module had clinical relevance for nursing work.

    Practice Implications

    We argue that learning that engages students with data that are contextually and culturally situated is important for developing competence in caregiving.

  • 33.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Björkman, Annica
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Mental illness in the population is increasing: a challenge for telephone advice nurses2017In: Journal of social service research, ISSN 0148-8376, E-ISSN 1540-7314, Vol. 43, no 3 Special issue, 432- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mental illness is a term that includes everything from mild symptoms of anxiety and depression to more serious mental illnesses such as schizophrenia, depression, and suicide. Reports indicate a negative trend, where rates of mental illness in the population are increasing, especially among children and adolescents and among the elderly. This negative trend in Swedish society requires not only preventive measures to stem the negative trend but also ongoing community resources to assist, support, and advise people with mental illness who seek care.

  • 34.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Dahlén, Jeanette
    Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Outpatient Clinic, Stockholm County Council, Stockholm, Sweden; Ersta Sköndal University College, Institution for Caring Science, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nurses' establishment of health promoting relationships: a descriptive synthesis of anorexia nervosa research2017In: Journal of Child and Family Studies, ISSN 1062-1024, E-ISSN 1573-2843, Vol. 26, no 1Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Qualitative values that address personal and interpersonal dimensions are often overlooked in research that examines mental well-being among young patients with anorexia nervosa. The aim of this study was to identify and describe factors that promote and impede the relationships between nurses and the children, adolescents and young adults who are diagnosed with anorexia nervosa and also to explore and describe how those relationships benefit the patients' processes toward increased health and well-being. A descriptive literature synthesis was conducted following the four steps as described by Evans. The three databases Cinahl, PsycINFO and PubMed were used to search for qualitative articles. Fourteen articles met the criteria for inclusion and were analyzed. Key findings were identified, and categories and themes were formulated and compared across the studies. Four themes are presented in the results: 1) The essentials in a relationship; 2) The person at the centre, 3) The nurses' attitudes; and 4) Knowledge. In addition to the contribution to the knowledge of how anorexia is manifested, our findings demonstrate the necessity for nurses to be person-centred in their relationships with patients and to have attitudes characterised by presence, genuine commitment and motivation. Nurses are more likely to convey a sense of trust and safety when they communicate with openness and honesty. Our study suggests that the motivation for patients to adhere to treatment is likely to increase when nurses approach patients with these characteristics and attitudes. We argue that the findings are relevant for nurses in their everyday practices.

  • 35.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Department of nursing and care, The Swedish red cross university college, Stockholm, Sweden.
    A descriptive statistical analysis of volume, visibility and attitudes regarding nursing and care robots in social media2017In: Contemporary Nurse: health care across the lifespan, ISSN 1037-6178, E-ISSN 1839-3535Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Technology in the healthcare sector is undergoing rapid development. One of the most prominent areas of healthcare in which robots are implemented is nursing homes. However, nursing and technology are often considered as being contradictory, an attitude originating in the view of ?the natural? versus ?the artificial?. Social media mirror this view, including in attitudes and societal debates regarding nursing and care robots. However, little is known about this topic in previous research. Objectives: To examine user behaviour in social media platforms on the topic of nursing and care robots. Design: A retrospective and cross-sectional observation study design was applied. Methods: Data were collected via the Alchemy streaming application programming interface. Data from social media were collected from 1 January 2014 to 5 January 2016. The data set consisted of 12,311 mentions in total. Results: Nursing and care robots are a small-scale topic of discussion in social media. Twitter was found to be the largest channel in terms of volume, followed by Tumblr. News channels had the highest percentage of visibility, while forums and Tumblr had the least. It was found in the data that 67.9% of the mentions were positive, 24.4% were negative and 7.8% were neutral. Discussion: The volume and visibility of the data on nursing robots found in social media, as well as the attitudes to nursing robots found there, indicate that nursing care robots, which are seen as representing a next step in technological development in healthcare, are a topic on the rise in social media. These findings are likely to be related to the idea that nursing care robots are on the breakthrough of replacing human labour in healthcare worldwide.

  • 36.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Röda Korsets Högskola.
    Empatiska robotar förändrar vårdvetenskapen2015In: Vårdfokus, ISSN 2000-5717, Vol. 12, 26-27 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi vill lyfta fram en till synes uppenbar 
vårdvetenskaplig paradox, den 
empatiska roboten, och vad en sådan paradox kan vara bra för.

  • 37.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    et al.
    School of Health and Society, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden; Division of Mental Health and Addiction, Department of Acute Psychiatry, Oslo University Hospital, Ullevål, Oslo, Norway; School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden .
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Röda Korsets Högskola; Mälardalens högskola.
    Fathers sharing about early parental support in health-care: virtual discussions on an Internet forum2013In: Health & Social Care in the Community, ISSN 0966-0410, E-ISSN 1365-2524, Vol. 21, no 4, 381-390 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Becoming a father is a life changing event and this transition is associated with various emotions. Educational activities aimed at new parents are important in healthcare parental support (HCPS). HCPS has been critiqued for its predominant focus on mothers, while the needs of fathers seem to have been downplayed. As a result, fathers often turn to Internet-based forums for support. As virtual discussions and mutual support among fathers take place in cyberspace, it is important to monitor these forums to observe the ways in which the fathers discuss HCPS. The aim of this study is to explore the ways in which new fathers visiting an Internet-based forum for fathers communicated their experiences of HCPS. A netnographic method consisting of six steps was used to gather and analyse the data. The findings show that fathers shared with one another their experiences of the attitudes expressed by HCPS workers as well as their own attitudes towards HCPS. The attitudes of HCPS workers that were directed towards the fathers were perceived as highly personal and individual, while fathers described their attitudes towards the HCPS in general terms, towards HCPS as a system. Overall, the fathers described HCPS as a valuable confirmatory support that eased their worries concerning sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), colic, weight gain, fever and teething. Although the fathers expressed gratitude towards HCPS, they also shared their negative experiences, such as feeling invisible, disregarded and insulted. In fact, the twofold attitudes that exist in the relationship between the fathers and HCPS can act as a barrier rather than being a confirmatory support. We recommend that HCPS adopts a broader approach using more targeted and strategic didactic methods for supporting fathers in the growth of their own personal awareness, as such an approach would offer a competitive and professional alternative to the support offered in informal experience-based Internet forums.

  • 38.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Röda Korsets Högskola, Sweden.
    Forskningsdata från cyberrymden: analys och vägledning utifrån vårdvetenskaplig kunskapsteori [Research data from Cyberspace: Analyses and guidelines from caring science epistemology]2015In: Nordic journal of nursing research, ISSN 2057-1585, E-ISSN 2057-1593, Vol. 35, no 2, 91-97 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim was to identify how ethical issues have been handled in theses written by undergraduate students in the field.

    Background: The act of gathering information online to become an ‘‘expert’’ by locating useful advice for oneself – and others - is a fairly new phenomenon. How virtual caring and nursing can contribute to people’s health as a resource is growing as an area of interest within the field of caring sciences. 

    Methods: A qualitative content analysis of 21 bachelor theses in nursing science was conducted. The analysis focused on how ethical issues concerning gathering data in cyberspace werehandled.

    Findings: The results show that the students chose very complex health issues when gathering data in cyberspace. The results reveal asymmetries between the researcher and subjects behind the data (the bloggers), both in terms of knowledge as well as in relation to the resources available to them.

    Conclusions: There is a need to discuss cyberspace as a source of data, including ethical, ontological, and epistemological issues. Based on the findings we provide a tentative outline of how data from cyberspace can be used by nursing researchers and instructors at all levels in the field.

  • 39.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Department of Health Sciences, The Swedish Red Cross University College, Stockholm, Sweden.
    PhD students' presenting, staging and announcing their educational status - An analysis of shared images in social media2018In: Computers and education, ISSN 0360-1315, E-ISSN 1873-782X, Vol. 116, 237-243 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Little research has been conducted on the question of academics' use of social media. The effects of social media on the educational environment of postgraduate students need to be further explored. The purpose of this study was to investigate the underlying values and ideas of being in postgraduate education by analysing 176 posted photos on social media. The findings show that PhD students manifest their educational status by presenting themselves as being in a process, staging academic artefacts and announcing important achievements towards the goal of earning their degree. These activities represent a global understanding of being a PhD student, that exists regardless of nation, gender or ethnicity and as such represents a “meta curricula” that exists above and beyond any locally defined PhD syllabus. It should be considered that the constant mirroring of PhD student life that has been made possible via social platforms seems to gain in importance and that the enculturation into the academic culture that exists among postgraduate students' own activities on social media needs to be taken into account when addressing postgraduate education, in practice as well as in research. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

  • 40.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Department of Nursing and Care, The Swedish Red Cross University College.
    Prosperity of nursing care robots: an imperative for the development of new infrastructure and competence for health professions in geriatric care2017In: Journal of Nursing Management, ISSN 0966-0429, E-ISSN 1365-2834, Vol. 25, no 6, 486-488 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    The Swedish Red Cross University College, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tech-resistance: the complexity of implementing nursing robots in healthcare workplaces2016In: Contemporary Nurse: health care across the lifespan, ISSN 1037-6178, E-ISSN 1839-3535, Vol. 52, no 5, 567-568 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Röda Korsets Högskola.
    The rise of the avatar: virtual dimensions of 'the human' in nursing science2015In: Nordic journal of nursing research, ISSN 2057-1585, E-ISSN 2057-1593, Vol. 35, no 3, 158-164 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this theory article, we discuss the virtual dimensions of the human, the avatar, in relation to ontological assumptions within nursing science. Assumptions in nursing science promote a ‘wholistic’ perspective of the human in terms of body, mind and spirit in relation to the environment. However, due to the enhanced technological development and the invention of cyberspace, we pose the critical question of whether the virtual dimension of identity really implicates a ‘wholistic’ view of human kindness or if this has been neglected. Furthermore, we suggest an ontological understanding that grasps new dimensions of humanity. In the article, we discuss the virtual dimensions of the human in relation to ontological assumptions within nursing science under the three headings of The techno-self and virtual identitiesTechno-therapy and cyber nursing, and Becoming homo technicus. Due to these reflections, this article contributes to the debate on a postmodern understanding of human living conditions in society. We suggest further theoretical discussions to explore the conceptual and theoretical levels of nursing knowledge as new realities of human existence are introduced in the field. The transition into the digital age of the Internet, with the existence of cyborgs and avatars, is an ontological and epistemological challenge for nursing science that needs to be further investigated.

  • 43.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Hiçdurmaz, Duygu
    Hacettepe University Faculty of Nursing, Ankara, Turkey.
    Use of social media among individuals who suffer from post-traumatic stress: a qualitative analysis of narratives2017In: Qualitative Health Research, ISSN 1049-7323, E-ISSN 1552-7557, Vol. 27, no 2, 285-294 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Suffering from post-traumatic stress impacts and restricts the life situation of the individual on several levels, not least regarding social difficulties. Social media on the Internet facilitate new possibilities for interaction and communication. Earlier research has demonstrated that people use social media to seek support and to discuss health-related issues. The current study aimed to describe how individuals suffering from post-traumatic stress use social media to convey authentic narratives of their daily lives, including illness, and further, to analyze the content of this media use. The data comprised YouTube videos, blogs, and forum discussions. Five categories cover the findings: (a) structure of the narrative, (b) narrating the trauma, (c) restrictions in life, (d) strategies in everyday living, and (e) online interaction. We stress that sharing narratives online facilitates a "verbalizing" of the life conditions of the sufferers and can be used as a self-care activity.

  • 44.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Lagerqvist, Linda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Pousette, Sandra
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Keep calm and have a good night: nurses' strategies to promote inpatients' sleep in the hospital environment2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 30, no 2, 356-364 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Patients in the hospital environment are suffering from disrupted sleep, which adversely affects their recovery process, health and well-being. The aim of this study was to explore nurses' experiences and their strategies to promote inpatients' sleep. An empirical qualitative design was applied. Eight nurses at a hospital in Sweden were purposefully selected to be included in semi-structured interviews. Burnard's method for inductively analysing interview transcripts was applied. The findings are presented in four categories: (i) prevention and planning as a sleep-promoting nursing strategy; (ii) adaptation of the environment as a sleep-promoting nursing strategy; (iii) use of drugs as a sleep-promoting nursing strategy; and (iv) caring conversation as a sleep-promoting nursing strategy. Using strategies to promote sleep is important as it affects the recovery of the patients. We argue for the use of simple strategies of sensory reduction as cost-effective sleep-promoting measures that also reduce the use of sedative drugs.

  • 45.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Persson, Jennifer
    Rättspsykiatriska kliniken, Säter.
    Fallqvist, Carolina
    Landstinget Dalarna, Allmänpsykiatriska kliniken, Falun och Säter.
    De ropar efter hjälp, vi är vanmäktiga: att vårda patienter med självskadebeteende i rättspsykiatrisk vård2014In: Vård i Norden, ISSN 0107-4083, E-ISSN 1890-4238, Vol. 34, no 3, 48-52 p., 113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: This study addresses self-injury among patients receiving care in forensic psychiatry.Background: Self-injury is common among patients diagnosed with borderline personality disorder, bipolar disorder with elements ofdepression and schizophrenia. Self-injury affects both the patient as well as their surroundings.Objective: To describe nurses' experiences of caring for patients with self-injurious behavior in forensic psychiatric care.Method: A qualitative approach was applied. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with eight nurses. The data werethereafter analysed with an inductive and manifest content analysis.Results: The results are presented according to two categories: ‘caring that evokes emotions’ and ‘caring that requires teamwork’.Discussion: In the present study, we demonstrate a duplicitous problem in which carers are divided over what is expected of them asresponsible and professional caregivers and their perceived lack of skills and their frustration.Conclusion: Viewing self-injury as a complex expression of mental illness, we recommend that further research is needed in this area– especially in the forensic psychiatric care context, where long term health care relationships are involved.

  • 46.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Rydlo, Cecilia
    School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, University of Mälardalen, Västerås, Sweden.
    Wiklund Gustin, Lena
    School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, University of Mälardalen, Västerås, Sweden; Department of Health and Care Sciences, UiT/The Arctic University of Norway, Campus Narvik, Norway.
    Getting to know the person behind the illness: the significance of interacting with patients hospitalised in forensic psychiatric settings2016In: Journal of Clinical Nursing, ISSN 0962-1067, E-ISSN 1365-2702, Vol. 25, no 9-10, 1426-1434 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To describe what nurses want to accomplish in relationships with patients who are hospitalised in forensic psychiatric settings.

    BACKGROUND: Relationships between staff and patients in forensic psychiatric settings should be grounded in trust and confidence, and the patients need opportunities for emotional reconciliation. However, relationships can be challenging for nurses, who sometimes distance themselves from patients' expressions of suffering. The role of forensic mental health nurses is nebulous, as are the prescriptives and the implementation of nursing practices.

    DESIGN: Qualitative descriptive design.

    METHODS: In-depth interviews with five nurses who all work in forensic psychiatric settings.

    RESULTS: We present a descriptive analysis of what nurses want to accomplish in relationships with patients who are hospitalised in forensic psychiatric settings. The results are presented in two main categories: (1) getting to know the person behind the illness and (2) making a difference.

    CONCLUSION: Care in forensic psychiatry needs to shift towards a more long-term view of the role of nursing, focusing less on the traditional and stereotypical identity of the productive nurse and more on the care given when nurses slow down and take the time to see the patients as individuals. Establishing trusting relationships with patients in forensic psychiatric settings is viewed as a less oppressive way to control patients and guide them in directions that are preferable for the nurses and for the society.

    RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Nurses may use simple strategies in their daily practice such as sitting on the sofa with patients to establish trust. We stress that nurses should abandon policing roles and custodial activities in favour of guiding principles that promote individual recovery, treatment and health-promoting care.

  • 47.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Söderqvist, Cecilia
    School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, University of Mälardalen, Västerås, Sweden; Centre for Clinical Research, Västmanland County Hospital, Västerås, Sweden .
    Being subject to restrictions, limitations and disciplining: a thematic analysis of individuals’ experiences in psychiatric intensive care2017In: Issues in Mental Health Nursing, ISSN 0161-2840, E-ISSN 1096-4673, Vol. 38, no 7, 540-548 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to describe individuals' experiences of being hospitalized in psychiatric intensive care units (PICUs). Four participants who had previously been admitted in a PICU were interviewed using open-ended questions. The data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Analysis resulted in a synthesis of the various ways patients experienced limitations: (1) Descriptions of Being Limited in the Environment, (2) Descriptions of being Limited in Interactions with Staff, (3) Descriptions of Being Limited in terms of Access to Information, and (4) Descriptions of Having Limited Freedom and Autonomy. Hospitalization is experienced as a life-changing event that shows a kaleidoscopic view of limitation. We stress that the conceptualization of limitation must be considered due to its historical origins, sociopolitical aspirations, and philosophy of care. Thus, nurse practitioners and nursing leaders are advised to put the patient's experience at the center of care, and to involve and integrate patients throughout the recovery process.

  • 48.
    Sjöberg, Fredric
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Schönning, Emil
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Nurses' experiences of performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation in intensive care units: a qualitative study2015In: Journal of Clinical Nursing, ISSN 0962-1067, E-ISSN 1365-2702, Vol. 24, no 17-18, 2522-2528 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims and objectives: To describe the nurses' experiences of performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation in intensive care units.

    Background: Research in the area of resuscitation is primarily concentrated on medical and biophysical aspects. The subjective experiences of those who perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation and their emotions are more seldom addressed. Design: Qualitative descriptive design.

    Methods: Qualitative semi-structured interviews were used (n = 8). Data were analysed with content analysis.

    Results: Three categories describe the experiences of nurses: training and precardiopulmonary resuscitation; chaos and order during cardiopulmonary resuscitation; and debriefing postcardiopulmonary resuscitation. The study results indicate that the health care staff find it necessary to practice cardiopulmonary resuscitation, as it provides them with a basic feeling of security when applying it in actual situations.

    Conclusion: We argue that postcardiopulmonary resuscitation debriefing must be viewed in the light of its eigenvalue with a specific focus on the staff's experiences and emotions, and not only on the intention of identifying errors.

    Relevance to clinical practice: Debriefing is of the utmost importance for the nurses. Clinical leaders may make use of the findings of this study to introduce debriefing forums as a possible standard clinical procedure. 

  • 49.
    Thunborg, Charlotta
    et al.
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society at the Karolinska Institutet Division of Neurogeriatrics, Center for Alzheimer Research in Huddinge, Sweden.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    A qualitative inquiry into the complex features of strained interactions: analysis and implications for healthcare personnel2017In: The Permanente Journal, ISSN 1552-5767, E-ISSN 1552-5775, Vol. 21, 16-032Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Communication skills are vital for successful relationships between patients and healthcare professionals. Failure to communicate may lead to a lack of understanding and may result in strained interactions. Our theoretical point of departure was to make use of chaos and complexity theories. The aim of this study was to examine the features of strained interactions and to discuss their relevance for healthcare settings.

    Methods: A netnography study design was applied. Data were purposefully sampled, and video clips (122 minutes from 30 video clips) from public online venues were used.

    Results: The results are presented in four categories: a) unpredictability; b) sensitivity dependence; c) resistibility; and d) iteration. They are all features of strained interactions.

    Conclusion: Strained interactions are a complex phenomenon that exists in healthcare settings. The findings provide health care professionals guidance to understand the complexity and the features of strained interactions.

  • 50.
    Wallström, Rebecca
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Ståleborg Persson, Renée
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Working with children in families with parental substance abuse: nurses' experiences and complexity in relationships2016In: Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, ISSN 0279-3695, E-ISSN 1938-2413, Vol. 54, no 6, 38-44 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Children who grow up in families with parental substance abuse are exposed to increased risk of developing a variety of disorders. As nurses encounter these children, it is important for them to be supportive. The aim of the current study was to describe nurses' experiences and reflections regarding their work with children in families with parental substance abuse. A qualitative descriptive approach was adopted. Seven nurses were interviewed, and data were analyzed using inductive content analysis. The results were presented in four categories: (a) nurses' responsibilities; (b) identification of children's social network; (c) ethical concerns; and (d) assessment and evaluation of children's behavior. Nurses' preventive work and intervention in dysfunctional families may have direct consequences on children's present and future development and well-being. 

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  • asciidoc
  • rtf