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  • 1.
    Aho, Emmy
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Johansson, Sofia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Personliga assistenters upplevelse av deras psykologiska kontrakt2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The purpose of the study was to examine how personal assistants experience their psychological contract and how the psychological contract was fulfilled against their supervisor or manager.A qualitative method was used and seven interviews were conducted with personal care assistants from various workplaces. The interviews were analysed with thematic analysis and resulted in five main themes. Expectations, personal but not private, what really stands in the contract, how people look at the profession and fulfilment. In conclusion, the main result was that the personal care assistants experienced that the internal psychological contract consisted of the relation to the supervisor or manager and the accessibility to the employer. The personal care assistants felt that the contents of the external psychological contract consisted of the work duties, employment security, working hours and the attractiveness of the profession. The majority of the respondents felt that the internal and external psychological contract was fulfilled. None of the respondents considered that the internal and external psychological contract was not fulfilled at all.  

  • 2.
    Barbieri, Dechristian
    et al.
    Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of Sao Carlos.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science.
    Oliveira, Ana Beatriz
    Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of Sao Carlos.
    Neck, trunk, and upper arm posture variation during computer work at a sit-stand table in a real work setting2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Computer work is generally associated with constrained postures and sedentary behaviors. Sit-stand tables have been suggested as an effective intervention to promote changes in gross body posture, and thus reduce sitting. However, few studies have addressed to what extent sit-stand table usage affects posture variation in other body regions. The aim of this study was to examine neck, trunk and arm postures among office workers with access to sit-stand tables.

    Methods: Twenty-four office workers (16 females, 8 males; mean age 41 (SD9) years) participated. At entry, workers received sit-stand tables, which were then used for two months. Neck and trunk flexion, and right upper arm elevation (RUA) was recorded on three consecutive days, two hours/day, during the last week of table use. Minute-to-minute variability for the three postures during sitting (CWsit) and standing (CWstand) computer work was obtained for each participant. Job variance ratios (JVR) were calculated for the actual work, and for other combinations of CWsit and CWstand by simulation1.

    Results: CWsit and CWstand were performed for 72% and 28% of the time spent at the computer. Minute-to-minute variability was larger in CWsit than in CWstand for all three postures, and the difference CWsit-CWstand was largest for RUA [median 1.7 (IQR −0.2–1.7)º], followed by trunk [1.6 (0.9–3.0)º] and neck [0.9 (0.0–3.1)º]. During actual work, JVR was between 1 and 3 for most participants. Simulations suggested that maximum variability would occur at a combination of 40–80% CWsit and 20–60% CWstand.

    Conclusion: Neck, trunk and arm posture variation during computer work can be increased by manipulating proportions of time spent sitting and standing at a sit-stand table. The tentative “optimal” proportions reported here could be a benchmark for occupational health professionals.

  • 3.
    Barbieri, Dechristian
    et al.
    Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of São Carlos.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Oliveira, Ana Beatriz
    Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of São Carlos.
    Variation in upper extremity, neck and trunk postures when performing computer work at a sit-stand station2019In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 75, p. 120-128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to determine the extent of upper arm, neck and trunk posture variation that can be obtained by combining seated and standing computer work, compared to performing only seated computer work. Posture data were recorded for two hours during each of three days of ordinary work from 24 office workers that had been using a sit-stand station for two months. Periods with sitting and standing computer work were identified using on-site observations, and posture means and minute-to-minute variance were determined for both. Expected minute-to-minute posture variability in different temporal combinations of sitting and standing computer work were determined by simulation, and expressed in terms of a Job Variance Ratio, i.e. the relative increase in variability compared to sitting-only work. For all three postures, mean values differed between sitting and standing computer work, and both showed a notable minute-to-minute variability. For most workers, posture variability was larger when combining sitting and standing than when sitting only, and simulations suggested to introduce more standing than what the worker currently practiced. The results indicate that introducing a sit-stand table could, for most office workers, have a positive effect on upper arm, neck and trunk posture variability.

  • 4.
    Barbieri, Dechristian
    et al.
    Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of Sao Carlos.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science.
    Oliveira, Ana Beatriz
    Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of Sao Carlos.
    Variation in upper trapezius and wrist extensor EMG among office workers during sit-stand table use in a real work setting2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Computer work is generally associated with constrained postures and low muscular demands. Sit-stand tables have been suggested as an effective initiative to change working postures during computer work, but the effect of this intervention on muscle activation has rarely been studied. The aim of this study was to document variation in shoulder-arm muscle activation among office workers using sit-stand tables.

    Methods: Twenty-four office workers (16 females, 8 males; age 41±9 years) participated. At entry, workers received sit-stand tables and ergonomics information, and then used the table for two months. Muscle activity of right and left upper trapezius and wrist extensors (RUT, LUT, RWE and LWE, respectively) was recorded during three consecutive days (two hours each day) in the last week of sit-stand table usage. Periods of computer work in sitting and standing positions (CWsit and CWstand, respectively) were identified by on-site observation, and synchronized with the EMG recordings. Variability (min-min SD across 1-minute bins, %MVE) was calculated for each EMG recording in CWsit and CWstand.

    Results: During the 62 minutes of EMG recorded during computer work, CWsit was performed for 72% and CWstand for 28% of the time. The mean minute-to-minute variability of trapezius EMG was larger (P<0.05) during CWsit (RUT 3.9 (SD between workers 1.6) %MVE; LUT 3.9 (SD 2.3) %MVE) than CWstand (RUT 3.0 (SD 1.5) %MVE; LUT 3.2 (SD 1.9) %MVE). The mean minute-to minute variability in RWE was also larger during CWsit (3.3 (SD 1.4) %MVE) than CWstand (2.9 (SD 1.3) %MVE). For LWE, variability did not differ between CWsit and CWstand.

    Conclusion: Sitting and standing computer work was associated with different extents of variation in shoulder-arm muscle activity. Thus, sit-stand tables may introduce beneficial exposure variation into the work of office employees.

  • 5.
    Beard, Julia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Psychology.
    Tedenlind, Caroline
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Psychology.
    Kompetensbrist och Generation Y’s förväntningar utmanar IT-företag i arbetet med employer branding: Vikten av att bemöta förväntningarna för att attrahera och behålla personal2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to examine, through qualitative method, how companies within the IT industry work with employer branding to respond to Generation Y's expectations. The study was conducted using eight semi-structured interviews with respondents from four different companies within the IT industry in Central Sweden. The collected data from the interviews was analyzed by means of inductive thematic analysis and four main themes emerged. The main themes were; A new generation with new expectations in the workplace, Importance of a strong organizational culture, Particularly regarding the IT industry and Continuously work with employer branding. The result showed that companies are aware of differences between different generations expectations and work actively with employer branding in order to fulfil the employees psychological contract. Furthermore, the result showed that companies faced many challenges in the dynamic IT industry and the fact that an employee's psychological contract and expectations change over time

  • 6.
    Bengtsson, Hanna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Norstedt, Caroline
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Arbetsgivarvarumärket inom en kommun: Vad är en attraktiv arbetsgivare?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to, in collaboration with a municipality in Central Sweden, carry out a study on the municipality's work regarding their employer brand and the experience of an attractive employer. This has been examined from the perspective of the employer and the employees. The study was conducted with a qualitative method and was based on semi-structured interviews. Data was analyzed using an inductive thematic analysis. In the result, various themes emerged from each question. The themes that emerged regarding how the municipality works with its employer brand were the Municipality's brand and the overall Values. The themes that emerged about the issue of what characterizes an attractive employer according to the employees were Colleagues and supportive managers, Work environment and security, Personal development, Opportunity to influence, change and contribute, Staff welfare, Communication and structure, and Orientation. The themes that emerged according to the municipality's representatives were Supportive managers and communication, Personal development and the opportunity to influence, and Work content. The employer's and employees' perception of an attractive employer turned out to have many common themes. However, the employees highlighted additional themes. The themes present in the study for being an attractive employer matched well with the view of a strong employer brand, which strengthened the purpose of the study.

  • 7.
    Bergsten, Eva L.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Haapakangas, Annu
    Faculty of Health and Well-being, Turku University of Applied Sciences, Turku, Finland.
    Larsson, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Jahncke, Helena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Effects of relocation to activity-based workplaces on perceived productivity: importance of change-oriented leadership2019In: Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Bjärntoft, Sofie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Larsson, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Jahncke, Helena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Occupational and Individual Determinants of Work-life Balance among Office Workers with Flexible Work Arrangements2019In: Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Björklund, Filip
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Wikström, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Attityder gentemot mångfald: En jämförelse mellan en kvinnodominerad och en mansdominerad organisation2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to investigate and compare two organisations explicit attitudes towards diversity in the workplace, one female dominated and one male dominated. Workplace Diversity Survey was used to measure the attitude of individuals in a sample. The assembled results represented each organisation`s attitude towards diversity. The data was collected by administering the survey via e-mail and handing them out at a workshop. The result was analyzed in SPSS with an Mann Whitney U test to see if there were a significant difference. The findings indicated that there were no significant difference between these organisations attitudes. Potential factors that may have influenced the result is brought up in the discussion, as well as problems with the study and the instrument that were used.

  • 10.
    Bohman, Tony
    et al.
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bottai, Matteo
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Björklund, Martin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Predictive models for short-term and long-term improvement in women under physiotherapy for chronic disabling neck pain: a longitudinal cohort study2019In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 9, no 4, article id e024557Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives To develop predictive models for short-term and long-term clinically important improvement in women with non-specific chronic disabling neck pain during the clinical course of physiotherapy. Design Longitudinal cohort study based on data from a randomised controlled trial evaluating short-term and long-term effects on sensorimotor function over 11 weeks of physiotherapy. Participants and settings Eighty-nine women aged 31-65 years with non-specific chronic disabling neck pain from Gavle, Sweden. Measures The outcome, clinically important improvement, was measured with the Patient Global Impression of Change Scale (PGICS) and the Neck Disability Index (NDI), assessed by self-administered questionnaires at 3, 9 and 15 months from the start of the interventions (baseline). Twelve baseline prognostic factors were considered in the analyses. The predictive models were built using random-effects logistic regression. The predictive ability of the models was measured by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Internal validity was assessed with cross-validation using the bootstrap resampling technique. Results Factors included in the final PGICS model were neck disability and age, and in the NDI model, neck disability, depression and catastrophising. In both models, the odds for short-term and long-term improvement increased with higher baseline neck disability, while the odds decreased with increasing age (PGICS model), and with increasing level of depression (NDI model). In the NDI model, higher baseline levels of catastrophising indicated increased odds for short-term improvement and decreased odds for long-term improvement. Both models showed acceptable predictive validity with an AUC of 0.64 (95% CI 0.55 to 0.73) and 0.67 (95% CI 0.59 to 0.75), respectively. Conclusion Age, neck disability and psychological factors seem to be important predictors of improvement, and may inform clinical decisions about physiotherapy in women with chronic neck pain. Before using the developed predictive models in clinical practice, however, they should be validated in other populations and tested in clinical settings.

  • 11.
    Branteström, Victoria
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Alm, Therése
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Ombudsmäns upplevelser av work-life balance: En kvalitativ studie om upplevelsen av work-life balance bland ombudsmän vid ett fackförbund beläget i Mellansverige2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the experience of work-life balance among ombudsmen within a trade union located in the midst of Sweden. The study was based on a qualitative method conducted through semi-structured interviews with 10 respondents. The results were analyzed by an inductive thematic analysis that generated three main themes; Personal circumstancesFlexible work arrangements and work load and The profession of ombudsmen. The result demonstrated that the majority of the respondents felt that they had a good experience of work-life balance. They argued that their working life and private life do not have a major impact on each other but stated that they on numerous occasions primarily had to prioritize commitments in their working life. The respondents expressed that their experience of work-life balance may periodically change due to workload and personal circumstances such as family situation and experience of the profession. They also argued that the flexible working arrangements along with the culture that characterize their profession have an impact on the experience of work-life balance.

  • 12.
    Butler, Andrew
    et al.
    Faculty of Landscape and Society, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås, Norway.
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Psychology.
    Åkerskog, Ann
    Field Forest Research Institute, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Sarlöv Herlin, Ingrid
    Institutionen för landskapsarkitektur, planering och förvaltning, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, Sweden.
    Ode Sang, Åsa
    Institutionen för landskapsarkitektur, planering och förvaltning, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, Sweden.
    Ångman, Elin
    Institutionen för Stad och Land, Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Foraging for identity: the relationships between landscape activities and landscape identity after catastrophic landscape change2019In: Landscape research, ISSN 0142-6397, E-ISSN 1469-9710, Vol. 44, no 3, p. 303-319Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we deal with landscape activities in relation to changing landscape identity after a major wildfire in Sweden in 2014. The aim was to investigate the relationships between 22 landscape activities (before the fire) and 2 components (emotion and cognition) of landscape identity (before and after the fire). A total of 656 respondents living nearby the fire area participated in this study. Before the fire, a positive association was found between the activities of enjoying nature and foraging, and both components of landscape identity. This suggests that the more participants enjoyed nature and picked berries and mushrooms, the stronger their attachment to the landscape (emotion), and the more they remembered and reasoned about the landscape (cognition). Post fire, these relationships were found only between the two components of landscape identity and foraging. This implies a significant role of this type of activity for keeping alive' landscape identity.

  • 13.
    Bäckman, Pär
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Samba, Emelie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Hot och våld inom akutsjukvård: Sjuksköterskors upplevelser av hot och våld inom akutsjukvård2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to investigate the experience with threats and violence towards nurses working in an emergency department, the respondents coping strategies and if the potential vulnerability to threat and violence, changed the behavior of the nurses. The study was conducted at an emergency department in a hospital in the middle of Sweden. By a strategic selection, 8 nurses, was picked out for the study between the ages of 25–55 years and with the experience of working in an emergency department at least for one year. The study was conducted with semi structured interviews, with audio recording that was transcribed verbatim and was analyzed with an inductive thematic analysis. From the analysis, a different set of themes was identified: “Vulnerability”, “Coping strategies” and “Changed behavior”. To the different themes there was subthemes. The result showed that the respondents experienced threats and violence on a daily basis. Clear routines and education about threats and violence were experienced as an important foundation in terms of preventing threats and violence. The social support from colleagues were significant in terms of coping after an incident.KEYWORDS: Threats,

  • 14.
    Coenen, Pieter
    et al.
    Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Department of Public and Occupational Health, Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    van der Beek, Allard J.
    Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Department of Public and Occupational Health, Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Jackson, Jennie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science.
    Calibration of self-reported physical behaviours among office workers: A compositional data analysis2019In: ICAMPAM 2019: Oral Abstracts, Maastricht: ICAMPAM , 2019, article id O.11.2Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate calibration models to predict objectively measured time spent sitting, standing and walking during office work from self-reported time-use compositions using a compositional data analysis (CoDA) approach. Ninety-nine office workers (49 women) at the Swedish Transport Administration participated in an intervention study on relocation to activity-based offices. At baseline and at a 3-months follow-up, physical behaviours (sitting, standing and walking) at work were assessed for five days using a thigh-mounted accelerometer (Actigraph) and by self-report (IPAQ). The time-use composition of the three behaviours was expressed in terms of isometric log-ratios (ILR). Calibration models predicting accelerometry-based time-use from self-reported compositions were constructed using linear regression on baseline data, and then validated using follow-up data. The accelerometer data showed that, on average, workers spent 69.9% of their day sitting, 23.7% standing, and 6.4% walking. The corresponding percentages for self-reports were 71.7%, 21.6%, and 7.4%, respectively. Non-calibrated self-reports were biased: the RMS errors obtained from the ILRs expressing sitting, standing and walking were 0.73, 1.09 and 1.05, respectively. Calibration models reduced these errors by 45% (sitting), 56% (standing), and 76% (walking). Validation of the calibration models using follow-up data from the same workers showed calibration remained equally effective; RMS errors were reduced by 55% (sitting), 58% (standing), and 75% (walking). In conclusion, calibration models for compositional time-use data were effective in reducing bias in self-reported physical behaviours at work, and the models remained effective when used on new data from the same workers. Calibrated self-reports may represent a cost-effective method for obtaining physical behaviour data with a satisfying accuracy in large-scale cohort and intervention studies.

  • 15.
    Degerstedt, Frida
    et al.
    Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; Umeå Center for Gender Studies, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Enberg, Birgit
    Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Keisu, Britt-Inger
    Umeå Center for Gender Studies, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Björklund, Martin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Inequity in physiotherapeutic interventions for children with Cerebral Palsy in Sweden - a national registry study.2019In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of physiotherapeutic interventions for children with Cerebral Palsy in Sweden from an equity perspective, considering sex, country of birth and geographical region.

    METHOD: This national cross-sectional registry study includes children with Cerebral Palsy aged 0-18 years who participated in 2015 in the Swedish national quality registry, the Cerebral Palsy follow-up program, CPUP. Comparisons and associations between physiotherapeutic interventions and sex, country of birth and geographical regions were conducted using Chi2 and logistic regression analysis, controlling for cognitive level, level of motor function, age group and dominating symptom.

    RESULTS: Of the 2855 participants, 2201 (79%) had received physiotherapy. Children born in Sweden had 1.60 times higher odds (95% CI 1.10-2.33) of receiving physiotherapy compared with children born in foreign countries. Distribution of physiotherapeutic interventions differed significantly between geographical regions. No associations between sex and physiotherapeutic interventions were observed.

    CONCLUSION: The results of this study indicate inequity in care in Sweden towards children with Cerebral Palsy born in other counties. Further, physiotherapeutic interventions were not equally distributed in different.

  • 16.
    Domkin, Dmitry
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Forsman, Mikael
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.; KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Richter, Hans O.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Effect of ciliary-muscle contraction force on trapezius muscle activity during computer mouse work2019In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 119, no 2, p. 389-397Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study aimed to identify whether or not an increase in ciliary-muscle contraction force, when the eye-lens is adjusted for viewing at a near distance, result in an increase in trapezius muscle activity, while performing a natural work task. Twelve participants, ranging in age from 21 to 32 years, performed a computer-mouse work task during free gaze conditions. A moving visual target was tracked with a computer mouse on a screen placed at two different distances from the eyes, 25 cm and 50 cm. Tracking performance, eye accommodation, and bilateral trapezius muscle activity were measured continuously. Ciliary-muscle contraction force was computed according to a formula which takes into account the age-dependent, non-linear relationship between contraction force of the ciliary muscle and the produced level of eye accommodation. Generalized Estimating Equations analyses were performed. On the dominant hand side and for the nearest screen distance, there was a significant effect of ciliary-muscle contraction force on the trapezius muscle activity (p<0.001). No other effects were significant (p>0.05). The results support the hypothesis that high visual demands, during computer mouse work, increase ciliary muscle contraction force and contribute to a raise of the sustained level of trapezius muscle activity. The current study specifically clarifies the validity of the relationship between ciliary-muscle contraction force and trapezius muscle activity and demonstrates that this relationship is not due to a general personal trait. We conclude that a high level of ciliary muscle contraction force can contribute to a development of musculoskeletal complaints in the neck-shoulder area.

  • 17.
    Eisfeldt, Rebecca
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Sandersen, Louise
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Upplevelsen av den psykosociala arbetsmiljön som man och minoritet inom förskole- och fritidsverksamheten.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to investigate how men in a subjective way experienced their psychosocial work environment in preschool and leisure activities, a profession that is dominated by women. Their subjective experience of their psychosocial work environment was based on their position as a minority and gender as a man. A qualitative study was conducted with eight semi-structured interviews in which the participants experiences of their psychosocial work environment were in focus. Finally, the collected material was analyzed using an inductive thematic analysis. The main result showed that the men, on the basis of their gender and minority position, both perceived and suffered in their professional role. Several of the participants described experiences of discriminatory abuse, but many also experienced great benefits regarding positive discrimination in the workplace, recruitment opportunities and career opportunities. Furthermore, the result showed the importance of social support from management and colleagues.

  • 18.
    Ek, Malin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Renheim, Madeleine
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Kan arbetsmotivation påverka arbetstagares lojalitet gentemot arbetsgivare?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to analyze which kind of work motivation was the strongest predictor to index for work loyalty. The sample was employees that worked at least part time (50%) and had been employed by the same employer for at least one year. The participants were women and men in the ages between 21 to 66 years. The survey was based on The Multidimensional Work Motivation Scale (MWMS) and five additional items about work loyalty from Tseng and Wu’s (2017) survey. The survey generated 95 survey responses of which 80 were complete. The analyses were carried out in IBM SPSS Statistics 24 and the results showed that the dimensionintrinsic motivationwas the strongest predictor to work loyalty. Further analyses showed that the factor identified regulationwas the strongest predictor to work loyalty of the dimension intrinsic motivationassociated factors. A negative significant correlation was demonstrated between the dimension amotivationand work loyalty. Since employees are one of the most important assets to an organization, it is essential that HR work together with managers to promote employees’ intrinsic motivation to create loyal employees.

  • 19.
    Eliasson, Ingegärd
    et al.
    aDepartment of Conservation, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Psychology.
    Fredholm, Susanne
    aDepartment of Conservation, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Heritage Planning in Practice and the Role of Cultural Ecosystem Services2018In: Heritage & Society, ISSN 2159-032X, E-ISSN 2159-0338, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 44-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the role of cultural ecosystem services in heritage planning by examining daily working processes at the municipal and county planning levels. The focus was on the cultural ecosystem service dimensions of cultural heritage, place identity, and aesthetic and existential values. Cultural ecosystem service dimensions are currently inadequately represented in research and application of the ecosystem service concept. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with public officials with formal assignments directly related to heritage planning. The results show that cultural ecosystem services are indeed considered in the planning processes, even though the respondents did not actually use the ecosystem service approach. Despite institutional and methodological constraints, respondents were found to aim for a broad planning approach involving dimensions of the landscape such as historic time depth, human use of the landscape, place identity, landscape views, and a strong integration between culture and nature. Thus, the results indicate a potential for integration of cultural ecosystem service dimensions into the ecosystem service approach by utilizing existing knowledge and practices within heritage planning at the local and regional levels. © 2019, © 2019 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

  • 20.
    Eriksson, Alexandra
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Roslund, Linnea
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Svenska linjechefers upplevelse av sitt chefskap efter en centralisering av HR2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to investigate line managers’ experiences of their managementship after centralization of the HR department, and the decentralization of tasks that are related to HR work. Through a qualitative study, eight interviews were conducted with line managers within an energy corporate group in Central Sweden. The focus was on the line managers' experiences, narratives and experiences of their managementship, after the organizational change that was implemented. Data were analyzed using inductive thematic analysis. The result showed that the line managers felt factors such as cooperation, clear expectations, greater responsibility and also that the separation of managementship and leadership contributed to the changes that centralization brought, were perceived as positive. The importance of these factors with the decentralization of the tasks related to HR work has thus contributed to the line managers feeling that they are able to manage the increased demands placed on them as managers, and that they enjoy their managementship.

  • 21.
    Fager, Frida
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Psychology.
    Lyng, Adrian
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Psychology.
    Mirror, mirror on the wall, tell us if the structure is likable?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine, through the areas decisions making, accountability, variation in the work tasks, the organizations routines and job descriptions, the employee’s assessment of their current organizational structure. Furthermore, the study examined if the employee’s wanted bigger opportunities for decision making and accountability, more variation in the work tasks and clearer routines and job descriptions compared to their current organizational structure. A digital questionnaire was distributed to 110 employees. 73 of the employees chose to participate. A quantitative study was used, and the descriptive data was examined. Four separate paired sample t-tests were performed for the purpose of the two problem statements. The result was non-significant within all four tests. Individual items indicated that the employees assessed the organizational structure as both flat and hierarchic. 

  • 22.
    Gilson, Nicholas
    et al.
    The University of Queensland, Australia.
    Hall, Caitlin
    The University of Queensland, Australia.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    van der Beek, Allard
    VU University Medical Centre, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Huysmans, Maaike
    VU University Medical Centre, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Straker, Leon
    Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Sedentary behaviour and physical activity in blue collar workers: a systematic review of accelerometer studies2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Gupta, Nidhi
    et al.
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Dumuid, Dorothea
    Alliance for Research in Exercise, Nutrition and Activity (ARENA), School of Health Sciences, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, Australia.
    Vij, Akshay
    Institute for Choice, University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia.
    Lund Rasmussen, Charlotte
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark; Section of Social Medicine, Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Birk Jørgensen, Marie
    Department of Forensic Science, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark; Department of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Movement behavior profiles and obesity: a latent profile analysis of 24-h time-use composition among Danish workers2019In: International Journal of Obesity, ISSN 0307-0565, E-ISSN 1476-5497Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background/objectives

    An element of obesity prevention is increasing total physical activity energy expenditure. However, this approach does not incorporate the balance of various movement behaviors—physical activity, sedentary behaviors and sleep - across domains of the day. We aimed to identify time-use profiles over work and leisure, termed ‘movement behavior profiles’ and to investigate their association with obesity.

    Subjects/methods

    Eight-hundred-and-seven workers completed (a) thigh accelerometry and diaries to determine their 24-h composition of behaviors (sedentary and standing, light physical activity and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity at work and leisure, and time in bed) and (b) obesity measurements. Movement behavior profiles were determined using latent profile analyses of isometric log-ratios of the 24-h composition, and labeled according to animal movement behavior traits. Linear models were applied to determine the association between profiles and obesity.

    Results

    Four profiles were identified, labeled as “Chimpanzees” (n = 226), “Lions” (n = 179), “Ants” (n = 244), and “Koalas” (n = 158). “Chimpanzees” work time was evenly distributed between behaviors while their leisure time was predominantly active. Compared to Chimpanzees, “Lions” were more active at work and sedentary during leisure and spent more time in bed; “Ants” were more active at work and during leisure; “Koalas” were more sedentary at work and leisure and spent similar time in bed. With “Chimpanzees” as reference, “Lions” had least favorable obesity indicators: +2.0 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.6, 3.4) %body fat, +4.3 cm (1.4, 7.3) waist circumference and +1.0 (2.0, 0.0) Body Mass Index (BMI), followed by “Koalas” +2.0 (0.4, 3.7) %body fat, +3.1 cm (0.1, 6.0) waist circumference, and +0.8 (−0.30, 1.94) BMI. No significant differences were found between “Chimpanzees” and “Ants”.

    Conclusions

    Movement behavior profiles across work and leisure time-use compositions are associated with obesity. Achieving adequate balance between work and leisure movement behaviors should be further investigated as a potential obesity prevention strategy.

  • 24.
    Gupta, Nidhi
    et al.
    The National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Denmark.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Dumuid, Dorothea
    Alliance for Research in Exercise, Nutrition and Activity (ARENA), School of Health Sciences, University of South Australia, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.
    Vij, Akshay
    Institute for Choice, University of South Australia, North Sydney, Australia.
    Lund Rasmussen, Charlotte
    The National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Denmark.
    Birk Jørgensen, Marie
    The National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Denmark.
    Korshøj, Mette
    The National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Denmark.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    The National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Denmark.
    Physical-behavior profiles and aerobic capacity: A latent profile analysis of 24-hour time-use composition among Danish workers2019In: ICAMPAM 2019: Oral Abstracts, Maastricht: ICAMPAM , 2019, article id O.11.4Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction Obtaining a balance between exercise and recovery is an established approach in Exercise Science to improve aerobic capacity. However, it is unknown how different 24-h time-use profiles depicting a balance between physical behaviors (i.e. physical activities, sedentary behavior and sleep) across main domains of the day are associated with aerobic capacity. We aimed to identify such 'physical-behavior (PB) profiles' and to investigate their association with aerobic capacity. Methods Workers (n=807) participated in thigh-accelerometry to determine 24-h time-use composition of physical activity, sedentary and standing during work and leisure, as well as time in bed. Åstrand submaximal cycle ergometer test was used to estimate aerobic capacity. The PB profiles were determined using latent profile analysis of isometric log-ratios representing the 24-hour composition. Linear models were applied to determine the cross-sectional association between physical-behavior profiles and aerobic capacity. Results Four PB profiles were identified that were labeled based on animal traits; Chimpanzees (n=226), Lions (n=179), Ants (n=244), and Koalas (n=158). Compared to Chimpanzees (at work, in mins; sedentary=197, standing=145, physical activity=117; and at leisure in mins; physical activity=114, standing=121, time in bed= 440); Lions were more active at work, sedentary at leisure and spent more time in bed; Ants had more physical activity at work and similar physical activity and time in bed at leisure; Koalas were more sedentary at work and leisure and spent more time in bed. Compared to Chimpanzees, Koalas had lower aerobic capacity (mlO2/kg/min): -3.7 (95%CI -6.0,-1.5), followed by Lions -3.6 (-5.5,-1.7) and Ants -1.8 (-3.7,- 0.1). Conclusions Physical-behavior profiles based on 24-h time-use composition are associated with aerobic capacity. Obtaining a balance between physical behaviors at work and leisure may be a promising approach for improving aerobic capacity.

  • 25.
    Haapakangas, Annu
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Jahncke, Helena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    The effects of moving into an activity-based office on communication, social relations and work demands – A controlled intervention with repeated follow-up2019In: Journal of Environmental Psychology, ISSN 0272-4944, E-ISSN 1522-9610, Vol. 66, article id 101341Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When organizations adopt activity-based workplaces (ABWs), improved interaction is a common goal. Yet, few controlled longitudinal studies have been conducted on the effects of ABWs on interaction, social relations and work demands. The aim of this natural intervention study was to investigate the effects of moving into an ABW on satisfaction with communication, on social relations (i.e., social support and social community) and on work demands (i.e., quantitative demands, emotional demands and work pace) 3 months and 12 months after the relocation. The study included four offices which relocated into an ABW and one control office that did not. Questionnaire data from 408 respondents were analyzed with linear mixed models. Satisfaction with communication and the sense of belonging to a community had decreased 3 and 12 months after the relocation. Work pace was not affected while small, mostly short-term, negative effects on social support, quantitative demands and emotional demands were only observed among employees who had moved to ABWs from private offices. Differences between office sites were also observed. The results suggest that, to avoid negative outcomes, organizations moving to ABWs should focus on solving difficulties in locating colleagues at the office and on supporting particularly workers from private offices in adopting activity-based working.

  • 26.
    Hallman, David
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Björklund, Martin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Gupta, Nidhi
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Nørregaard Rasmussen, Charlotte D.
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Sick leave due to musculoskeletal pain : determinants of distinct trajectories over 1 year2019In: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    This study aimed to identify sub-groups of workers with different trajectories of sick leave due to musculoskeletalpain over 1 year, and to investigate the extent to which the identified trajectories are associated with personal, occupational,lifestyle, and pain-related factors at baseline.

    Methods

    Data on 981 blue- and white-collar workers were analyzed in the DPHACTO cohort (2012–2014). The numberof days on sick leave due to pain was reported using text messages at 4-week intervals across 1 year. Latent class growthanalysis was used to distinguish sub-groups with different trajectories of sick leave. A web-based questionnaire at baselinewas used to assess personal, occupational (physical and psychosocial), lifestyle, and pain-related factors. Multinomial regressionmodels were constructed to determine associations between baseline factors and trajectories of sick leave (referencingno sick leave), with adjustment for potential confounders.

    Results

    Four distinct sub-groups were identified, with trajectories of sick leave due to pain ranging from no sick leave(prevalence 76%; average 0.5 days/year) to some days and increasing sick leave due to pain over 1 year (2%; 89 days/year).The increasing trajectory of sick leave was associated with higher perceived physical exertion, more time in manual work,less social community and influence at work, less leisure-time physical activity, smoking, and more severe symptoms (e.g.,multisite pain, low back pain intensity, and pain interference).

    Conclusions

    We identified four distinct trajectories of sick leave due to musculoskeletal pain. The sub-group with increasingsick leave due to pain was associated with several modifiable physical and psychosocial factors at work and outside work,which may have implications for prevention.

  • 27.
    Hallman, David
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    van der Beek, Allard
    Department of Public and Occupational Health, Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
    Jackson, Jennie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Coenen, Pieter
    Department of Public and Occupational Health, Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
    Calibration of self-reported time spent sitting, standing and walking among office workers: a compositional data analysis2019In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 16, no 17, article id 3111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We developed and evaluated calibration models predicting objectively measured sitting, standing and walking time from self-reported data using a compositional data analysis (CoDA) approach. A total of 98 office workers (48 women) at the Swedish Transport Administration participated. At baseline and three-months follow-up, time spent sitting, standing and walking at work was assessed for five working days using a thigh-worn accelerometer (Actigraph), as well as by self-report (IPAQ). Individual compositions of time spent in the three behaviors were expressed by isometric log-ratios (ILR). Calibration models predicting objectively measured ILRs from self-reported ILRs were constructed using baseline data, and then validated using follow-up data. Un-calibrated self-reports were inaccurate; root-mean-square (RMS) errors of ILRs for sitting, standing and walking were 1.21, 1.24 and 1.03, respectively. Calibration reduced these errors to 36% (sitting), 40% (standing), and 24% (walking) of those prior to calibration. Calibration models remained effective for follow-up data, reducing RMS errors to 33% (sitting), 51% (standing), and 31% (walking). Thus, compositional calibration models were effective in reducing errors in self-reported physical behaviors during office work. Calibration of self-reports may present a cost-e_ective method for obtaining physical behavior data with satisfying accuracy in large-scale cohort and intervention studies.

  • 28.
    Hallman, David
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Niklas, Krause
    Departments of Epidemiology and Environmental Health Sciences, Fielding School of Public Health, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA.
    Jensen, Magnus Thorsten
    Department of Cardiology, Copenhagen University Hospital, Gentofte, Denmark.
    Gupta, Nidhi
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Birk Jørgensen, Marie
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Objectively measured sitting and standing in workers: Cross-sectional relationship with autonomic cardiac modulation2019In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 16, no 4, article id 650Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Excessive sitting and standing are proposed risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), possibly due to autonomic imbalance. This study examines the association of objectively measured sitting and standing with nocturnal autonomic cardiac modulation. The cross-sectional study examined 490 blue-collar workers in three Danish occupational sectors. Sitting and standing during work and leisure were assessed during 1–5 days using accelerometers. Heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) were obtained during nocturnal sleep as markers of resting autonomic modulation. The associations of sitting and standing still (h/day) with HR and HRV were assessed with linear regression models, adjusted for age, gender, body mass index, smoking, and physical activity. More sitting time during leisure was associated with elevated HR (p = 0.02), and showed a trend towards reduced HRV. More standing time at work was associated with lower HR (p = 0.02), and with increased parasympathetic indices of HRV (root mean squared successive differences of R-R intervals p = 0.05; high-frequency power p = 0.07). These findings, while cross-sectional and restricted to blue-collar workers, suggest that sitting at leisure is detrimental to autonomic cardiac modulation, but standing at work is beneficial. However, the small effect size is likely insufficient to mitigate the previously shown detrimental effects of prolonged standing on CVD.

  • 29.
    Hallman, David
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology.
    Nørregaard Rasmussen, Charlotte
    National research centre for the working environment, Denmark.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National research centre for the working environment, Denmark.
    Time-use composition of physical behaviors at work and sick-leave trajectories due to musculoskeletal pain2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    There is limited knowledge on the influence of physical behaviors at work such as sitting, standing, low- (LIPA) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) on sick leave due to pain. Studies addressing this relationship using valid objective measures of physical behaviors are scarce. The aim was to determine the prospective association between time-use compositions of physical behavior at work with sick leave trajectories due to musculoskeletal pain.

    Methods

    Data on 981 workers were analyzed in the DPHACTO cohort (2012-2014). Physical behaviors at work were assessed objectively at baseline using accelerometers, and the resulting time-line of exposure at work was classified as sitting, standing, low- (LIPA) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). The number of days on sick leave due to musculoskeletal pain was reported using text messages at 4-week intervals across 1 year (14 waves in total). Latent class growth analysis was used to distinguish sub-groups with different trajectories of sick leave. Associations between time-use in physical behaviors and sick leave trajectories were determined using multinomial regression analysis with adjustment for age and gender. Compositional data analysis was used to account for the co-dependency of different behaviors.

    Results

    We identified four distinct trajectories of sick leave due to pain over one year as follows: no days (prevalence 76%), few days-increasing (19%), some days-decreasing (3%), and some days-increasing (2%). Spending more time in sitting relative to the other behaviors was associated with a reduced likelihood of few days-increasing sick leave (class 2 p<0.001), while time in LIPA was associated with an increased likelihood of some days-increasing sick leave (class 4 p=0.001).

    Conclusion

    We found that the time-use composition of physical behaviors at work was associated with sick leave trajectories due to pain over 1 year. Reducing time in occupational physical activities in favor of sitting may be useful for preventing sick leave due to musculoskeletal pain.

  • 30.
    Hammarström, Angelica
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Psychology.
    Sunnerhage, Victoria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Psychology.
    Varför statligt anställda tjänstemän väljer att stanna i organisationen2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att utifrån teorin job embeddedness undersöka vilka anledningar anställda inom den offentliga sektorn med tjänstemannabefattning anser viktiga för att stanna kvar på sin arbetsplats. Studien genomfördes kvalitativt genom semistrukturerade intervjuer med nio stycken tjänstemän från tre olika myndigheter i Sverige. Materialet analyserades genom en teoristyd tematisk analys med tre förutbestämda huvudteman baserade på de tre dimensionerna i teorin job embeddedness. Det första temat benämndes som passform vilket representerar hur väl arbetstagaren passar in i organisationen. Det andra temat var relationer vilket beskriver de mänskliga relationerna på arbetsplatsen. Tredje temat benämns som uppoffringar vilket beskriver de risker arbetstagare skulle behöva stå inför om de bytte arbetsplats. Studien visade att valet att stanna kvar på en myndighet var en blandning av flera influenser såsom utvecklingsmöjligheter, interpersonella relationer och ett arbete som fungerar med privatlivet.

  • 31.
    Hassel, Lotta
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Ståhl, Helén
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Varför arbetar högskolestudenter under studietiden: Hur påverkas den psykosociala situationen?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate why some college students choose to only study during their education time and others to work in parallel with their studies. The aim was also to find out whether there was any difference between the two groups regarding health, tiredness, stress and economic. The participants consisted of students at universities in Sweden (n = 3437), of which 57,9 % were women and 42,1 % were men. The study's measuring instrument was a questionnaire that consisted questions about if and why the student worked or not during their education time. Self-assessment answers for health, tiredness, sleep, stress and economy. The results were analyzed and showed that it was economic reasons for why student worked in parallel with the studies. There was a significant difference between the groups how they experienced their financial situation, where working-class students stated their finances as inferior. However, there was no significant difference between the groups in the perception of health, sleep and stress. A significant gender difference in the results showed that women experienced more stress, bad sleep and ill health. Finally, the results of the study and suggestion for further research were discussed.

  • 32.
    Hedblom, M.
    et al.
    Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden; Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hedenås, H.
    Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Blicharska, M.
    Natural Resources and Sustainable Development, Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Swedish Biodiversity Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Adler, S.
    Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden; Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden; Asian School of the Environment, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang, Singapore .
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Psychology.
    Mikusiński, G.
    Grimsö Wildlife Research Station, Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Riddarhyttan, Sweden; School for Forest Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skinnskatteberg, Sweden .
    Svensson, J.
    Department of Wildlife, Fish and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Sandström, S.
    Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Sandström, P.
    Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Wardle, D. A.
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden; Asian School of the Environment, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang, Singapore.
    Landscape perception: linking physical monitoring data to perceived landscape properties2019In: Landscape research, ISSN 0142-6397, E-ISSN 1469-9710Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Changes in the landscape affect not only people’s well-being but also how people perceive and use the landscape. An increasing number of policies have highlighted the importance of conserving a landscape’s recreational and aesthetical values. This study develops and evaluates a model that links people’s perceptions of a mountain landscape to physical monitoring data. Using a questionnaire, we revealed how respondents working with the Swedish mountains characterise the Magnificent Mountain landscape (as defined by Swedish policy objectives) and translated these characteristics into data from the National Inventory of Landscapes in Sweden (NILS). We found 14 potential indicators that could be derived from the existing NILS physical monitoring data and which could be used to monitor changes in the landscape values as perceived by people. Based on the results, we suggest how to simultaneously utilise field sampling of physical data and field photos to provide temporal information about landscape perception.

  • 33.
    Hedblom, Marcus
    et al.
    Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden; Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Gunnarsson, Bengt
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Schaefer, Martin
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Psychology.
    Thorsson, Pontus
    Division of Applied Acoustics, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lundström, Johan N.
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Monell Chemical Senses Center, Philadelphia, PA, USA; Department of Psychology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA; Stockholm University Brain Imaging Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sounds of Nature in the City: No Evidence of Bird Song Improving Stress Recovery2019In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 16, no 8, article id 1390Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Noise from city traffic is one of the most significant environmental stressors. Natural soundscapes, such as bird songs, have been suggested to potentially mitigate or mask noise. All previous studies on masking noise use self-evaluation data rather than physiological data. In this study, while respondents (n = 117) watched a 360 degrees virtual reality (VR) photograph of a park, they were exposed to different soundscapes and mild electrical shocks. The soundscapesbird song, bird song and traffic noise, and traffic noisewere played during a 10 min recovery period while their skin conductance levels were assessed as a measure of arousal/stress. No significant difference in stress recovery was found between the soundscapes although a tendency for less stress in bird song and more stress in traffic noise was noted. All three soundscapes, however, significantly reduced stress. This result could be attributed to the stress-reducing effect of the visual VR environment, to the noise levels being higher than 47 dBA (a level known to make masking ineffective), or to the respondents finding bird songs stressful. Reduction of stress in cities using masking with natural sounds requires further studies with not only larger samples but also sufficient methods to detect potential sex differences.

  • 34.
    Heiden, Marina
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Zetterberg, Camilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Lindberg, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Nylén, Per
    Swedish Work Environment Authority, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hemphälä, Hillevi
    Division of Ergonomics and Aerosoltechnology, Design Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Validity of a computer-based risk assessment method for visual ergonomics2019In: International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, ISSN 0169-8141, E-ISSN 1872-8219, Vol. 72, p. 180-187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    To describe the development of a computer-based risk assessment method for visual ergonomics, and assess its face validity, content validity, and internal consistency.

    Methods

    The risk assessment method contained a questionnaire for the worker, an evaluation form for the evaluator, a section of follow-up questions based on the worker's responses, and a section for recommended changes, including an overall risk assessment with respect to daylight, lighting, illuminance, glare, flicker, work space, work object and work postures, respectively. Forty-eight trained evaluators used the method to perform 224 workplace evaluations. Content validity of the method was assessed by the completeness and distribution of responses, and internal consistency was assessed by Cronbach's alpha, Spearman's rank correlation between items and indices, and exploratory factor analysis.

    Results

    The proportion of missing values in items was generally low (questionnaire: 0–2.3%; evaluation form: 1.4–4.1%). In the questionnaire, items about double vision, migraine and corrective lenses had limited information content. Cronbach's alpha and item-index correlations for the indices frequency of eyestrain, intensity of eyestrain, visual symptoms, lighting conditions, frequency of musculoskeletal discomfort and intensity of musculoskeletal discomfort were satisfactory. Based on the factor analysis, suggestions for improving some of the indices were made.

    Conclusion

    Our findings suggest that this computer-based method is a valid instrument for assessing risks in the visual work environment. By incorporating subjective ratings by the worker as well as objective measurements of the work environment, it provides a good basis for recommendations with respect to daylight, lighting, work surfaces/material, and work object.

    Relevance to industry

    Visual environment factors, such as glare, can cause eyestrain, headache and musculoskeletal discomfort. This method satisfies the need of a valid tool for determining risks associated with the visual work environment. It contains both worker's ratings and objective measurements, and is designed to be used in different types of work.

  • 35.
    Heiden, Marina
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Zetterberg, Camilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Trunk and upper arm postures in paper mill work2019In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 70, p. 90-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to assess postures andmovements of the trunk and upper arm during paper mill work, and to determinethe extent to which they differ depending on method of assessment. For each oftwenty-eight paper mill workers, postures and movements were assessed duringthree full shifts using inclinometer registration and observation from video. Summary metrics for each shift, e.g.,10th, 50th, and 90th posture percentile, were averagedacross shifts and across workers. In addition, the standard deviation between workers,and the standard deviation between shifts within worker were computed. The resultsshowed that trunk and arm postures during paper mill work were similar to otheroccupations involving manual materials handling, but the velocity of armmovements were lower. While postures determined by inclinometry and observationwere similar on a group level, substantial differences were found betweenresults obtained by the two methods for individual workers, particularly for extremepostures. Thus, measurements by either method on individuals or small groupsshould be interpreted with caution.

  • 36.
    Helgadóttir, Björg
    et al.
    Division of Insurance Medicine, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Svedberg, Pia
    Division of Insurance Medicine, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mather, Lisa
    Division of Insurance Medicine, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Unit of Intervention and Implementation Research for Worker Health, The Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Blom, Victoria
    Division of Insurance Medicine, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The association between part-time and temporary employment and sickness absence: a prospective Swedish twin study2019In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 147-153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Sickness absence (SA) is becoming a major economic problem in many countries. Our aim was to investigate whether type of employment, including temporary employment or part-time employment, is associated with SA while controlling for familial factors (genetic and shared environment). Differences between men and women and across employment sectors were explored.

    Methods: This is a prospective twin study based on 21 105 twins born in Sweden 1959-85. The participants completed a survey in 2005 with follow-up of SA (≥15 days), using register data, until end of 2013. The data were analyzed with logistic regression, with results presented as odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI).

    Results: Temporary employment involved higher odds of SA (OR=1.21 95% CI=1.04-1.40) compared to full-time employment. Both part-time workers (OR=0.84 95% CI=0.74-0.95) and the self-employed (OR=0.77 95%CI=0.62-0.94) had lower odds of SA. Stratifying by sex showed lower odds for part-timers (OR=0.82 95% CI=0.73-0.94) and self-employed women (OR=0.65 95% CI=0.47-0.90), but higher odds for men in temporary employment (OR=1.33 95% CI=1.03-1.72). Temporary employees in county councils (OR=1.73 95% CI=1.01-2.99) and municipalities (OR=1.41 95% CI=1.02-1.96) had higher odds while part-timers employed in the private sector had lower odds (OR=0.77 95% CI=0.64-0.93). Familial factors did not confound the association between employment type and SA.

    Conclusions: Employment type is associated with SA, with temporary employment involving a higher risk compared to permanent full-time employment while both part-time employment and self-employment involved a lower risk. The associations vary between women and men and across sectors.

  • 37.
    Hellström, Madeleine
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Psychology.
    Wallberg, Louise
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Psychology.
    Upplevelsen av arbetsmotivation bland unga vuxna 20-25 år.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to examine the experience of work motivation among young adults between the ages of 20-25 years old. Eight qualitative interviews were held with a semi-structured method. The guide for the interviews conducted work motivation as a theme with underlying questions based on themes, previously research and theoretical starting points, the aim of the study and issue. The guide for the interview contained eight main issues with general follow up questions. A thematic analysis were used to bring out four different themes which were the importance of having good colleagues, to develop, to get feedback and salary. The result of the study showed that young adults are motivated by both intern and extern motivational factors according to Herzberg’s motivation theory. This is something that previous studies did not show according to Inceoglu, Segers and Bartram (2012) who claims in their study that young adults are more motivated by intern motivational factors than extern motivational factors. This study therefore highlights the impact of age among individuals and that the age can have influence when it comes to the experienced work motivation.

  • 38.
    Hilläng Lindqvist, Julia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Psychology.
    Snetselaar, Alexandra
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Psychology.
    Ledarskapsstil och personalomsättning inom en offentlig verksamhet2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine if the type of leadership could predict the personnel turnover. The leadership styles that were included in this study was transactional leadership and transformational leadership. A questionnaire was designed with 27 questions regarding leadership and were sent to employees with a chief position within a public organization. The questionnaire covered claims regarding different dimensions within transactional, transformational and laissez-faire leadership. Only one dimension was used within the transactional leadership which was contingent reward. The two dimensions that was excluded was active management by exception and passive management by exception. The two predictors contingent reward and transformational leadership correlated and therefore a simple regression was used with transformational leadership as predictor and personnel turnover as outcome variable. The outcome of the study showed a correlation between increased transformational leadership and decreased personnel turnover. The conclusion of the study was that transformational leadership could predict personnel turnover.

  • 39.
    Holmgren, Mattias
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Kabanshi, Alan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Langeborg, Linda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Psychology.
    Barthel, Stephan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Colding, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science. Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Ola
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Deceptive sustainability: Cognitive bias in people's judgment of the benefits of CO2 emission cuts2019In: Journal of Environmental Psychology, ISSN 0272-4944, E-ISSN 1522-9610, Vol. 64, p. 48-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    People's beliefs in the actions necessary to reduce anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are important to public policy acceptability. The current paper addressed beliefs concerning how periods of small emission cuts contribute to the total CO2 concentration in the atmosphere, by asking participants to rate the atmospheric CO2 concentration for various time periods and emission rates. The participants thought that a time period with higher emission rates combined with a period of lower emission rates generates less atmospheric CO2 in total, compared to the period with high emission rates alone – demonstrating a negative footprint illusion (Study 1). The participants appeared to base their CO2 estimates on the average, rather than on the accumulated sum, of the two periods' emissions – i.e. an averaging bias (Study 2). Moreover, the effect was robust to the wordings of the problem presented to the participants (Study 3). Together, these studies suggest that the averaging bias makes people exaggerate the benefits of small emission cuts. The averaging bias could make people willing to accept policies that reduce emission rates although insufficiently to alleviate global warming.

  • 40.
    Huysmans, Maaike A.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Department of Public and Occupational Health, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam; Research Center for Insurance Medicine, AMC-UMCG-UWV-VUmc, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, USA.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Consistency of sedentary behavior patterns among office workers with long-term access to sit-stand workstations2019In: Annals of Work Exposures and Health, ISSN 2398-7308, Vol. 63, no 5, p. 583-591Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: Sit-stand workstations are a popular intervention to reduce sedentary behavior (SB) in office settings. However, the extent and distribution of SB in office workers long-term accustomed to using sit-stand workstations as a natural part of their work environment are largely unknown. In the present study, we aimed to describe patterns of SB in office workers with long-term access to sit-stand workstations and to determine the extent to which these patterns vary between days and workers. METHODS: SB was objectively monitored using thigh-worn accelerometers for a full week in 24 office workers who had been equipped with a sit-stand workstation for at least 10 months. A comprehensive set of variables describing SB was calculated for each workday and worker, and distributions of these variables between days and workers were examined. RESULTS: On average, workers spent 68% work time sitting [standard deviation (SD) between workers and between days (within worker): 10.4 and 18.2%]; workers changed from sitting to standing/walking 3.2 times per hour (SDs 0.6 and 1.2 h-1); with bouts of sitting being 14.9 min long (SDs 4.2 and 8.5 min). About one-third of the workers spent >75% of their workday sitting. Between-workers variability was significantly different from zero only for percent work time sitting, while between-days (within-worker) variability was substantial for all SB variables. CONCLUSIONS: Office workers accustomed to using sit-stand workstations showed homogeneous patterns of SB when averaged across several days, except for percent work time seated. However, SB differed substantially between days for any individual worker. The finding that many workers were extensively sedentary suggests that just access to sit-stand workstations may not be a sufficient remedy against SB; additional personalized interventions reinforcing use may be needed. To this end, differences in SB between days should be acknowledged as a potentially valuable source of variation.

  • 41.
    Hägglund, Sofia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Englund, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Arbetstagares upplevelse av ledarskap under en organisationsförändring i en kommun i Mellansverige2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the employees' experience of the role leadership has had for their sense of affinity to the organization during an organizational change and the role the leadership has had for their attitude towards that change. The study is based on six interviews of employees who previously worked on two separate administrations and who, at the time of the interview, were merged into one sector. The study suggested that the respondents felt that the leadership has had a role in how they experienced affinity towards the organization and their attitude toward the organizational change. This was because the employees experienced an ambiguity in the objectives of the change, that communication between the managers and employees had been perceived as deficient and that the employees had not experienced participation in the change process. The study also suggested that it could be beneficial for the management to work on establishing a new collective identity in the merged sector in order to increase the sense of cohesion between the former two separate administrations.

  • 42.
    Jackalin, Ida
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Solander, Kristina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Vikten av arbetsmotivation och dess inverkan på arbetsengagemang hos tjänstemän inom industrisektorn2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Work engagement has been described as a positive work related state of mind. With understanding for work motivation work engagement may increase among coworkers and risks of negative stress can be avoided. The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine which motivation types that most explain the dimensions in work engagement. A digital questionnaire was designed based on Work Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation Scale (WEIMS) and Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES-9). The questionnaire was sent by e-mail to 199 white collar workers at a company in the industrial sector. The collected data included 124 answers and was analysed by three regression analysis. Our findings showed that intrinsic motivation and amotivation was the strongest predictors for all dimensions in work engagement. Integrated- and identified regulation showed significant importance for the dimension absorption while integrated regulation also showed significant importance for the dimension dedication. Employees who are self-determined and given own responsibility have both higher feeling of intrinsic motivation and work engagement than individuals who does not get the opportunity to make own decisions.  

  • 43.
    Jackson, Jennie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia, USA.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Consistent individual motor variability traits demonstrated by females performing a long-cycle assembly task under conditions differing in temporal organisation2019In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low motor variability (MV) during repetitive work has shown association with higher risk for developing work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). Whether consistent individual MV characteristics exist across working conditions remains unknown. This study aimed to determine if individual MV traits were consistent during complex assembly work performed under conditions differing in temporal organisation.

    Fifteen women performed cyclic-assembly under four conditions differing in pace and organisation (line-type, batch-type). Variability of trapezius muscle activity and upper arm elevation was quantified. Total MV variance was partitioned into components attributable to subjects, days and conditions.

    For all metrics, a non-zero between-subjects variance was found, indicating consistent individual MV traits across conditions. Variance between subjects was higher for EMG MV metrics compared with kinematic metrics.

    Our results showed individuals exhibited consistent MV traits across working conditions differing in pace and production process, and support continued research into MV as a possible individual risk factor for MSDs.

  • 44.
    Jaldemark, Ulrika
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational Health Science.
    Företagshälsovårdens erfarenheter av förebyggande arbete mot arbetsrelaterad psykisk ohälsa: En intervjustudie av anställda vid en intern företagshälsovård i norra Sverige2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning Jaldemark Ulrika (2019). Företagshälsovårdmedarbetares erfarenheter av förebyggande arbete mot arbetsrelaterad psykisk ohälsa: En intervjustudie av anställda vid en intern företagshälsovård i norra Sverige. Projektkurs Arbetshälsovetenskap 15hp, Högskolan i Gävle.  Bakgrund: Långtidssjukskrivningar på grund av arbetsrelaterad psykisk ohälsa förekommer trots Arbetsmiljölagen och systematiskt företagshälsoarbete. Kunskap om hur arbetsrelaterad psykisk ohälsa kan förebyggas och motverkas är därför en viktig fråga för att minska sjukskrivningar hos yrkesverksamma.  Syfte: Syfte med denna studie var att undersöka och beskriva erfarenheter av förebyggande arbete mot arbetsrelaterad psykisk ohälsa hos anställda inom en intern företagshälsovårdsinstitution i norra Sverige. Metod: Studien utgick från en kvalitativ ansats och inkluderade fem stycken semistrukturerade intervjuer som analyserades med en kvalitativ innehållsanalys. Resultat: Ur resultatet lyftes tre kategorier och åtta underkategorier fram vilka ansågs ha en betydelse för det förebyggande arbetet mot arbetsrelaterad psykisk ohälsa. De tre huvudkategorier som framkom var; “Företagshälsans inre organisering av det förebyggande arbetet”, “Företagshälsans relation med kundföretagets chef” och “Företagshälsans relation med kunden”. De åtta subkategorierna som kom fram var; “holistisk människosyn, “arbeta i team”, “samarbete med externa aktörer”, chefens ansvar”, “använda rätt verktyg”, “skapa förtroende”, “fångar upp risker i arbetsmiljön tidigt” och “få snabb hjälp med redan uppkomna problem”.  Slutsats: Det främsta resultatet av att studera de anställdas erfarenheter av förebyggande arbete mot arbetsrelaterad psykisk ohälsa är betydelsen av att kombinera företagshälsans inre organisering av det förebyggande arbetet, företagshälsans relation med kundföretagets chef och företagshälsans relation med kunden. Nyckelord: Arbetsrelaterad psykisk ohälsa, förebyggande arbete, företagshälsovård.

  • 45.
    Johansson, Elin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Bolin, Malin
    Department of Social Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Olofsdotter, Gunilla
    Department of Social Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Equal health at work?: Protocol for an observational study of work organisation, workload and musculoskeletal complaints among women and men in grocery retail2019In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Johansson, Elin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Lund Rasmussen, Charlotte
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Lyskov, Eugene
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Compositional analysis of sedentary behavior and physical activity during work and leisure among male and female office workers2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To determine the extent to which male and female office workers differ in their time-use composition of sitting behaviors (SB) and physical activity (PA) during work and leisure.

    Methods: SB and PA was measured using thigh-worn accelerometers for up to 8 full days in 77 male and 104 female office workers. Daily time-use compositions during work and leisure were described in four exhaustive categories, i.e. sitting in short (<30  min) and long (≥30 min) bouts, standing, and active behaviors. Following a compositional data analysis procedure, isometric log-ratios (ilr) were calculated to express time in sitting relative to non-sitting, short relative to long sitting bouts, and standing relative to active behaviors. Differences between sexes (men and women) and domains (work and leisure) were examined on the basis of these ilrs using ANOVA.

    Results: At work, time spent sitting in short bouts, long bouts, standing, and active was, on average, 34%, 36%, 22% and 8% among men and 31%, 37%, 24% and 8% among women. Corresponding proportions during leisure were 34%, 25%, 28% and 13% among men and 29%, 28%, 31% and 12% among women. Time spent sitting relative to non-sitting differed significantly between work and leisure (ilr sitting-vs-non-sitting, partial eta squared=0.09, p<0.01). During leisure, men used proportionally more time than women in short sitting bouts (ilr short-vs-long, partial eta squared=0.06, p<0.01) and spent more time in active behaviors relative to standing (ilr standing-vs-active, partial eta squared=0.04, p<0.01). No significant sex differences were observed during work (p>0.05).

    Conclusions:  The leisure behavior observed among men is probably more beneficial for health than that observed for women. However, both men and women spent a major proportion of their time sitting, both at and outside their office work, and they were, in general, only little active. Thus, both men and women could benefit from interventions to reduce SB and increase PA both at work and during leisure.

  • 47.
    Johansson, Martin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology.
    Ambulanssjuksköterskors syn på möjliga åtgärder för att minska arbetsrelaterad psykisk stress: En kvalitativ studie2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Problem: Mental illness is common in ambulance nurses due to traumatic events, irregular working hours, pressure and lack of time for recovery. The result of these factors can be long-term sick leave. There are som actions already taken in todays ambulance service but the problem with work-related mental stress is still present. Method: Six ambulance nurses were interviewed to see what actions they thought could be used to reduce the work-related mental stress. The interviews were then analyzed by using a qualitative content analysis. Several themes were revealed that then were used in the result. Result: Several possible actions where was considered as useful to reduce the work-related mental stress. Social relationships, a good leadership, control over scheduling, education, experience and leisure time activities were areas where possible actions could be taken. In som cases there were new methods to reduce stress and in others there were already existing ones that could be expanded. Conclusion: Work related mental stress in ambulance nurses is something that will not disappear. But this study showed that there are possible methods that could help reduce and manage the mental stress. A good leadership seemed essential to create a good working environment were work-related mental stress was not common. More qualatative studies needs to be done regarding this subject and then there is a possibility to learn more methods wich can help ambulance nurses deal with the problem of work-related mental stress.

  • 48.
    Jonsson, Carina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Psychology.
    Föreligger ett samband mellan sociala medier och självkänsla?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study aims to investigate whether there was a connection between individuals' self-esteem and social media in relation to age. The study also sought to answer whether individuals sought confirmation through social media. In addition, it was examined whether there was a correlation between activity and age on social media. Social media was defined in connection with this study for Instagram and Facebook. Data was collected through a quantitative survey. Self-esteem was measured by Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES). Collected data was handled in SPSS and analyzed by correlations and intergroup ANOVA. There was a significant difference in self-esteem between the groups younger and older. There was no significant correlation between self-esteem and activity on social media. There was a significant negative correlation between age and need for confirmation. One conclusion from this study is that young people seem to seek confirmation via social media but that they do not seem to receive any higher self-esteem through their presence in social media.

  • 49.
    Kaltenbrunner, Monica
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Management. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Engström, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Sciences, Caring Science.
    Lean maturity and quality in primary care2019In: Journal of Health Organisation & Management, ISSN 1477-7266, E-ISSN 1758-7247, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 141-154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to 1) describe Lean maturity in primary care using a questionnaire based on Liker’s description of Lean, complemented with observations, and 2) determine the extent to which Lean maturity is associated with quality of care measured as staff-rated satisfaction with care and adherence to national guidelines. High Lean maturity indicates adoption of all Lean principles throughout the organization and by all staff.

    Design/methodology/approach - Data were collected using a survey based on Liker’s four principles, divided into 16 items (n = 298 staff in 45 units). Complementary observations (n = 28 staff) were carried out at four units.

    Findings - Lean maturity varied both between and within units. The highest Lean maturity was found for ‘adhering to routines’ and the lowest for ‘having a change agent at the unit’. Lean maturity was positively associated with satisfaction with care and with adherence to national guidelines to improve healthcare quality. 

    Practical implications - Quality of primary care may benefit from increasing Lean maturity. When implementing Lean, managers could benefit from measuring and adopting Lean maturity repeatedly, addressing all Liker’s principles and using the results as guidance for further development.

    Originality/value - This is one of the first studies to evaluate Lean maturity in primary care, addressing all Liker’s principles from the perspective of quality of care. The results suggest that repeated actions based on evaluations of Lean maturity may help to improve quality of care.

  • 50.
    Kaltenbrunner Nykvist, Monica
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Management. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Högberg, Hans
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science, Caring Science.
    Engström, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science, Caring Science.
    Staff perception of Lean, care-giving, thriving and exhaustion: a longitudinal study in primary care2019In: BMC Health Services Research, ISSN 1472-6963, E-ISSN 1472-6963Article in journal (Other academic)
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