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  • 1.
    Abbott, Rebecca
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Straker, Leon
    Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Patterning of children's sedentary time at and away from school2013In: Obesity, ISSN 1930-7381, Vol. 21, E131-E133 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective:

    Sedentary behavior in children is positively associated with an increased risk of both obesity and insulin resistance. Children spend a considerable portion of their awake time in sedentary behavior; however, the pattern of accumulation is not known. Thus the objective of this study was to describe the patterning of sedentary behavior of children at and away from school.

    Design and Methods:

    The patterns of sedentary time in a sample of 53 children (28 girls) aged 10-12 years during school-term time were examined. Children wore an accelerometer for 1 week. Total sedentary time, prolonged sequences (bouts) of sedentary time, and frequency of active interruptions to sedentary were examined on school days and weekends and within school time and non-school time on school days.

    Results:

    The data did not support our hypothesis that children accumulated more sedentary time on school days when compared with weekend days (mean [SD]: 64.4% [5.3] vs. 64.9% [9.0], P = 0.686). However, when comparing school time with non-school time on school days, children accumulated more sedentary time at school (66.8% [7.3] vs. 62.4% [5.2], P < 0.001) and spent more time at school in sustained sedentary sequences, that is, uninterrupted sedentary time for 30 min or more (75.6 min [45.8] vs. 45.0 min [26.8], P < 0.002). The children also recorded less breaks per sedentary hour within school time when compared with non-school time (8.9 h−1 vs. 10.2 h−1, P < 0.001).

    Conclusion:

    Reducing total sedentary time spent both in and out of school remains an important challenge. Interrupting sedentary time more often in the “working” (school) day could also reap important musculoskeletal and metabolic health rewards for children.

  • 2.
    Aleksandrov, A. A.
    et al.
    St Petersburg State University, Russia.
    Deinekina, T. S.
    St Petersburg State University, Russia.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Lyskov, Eugene B.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    ВЛИЯНИЕ НАБЛЮДЕНИЯ ЗА ДВИЖЕНИЕМ НА ВОССТАНОВЛЕНИЕ РАБОТОСПОСОБНОСТИ ПОСЛЕ ФИЗИЧЕСКОГО УТОМЛЕНИЯ [The influence of movement's observation on recuperation after physical fatigue]2014In: Zurnal vyssej nervnoj deâtel'nosti im. I.P. Pavlova, ISSN 0044-4677, Vol. 64, no 5, 481-487 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study aim was to investigate effects of mental activity, accompanied by mu-rhythm depression, on recuperation after physical fatigue. In a study participants performed 11 one minute bouts of static hand grip intermitted by 2 minutes rest pauses. During pauses participants watched video with either dynamic hand grips (biological movements) or deformation of geometric figure (control). Obtained data showed there was a significant depression of mu-rhythm during biological movement's observation. There was significant fatigue of subjects in an exercise with physical activity, but there was no reliable influence of performed mental activity on recovery after fatigue.

  • 3.
    Arvidsson, Inger
    et al.
    Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
    Hansson, Gert-Ake
    Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Skerfving, Staffan
    Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
    Neck postures in air traffic controllers with and without neck/shoulder disorders2008In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 39, no 2, 255-260 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prolonged computer work with an extended neck is commonly believed to be associated with an increased risk of neck-shoulder disorders. The aim of this study was to compare neck postures during computer work between female cases with neck-shoulder disorders, and healthy referents. Based on physical examinations, 13 cases and 11 referents were selected among 70 female air traffic controllers with the same computer-based work tasks and identical work stations. Postures and movements were measured by inclinometers, placed on the forehead and upper back (C7/Th1) during authentic air traffic control. A recently developed method was applied to assess flexion/extension in the neck, calculated as the difference between head and upper back flexion/extension. Results: Cases and referents did not differ significantly in neck posture (median neck flexion/extension: -10° vs. -9°; p=0.9). Hence, the belief that neck extension posture is associated with neck-shoulder disorders in computer work is not supported by the present data

  • 4.
    Arvidsson, Inger
    et al.
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
    Hansson, Gert-Åke
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science.
    Skerfving, Staffan
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
    Changes in physical workload with implementation of mouse-based information technology in air traffic control2006In: International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, ISSN 0169-8141, E-ISSN 1872-8219, Vol. 36, no 7, 613-622 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Effects on physical workload were quantified when introducing new information technology in air traffic control. Seven female and seven male air traffic controllers were studied in an old control system, and during simulated - but similar - work in a new, mouse-based system. Postures, movements and muscular load were recorded (inclinometry for head, neck, back and upper arms; goniometry for wrists; electromyography for the trapezius and forearm extensor muscles). The new system was associated with lower movement velocities than the old one (examples; [50th percentiles] head flexion: 2 vs. 5 o/s, P<0.01; right arm elevation: 3 vs. 6 o/s; P<0.01; [90th percentile] wrist flexion: 19 vs. 50 o/s, P<0.01), less varying postures (head: 95th-5th percentile range 17° vs. 34o; P<0.01), and less muscular rest in the right forearm extensors (3.5 vs. 9% of time; P<0.05). The old/new system differences were amplified at high work intensities. The new air traffic control system caused a major change of physical exposures, probably associated with an increased risk of musculoskeletal disorders in arms and hands.

    Relevance to industry

    While this study concerned the specific changes in the introduction of a new air traffic control system, we believe that the findings are applicable to similar technological developments in other settings.

  • 5. Arvidsson, Inger
    et al.
    Hansson, Gert-Åke
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Belastningsskadecentrum.
    Skerfving, Staffan
    "Gamnacke" och nackbesvär vid datorarbete: finns det något samband?2005In: Svenska Läkaresällskapets Riksstämma, 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 6. Arvidsson, Inger
    et al.
    Hansson, Gert-Åke
    Mathiassen, Svend-Erik
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Skerfving, S
    Physical workload and musculoskeletal disorders in computerized work, among air traffic controllers2007In: Work With Computing Systems - WWCS 2007, Stockholm: abstracts WWCS 2007 : Computing systems for human benefits from the 8th International Conference on Work With Computing Systems : May 21st-24th 2007, Stockholm Sweden, Stockholm: Royal institute of technology , 2007, 42-42 p.Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 7. Arvidsson, Inger
    et al.
    Hansson, Gert-Åke
    Mathiassen, Svend-Erik
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Skerfving, Staffan
    Are neck-shoulder disorders associated with habitual neck extension in computer work?2006In: Meeting diversity in ergonomics: IEA 2006, 16th World Congress on Ergonomics / [ed] Pikaar R N, Koningsveld E A P, Settels P J M, 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A common clinical conception is that prolonged neck extension during computer work is associated with an increased risk of neck-shoulder disorders. The aim of this study was to find out whether neck postures in computer work differed between females cases with neck-shoulderdisorders, compared to healthy referents.

    Based on physical examinations, 13 cases and 11 referents were selected among 70 female air traffic controllers with the same computer work and identical work stations. Neck angles were measured by inclinometry, during an ordinary work period of about 1 h. Results: Average neck angles (50thpercentile) in cases and referents was -10° (SP 8) and -9 (SD 10) respectively; p=0.9. Hence, we did not find any association between neck-shoulder disorders and neck extension during computer work.

  • 8.
    Barbieri, Dechristian
    et al.
    Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of São Carlos, São Paulo, BRAZIL.
    dos Santos, Wilian
    Department of Mechatronics Engineering, University of São Paulo, BRAZIL.
    Inoue, Roberto Santos
    Department of Electrical Engineering, Federal University of São Carlos, São Paulo, BRAZIL.
    Gonçalves Siqueira, Adriano Almeida
    Department of Mechatronics Engineering, University of São Paulo, BRAZIL.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Oliveira, Ana Beatriz
    Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of São Carlos, São Paulo, BRAZIL.
    Adjustable sit-stand tables in office settings: development of a system for controlled posture changes2015In: Proceedings of the 19th Triennial Congress of the International Ergonomics Association, Melbourne 9-14 August 2015, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Barbieri, Dechristian Franca
    et al.
    Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of São Carlos, Brazil.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Oliveira, Ana Beatriz
    Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of São Carlos, Brazil.
    Comparison of sedentary behaviors in office workers using sit-stand tables with and without semi-automated position changes2017In: Human Factors, ISSN 0018-7208, E-ISSN 1547-8181, Vol. 59, no 5, 782-795 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: This study compared usage patterns of two different electronically controlled sit-stand tables during a 2-month intervention period among office workers.

    Background: Office workers spend most of their working time sitting, which is likely detrimental to health. Although the introduction of sit-stand tables has been suggested as an effective intervention to decrease sitting time, limited evidence is available on usage patterns of sit-stand tables, and whether patterns   are influenced by table configuration.

    Methods: Twelve workers were provided with standard sit-stand tables (non-automated table group) and 12 with semi-automated sit-stand tables programmed to change table position according to a pre-set pattern, if the user agreed to the system-generated prompt (semi-automated table group). Table position was monitored continuously for two months after introducing the tables, as a proxy for sit-stand behavior.

    Results: On average, the table was in a “sit” position for 85% of the work-day in both groups; this did not change significantly during the 2-month period. Switches in table position from sit to stand were, however, more frequent in the semi-automated table group than in the non-automated table group (0.65 vs. 0.29 hr-1; p=0.001).

    Conclusion: Introducing a semi-automated sit-stand table appeared to be an attractive alternative to a standard sit-stand table, since it led to more posture variation.

    Application: A semi-automated sit-stand table may effectively contribute to making postures more variable among office workers, and thus aid in alleviating negative health effects of extensive sitting.

  • 10.
    Barbieri, Dechristian
    et al.
    Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of São Carlos.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    de Oliveira, Ana Beatriz
    Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of São Carlos.
    The effect of non-computer tasks on job exposure variability in computer-intensive office work2013In: Eighth International Conference on Prevention of Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders; Abstracts, 2013, 334- p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Barbieri, Dechristian
    et al.
    Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of São Carlos, São Carlos, Brazil.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    dos Santos, Wilian Miranda
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of São Paulo, São Carlos, Brazil.
    Inoue, Roberto Santos
    Department of Electrical Engineering, Federal University of São Carlos, São Carlos, Brazil.
    Siqueira, Adriano
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of São Paulo, São Carlos, Brazil.
    Nogueira, Helen
    Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of São Carlos, São Carlos, Brazil.
    Oliveira, Ana Beatriz
    Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of São Carlos, São Carlos, Brazil.
    Sit-stand tables with semi-automated position changes: a new interactive approach for reducing sitting in office work2017In: IISE Transactions on Occupational Ergonomics and Human Factors, ISSN 2472-5838, Vol. 5, no 1, 39-46 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Introduction of sit-stand tables has been proposed as an initiative to decrease sedentary behavior among office workers and thus reduce risks of negative cardiometabolic health effects. However, ensuring proper and sustainable use of such tables has remained a challenge for successful implementation. Objective: We developed a new system to promote and sustain the use of sit-stand tables. Methods: The system was programmed to change the position of the table between “sit” and “stand” positions according to a regular pre-set pattern, if the user agreed to the system-generated prompts prior to each change. The user could respond to the system-generated prompts by agreeing, refusing or delaying the changes by 2 minutes. We obtained user compliance data when this system was programmed to a schedule of 10 minutes of standing after every 50 minutes of sitting. Compliance was investigated in nine office workers who were offered the semi-automated sit-stand table for two months. Results: On average, the system issued 12-14 alerts per day throughout the period. Average acceptance rate ranged from 75.0-82.4%, and refusal rate ranged from 11.8-10.1% between the first and eighth weeks of intervention (difference not statistically significant). During the first week after introduction, the table was in a standing position for 75.2 min on average, increasing slightly to 77.5 min in the eighth week. Conclusion: Since the workers were essentially sitting down before the table was introduced, these results suggest that the system was accepted well, and led to an effective reduction of sitting during working hours. Users also reported that the system contributed positively to their health and wellbeing, without interrupt their regular work, and that they would like to continue using the sit-stand table even beyond the two-month period, as part of their regular work. Compliance beyond two months of use, however, needs to be verified.

  • 12.
    Barbieri, Dechristian
    et al.
    Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of São Carlos.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    dos Santos, Willian Miranda
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of São Paulo.
    Oliveira, Ana Beatriz
    Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of São Carlos.
    Use of sit-stand stations during the first 2 months after their introduction2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. There is increasing evidence that sedentary behaviour during the workday is associated with negative health effects. In this context, interventions to reduce total sedentary time and breaking up periods of continuous sitting during computerized office work are urgently needed. Several reviews conclude that introducing sit-stand stations may lead to positive effects, but they also state that long-term interventions in real occu-pational settings are still rare. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate usage of sit-stand tables among Brazilian office workers during an intervention lasting two months.

    Methods.Nine office workers (6 females, 3 males; age 42 [SD 12] years) participated. The workers received traditional sit-stand tables and ergonomics information. They then used the workstation for two months. The tables were furnished with a system that recorded and kept track of table use during the intervention period. Table use early and late in the intervention period was compared using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test for repeated measurements.

    Results. In the beginning of the eight-week intervention period, workers, in median, changed table position 2.4 (1.9 – 4.7) times per day, decreasing to 2.3 (1.0 – 3.3) times at the end (P=0.09). Moreover, we also found a non-significant decrease in total time stand-ing per day, from 88.6 (67.4 – 94.3) minutes to 58.8 (33.1 – 95.7) minutes (P=0.31).

    Discussion. Two months after introducing sit-stand tables, some decrease in usage could be seen, if not statistically significant. Based on this, we emphasize that introduction of sit-stand tables should be accompanied by continued encouragement of the workers, preferably informed by a personalized follow up of actual use.

  • 13.
    Barbieri, Dechristian
    et al.
    Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of São Carlos, São Paulo, Brazil.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, USA.
    Oliveira, Ana Beatriz
    Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of São Carlos, São Paulo, Brazil.
    For sit-stand desks, semiautomated prompting may lead the way2017In: Industrial and Systems Engineering at Work, ISSN 2168-9210, Vol. 49, no 5, 51-52 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Barbieri, Dechristian
    et al.
    Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of São Carlos.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Oliveira, Ana-Beatriz
    Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of São Carlos.
    Reducing and breaking up sitting time during office work2017In: Industrial and Systems Engineering at Work, ISSN 2168-9210, Vol. 49, no 5, 51-52 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Dechristian, Svend Erik, Divya, Ana Beatriz andco-authors introduced a new semi-automated sit-stand table reducing sittingtime during office work and breaking it up into shorter periods. The system waswell accepted by the workers, and sustained use for two months was verified

  • 15.
    Barbieri, Dechristian
    et al.
    Universidade Federal de São Carlos.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Nogueira, Helen
    Universidade Federal de São Carlos.
    Oliveira, Ana Beatriz
    Universidade Federal de São Carlos.
    The ability of non-computer tasks to increase biomechanical exposure variability in computer-intensive office work2015In: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 58, no 1, 50-64 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Postures and muscle activity in the upper body were recorded from 50 academics office workers during 2 hours of normal work, categorised by observation into computer work (CW) and three non-computer (NC) tasks (NC seated work, NC standing/walking work and breaks). NC tasks differed significantly in exposures from CW, with standing/walking NC tasks representing the largest contrasts for most of the exposure variables. For the majority of workers, exposure variability was larger in their present job than in CW alone, as measured by the job variability ratio (JVR), i.e. the ratio between min–min variabilities in the job and in CW. Calculations of JVRs for simulated jobs containing different proportions of CW showed that variability could, indeed, be increased by redistributing available tasks, but that substantial increases could only be achieved by introducing more vigorous tasks in the job, in casu illustrated by cleaning.

  • 16.
    Barbieri, Dechristian
    et al.
    Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of São Carlos.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Oliveira, Ana Beatriz
    Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of São Carlos.
    Head, neck, trunk and upper extremity postures during sit-stand table use in real work settings2017Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study compared postures and posture variation of the head, neck, trunk and arms among 24 office workers after two months of sit-stand table use in real work settings. Postures were recorded for two hours on each of three consecutive days. On basis of observations, work tasks were categorized into computer work while standing (CW-stand), computer work while sitting (CW-sit), non-computer work while standing (NCW-stand) and non-computer work while sitting (NCW-sit). During CW-stand and NCW-stand, the head and neck were more flexed, the trunk less flexed, and both arms less elevated than when these tasks were performed sitting. Posture variation was consistently larger during sitting CW and NCW than during standing. Neutral postures occurred to a larger extent during standing. Shifting between sitting and standing will lead to increased posture variation for the trunk and upper body, which appears an additional benefit of introducing sit-stand tables to office workers.

  • 17.
    Barbieri, Dechristian
    et al.
    Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of São Carlos, São Carlos, Brasil.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia, USA.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science.
    Oliveira, Ana Beatriz
    Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of São Carlos, São Carlos, Brasil.
    The effect of sit-stand workstations to decrease sedentariness in office work: tests of 2 systems with and without automatic reminders2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sedentary behaviors in office workers has become a major public health concern and several initiatives have been proposed to break up sedentary behavior patterns during the performance of computer-intensive office work. Among such initiatives, the use of sit-stand workstations has been suggested to be one of the most promising by recent reviews. However, there still is only limited scientific evidence showing how effective sit-stand workstations are, in reducing sedentary behaviors and also documentation of their sustainability of use in studies of regular office work (i.e. as the “newness” of the system wears off, with time since introduction). This study aimed to document user behaviors and compare the use of two sit-stand workstation based interventions among two groups of administrative office workers: an “autonomous” group in which these workstations were introduced following some general ergonomic guidelines, and another “feedback-system” group in which the sit-stand tables were furnished with a semi-automatic reminder system, programmed to raise the table to a high (i.e. standing) position for 10 minutes after every accumulated 50 minutes of the table being in a low (i.e. sitting) position, i.e. to result in about 83% sitting per day. In addition, the sustainability of the use of these two kinds of sit-stand workstation interventions over two continuous months since their introduction was also studied. The results averaged over two months of usage of the two interventions showed that the percentage (%) sitting time was 87.4 (84.9-89.2) on average in the autonomous group and 84.0 (83.5-85.4) on average in the feedback-system group (P=0.001), and the frequency of switches between sitting and standing was 0.3 (0.2-0.3) per hour in the autonomous group and 0.7 (0.6-0.7) per hour in the feedback-system group (P=0.001). Thus, the sit-stand table system integrated with the automatic reminder system led to more reduction in sitting time and more switches in posture between sitting and standing as compared to the traditional sit-stand table, and behaviors of both groups were seen to be sustained over the 2-month intervention period (no difference across time for any of the variables tested for any group).

  • 18.
    Bergsten, Eva L.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Kwak, Lydia
    Unit of Intervention and Implementation Research for worker health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Vingård, Eva
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Daily shoulder pain among flight baggage handlers and its association with work tasks and upper arm postures on the same day2017In: Annals of Occupational Hygiene, ISSN 0003-4878, E-ISSN 1475-3162, Vol. 61, no 9, 1145-1153 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: This study of flight baggage handlers aimed at examining the extent to which shoulder pain developed during single work shifts, and whether a possible development was associated with biomechanical exposures and psychosocial factors during the same shift.

    Methods: Data were collected during, in total, 82 work shifts in 44 workers. Right and left shoulder pain intensity was rated just before and just after the shift (VAS scale 0-100 mm). Objective data on time in extreme and time in neutral upper arm postures were obtained for the full shift using accelerometers, and the baggage handlers registered the number of aircrafts handled in a diary. During half of the shift, workers were recorded on video for subsequent task analysis of baggage handling. Influence at work and support from colleagues were measured by use of Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ). Associations between exposures and the increase in pain intensity during the shift (daily pain) were analysed for the right and left shoulder separately using Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE).

    Results: Daily pain was observed in approximately one third of all shifts.  It was significantly associated with the number of aircrafts handled for both the right and left shoulder. In multivariate models including both biomechanical exposures and the psychosocial factors influence at work and support from colleagues, aircrafts handled was still significantly associated with daily pain in both shoulders, and so was influence and support, however in opposite directions.

    Conclusions: Daily pain was, in general, associated with biomechanical exposures during the same shift and with general influence and support in the job. In an effort to reduce pain among flight baggage handlers, it may therefore be justified to consider a reduction of biomechanical exposures during handling of aircrafts, combined with due attention to psychosocial factors at work.

  • 19.
    Bergsten, Eva
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    "Piloten" - Flygplanslastarprojektet2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    SAMMANFATTNING

    Detta pilotprojekt har utförts under våren 2010 på Arlandas terminal 4 av en ergonom (Eva Bergsten) vid Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för Belastningsskadeforskning (CBF), på uppdrag av Transports yrkes- och arbetsmiljönämnd (TYA). Projektet var en förstudie till det större huvudprojektet "Skadefria flygplanslastare" som TYA under våren sökte och sedermera beviljades pengar för att genomföra.

    Huvudprojektets övergripande syfte är att kartlägga och beskriva flygplanslastarnas arbetsförhållanden utifrån ett ergonomiskt helhetsperspektiv med hänsyn tagen till fysiska, psykosociala, tekniska, organisatoriska och kognitiva faktorer vid ramp och sorteringsarbete.

    Syftet med pilotprojektet var att inför huvudprojektet

    • göra en litteratursammanställning på området: vad har man redan beforskat när det gäller flygplanslastning i Sverige och internationellt?
    • ta fram och testa frågeformulär och observationsmetoder för den större datainsamlingen i huvudprojektet
    • ta reda på vilka företagsdata som kan och bör samlas in i huvudprojektet

    En genomgång av publicerade artiklar och så kallad grå litteratur (ej vetskapligt granskade artiklar och rapporter) gjordes för att se vilken kunskap som redan finns på området, och för att identifiera kunskapsluckor inför den skarpa planeringen av huvudprojektet. En styrgrupp, en projektledare och en projektgrupp samt fyra mindre arbetsgrupper var redan tillsatta av TYA och Transportfacken med namngivna personer vilket underlättade uppdraget.

    Utifrån telefonkontakter, möten och intervjuer med nyckelpersoner i handlingbolag, på Transport, AFA, försäkringskassan och arbetsmiljöverket kunde väsentlig information inhämtas som fick ligga till grund för att sammanställa ett frågeformulär angående flygplanslastarnas fysiska och psykosociala arbetsförhållanden, baserat på vetenskapliga grunder. Frågeformuläret testades på ett 20-tal personer, lastare, skyddsombud, huvudskyddsombud och ombudsmän på Transport och reviderades därefter. Mycket och värdefull information om vilka relevanta företagsdata som finns tillgängliga och hos vilken aktör, och vilka som inte kan påräknas i huvudstudien, har också kunnat kartläggas.

    En genomgång av vetenskapliga observationsmetoder gjordes och en valdes ut för att testas vid lastning av en narrow body aircraft som metodmässigt bedömdes vara ett svårt arbetsmoment att observera och studera.

    Pilotprojektet har resulterat i basen till ett frågeformulär som dock fortfarande kan revideras om det vid samtal med de fyra arbetsgrupperna uppkommer relevanta tillägg. Observation av lastning och lossning av narrow body aircraft samt dokumentation med videokamera visade sig vara möjligt, och metoden som testades (REBA) kan användas för att komplettera de i huvudprojektet planerade heldagsmätningarna med teknisk utrustning av arbetsställningar.

    Litteraturgenomgången av 17 artiklar/rapporter som lokaliserats i en omfattande sökning visade att de största belastningsergonomiska riskerna i arbetet verkar uppstå i samband med att lasta och lossa en narrow body aircraft och det på grund av de trånga lastutrymmena som tvingar lastarna till ogynnsamma arbetsställningar. Det finns också några få studier som styrker att vissa hjälpmedel och arbetsmetoder skulle kunna minska antalet dåliga arbetsställningar, muskulär belastning, kompressionskrafter i ryggen och fysiologisk ansträngning, och att bagagets vikt har betydelse för belastningen. Däremot kan man inte i litteraturen finna några studier av hur olika organisatoriska lösningar påverkar lastarnas arbetsställningar och den belastning de i övrigt utsätts för. Enskilda arbetsmoment har studerats men ingen har tittat på hur belastningsmönstret ser ut för lastarna under ett helt arbetsskift.

    Besvärsfrekvensen bland flygplanslastare är, enligt den funna litteraturen hög vad gäller rygg, nacke, axlar och knän. Någon större kartläggning av detta eller hur sjukfrånvaron ser ut har inte gjorts i Sverige. Inte heller har man i Sverige eller något annat land tittat på psykosociala faktorer och dess betydelse för flygplanslastares arbetsförhållanden.

    Resultaten av det här pilotprojektet ligger till grund för de "kunskapsluckor" som vi rekommenderar (i Kapitel 4) att huvudstudien arbetar vidare med, i överensstämmelse med dess övergripande målsättning och den projektplan som tagits fram av projektgruppen.

  • 20.
    Bergsten, Eva
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Alphonse, Erik
    The Vocational Training and Working Environment Council, TYA.
    Pettersson, Reidar
    The Vocational Training and Working Environment Council, TYA.
    Skadefria cargo- och flygplanslastare - slutrapport2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Arbetsmiljöprojektet Skadefria cargo- och flygplanslastare har utförts på uppdrag av Svenska Transportarbetareförbundet och Svenska Flygbranschen med syfte att kartlägga flygplanslastarnas arbetsförhållanden och att komma med förslag på förbättringsåtgärder för att minska belastningsrelaterade skador och sjukdomar i branschen.

    Projektledningsgruppen har bestått av fem personer: Eva Bergsten, ergonom, anställd av projektet; Erik Alphonse, projektledare, TYA; Reidar Pettersson, arbetsmiljökonsult, Arbetsmiljölotsen; Svend Erik Mathiassen, professor, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning vid Högskolan i Gävle; och Dan Holmberg, regionalt skyddsombud, Transportarbetareförbundet.

    Projektet som omfattade 14 bolag (11 handling, 3 cargo) på sex flygplatser (Arlanda, Malmö, Göteborg, Växjö, Skavsta och Arvidsjaur) startades våren 2010 och avslutades våren 2012, efter en inledande pilotstudie våren 2010 som finansierades av TYA. Inom projektet har 1 039 enkäter distribuerats med frågor om psykosociala arbetsförhållanden, upplevd arbetsbelastning, trötthet och besvär. Svarsfrekvensen var 72 procent. Heldagsmätningar av arbetsställningar för rygg och armar har genomförts på 5-6 lastare per flygplats samtidigt som lastarna filmats och fyllt i dagböcker. Fokusgrupper har intervjuats och data om till exempel sjukskrivningar och olyckstillbud har samlats in från företagen.

    Parallellt med den vetenskapliga delen har projektet haft en praktisk del med fyra arbetsgrupper bestående av representanter från både arbetsgivar- och arbetstagarsidan. Grupperna har träffats två gånger per termin och jobbat inom områdena: I) fysisk belastning och arbetsskadestatistik, II) arbetsorganisation, schemaläggning och psykosocial arbetsmiljö, III) hjälpmedel och metoder samt IV) utbildning och utveckling.

    Våra resultat visar att besvärsfrekvenserna i muskler och leder är relativt höga. Det finns arbetsmoment i lastaryrket som är ogynnsamma och som ökar risken för besvär, framför allt i axlar/skuldra, rygg och handleder/händer. De arbetsuppgifter som en lastare har skiljer sig inte så mycket åt mellan de olika flygplatserna, men det finns betydande skillnader i hur ofta och hur länge uppgifterna förekommer. Vid vissa flygplatser är således flyglastararbetet mera varierat än vid andra, vilket förmodligen har en betydelse för risken att utveckla besvär.

    Överlag fanns det hjälpmedel för de mest belastande arbetsmomenten, men också brister i hur dessa används.

    Inom den psykosociala arbetsmiljön visade projektet på ett behov av att förbättra ledarskapet och lastarnas inflytande i planering och genomförande av det egna arbetet. Bättre feedback i form av stöd och uppmuntran från ledare efterfrågades också.

    Arbetsgrupperna, som löpande delgavs resultaten från den vetenskapliga kartläggningen, utvecklade i enlighet med projektets målsättning ett antal åtgärdsförslag, med stöd i kartläggningen. Förslagen, som presenteras i denna rapport, är av generell natur. Flera av förslagen omfattar ett flertal möjliga delåtgärder och initiativ, som naturligtvis måste anpassas för och prioriteras av det enskilda bolaget utifrån dess egna förutsättningar. Mot bakgrund av våra projektresultat vill vi dock generellt rekommendera samtliga bolag att lägga en viss prioritet på de psykosociala arbetsförhållandena i sitt förbättringsarbete. Det fanns även uppenbara möjligheter att förbättra den fysiska belastningsprofilen, särskilt genom att bredda arbetsinnehållet på vissa flygplatser, och genom en mera effektiv användning av tekniska hjälpmedel. Samtidigt är det viktigt att framhålla att lastaryrket även har många goda sidor i form av ett rörligt och spännande arbete med ett bra socialt klimat.

    Vår bedömning är att de förslag till förändringar i arbetsmiljö och arbetsvillkor som föreslås i denna rapport skulle leda till en bättre arbetsmiljö men sannolikt också kunna påverka effektiviteten i arbetet i positiv riktning.

    Projektet Skadefria cargo- och flygplanlastare är föremål för en avhandling vilket betyder att vidare analyser av insamlade data kommer att ske. Resultaten kommer framöver att publiceras i vetenskapliga tidsskrifter.

  • 21.
    Bergsten, Eva
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Larsson, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Kwak, Lydia
    Unit of Intervention and Implementation Research, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Evaluation of an ergonomic intervention in Swedish flight baggage handlers2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Flight baggage handling is a worldwide occupation where baggage and cargo is sorted, loaded and unloaded on and off aircrafts. With the ultimate purpose of reducing and preventing musculoskeletal disorders among flight baggage handlers in Sweden, the Vocational Training and Working Environment Council (TYA) - a council formed by employers and unions in the Swedish transportation sector – initiated and implemented a project (2010-2012). This project revealed that ergonomics equipment was not used adequately, and this was considered a major factor of concern. Therefore, a training program was initiated 2014 in one handling company, aiming to improve ergonomics, behavior and attitudes. We evaluated the implementation process with regard to process items, intermediate outcomes, barriers and facilitators; for the purpose of gaining knowledge that could facilitate successful implementation in other handling companies. Methods: A mixed methods design was applied, based on qualitative and quantitative data. We evaluated six process items, recruitment, context, reach, dose delivered, dose received and satisfaction; intermediate outcomes of the intervention; skills, confidence and behaviour in the workforce; barriers and facilitators for successful implementation. Data was retrieved using company data, course evaluations, web questionnaires, and telephone interviews with company ‘observers’ and key persons. Preliminary results: The implementation process was judged to be feasible with regard to some of the process items. According to the informants, work place behaviour related to use of equipment had, however, not changed after the training period. Reported barriers were, 1) insufficient time and leader support for practicing new procedures during and after the training, 2) simultaneous reorganization of teams and work tasks, 3) lack of follow-up of the training, which would have supported good performance according to the informants. Conclusion: The implementation process was hampered by barriers, some of which could be addressed in future ergonomics training programs in other baggage handling companies.

  • 22.
    Bergsten, Eva
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Larsson, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Kwak, Lydia
    Unit of Intervention and Implementation Research, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet.
    Implementation of an ergonomics intervention in a Swedish flight baggage handling company - a process evaluation2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To conduct a process evaluation of the implementation of an ergonomics training program aimed at increasing the use of loading assist devices in flight baggage handling. Methods: Feasibility(recruitment, reach, context, dose delivered, dose received, satisfaction); intermediate outcomes (skills, confidence and behaviors); and barriers and facilitators of the training intervention were assessed by qualitative and quantitative methods. Results: Implementation proved feasible regarding dose delivered, dose received and satisfaction. Confidence among participants in the training program in using and talking about devices, observed use of devices among colleagues, and internal feedback on work behavior increased significantly (p<0.01). Main facilitators were self-efficacy, motivation, and perceived utility of training among the trainees. Barriers included lack of peer support, opportunities to observe and practice behaviors, and follow-up activities; as well as staff reduction and job insecurity. Conclusions: In identifying important barriers and facilitators for a successful outcome, our study can help supporting the effectiveness of future interventions. Our results show that barriers caused by organizational changes may likely be alleviated by recruiting motivated trainees and securing strong organizational support for the implementation.   

      

  • 23.
    Bergsten, Eva
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Vingård, Eva
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Psychosocial work factors and musculoskeletal pain: a cross-sectional study among Swedish flight baggage handlers2015In: BioMed Research International, ISSN 2314-6133, E-ISSN 2314-6141, Vol. 2015, 798042Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. Flight baggage handlers sort and load luggage to airplanes. This study aimed at investigating associations between psychosocial exposures and low back and shoulder musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) among Swedish flight baggage handlers.

    Methods. A questionnaire addressing MSDs (Standardized Nordic Questionnaire) and psychosocial factors (Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire, COPSOQ) was answered by 525 baggage handlers in six Swedish airports.

    Results. Low back (LBP) and shoulder pain (SP) was reported by 70% and 60%, respectively. Pain was reported to interfere with work (PIW) by 30% (low back) and 18% (shoulders), and intense pain (PINT) occurred in 34% and 28% of the population. Quality of leadership was the most dissatisfying psychosocial factor, while the most positive was social community at work. Low ratings in the combined domain Work organization and job content were significantly associated with PIW in both low back and shoulders (Adjusted Hazard Ratios 3.65 (95% CI 1.67-7.99) and 2.68 (1.09-6.61)) while lower ratings in the domain Interpersonal relations and leadership were associated with PIW LBP (HR 2.18 (1.06-4.49)) and PINT LBP and SP (HRs 1.95 (1.05-3.65) and 2.11 (1.08-4.12)).

    Conclusion. Severity of pain among flight baggage handlers was associated with psychosocial factors at work, suggesting that they may be a relevant target for intervention in this occupation.

  • 24.
    Bergsten, Eva
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. b Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science.
    Vingård, Eva
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Psychosocial work factors and musculoskeletal pain among Swedish flight baggage handlers2015In: Proceedings of the 19th Triennial Congress of the International Ergonomics Association, Melbourne, 9-14 August 2015 / [ed] Gitte Lindgaard & Dave Moore, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Flight baggage handlers are employed by handling companies engaged in sorting, loading and unloading luggage, cargo and mail, so called ramp service work. After check-in, luggage are transported through a sorting area and further out to the ramp. This transportation involves manual handling by baggage handlers at several stages, using conveyor belts, carts and trucks for transport. In addition to these tasks, baggage handlers are also engaged in communicating with air traffic controllers directing air traffic on the ground, towing aircrafts to gates and serving them with auxiliary power units, brakes and light. Baggage handling services are similar in all larger airports, and so baggage handlers perform similar tasks all over the world. In Sweden the handlers’ union claimed a high prevalence of low back and shoulder pain and a dissatisfying psychosocial work environment, but systematically collected empirical data were not available, and the literature was surprisingly sparse, considering that the occupation is global. Thus, a comprehensive project initiated by the Vocational Training and Working Environment Council, TYA, in Sweden - a council formed by employers’ and employees’ organizations in the transportation sector -was conducted at 14 handling companies in six Swedish airports between 2010 and 2012. The project aimed to document the physical and psychosocial work environment and to contribute to the development of ergonomic interventions within this occupation, which could, eventually, lead to better health among the employees. The present study was part of this project, in aiming at documenting psychosocial exposures and musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) in the flight baggage handler population, and at determining possible associations between exposures and disorders.

  • 25.
    Bergsten, Eva
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Vingård, Eva
    Uppsala University, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Alphonse, Erik
    The Vocational Training and Working Environment Council.
    Pettersson, Reidar
    The Vocational Training and Working Environment Council.
    Holmberg, Dan
    The Swedish Transport Workers Union.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Physical and psychosocial work conditions among baggage handlers in six Swedish airports2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Flight baggage handlers are mainly engaged in sorting luggage or cargo, loading and unloading it to and from the airplanes. The Vocational Training and Working Environment Council, TYA - formed by employer’s and employee’s organizations in the transportation sector - initiated a scientific study in 2009 to investigate the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders and their suspected determinants in six Swedish airports involving a total of about 1000 handlers in 14 cargo- and handling companies. Encouraged by an initial literature review, the present field study was designed to contain qualitative, questionnaire-based, and observational surveys of working conditions, as well as extensive direct measurements of postures using full-shift inclinometry. This paper reports the design and results of the questionnaire part of the study.

    Method

    All baggage handlers working at least half-time (n=1044) were encouraged to fill in an extensive questionnaire handed out at the workplace by a research team member. In general the researcher collected the questionnaires at the same occasion. The questionnaire addressed general health, work capacity and physical exposures in relevant handling tasks. It also included a modified version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ), the Nordic Council of Minister’s Questionnaire (NMQ) on disorders, and the SOFI-questionnaire measuring perceived fatigue.

    Results

    The response rate was 73%. The prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders in the back, shoulders and wrists during the last 12 months was 70%, 60% and 45%. Positive effects of devices used for reducing perceived physical load were confirmed. The handlers expressed a low confidence in the leadership, and insufficient feedback, information and influence at work. Fatigue particularly occurred in the dimensions lack of energy and physical discomfort.

    Discussion

    The observed prevalence of low back pain (70%) is high, and in parity with results among nurses in Sweden (64%; Josephson et al. 1997) and China (56%; Smith et al. 2004). Further examination of questionnaires, interviews and direct posture measurements will identify determinants to consider for intervention to reduce the prevalence of disorders among the baggage handlers.

    Josephson M, et al. Occup Environ Med 1997;54:681-685.

    Smith DR, et al. Occup Med 2004;54:579-582

  • 26.
    Bergsten, Eva
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Wijk, Katarina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Healthy work - healthy business? A survey of work environment improvements and profitability among small and medium enterprises2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to investigate how Swedish small and medium enterprises (SMEs) within the manufacturing industry carry out work environment improvements, and to study if managers consider profitability to be associated with issues in the work environment. Workplace observations and interviews (n=60) with company managers were carried out. Forty-five enterprises were affiliated with an occupational health service, typically in order to get quick access to health care, rather than getting help planning and implementing changes. Fifty-eight managers believed that healthy work environments would have at least some positive effect on company profitability. Incentives for work environment improvements were external, individual and organizational and varied between companies of different sizes. External requirements from The Swedish Work Environment Authority and from established or potential customers were prioritized incentives in SMEs with < 50 employees. Organizational and individual incentives such as incident- and accident reports, productivity, health and sick-leave were prioritized in SMEs with >50 employees. Irrespective of company size, well-being among work-force was consistently mentioned as an important factor for successful business. Small companies urged quick decisions and actions while medium companies had more planned, systematic and organized work environment activities. Deliberate work environment improvements for increased profitability were for instance, changes to eliminate risks, reduce manual work and resolve planning and coordination problems in production that led to stress.

  • 27.
    Bergsten, Eva
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Zetterberg, Camilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Bjärntoft, Sofie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Edvinsson, Johanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Larsson, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Jahncke, Helena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Schemalagt arbete - Hälsofrämjande återhämtningsmönster i schemalagda arbeten: Delområde Färjerederiet2017Report (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Bergsten, Eva
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Zetterberg, Camilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Bjärntoft, Sofie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Edvinsson, Johanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Larsson, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Jahncke, Helena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Schemalagt arbete - Hälsofrämjande återhämtningsmönster i schemalagda arbeten: Delområde Förarprov2017Report (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Bergsten, Eva
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Zetterberg, Camilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Bjärntoft, Sofie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Edvinsson, Johanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Larsson, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Jahncke, Helena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Schemalagt arbete - Hälsofrämjande återhämtningsmönster i schemalagda arbeten: Delområde Trafikledning2017Report (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Bergsten, Eva
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Zetterberg, Camilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Bjärntoft, Sofie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Edvinsson, Johanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Larsson, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Jahncke, Helena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Schemalagt arbete: Hälsofrämjande återhämtningsmönster i schemalagda arbeten: Kartläggning hösten 20162017Report (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Bosch, Tim
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    De Looze, Michiel
    TNO Work & Employment.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Lyskov, Eugene
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Visser, Bart
    Faculty of Human Movement Sciences, VU Amsterdam.
    van Dieën, Jaap
    Faculty of Human Movement Sciences, VU Amsterdam.
    Fatigue, timing strategy and performance during prolonged repetitive work with interposed breaks2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Bosch, Tim
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    De Looze, Michiel
    TNO, Work& Employment, the Netherlands.
    Lyskov, Eugene
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Visser, Bart
    Amsterdam School of Health Professions, the Netherlands.
    van Dieën, Jaap
    VU Amsterdam, Faculty of Human Movement Sciences, the Netherlands.
    Temporal strategy and performance during a fatiguing short-cycle repetitive task2012In: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 55, 863-873 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated temporal changes in movement strategy and performance during fatiguing short-cycle work. Eighteen participants performed six 7-minutes work blocks with repetitive reaching movements at 0.5 Hz, each followed by a 5.5-minute rest break for a total duration of one hour. Electromyography (EMG) was collected continuously from the upper trapezius muscle, the temporal movement strategy and timing errors were obtained on a cycle-to-cycle basis, and perceived fatigue was rated before and after each work block. Clear signs of fatigue according to subjective ratings and EMG manifestations developed within each work block, as well as during the entire hour. For most participants, timing errors gradually increased, as did the waiting time at the near target. Changes in temporal movement strategy were negatively correlated with changes in the level and variability of EMG, suggesting that an adaptive temporal strategy offset the development of unstable motor solutions in this fatiguing, short-cycle work

  • 33.
    Bosch, Tim
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Visser, Bart
    VU University Amsterdam, Faculty of Human Movement Sciences.
    De Looze, Michiel
    TNO Quality of Life, Hoofddorp.
    van Dieën, Jaap
    VU University Amsterdam, Faculty of Human Movement Sciences.
    The effect of work pace on workload, motor variability and fatigue during simulated light assembly work2011In: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 54, no 2, 154-168 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the effect of work pace on workload, motor variability and fatigue during light assembly work. Upper extremity kinematics and electromyography (EMG) were obtained on a cycle-to-cycle basis for eight participants during two conditions, corresponding to "normal" and "high" work pace according to a predetermined time system for engineering. Indicators of fatigue, pain sensitivity and performance were recorded before, during and after the task. The level and variability of muscle activity did not differ according to work pace, and manifestations of muscle fatigue or changed pain sensitivity were not observed. In the high work pace, however, participants moved more efficiently, they showed more variability in wrist speed and acceleration, but they also made more errors. These results suggest that an increased work pace, within the range addressed here, will not have any substantial adverse effects on acute motor performance and fatigue in light, cyclic assembly work. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: In the manufacturing industry, work pace is a key issue in production system design and hence of interest to ergonomists as well as engineers. In this laboratory study, increasing the work pace did not show adverse effects in terms of biomechanical exposures and muscle fatigue, but it did lead to more errors. For the industrial engineer, this observation suggests that an increase in work pace might diminish production quality, even without any noticeable fatigue being experienced by the operators.

  • 34.
    Carlsson, Ruth
    et al.
    Swedish Work Environment Authority.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Physical variation at work – a scientific review2016In: NES2016 - Ergonomics in theory and practice: Proceedings of 48th Annual Conference of Nordic Ergonomics and Human Factors Society / [ed] Järvelin-Pasanen, S, 2016, 156-159 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Physical variation is generally considered to be an important factor influencing the risk for musculoskeletal disorders in repetitive work, but a comprehensive scientific basis for this assumption has not been available. Thus, the Swedish Work Environment Authority requested the Centre for Musculoskeletal Research at the University of Gävle to review scientific standings regarding physical variation and its effects.  In total, 56 articles were included in the review. The results showed that occupationally relevant studies of the effects of physical variation are few, and that the effectiveness of initiatives promoting variation has also been studied to a limited extent. Thus, current research cannot provide a clear answer to what an effective combination would be of work tasks in a job in the context of physical variation, let alone the optimal time distribution of tasks in a short (hours, days) and long (weeks, months, years) perspective. Also, gender aspects of physical variation were considered to a very limited extent. There is a need for more studies of relevant initiatives aiming at creating increased physical variation by changing the contents of work or its temporal structure; including studies placing this issue in a gender perspective.

  • 35. Ciccarelli, M
    et al.
    Straker, L
    Mathiassen, Svend-Erik
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Pollock, C
    ITKids: does computer use reduce postural variability in children?2006In: Meeting diversity in ergonomics: proceedings IEA2006 Congress / [ed] Pikar, R.N. et al, 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many schoolchildren frequently use computers. Lack of postural variation is proposed as a risk factor for musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) in adult computer users, but the effect of computer use on children's postural t variation is unknown. This study exarnined if there was a reduction in postural variability among schoolchildren when ! using computers compared to other tasks. Nine schoolchildren were observed in their natural environment while upper body postures were measured using inclinometers. Tasks performed and type of technology used was documented by an observer and matched to postural data with a rninute-to-rninute resolution. A comparison was made of postures during New Information and Communication Technology (ICT) tasks ( electronic-based), Old ICT (paperbased), and Non ICT tasks. Mean postures were deterrnined and postural variation was characterised using an index based on the Exposure Variation Analysis (EV A) matrix, and the range between the 10th and 90th percentiles of the Amplitude Probability Distribution Function (APDF). New ICT produced more neutral postures but significantly lower postural variation. Old ICT had less neutral postures but greater postural variation. The relationship between lack of variation and MSDs among children requires further investigation.

  • 36. Ciccarelli, M
    et al.
    Straker, L
    Mathiassen, Svend-Erik
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Pollock, C
    ITKids: variability in muscle activity among school children using different information and communication technologies2006In: Proceedings of The Human Factors and Ergonomics Society of Australia, 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Ciccarelli, Marina
    et al.
    Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Straker, Leon
    Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Pollock, Clare
    Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Diversity of tasks and information technologies used by office workers at and away-from-work2011In: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 54, no 11, 1017-1028 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Musculoskeletal disorders have been associated with computer use among office workers and lack of variation caused by too little exposure diversity between work tasks has been proposed as an important etiological factor. However there is little information on the diversity of occupations and information and communication technologies (ICT) used by office workers and none which extends beyond the traditional workday. Whilst direct observation is expected to provide the most accurate data, it is resource intensive and self report and sampling alternatives may be a viable alternative.

    Method: This paper describes direct observation and self-report data on the occupations and ICT use of 24 Australian office workers in their natural environments at work and away-from-work, over 12 hours of a working day.

    Results: Participants were observed for a mean [SD] for 642[40] minutes, 67% of which was at the workplace. Productive occupations (405[122] minutes) accounted for 63% of the observation period, compared to 17% for instrumental (106[57] minutes), 12% for self-care (75[46] minutes) and 8% for leisure occupations (54[39] minutes). Non ICT tasks occurred during 44% of the observation period (285[89] minutes); New ICT accounted for 36 % (234[118] minutes), Old ICT accounted for 15% (98[73] minutes), and Combined ICT tasks 4% (24[30] minutes). The proportions of occupations and ICT use differed between work and away-from-work. Computer-based New ICT was most used for work tasks. Observed and self-reported time on occupations and ICT were similar, though with some differences. Self-reported time on occupations and ICT was similar for the first day and the subsequent 4 days.

    Conclusion: The first detailed description of occupations and ICT used by office workers at work and away-from-work shows that the variety of Old, New, Combined and Non-ICT used for performing typical work and non-work tasks offered a diversity of exposures for the workers. This information provides an important step for further investigations into exposure variation in this group, and possible musculoskeletal health risks.

  • 38.
    Ciccarelli, Marina
    et al.
    Curtin University of Technology, Perth.
    Straker, Leon
    Curtin University of Technology, Perth.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Pollock, Clare
    Curtin University of Technology, Perth.
    How does children’s postural variation when using ICT differ from that of adults2009In: Proceedings of the IEA2009 conference, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Ciccarelli, Marina
    et al.
    Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Straker, Leon
    Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Pollock, Clare
    Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    ITKids Part I: Children's occupations and use of information and communication technologies2011In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 38, no 4, 401-412 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Reports in the popular media are that school children use modern information and communication technology (ICT) on a regular basis for a variety of purposes, however little has been documented in the scientific literature about how school children spend their time and the different types of ICT they use.

    Method: This paper describes the observed occupations and ICT use of nine Australian primary school children in their natural environments at school and away-from-school during one school day, and compares self-reported exposures with direct observations. Self-reported discomfort scores were obtained throughout the day.

    Results: The study identified that paper-based ICT (Old ICT) was used mostly for productive occupations at school, while electronics-based (New ICT) was used mostly during leisure in away-from-school locations. Tasks involving no ICT (Non ICT) accounted for the largest proportion of time in both locations during self-care, leisure and instrumental occupations. End-of-day self-reported time performing different occupations was consistent with data from independent observations. Self reported time using Old ICT and New ICT was marginally over-estimated, and time spent using Non-ICT was marginally under-estimated.

    Conclusion: The children in this study used a variety of ICT in the performance of daily occupations in their natural environments. New ICT use was primarily for leisure, but time spent was less than reported among other child studies. Discomfort reports among the participants were low. Children’s self-reports of daily occupations and ICT use has utility as an exposure assessment metric.

  • 40.
    Ciccarelli, Marina
    et al.
    Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Straker, Leon
    Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Pollock, Clare
    Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    ITKids Part II: Variation of postures and muscle activity in children using different information and communication technologies2011In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 38, no 4, 413-427 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There are concerns that insufficient variation in postural and muscle activity associated with modern information and communication technology (ICT) tasks presents a risk for musculoskeletal ill-health among school children. However, scientific knowledge on physical exposure variation in this group is limited.

    Method: Postures of the head, upper back and upper arm, and muscle activity of the right and left upper trapezius and right forearm extensors were measured over 10-12 hours in nine school children using different types of ICT at school and away-from-school. Variation in postures and muscle activity was quantified using two indices, EVAsd and APDF(90-10).

    Results: Paper-based (Old) ICT tasks produced postures that were less neutral but more variable than electronics-based (New ICT) and Non-ICT tasks. Non-ICT tasks involved mean postures similar to New ICT tasks, but with greater variation. Variation of muscle activity was similar between ICT types in the right and left upper trapezius muscles. Non-ICT tasks produced more muscle activity variation in the right forearm extensor group compared to New and Old ICT tasks.

    Conclusion: Different ICT tasks produce different degrees of variation of postures and muscle activity. Combining tasks that use different ICT may increase overall exposure variation. More research is needed to determine what degree of postural and muscle activity variation is associated with reduced risk of musculoskeletal ill-health.

  • 41.
    Ciccarelli, Marina
    et al.
    School of Occupational Therapy & Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Straker, Leon
    School of Physiotherapy and Exercise Science, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Pollock, Clare
    Faculty of Health Sciences, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Posture variation among office workers when using different information and communication technologies at work and away from work2014In: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 57, no 11, 1678-1686 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Office workers perform tasks using different information and communication technologies (ICT) involving various postures. Adequate variation in postures and muscle activity is generally believed to protect against musculoskeletal complaints, but insufficient information exists regarding the effect on postural variation of using different ICT. Thus, this study among office workers aimed to determine and compare postures and postural variation associated with using distinct types of ICT. Upper arm, head and trunk postures of 24 office workers were measured with the Physiometer® over a whole day in their natural work and away-from-work environments. Postural variation was quantified using two indices; APDF(90-10) and EVA(sd).Various ICT had different postural means and variation. Paper-based tasks had more non-neutral, yet also more variable postures. Electronics-based tasks had more neutral postures, with less postural variability. Tasks simultaneously using paper- and electronics-based ICT had least neutral and least variable postures. Tasks without ICT usually had the most posture variability. Interspersing tasks involving different ICT could increase overall exposure variation among office workers and may thus contribute to musculoskeletal risk reduction.

  • 42.
    Ciccarelli, Marina
    et al.
    Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Straker, Leon
    Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Pollock, Clare
    Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Variation in Muscle Activity Among Office Workers When Using Different Information Technologies at Work and Away From Work2013In: Human Factors, ISSN 0018-7208, E-ISSN 1547-8181, Vol. 55, no 5, 911-923 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To determine differences in muscle activity amplitudes and variation of amplitudes, when using different Information and Communication Technologies (ICT).

    Background: Office workers use different ICT to perform tasks. Upper body musculoskeletal complaints are frequently reported by this occupational group. Increased muscle activity and insufficient muscle activity variation are potential risk factors for musculoskeletal complaints.

    Method: Muscle activity of right and left upper trapezius and right wrist extensor muscle bundle (extensor carpi radialis longus and brevis) of 24 office workers (performing their usual tasks requiring different ICT at work and away-from-work) were measured continuously over 10-12 hours. Muscle activity variation was quantified using two indices, APDF(90-10) and EVAsd.

    Results: There was a trend for electronics-based New ICT tasks to involve less electromyography (EMG) variation than paper-based Old ICT tasks. Performing Combined ICT tasks (i.e. using paper- and electronics-based ICT simultaneously) resulted in the highest muscle activity levels and least variation; however, these Combined ICT tasks were rarely performed. Tasks involving no ICT (Non-ICT) had the greatest muscle activity variation.

    Conclusion: Office workers in this study used various ICT during tasks at work and away-from-work. The high EMG amplitudes and low variation observed when using Combined ICT may present the greatest risk for musculoskeletal complaints, and use of Combined ICT by workers should be kept low in office work. Breaking up Combined, New and Old ICT tasks; for example, by interspersing highly variable Non-ICT tasks into office workers’ daily tasks, could increase overall muscle activity variation and reduce risk for musculoskeletal complaints.

  • 43.
    Coenen, Pieter
    et al.
    Curtin University, Perth, Australia; VU University Amsterdam, the Netherlands; Body@Work, Research Center on Physical Activity, Work and Health, the Netherlands.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Kingma, Idsart
    VU University Amsterdam, the Netherlands; Body@Work, Research Center on Physical Activity, Work and Health, the Netherlands.
    Boot, Cécile
    Body@Work, Research Center on Physical Activity, Work and Health, the Netherlands; EMGO Institute, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
    Bongers, Paulien
    Body@Work, Research Center on Physical Activity, Work and Health, the Netherlands; TNO Healthy Living, Hoofddorp, the Netherlands.
    van Dieën, Jaap
    VU University Amsterdam, the Netherlands; King Abdulaziz University,Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
    Bias and power in group-based epidemiologic studies of low-back pain exposure and outcome: effects of study size and exposure measurement efforts2015In: Annals of Occupational Hygiene, ISSN 0003-4878, E-ISSN 1475-3162, Vol. 59, no 4, 439-454 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Exposure-outcome studies, for instance on work-related low-back pain (LBP), often classify workers into groups for which exposures are estimated from measurements on a sample of workers within or outside the specific study. The present study investigated the influence on bias and power in exposure-outcome associations of the sizes of the total study population and the sample used to estimate exposures.

    Methods: At baseline, lifting, trunk flexion, and trunk rotation were observed for 371 of 1131 workers allocated to 19 a-priori defined occupational groups. LBP (dichotomous) was reported by all workers during three years of follow-up. All three exposures were associated with LBP in this parent study (p<0.01).

    All 21 combinations of n=10,20,30 workers per group with an outcome, and k=1,2,3,5,10,15,20 workers actually being observed were investigated using bootstrapping, repeating each combination 10,000 times. Odds ratios (OR) with p-values were determined for each of these virtual studies. Average OR and statistical power (p<0.05 and p<0.01) was determined from the bootstrap distributions at each (n,k) combination.

    Results: For lifting and flexed trunk, studies including n≥20 workers, with k≥5 observed, led to an almost unbiased OR and a power >0.80 (p-level 0.05). A similar performance required n≥30 workers for rotated trunk. Small numbers of observed workers (k) resulted in biased OR, while power was, in general, more sensitive to the total number of workers (n).

    Conclusions: In epidemiologic studies using a group-based exposure assessment strategy, statistical performance may be sufficient if outcome is obtained from a reasonably large number of workers, even if exposure is estimated from only few workers per group.

  • 44.
    Coenen, Pieter
    et al.
    Faculty of Human Movement Sciences, VU University Amsterdam.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Kingma, Idsart
    Faculty of Human Movement Sciences, VU University Amsterdam.
    Boot, Cécile
    Body@Work, Research Center on Physical Activity, Work and Health, The Netherlands.
    Bongers, Paulien
    Body@Work, Research Center on Physical Activity, Work and Health, The Netherlands.
    van Dieën, Jaap
    Faculty of Human Movement Sciences, VU University Amsterdam.
    Group-based exposuremeasurement strategies and their effects on trunk rotation and low-back pain exposure-outcome associations2013In: Occupational & Environmental Medicine: 23rd Conference on Epidemiology in Occupational Health EPICOH 2013: Improving the Impact June 18–21, 2013, Utrecht, The Netherlands, BMJ Journals , 2013, A101-A102 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives In epidemiological studies of occupational exposures (e.g. lifting) and low-back pain (LBP), group-based exposure measurement strategies are common. Workers are classified into exposure groups; exposure is measured only in a selection of workers in each group, and their mean exposure is assigned to all workers in the group. Exposure-outcome relationships are then determined by regression, relating exposure estimates with individual LBP data from all subjects. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of different group-based measurement strategies on exposure-outcome associations.

    Methods 1122 workers, classified into 19 groups on the basis of job-related exposure, participated in this study. In each group, videos were collected from ~25% of the workers (in total, 370 workers), and percentage of the work day spent in trunk rotation was estimated by observation of the videos. This estimate of trunk rotation was significantly associated with self-reported LBP during three years of follow-up (OR:1.43 (1.06–1.93)).

    Using a bootstrap simulation, workers per group (n = 10, 20, 30, 40) and percentage of observed workers (k = 10, 20, 30, 40, 50%) were varied. For each combination, (nk) workers were selected with replacement in each job group among those observed, and n (100-k) workers among those not observed. The mean exposure of the observed workers was assigned to all group members which was related to individual LBP data. ORs and accompanying p-level was estimated using logistic-regression.

    Results A group-based measurement protocol led to significant (p < 0.05) ORs when the total number of workers was larger than n = 30 in each job group, and ≥20% was actually observed.

    Conclusions The proportion of observed workers did have an effect on p-values, but it appeared weaker than that of changing the total group size. These results suggest that it may be sufficient to observe only a minor proportion of workers if the overall size of the population is reasonably large.

  • 45.
    Coenen, Pieter
    et al.
    Faculty of Human Movement Sciences, VU University Amsterdam.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Kingma, Idsart
    Faculty of Human Movement Sciences, VU University Amsterdam.
    Boot, Cécile
    Body@Work, Research Center on Physical Activity, Work and Health, The Netherlands.
    Bongers, Paulien
    Body@Work, Research Center on Physical Activity, Work and Health, The Netherlands.
    van Dieën, Jaap
    Faculty of Human Movement Sciences, VU University Amsterdam.
    The effect of group-based exposure measurement strategies on the statistical significance of an association between lifting and low-back pain2013In: Eighth International Conference on Prevention of Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders; Abstracts, 2013, 175- p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Coenen, Pieter
    et al.
    Faculty of Human Movement Sciences, VU University Amsterdam.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Kingma, Idsart
    Faculty of Human Movement Sciences, VU University Amsterdam.
    Boot, Cécile
    EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam.
    Bongers, Paulien
    TNO Healthy Living, Hoofddorp.
    van Dieën, Jaap
    Faculty of Human Movement Sciences, VU University Amsterdam.
    The effect of the presence and characteristics of an outlying group on exposure-outcome associations2015In: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, Vol. 41, no 1, 65-74 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Physical exposures (e.g., lifting or bending) are believed to be risk factors for low-back pain (LBP), but the literature is inconsistent. Exposure and LBP prevalence differ considerably between occupations, and so exposure-outcome associations could be severely modified by the presence of particular occupational groups. We aimed at investigating the influence of such outlying groups on the properties of associations between exposure and LBP.

    Methods: Lifting and trunk flexion were observed for 371 of 1131 workers within 19 groups. LBP was obtained from all workers during three follow-up years. Both exposure variables were associated with LBP (p<0.01) in this parent dataset.

    By removing the 19 groups one-by-one and performing logistic regressions analysis on the 18 remaining groups, we demonstrated that one group, mainly road workers, with outlying exposures and LBP prevalence substantially affected the exposure-outcome association in the total population. In order to further examine this phenomenon, we assessed, by simulation, the influence of realistic sizes (n=4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128), mean exposures (e=2000, 3000, 4000 lifts and e=30, 40, 50% trunk flexion time) and LBP prevalences (p=70, 80, 90, 100%) of the outlying group on the strength and certainty of the eventual relationship between exposure and LBP. For each combination of n, e and p, 3000 virtual studies were constructed, including the simulated group together with the other 18 original groups from the parent data-set. Average OR, OR confidence limits, and power (p<0.05) were calculated across these 3,000 studies as measures of the properties of each virtual study design.

    Results: ORs were attenuated more towards 1 and power decreased with smaller values of n, e and p in the outlying group. Changes in group size and prevalence had a larger influence on OR and power than changes in mean exposure.

    Conclusions: The size and characteristics of a single group with high exposure and outcome prevalence can strongly influence both the OR point estimate and the likelihood of obtaining significant exposure-outcome associations in studies of large populations. These findings can guide interpretations of prior epidemiological studies and support informed design of future studies.

  • 47.
    Commissaris, Dianne A. C. M.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Departments of Sustainable Productivity & Employability; Work, Health & Care; and Expertise Centre Lifestyle, TNO, Leiden, The Netherlands.
    Huysmans, Maaike A.
    Department of Public and Occupational Health and the EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Body@Work Research Center Physical Activity, Work & Health TNO-VU/VUmc, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Koppes, Lando L.J.
    Department of Sustainable Productivity and Employability; Work, Health and Care; and Expertise Centre Life Style, TNO, Leiden, The Netherlands; NIVEL, Netherlands Institute for Health Services Research, Utrecht, The Netherlands..
    Hendriksen, Ingrid J.M.
    Department of Sustainable Productivity and Employability; Work, Health and Care; and Expertise Centre Life Style, TNO, Leiden, The Netherlands; Body@Work Research Center Physical Activity, Work & Health TNO-VU/VUmc, Amsterdam, The Netherlands..
    Interventions to reduce sedentary behavior and increase physical activity during productive work : a systematic review2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 42, no 3, 181-191 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Many current jobs are characterized by sedentary behaviour (SB) and lack of physical activity (PA). Interventions addressing SB and PA at the workplace may benefit workers’ health. The present review is the first to focus on the effectiveness of interventions implemented during productive work with the intention to change workers’ SB and/or PA while working.

    Methods: Scopus was searched for articles published from 1992 until March 12, 2015. Relevant studies were evaluated using the Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies and summarized in a best-evidence synthesis.

    Results: 40 studies describing 41 interventions were included and organized into three categories: alternative workstations (20), interventions promoting stair use (11) and personalized behavioural interventions (10). Strong evidence was found for alternative workstations leading to positive effects on overall SB, while evidence was conflicting for effects on SB and PA at work, overall PA, and work performance. Evidence was moderate for alternative workstations to have no effect on hemodynamics and cardiorespiratory fitness. Stair use promotion interventions were found to increase PA at work, while personalized behavioural interventions increased overall PA; both with moderate evidence. Personalized behavioural interventions were found to have no effect on anthropometric measures (moderate evidence). Regarding work performance and lipid and metabolic profiles, evidence was either conflicting or insufficient.

    Conclusions: Current evidence supports that introduction of alternative workstations may have positive effects on overall PA and SB, likely without reducing work performance, while the long-term health effects of all three reviewed categories of interventions remain to be established.

  • 48.
    Crenshaw, Albert G
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Elcadi, Guilherme H
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Hellström, Fredrik
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Reliability of near infrared spectroscopy for measuring forearm and shoulder oxygenation in healthy males and females2012In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 112, 2703-2715 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study determined the day-to-day reliability of NIRS-derived oxygenation responses (ΔStO 2%) for isometric contractions and for cuff occlusion. Twenty-four subjects (12 males and 12 females) were tested on two days (4-6 days interval). Variables generated were: (i) ΔStO 2% for isometric contractions (10%, 30%, 50% and 70% MVC) for descending trapezius (TD) and extensor carpi radialis (ECR) muscles; (ii) slope changes in total haemoglobin (HbTslope) and deoxyhaemoglobin (HHbslope) for the ECR using upper arm venous (VO, 50 mmHg) and arterial occlusion (AO, 250 mmHg); (iii) recovery slopes (Rslope) for oxygen saturation (StO2) following isometric contractions and AO. For each variable an intraclass correlation (ICC) was calculated to assess the ability to differentiate between subjects, and limits of agreement (LOA) were computed to assess day-to-day consistency of the measurement. ICCs for ΔStO2% were lowest at 10% MVC for both ECR (0.58) and TD (0.55), and highest at 30% MVC for ECR (0.95) and at 70% MVC for TD (0.79). For both muscles, LOA for ΔStO 2% was lowest at 10% and highest at 50% and 70% MVC. ICC for HbTslope was 0.17. For HHbslope ICC was higher for AO (0.83) than for VO (0.73), and LOA was lower for AO. For the ECR Rslope ICCs ranged 0.88–0.90 for contraction, but was lower for AO (0.33); LOA was lowest at 70% MVC. For trapezius Rslope ICCs ranged 0.63–0.73 and LOA was lowest at 30% MVC. For this study establishing reliability data for the ECR and TD, and including variables commonly reported, are expected to have meaning for future NIRS studies of work-related upper-extremity pain as well as for other NIRS research and clinical applications.

  • 49. Dempsey, P G
    et al.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Jackson, Jennie A
    Influence on work pace conditions on temporal organization of work and rest2006In: Meeting diversity in ergonomics: proceedings IEA 2006 Congress / [ed] Pikar, R.N. et al, 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A study was conducted to investigate the influence of different approaches to arranging the pace and temporal organization of repetitive assembly and disassembly tasks on variability in performance, and to compare assembly and disassembly times derived with psychophysical methods to more traditional Methods- Time Measurement (MTM) approaches. The conditions studied were a traditional assembly line arrangement where assemblies were started at a pace of 110 MTM, a batch condition where subjects were required to complete 36 assemblies in the amount of time based on 110 MTM, a line condition where subjects were required to take a break after every 6 assemblies requiring theffi to work at a 120 MTM pace, and a psychophysical condition where subjects were allowed to choose their pace.

    Overall, the results suggest that the mean times spent working remained fairly constant a cross conditions, with more variation in pauses in between cycles. For the second self-paced condition, subjects selected a significantly higher pace than 1 10 MTM, which was the basis for the other conditions. The higher pace was achieved through reduction in mean pauses, and the potential implications for musculoskeletal risk are discussed.

  • 50.
    Dempsey, Patrick G
    et al.
    Liberty Mutual Research Institute for Safety, Center for Safety Research, Hopkinton, MA, United States .
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Liberty Mutual Research Institute for Safety, Center for Safety Research, Hopkinton, MA, United States .
    On the evolution of task-based analysis of manual materials handling, and its applicability in contemporary ergonomics2006In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 37, no 1, 33-43 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The industrial revolution significantly changed the way work was organized and analyzed by the introduction and widespread implementation of the division of labor philosophy. This philosophy has continued to dominate work design, and has evolved beyond the factory to include many facets of service industries, and even professional occupations. The analysis of manual work, particularly materials handling tasks, remains an active domain of ergonomics research and practice. Many of the task-analytic tools used for workplace analysis are rooted in the philosophy of dividing work into elements, analyzing the individual elements, and synthesizing the results into conclusions about the entire job, including the risk of contracting musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). The authors discuss the notion that the nature of modern work, which is characterized by multiple tasks in a complex time pattern, and the complex nature of MSDs, which are influenced by biomechanical as well as psychological, political, and economic factors, may limit the effectiveness of classical task analytic techniques in preventing MSDs.

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