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  • 1.
    Ahlinder, Emma
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Viktorsson, Jeanette
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Vikten av feedback och dess inverkan på arbetstillfredsställelse och arbetsmotivation2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether feedback from the first line manager increase job satisfaction and work motivation for employees. The sample for the study were employees between 18-65 years, and data collection was conducted through a web-based survey which generated 157 completed questionnaires. The survey was based on Feedback Orientation Scale (FOS), Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) and Basic Need Satisfaction at Work Scale (BNS). The analyse were performed in SPSS and the result showed a positive correlation between the index of feedback and job satisfaction, but not between the index of feedback and job motivation. The result also showed that positive feedback predicted job satisfaction and job motivation. No differences in estimation of feedback, job satisfaction and work motivation were found between men and women.

  • 2.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    et al.
    Department of Earth Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Department of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Klingberg, Jenny
    Department of Earth Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gunnarsson, Bengt
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Cullinane, Kevin
    School of Business Economics and Law, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Ingela
    City of Gothenburg, Parks and Landscape Administration, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hedblom, Marcus
    Department of Forest Resource Management, Landscape Analysis, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Lindberg, Fredrik
    Department of Earth Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ode Sang, Åsa
    Department of Landscape Architecture, Planning and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, Sweden.
    Pleijel, Håkan
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Thorsson, Pontus
    Division of Applied Acoustics, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Thorsson, Sofia
    Urban Climate Group, Department of Earth Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    A framework for assessing urban greenery's effects and valuing its ecosystem services2018In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 205, p. 274-285, article id S0301-4797(17)30940-4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ongoing urban exploitation is increasing pressure to transform urban green spaces, while there is increasing awareness that greenery provides a range of important benefits to city residents. In efforts to help resolve associated problems we have developed a framework for integrated assessments of ecosystem service (ES) benefits and values provided by urban greenery, based on the ecosystem service cascade model. The aim is to provide a method for assessing the contribution to, and valuing, multiple ES provided by urban greenery that can be readily applied in routine planning processes. The framework is unique as it recognizes that an urban greenery comprises several components and functions that can contribute to multiple ecosystem services in one or more ways via different functional traits (e.g. foliage characteristics) for which readily measured indicators have been identified. The framework consists of five steps including compilation of an inventory of indicator; application of effectivity factors to rate indicators' effectiveness; estimation of effects; estimation of benefits for each ES; estimation of the total ES value of the ecosystem. The framework was applied to assess ecosystem services provided by trees, shrubs, herbs, birds, and bees, in green areas spanning an urban gradient in Gothenburg, Sweden. Estimates of perceived values of ecosystem services were obtained from interviews with the public and workshop activities with civil servants. The framework is systematic and transparent at all stages and appears to have potential utility in the existing spatial planning processes.

  • 3.
    Axelsson, Emmelie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Sjöberg, Emma
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Mellanchefers komplexa arbetssituation: Upplevelser av krav, motstridigheter och motivation2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The role of middle managers is complex due to pressures from both managers above and employees under them. Stress, heavy workload, and conflicting objectives are challenges middle managers deal with on a daily basis. Previous studies show that motivation is important among middle managers, because they face high expectations. In this study, eight semi-structured interviews with middle managers from various sectors in Sweden were performed, and analysed with an inductive thematic analysis. To balance demands from senior managers and concurrently be avalible for employee as a major obstacle. These middle managers gain motivation from working with people, see employees thrive, and the opportunity to influence business growth. Despite the stress and difficult tasks, the middle managers interviewed in this study were motivated. The present study provides insights into middle managers’ tough position as well as a deeper understanding of their work motivations.

  • 4.
    Bernström, Agnes
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Sahl, Henrietta
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Ett tydligt ledarskap tycks vara viktigare än typen av ledarskap för upplevelsen av stress och socialt stöd2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this study was to examine the difference between transformational and transactional leadership and how those correlated with stress and social support. The aim of the study was also to examine how stress and social support correlate with each other and if there are any gender differences. A quantitative study was made with a webquestionnaire containing three parts, stress, social support and leadership. The analys was carried out in SPSS were a correlationanalys and t-tests were made. The result of the study showed that transformational and transactional leadership correlated with each other and that they also correlated with stress and social support. The analyses also showed that stress correlated with social support and that there were no gender diffrences. The conclusion of the study is that the magnitude rather than the type of leadership that is important for the precived stress and the social support for the employees.

  • 5.
    Bjärtå, Anna
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden .
    Flykt, Anders
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Sundin, Örjan
    Department of Psychology, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden .
    The effect of using different distractor sets in visual search with spiders and snakes on spider-sensitive and nonfearful participants2013In: Swiss Journal of Psychology, ISSN 1421-0185, E-ISSN 1662-0879, Vol. 72, no 4, p. 171-179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In two visual search experiments, we investigated the impact of distractor sets on fear-relevant stimuli by comparing a search set with spiders, snakes, flowers, and mushrooms to one with spiders, snakes, rabbits, and turtles. We found speeded responses to spider and snake targets when flowers and mushrooms, but not when rabbits and turtles served as distractors. In Experiment 2, we compared spider-sensitive to nonfearful participants. Spider-sensitive participants responded faster than nonfearful participants to spider targets when we used flowers and mushrooms as distractors, but not when we used rabbit and turtle distractors. These results indicate that behavioral responses to the visual search task not only depend on the individual’s relationship to the stimuli included in the search set, but also on the context in which the feared or fear-relevant objects are presented.

  • 6.
    Boman, Eva
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Ballgren, Peter
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Svedberg, Pia
    Karolinska Inst, CNS, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Is health related quality of life among school children associated with level of semantic memory?2010In: Quality of Life Research, ISSN 0962-9343, E-ISSN 1573-2649, Vol. 19, p. 107-107, article id 194/1380Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Boman, Eva
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology. Univ Gavle, Gavle, Sweden..
    Eriksson, Mårten
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology. Univ Gavle, Gavle, Sweden..
    Svedberg, Pia
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Is perceived autonomy associated with health-related quality of life among adolescents?2016In: Quality of Life Research, ISSN 0962-9343, E-ISSN 1573-2649, Vol. 25, p. 85-85Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Boman, Eva
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Svedberg, Pia
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Can psychosomatic symptoms explain gender and age differences in health related quality of life among Swedish schoolchildren?2012In: Quality of Life Research, ISSN 0962-9343, E-ISSN 1573-2649, Vol. 21, p. 77-78Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Boman, Tomas
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work. Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Örebro University.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Danermark, Berth
    Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Boman, Eva
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Can people with disabilities gain from education?: Similarities and differences between occupational attainment among persons with and without disabilities2014In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 49, no 2, p. 193-204Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: More knowledge is needed ofoccupational attainment of persons with disabilities, i.e. the relationship between their educational level and their profession, and factors of importance for this relationship.

    Objective: To compare occupational attainment among persons with and without a disability.

    Method: 3 396 informants with disabilities and 19 004 non-disabled informants participated (control group) in a survey study by Statistics Sweden.The informants with disabilities were divided into six groups.

    Results: Occupational attainment did not differ between the disability groups, neither between persons with and without a disability. Follow-up analysis showed that men with disabilities with primary or secondary school had an occupation above their educational level to a significantlylarger extent than women with disabilities. This pattern was even clearer in comparison with the control group. Persons without disabilities, with secondary or higher education, were more successful in the labor market than persons with disabilities. Occupational attainment increased with age in both groups.

    Conclusions: Young women with disabilities who only have primary or secondary education run a higher risk of having a job that is below their educational level than men at the same educational level. This indicates discriminating mechanisms in the society related to gender and ability.

  • 10.
    Boman, Tomas
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work. University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work. University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work. Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Danermark, Berth
    Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Boman, Eva
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology. University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology. University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Employment opportunities for persons with different types of disability2015In: Alter;European Journal of Disability Research ;Journal Europeen de Recherche Sur le Handicap, ISSN 1875-0672, E-ISSN 1875-0680, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 116-129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The employment status of groups with different disabilities wasanalysed as were potentially important moderating factors (workability, structural and individual factors). A secondary analy-sis was performed on 4359 respondents with disabilities fromStatistics Sweden's Labour Market Investigation. The respondentswere divided into six disability groups (communicative-hearing,communicative-speech-reading, communicative-vision, psycho-logical disability, medical disability, physical disability). Logisticregression analyses showed that the probability of being employedwas highest among respondents with hearing disabilities andrespondents with psychological disabilities were least likely tobe employed. Being a woman (very young or old) with onlyprimary education and with partially or very impaired workability, reduced employment opportunities. Higher education didnot increase employment opportunities for respondents withimpaired work ability. In summary, the type of disability is essentialfor employment opportunities, and differences between disabil-ity groups cannot be explained by differences in other variables. 

  • 11.
    Bosson, Linnea
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Malm, Maja
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Förväntningar på HR-funktionen ur chefernas perspektiv2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att kvalitativt undersöka vilka förväntningar som finns på HR-funktionen utifrån chefernas perspektiv på en mindre kommun i Sverige. Studien baserades på elva intervjuer och analyserades genom induktiv tematisk analys. Resultatet visade att respondenterna saknade stöd från HR-funktionen samt en tydlig ansvarsfördelning i arbetsuppgifter. Respondenterna upplevde dessutom en otydlighet i vad de kunde förvänta sig av HR-funktionen. Resultatet visade även att respondenterna saknade en grundlig arbetsplatsintroduktion för att klara av sitt arbete som chef inom organisationen. Dessutom upplevde respondenterna att HR-funktionen var underbemannad då de inte upplevde att de fick det stöd de behövde. Förslag till förbättringsområden är att förtydliga vilket stöd som erbjuds från HR-funktionen, förtydliga ansvarsfördelningen mellan HR-funktion och chef samt skapa en välfungerande arbetsplatsintroduktion. Dessutom behöver HR-funktionen förtydliga riktlinjer och policys samt utforma dokument om vad HR-funktionen faktiskt erbjuder inom organisationen.

  • 12.
    Butler, Andrew
    et al.
    Institutionen för Stad och Land, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden; Faculty of Landscape and Society, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås, Norway.
    Sarlöv-Herlin, Ingrid
    Institutionen för landskapsarkitektur, planering och förvaltning, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Ångman, Elin
    Institutionen för Stad och Land, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ode Sang, Åsa
    Institutionen för landskapsarkitektur, planering och förvaltning, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Åkerskog, Ann
    FieldForest Research Institute, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Landscape identity, before and after a forest fire2018In: Landscape research, ISSN 0142-6397, E-ISSN 1469-9710, Vol. 43, no 6, p. 878-889Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our identity is tied to where we are and how we engage with the landscapes in which we find ourselves. But what happens if the landscape which we use for our everyday life is drastically altered by a catastrophic upheaval, for example, when forest fires ravage the landscape? In this paper, interviews with individuals affected by the largest forest fire in modern Swedish history are used to exemplify our conceptualisation of how landscape identity is impacted by dramatic change. We address the phases of stability, change and progression in relation to the case. Finally, we propose that landscape identity can be utilised as a central concept for engaging with the social aspects of the impact of forest fires.

  • 13.
    Carrwik, Christian
    et al.
    Department of Surgical Sciences, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Murakami, Hideki
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Japan.
    Willander, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Robinson, Yohan
    Department of Surgical Sciences, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Potential harms of interventions for spinal metastatic disease2017In: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, ISSN 1469-493X, E-ISSN 1469-493X, no 7, article id CD012724Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a protocol for a Cochrane Review (Intervention). The objectives are as follows: The primary objective of this review is to compare the potential harms of treatment for spinal metastatic disease for the following treatments: 1. Surgical intervention. 2. Surgical intervention with radiation therapy. 3. Radiation therapy alone. Our secondary objectives are: 1. comparing the harms of different surgical methods; 2. comparing the harms between different radiation protocols.

  • 14.
    Cornell Kärnekull, Stina
    et al.
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Jonsson, Fredrik U.
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Willander, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Larsson, Maria
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Context independent memory for odors and words2015In: Chemical Senses, ISSN 0379-864X, E-ISSN 1464-3553, Vol. 40, no 3, p. 240-240Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Cornell Kärnekull, Stina
    et al.
    Gösta Ekman Laboratory, Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jönsson, Fredrik U.
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Willander, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology. Gösta Ekman Laboratory, Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sikström, Sverker
    Department of Psychology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Larsson, Maria
    Gösta Ekman Laboratory, Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Long-term memory for odors: influences of familiarity and identification across 64 days2015In: Chemical Senses, ISSN 0379-864X, E-ISSN 1464-3553, Vol. 40, no 4, p. 259-267Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Few studies have investigated long-term odor recognition memory, although some early observations suggested that the forgetting rate of olfactory representations is slower than for other sensory modalities. This study investigated recognition memory across 64 days for high and low familiar odors and faces. Memory was assessed in 83 young participants at 4 occasions; immediate, 4, 16, and 64 days after encoding. The results indicated significant forgetting for odors and faces across the 64 days. The forgetting functions for the 2 modalities were not fundamentally different. Moreover, high familiar odors and faces were better remembered than low familiar ones, indicating an important role of semantic knowledge on recognition proficiency for both modalities. Although odor recognition was significantly better than chance at the 64 days testing, memory for the low familiar odors was relatively poor. Also, the results indicated that odor identification consistency across sessions, irrespective of accuracy, was positively related to successful recognition.

  • 16.
    Danielsson Bergström, Annelie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Maracic, Tanja
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Relationen mellan Arbetskaraktäristik och Arbetstillfredsställelse2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Positive experiences of job characteristics has been found to associate with job satisfaction. The aim was to investigate the relationships between four dimensions of job characteristics (control, workload, complexity and digitization) and job satisfaction. Furthermore, it was examined whether these relationships differed between respondents with long vs. short employment time. 166 53 employees at Lantmäteriet participated in the survey. Data was selected by a web-based survey. The main results showed through regression analysis a significant positive relationship between control and job satisfaction of the whole group, where the model could explain 14% of job satisfaction. The main results showed significant relationships between control and job satisfaction for the whole group of respondents and between workload and job satisfaction for the short time employment.Since only the relationship between perceived control and job satisfaction was significant, the differences for short or long employment time were investigated. A t-test showed that there was no significant difference between respondents with short and long employment time in terms of perceived control.

  • 17.
    Edman, Veronica
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Henningsson, Emelie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Upplevelser av krav, kontroll, stöd och stress i mellanchefers dagliga arbete.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    The role as a middle-manager is complex. They often tend to be squeezed between the management and the staff.  For this reason, it is very important that there is a good balance between demand, control, support and stress at work. Studies show that such balance is of great importance in facilitating the middle management's complex work situation. The aim of the study was to analyse middle manager’s experiences of demand, control, support and stress in their daily work. Semi-structured interviews with six middle managers on a private company were performed, and the result was analysed with deductive thematic analysis. All middle managers felt that they constantly experienced stress at work, and that the right proportions of demand, control and support could help them handle the stress at work.   

  • 18.
    Ekström, Mikaela
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Holmer, Sofie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Medarbetarnas upplevelse av implementeringen av en aktivitetsbaserad kontorstyp2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to research the experience of ten employees of a Swedish administrative authority in regard to the implementation of an activity-based workplace 2014. The study was conducted in the form of ten semi-structured interviews which were analyzed inductively. From this, three themes emerged: working activity-based, the ability to influence and social cohesion. The former two with their own subcategories. The study concluded that the administrative authority did not adjust their version of an activity-based workplace to accommodate the tasks a large number of the employees perform on a daily basis. The implementation also was not considered a continuous process with the opportunity to shape the workplace to accommodate a larger part of the organisation.

  • 19.
    Eliasson, Ingegärd
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Ljungdahl, Ewa
    Gaaltje, Sydsamiskt kulturcentrum, Östersund.
    Hanneryd, Ola
    Härjedalens Fjällmuseum AB, Funäsdalen.
    Karlsson, Eva
    Länsstyrelsen i Jämtlands län.
    Fjäll som kultur?2015Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Fjällområdet är ett kulturlandskap där människor bott och verkat under tusentals år. Naturen har satt gränsen för människans livsvillkor och möjlighet att överleva. Här har växt- och djurliv slipats och formats och det är bara arter med hög grad av anpassning som överlevt. 

    Vi ser fysiska lämningar efter mänskliga aktiviteter, men det finns också minnen, berättelser och kunskap som förs vidare från generation till generation.

    Denna skrift är en sammanfattning av resultaten från projektet Fjällandskap: betydelsen av kulturella ekosystemtjänster som har varit ett samarbetsprojekt mellan Göteborgs universitet, Högskolan i Gävle, Länsstyrelsen i Jämtlands län, Fjällmuseet i Funäsdalen och Gaaltije, sydsamiskt kulturcentrum. Projektet är en del av forskningsprogrammet Storslagen fjällmiljö.

  • 20.
    Enmarker, Ingela
    et al.
    Fakultet for sykepleie og helsevitenskap - Nord universitet.
    Boman, Eva
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Hygge, Staffan
    The effects of noise on memory1998Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Eriksson, Helena
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Heinst, Felinda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Prokrastinering, arbeta extra och upplevd stress: En kvantitativ studie inriktad på heltidsstudenter vid högskola/universitet2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine if there were any differences regarding procrastination and perceived stress between full-time female and male college students with or without work parallel to their studies, as well as the relationship between procrastination and perceived stress. A web-based questionnaire was designed based on Pure Procrastination Scale (PPS) and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-14). The survey was shared on Facebook where the participants, 164 students of which 82 women and 82 men, were selected by convenience sampling. The result of the study showed that students who worked extra procrastinates less than students without work, and that women procrastinates more than men. The result also showed that students who worked extra were less stressed than students without work, and that women were more stressed than men. There was a strong positive correlation between procrastination and perceived stress for all groups in the study. Moreover, the effects of gender and extra work on procrastination disappeared when stress was statistically controlled for. This indicate that underlying factors, such as stress, can play an important role in procrastination.

  • 22.
    Eriksson, Mårten
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Substantivsturbo hos tvåspråkiga barn2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Många studier har hävdat att barn lär sig substantiv före verb och adjektiv, bland annat för att enkla substantiv har en klarare relation till det de betecknar än vad andra ord har (Gentner, 1978; 1982). Det har också hävdats att barn tillämpar en kontrastprincip i den tidiga ordinlärningen som gör att de inte lär sig synonymer (Clark, 1987; 1988). Samtidigt tvåspråkiga barn har enligt samma tanke inte tillägnat sig tvärspråkliga synonymer, dvs två språks ord för samma sak (Volterra & Teaschner, 1978). Inget av dessa påståenden har visat sig vara helt sant. I föreliggande studie undersöks sammansättningen av det tidiga ordförrådet hos 19 barn mellan 16 och 28 månader som växer upp i en finsk-svensk språkig omgivning. Uppgifter om barnens ordförråd inhämtades med den svenska och finska versionen av MB-CDI. Resultatet visar på en hög andel tvärspråkliga synonymer och att tvärspråkliga synonymer var speciellt vanliga för substantiv. Konsekvenser för kontrastprincipen och möjligheten att designa studier som prövar allmänna principer för språktillägnande i tvåspråkiga miljöer diskuteras.

  • 23.
    Eriksson, Mårten
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    The Swedish Communicative Development Inventory III: Parent reports on language in preschool children2017In: International Journal of Behavioral Development, ISSN 0165-0254, E-ISSN 1464-0651, Vol. 41, no 5, p. 647-654Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A revised form of MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory III (SCDI-III) was presented designed for Swedish speakingchildren aged 2 years 6 months–4 years 0 months with the objective to give a proxy measure of their language competence. The instrumentcontains a vocabulary checklist with 100 words, mainly predicates, from four areas; Food words, Body words, Mental words and Emotionwords. Two sections assess the child’s grammar skills and a final section appraises the child’s metalinguistic awareness. Assessments from1,134 parents are reported. Scales with adequate psychometric properties were formed for each section. Monthly median values andspread of score distributions are presented for each scale. Girls scored higher than boys on all scales. The revision, sampling procedures,demographic variables and issues of reliability and validity, are discussed. The general structure of the instrument can well be integrated insimilar instruments designed for other languages and cultures.

  • 24.
    Eriksson, Mårten
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Boman, Eva
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Short is beautiful: Dimensionality and measurement invariance in two length of the Basic Psychological need Satisfaction at work scale2018In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, article id 965Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-determination theory proposes that all humans have three intrinsic psychological needs: the needs for Autonomy, Competence, and Relatedness. These needs take different forms in different areas of life. The present study examines the psychometric properties of a Swedish version of the Basic Psychological Need Satisfaction at Work (BPNS-W) scale. The fit of 10-factor structures previously suggested for related versions of the scale were compared. Cross-sectional data from 1,200 participants were examined in a confirmatory factor analysis framework. Both the original 21-item version and a reduced 12-item version of the BPNS-W were examined. The General Health Questionnaire was used for validation. The results supported a three-factor solution with correlated error variances for the reversed items. Invariance testing of the long and short scales gave best support to the short scale, for which partial scalar invariance was achieved. The external validity of the short scale was supported by a hierarchical regression analysis in which each need made a unique contribution in predicting psychological well-being. In conclusion, the results corroborate a three-factor structure of BPNS-W. Although not perfect the short scale should, it is argued, be preferred over the long version. Directions for the future development of the scale are discussed.

  • 25.
    Eriksson, Mårten
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Marschik, Peter B
    Medical University of Graz, Austria.
    Tulviste, Tiia
    University of Tartu, Estonia.
    Almgren, Margareta
    University of the Basque Country, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain.
    Pérez Pereira, Miguel
    University of Santiago de Compostela, Spain.
    Wehberg, Sonja
    University of Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Marjanovič-Umek, Ljubica
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Gayraud, Frederique
    University of Lyon, France.
    Kovacevic, Melita
    University of Zagreb, Croatia.
    Gallego, Carlos
    Complutense University of Madrid, Spain.
    Differences between girls and boys in emerging language skills: Evidence from 10 language communities2012In: British Journal of Developmental Psychology, ISSN 0261-510X, E-ISSN 2044-835X, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 326-343Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study explored gender differences in emerging language skills in 13,783 European children from 10 non-English language communities. It was based on a synthesis of published data assessed with adapted versions of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories (CDIs) from age 0;08-2;06. The results showed that girls are slightly ahead of boys in early communicative gestures, in productive vocabulary and in combining words. The difference increased with age. Boys were not found to be more variable than girls. Despite extensive variation in language skills between language communities, the difference between girls and boys remained. This suggests that the difference is caused by robust factors that do not change between language communities.

  • 26.
    Eriksson, Mårten
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology. University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Vidman, Åsa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work. University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Josefsson, Barbro
    Vad i arbete är hälsofrämjande?2014In: Hälsa, livsmiljö och arbetsliv: ur ett socialt arbete-perspektiv / [ed] Fereshteh Ahmadi & Sam Larsson, Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2014, p. 43-59Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Eriksson, Mårten
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Westerlund, Monica
    Central Unit for Child Health Care, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Uppsala University, Children's Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Miniscalco, Carmela
    Division of Speech and Language Pathology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Problems and limitations in studies on screening for language delay2010In: Research in Developmental Disabilities, ISSN 0891-4222, E-ISSN 1873-3379, Vol. 31, no 5, p. 943-950Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study discusses six common methodological limitations in screening for language delay (LD) as illustrated in 11 recent studies. The limitations are (1) whether the studies define a target population, (2) whether the recruitment procedure is unbiased, (3) attrition, (4) verification bias, (5) small sample size and (6) inconsistencies in choice of "gold standard". It is suggested that failures to specify a target population, high attrition (both at screening and in succeeding validation), small sample sizes and verification bias in validations are often caused by a misguided focus on screen positives (SPs). Other limitations are results of conflicting methodological goals. We identified three such conflicts. One consists of a dilemma between unbiased recruitment and attrition, another between the comprehensiveness of the applied gold standard and sample size in validation and the third between the specificity of the gold standard and the risk of not identifying co-morbid conditions.

  • 28.
    Esteves, Francisco
    et al.
    Instituto Universitário de Lisboa.
    Arriaga, Patrícia
    Instituto Universitário de Lisboa.
    Carneiro, Paula
    Instituto Universitário de Lisboa.
    Flykt, Anders
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Emotional Responses (verbal and psychophysiological) to pictures of food stimuli2010In: Psicologia, ISSN 0874-2049, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 89-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emotional processing of food-related pictures was studied in four experiments, comparing participants who revealed unhealthy attitudes toward food, dieting and body shape with control groups. All subjects were female and responses to pictures of low and of high calorie foods were compared to responses to other emotional stimuli. The first three experiments measured verbal and autonomic responses and Experiment 4 was a classical conditioning study. In Experiments 2-4, pictures were presented backward masked in order to observe automatic, non-conscious responses. The results showed that, in general, food pictures were processed in the same way as other emotional material, both verbally and psychophysiologically. Although there were some results indicating a difference between groups, the general pattern was that participants selected for being more worried about food and dieting did not show higher reactivity to food cues.

  • 29.
    Flykt, Anders
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Johansson, M.
    Karlsson, J.
    Lindeberg, S.
    Lipp, O. V.
    Fear of Wolves and Bears: Physiological Responses and Negative Associations in a Swedish Sample2013In: Human Dimensions of Wildlife, ISSN 1087-1209, E-ISSN 1533-158X, Vol. 18, no 6, p. 416-434Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human fear is important in wildlife management, but self-reported fear provides only partial information about fear reactions. Thus, eye movements, skin conductance, and changes in heart rate were assessed during picture viewing, visual search, and implicit evaluation tasks. Pictures of bears, wolves, moose, and hares were presented to participants who self-reported as fearful of bears (n = 8), fearful of bears and wolves (n = 15), or not fearful of bears or wolves (n = 14). The feared animal was expected to elicit strong physiological responses, be dwelled upon, and be associated with negative words. Independent of fearfulness, bear pictures elicited the strongest physiological responses, and wolf pictures showed the strongest negative associations. The bear-fearful group showed stronger physiological responses to bears. The bear- and wolf-fearful group showed more difficulty in associating bears with good words. Presence of a feared animal in the search task, resulted in prolonged response time. 

  • 30.
    Flykt, Anders
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Lindeberg, Sofie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Derakshan, Nazanin
    Department of Psychological Sciences, Birkbeck University of London, London, UK .
    Fear makes you stronger: Responding to feared animal targets in visual search2012In: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics, ISSN 1943-3921, E-ISSN 1943-393X, Vol. 74, no 7, p. 1437-1445Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To investigate whether fear affects the strength with which responses are made, 12 animal-fearful individuals (five snake fearful and seven spider fearful) were instructed to decide as quickly as possible whether an animal target from a deviant category was present in a 3 × 4 item (animal) search array. The animal categories were snakes, spiders, and cats. Response force was measured, in newtons. The results showed that the strength of the response was greater when the feared animal served as the target than when it served as the distractors. This finding was corroborated by evoked heart rate changes to the stimuli. Our findings strengthen the argument that focused attention on a single, feared animal can lead to increases in manual force.

  • 31.
    Frank, Jens
    et al.
    Grimsö Wildlife Research Station, Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Johansson, Maria
    Environmental Psychology, Dept of Architecture and Built Environment, Lund University.
    Flykt, Anders
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Public attitude towards the implementation of management actions aimed at reducing human fear of brown bears and wolves2015In: Wildlife Biology, ISSN 0909-6396, E-ISSN 1903-220X, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 122-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research on human fear of large carnivores has mainly been based on self-reports in which individual survey items and the objects of fear are measured, so whether a person fears attacks on humans or livestock and pets has not been identified. The objectives of this study were to differentiate between the objects of fear as well as capturing attitudes towards implementation of management actions and the potential for conflict index (PCI). These concern the implementation of a limited number of management actions currently used or discussed in Sweden that are aimed at reducing human fear of brown bears/wolves. 391 persons living in areas with either brown bear (n = 198) or wolf (n = 193) in Sweden responded to a questionnaire. The degree of self-reported fear varied between residents in brown bear areas and residents in wolf areas. The fear of attacks on livestock and pets was stronger than fear of attacks on humans in both brown bear and wolf areas. In brown bear areas, fear was strongest for livestock, while in wolf areas fear was strongest for pets. The fear of attacks on livestock and pets was significantly stronger in wolf areas, while the fear of attacks on humans was strongest in brown bear areas. In both brown bear and wolf areas, there was little acceptance of implementation of management actions that would allow people to carry pepper spray or a gun outdoors. Management actions aimed at setting a population cap for bear/wolf populations, information on how to act when encountering a bear/wolf, and providing information on local presence of bear/wolf had relatively high acceptability. This was especially true for respondents expressing high fear of attacks on humans. 

  • 32.
    Fredholm, Susanne
    et al.
    Department of Conservation, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Eliasson, Ingegärd
    Department of Conservation, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Conservation of historical landscapes: What signifies ‘successful’ management?2018In: Landscape research, ISSN 0142-6397, E-ISSN 1469-9710, Vol. 43, no 5, p. 735-748Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on the management of an industrial heritage site in Sweden, which local stakeholders and heritage planners have claimed to be successful. This status of excellence is investigated in relation to the general, county-wide applied heritage planning. The results show that key factors for successful management of the industrial heritage site are not related only to conservation work, but also to personal engagement, sense of responsibility, and well-being among participants. However, heritage planners generally lack methods to address immaterial values and socio-economic benefits of engaging in heritage activities, resulting in a separation between physical and communal aspects of heritage planning. The results highlight the issue of professional legitimacy and the challenges for heritage planners to address regional policy objectives, such as finding ways to utilise historic landscapes in destination-driven strategies and to simultaneously support civil engagement in heritage-related issues. © 2017 Landscape Research Group Ltd

  • 33.
    Grönvall, Amanda
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Elemyr Unstad, Alexandra
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Relationer mellan individuell och kollektiv plats och arbetsidentitet: betydelsen av boendelängd2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

     Identitet kan definieras på olika sätt. I socialpsykologi används ordet identitet i samband med att man hänvisar till svaret på frågan ”Vem är jag ”, vilket i sin tur innefattar att individer refererar till vad som gör oss lika andra individer, men även vad som utmärker oss själva. Syftet med studien var att undersöka relationen mellan individuell och kollektiv platsidentitet och individuell och kollektiv arbetsidentitet, samt om det föreligger någon samvariation mellan boendelängd, platsidentitet och arbetsidentitet. Studien är gjord på en större produktionsindustri beläget i ett mindre samhälle där urvalet bestod av kollektivarbetare. Data har samlats in genom en enkätundersökning där fasta svarsalternativ för identitet har utformats och där platsidentitet och arbetsidentitet har undersökts i en 7 -poängs Likertskala. Data har sedan analyserats genom en korrelationsanalys i IBM statistics SPSS 22. Resultatet visar att en samvariation mellan boendelängd och kollektiv platsidentitet finns (r=0,291 p=,040 n=52) samt mellan individuell platsidentitet och individuell arbetsidentitet (r=0,368, p=,006 n=54) samt kollektiv platsidentitet och kollektiv arbetsidentitet (r=0,410, p=,002 n=54).

  • 34.
    Gunnarsson, Bengt
    et al.
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Hedblom, Marcus
    Department of Forest Resource Management, c/o Department of EcologySwedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Sang, Åsa
    Department of Landscape Architecture, Planning and ManagementSwedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, Sweden.
    Effects of biodiversity and environment-related attitude on perception of urban green space2017In: Urban Ecosystems, ISSN 1083-8155, E-ISSN 1573-1642, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 37-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Green space in cities contributes to the quality of life for city dwellers, e.g., by increasing the opportunity for recreation. However, perception of urban green space is influenced by multiple factors. We investigated effects of biodiversity and environment-related attitudes on visual and auditory perceptions of urban green space. Field measurements of biodiversity were conducted in six sites across an urban gradient in Gothenburg, Sweden, and three categories of biodiversity—high, medium, low—were established. Households were sent a survey on aesthetic perception of urban green space, sound perception and the importance of trees and plants for the perception of bird species. Each respondent focused on the site that was located nearby. The environment-related attitudes comprised “Nature-oriented” and “Urban-oriented” persons and were based on participants’ own attitude estimations. It was shown that participants’ “subjective” aesthetic and sound-related perception of urban greenery were in line with the “objectively” measured subdivisions of high, medium and low biodiversity. So also were their estimations of the importance of trees and plants for perception of bird species in urban greenery, although differing only between high and medium/low biodiversity conditions. Persons rating themselves as highly nature-oriented were shown to give higher scores to urban green space aesthetics and to value greenery-related sounds higher, and to attach greater importance to trees and plants in their perception of bird species in urban greenery, than less nature-oriented persons. Highly urban-oriented persons compared to less urban-oriented persons did the same, but only regarding urban greenery-related aesthetics and sounds of nature. We conclude that environment-related attitudes influence perceptions of green space. Moreover, our findings support the idea that biodiversity per se also influences perceptions; people value green space significantly more with high than with low measured biodiversity. Urban planning needs to provide city inhabitants with green spaces that are species-rich, lush, varied and rich with natural sounds.

  • 35.
    Hallenberg, Johanna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Thunström, Sara
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Aktivitetsbaserad kontorsdesign: Relationen mellan arbetsmiljö och stress2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    How the on-going changes of office designs is being experienced can be different depending on gender and age. Activity based workplace is an office design that nowadays is considered being trendy and it’s supposed to bring several positive aspects to the workplace. It’s not only a cost-effective solution, it is also aiming to contribute to a more flexible and collaborative working climate. The effects of this transformation has not always been positive since the transformation itself is a big change. To see how the employee experiences her work environment in relation to stress a study was done at Stockholm Vatten och Avlopp, and a questionnaire was sent out to its employees. 115 employees took part and answered the questionnaire. The gender distribution was 48.7 % women and 50.43 % men. The age groups were 10.43 % in the age 18-30, 45.22 % in the age 31-49 and 44.35 in the age 50+. After not getting enough responses from the age group 18-34 a decision was made to exclude that group from the research. There was a significant relationship between work environment and stress (r=.48). But no significant result could be reported for age in relation to either stress or experienced work environment. Instead the result for gender showed that women are affected (r=.64) in a larger extent than men (r=.36) when it comes to the relation between stress and work environment. Later a significant main-effect can be reported for men who value their work environment inferior to women when control for stress is being performed. A valid conclusion is that men in a larger sense is affected by their work environment, but the work environment is a contributive factor to stress for women. 

  • 36.
    Hansson, Sofie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Lantz, Sofie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Lönerättvisa, personlighet och bakgrundsfaktorer: Predicerar personlighet vs. bakgrundsfaktorer procedural och distributiv lönerättvisa?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to investigate if perceived pay justice (procedural and distributive) is predicted by personality traits (extraversion, agreeableness, consciousness, emotional stability and open to experience) beyond the effects of individual background factors. The main results of the present study, which included 115 participants, showed that the Big-five personality traits did not predict procedural or distributive pay justice beyond the effects of individual background factors. Incomebefore taxes was the only background factor (positively) related to procedural and distributive pay justice. This indicates that personality is of less importance when it comes to perceived pay justice while the background factor income before taxes is of greater importance.

  • 37.
    Hedblom, Marcus
    et al.
    Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden; Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Gunnarsson, B.
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bird diversity improves the well-being of city residents2017In: Ecology and Conservation of Birds in Urban Environments / [ed] Enrique Murgui, Marcus Hedblom, Springer, 2017, p. 287-306Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Humans are increasingly becoming urbanized. Because a number of bird species readily live in urban areas and birds are relatively easily observed, birds are becoming the largest everyday encounter with wild fauna people will have, globally. Despite, few studies have been made on how visual (or acoustic) bird encounter affects humans. The few existing studies show that birds provide humans with increased self-evaluated well-being when seeing and hearing them. These values provided by birds can be recognized as a cultural ecosystems service. Here we review extant literature to consider why certain species fascinate humans more than others, and some can increase well-being and provide ecosystem services, while others offer disservices through unappealing characteristics. We particularly highlight indications of links between species diversity and well-being. Finally, we discuss possible reasons for variations in our responses to birds and birdsong associated with age, gender, childhood, contact with nature, and the biophilia theory. If interaction with birds truly increases quality of life, then this value should be considered in the planning of sustainable cities. Both conservation and proper management of existing urban green areas are needed to increase possibilities to encounter many bird species. © Springer International Publishing AG 2017.

  • 38.
    Hedblom, Marcus
    et al.
    Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden; Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Sang, A. Ode
    Department of Landscape Architecture, Planning and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, Sweden.
    Gunnarsson, B.
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Evaluation of natural sounds in urban greenery: potential impact for urban nature preservation2017In: Royal Society Open Science, E-ISSN 2054-5703, Vol. 4, no 2, article id 170037Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most humans now live in cities and their main experience of nature is through urban greenery. An increasing number of studies show the importance of urban green spaces for wellbeing, although most of them are based on visual perception. A questionnaire examining people’s evaluations of natural sounds was answered by 1326 individuals living near one of six urban green areas of varying naturalness in the city of Gothenburg, Sweden. Women and the elderly reported greater calmness when hearing bird song and rustling leaves (and placed a higher importance on the richness of bird species) than did men, younger and middle-aged individuals. Independent of age and gender, urban woodlands (high naturalness) had higher evaluations than parks (low naturalness). Our results suggest that to increase positive experiences of urban green areas, demographic variables of gender and age should be taken into account, and settings that mimic nature should be prioritized in planning.

  • 39.
    Hellberg, Sara
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Det autobiografiska minnet relaterat till alkohol- drog missbruk2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate life goals through an autobiographical memory perspective in people with addiction problems. They had already undergone detoxification and were drug- alcohol- free. No difference was shown in past and future life goals. Nor was there any difference in how the participants had succeeded in these goals. However, participants were shown to fail most with life goals related to close relationships. The study also showed that participants remembered more future than past life goals. Finally, it was shown that most of their autobiographical self- grounding memories were of negative valance.

  • 40.
    Hemlin, Elna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Broberg, Elin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Hur uppfattar invånarna i Gävle kommun de som arbetsgivare?: En kvantitativ studie om skillnader i uppfattningen mellan de invånare som har kommunen som arbetsgivare och de som inte har det.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine how the citizens of Gävle municipality views the organisation as an employer based on how the municipality has chosen to work with employer branding. The purpose was also to examine whether there was any differences in the experience of employer attractiveness depending on the fact that the participant works for the municipality or not. The study was conducted through a questionnaire survey which contained questions about employer attractiveness and was measured using the Employer Attractiveness scale. The study showed a statistically significant difference in perception of the organisation as an employer, where the participants who works for the municipality had a more positive view compared to the participants who does not work for the municipality.

  • 41.
    Johansson, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Qvarnström, Frida
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Medarbetare och chefers upplevelse av en organisations målarbete: Hur målarbetet kan främja arbetsmotivationen hos medarbetarna2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka hur chefer och medarbetare upplevde organisationens målarbete samt hur de ansåg att den kunde förbättras, för att på så vis stärka arbetsmotivationen hos medarbetarna. Elva enskilda intervjuer genomfördes och materialet analyserades med hjälp av en induktiv tematisk analys. Detta resulterade i två huvudteman: Målarbetet och dess olika nivåer samt Faktorer som främjar arbetsmotivationen. Resultatet visade på ett fungerande och aktivt målarbete där medarbetarna gavs utrymme för självbestämmande och delaktighet. Förslag på förbättringsområden för att främja arbetsmotivationen inom målarbetet var uppföljning, utvärdering och kontinuerlig feedback. 

  • 42.
    Johansson, Maria
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Karlsson, Jens
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Pedersen, Eja
    Lund University.
    Flykt, Anders
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Factors governing human fear of brown bear and wolf2012In: Human Dimensions of Wildlife, ISSN 1087-1209, E-ISSN 1533-158X, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 58-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyzes people's subjectively experienced fear in areas with presence of brown bear or wolf. Departing from the Human-Environment Interaction Model (Küller, 1991), a hypothetical model of environmental and individual antecedents of fear was tested using structural equation modeling of survey data (n = 391). In the model of fear of brown bear, the main predictor was the appraisal of the species as dangerous/uncontrollable and unpredictable. In the model of fear of wolf, the greater experience with the species and a stronger appraisal of wolf as dangerous, uncontrollable, and unpredictable led to low social trust and this, together with the appraisal of wolf as dangerous/uncontrollable and unpredictable, increased the likelihood of fear. Efforts to reduce human fear of wolves should focus on building trust between the public and authorities, whereas efforts to reduce fear of brown bear should focus on the individual's appraisal of the species.

  • 43.
    Johansson, Sandra
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Lundin, Caroline
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Hur uppfattar enhetschefer sin arbetsbelastning utifrån krav-kontroll och stödmodellen?: En kvalitativ studie utförd bland enhetschefer i en mindre kommun i Mellansverige2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to study unit managers' experience of strenuous work and work-related stress, as well as how the stress experience impacted on their privacy. A qualitative method was carried out using a semi-structured interview guide. Based on the purpose and Karaseks and Theorell's demand-control and support model, four questions were formulated. Six unit managers were interviewed, and the collected material was analyzed using a deduction thematic analysis. The four main themes: workplace requirements, control of the work situation, the importance of social support and the balance between work and privacy were predetermined based on theory. The overall result showed that respondents experienced high demands and a low level of control at the workplace. Results also showed that social support was of great importance in the respondents' work situation. The model's predicted stress experience was in line with the unit managers' actual stress experience and the balance between work and privacy proved to be limited.

  • 44.
    Johansson, Terese
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Tronelius, Lovisa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Chefens ledarskapsförmågor och dess påverkan på medarbetarnas arbetstillfredsställelse2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: The manager's leadership skills and its impact on employees' job satisfaction.

    The purpose of the study was to investigate how two of the managerial leadership skills (communicator competence and ability to motivate) predicts the employees' job satisfaction. The study was conducted on the basis of a web-based survey of an insurance company. A total of 74 respondents participated in the study. The measuring instruments that were used for the study were Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ), Communicator Competence Questionnaire and Motivating Language Scale. A multiple regression analysis showed that the manager's communicator competence predicts the employee's job satisfaction to the fullest extent and the manager's ability to motivate was shown not to predict the employee's job satisfaction.

  • 45.
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Affective and cognitive reactions to subliminal flicker from fluorescent lighting2014In: Consciousness and Cognition, ISSN 1053-8100, E-ISSN 1090-2376, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 97-104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study renews the classical concept of subliminal perception (Peirce & Jastrow, 1884) by investigating the impact of subliminal flicker from fluorescent lighting on affect and cognitive performance. It was predicted that low compared to high frequency lighting (latter compared to former emits non-flickering light) would evoke larger changes in affective states and also impair cognitive performance. Subjects reported high rather than low frequency lighting to be more pleasant, which, in turn, enhanced their problem solving performance. This suggests that sensory processing can take place outside of conscious awareness resulting in conscious emotional consequences; indicating a role of affect in subliminal/implicit perception, and that positive affect may facilitate cognitive task performance. 

  • 46.
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Life goals, self-defining life-goal memories, and mental time travel among young women and men going through emerging versus entering adulthood: An exploratory study2017In: Psychology of Consciousness, ISSN 2326-5523, E-ISSN 2326-5531, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 414-426Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate effects of gender and age in emerging (M = 22 years of age) versus entering (M = 28 years of age) adulthood on participants’ ratings of life goals, self-defining life-goal memories, and goal-related mental time travel, as well as the relations within the goal category (i.e., home, work/education, money, social life, close relationships, health/fitness, and emotions/feelings). Life goals in the present age cohort were predominantly about health/fitness, and the self-defining life-goal memories were mostly about emotions/feelings, close relationships, work/education, and social life containing mostly the phenomenology of emotional intensity and coherence. Age effects on life-goal ratings and goal-related mental time travel showed that life goals and mental monitoring of personal future may vary across the psychosocial maturation periods of emerging and entering adulthood. No effects of gender were obtained, probably due to similar concerns shared by males and females in terms of goals and aspirations in the age cohort assessed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)

  • 47.
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Place and the self: an autobiographical memory synthesis2014In: Philosophical Psychology, ISSN 0951-5089, E-ISSN 1465-394X, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 164-192Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, I argue that the relationship between place and self can be accounted for by recent theoretical work on autobiographical memory. The link between place and self is conceptualized as a transitory mental representation that emerges as a place of mine (personal autobiographical experience) from a place (declarative knowledge). The function of place of mine is to guide personal memory and self-knowing consciousness of periods of our lives. I combine inquiries of memory, self, and place in a triadic relationship, a synthesis, suggesting a conceptual model for the phenomenon of place-related self as a sub-system of the self. This is formed by a causal progression from a physical place across time via emotional and cognitive bonds, components of the autobiographical information grounding the self, apportioned across declarative memory. Finally, using the methods of factor analysis and structural equation modeling, I show that the proposed model accounts for previous and new data on place-related identity.

  • 48.
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Toward a model of work-related self:: a narrative review2016In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 7, article id 331Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Occupational work as personal and social identification can be conceptualized as one of the life goals that we strive for and find meaning in. A basic categorization of the phenomenon of work-related identity is suggested, based on psychological theories of identity, memory and relational schema. It distinguishes between organizational, workgroup and professional identity. The two former relate to the concepts of social identity and collective self and the latter to the concepts of personal identity and individual self. These are assumed to form functionally independent cognitive structures, leading to separate motivations and influences on work-related satisfaction. Given this, empirical research on the impact of work-related identity on employee satisfaction, in general terms, is reviewed. The article concludes with some prospective directions for future research by sketching a general model of work-related self. It is hypothesized to evolve by a causal progression from employment across time via emotional and cognitive components.

  • 49.
    Knez, Igor
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Butler, A.
    Faculty of Landscape and Society, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Norway.
    Ode Sang, Å.
    Department of Landscape Architecture, Planning and Management, Alnarp, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Ångman, E.
    Department of Urban and Rural Development, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Sarlöv-Herlin, I.
    Department of Landscape Architecture, Planning and Management, Alnarp, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Åkerskog, A.
    Fieldforest Research Institute, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Before and after a natural disaster: disruption in emotion component of place-identity and wellbeing2018In: Journal of Environmental Psychology, ISSN 0272-4944, E-ISSN 1522-9610, Vol. 55, p. 11-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to investigate relationships between emotion and cognition components of place-identity and wellbeing, before and after a natural disaster. A total of 656 respondents, living near the area of the largest forest and landscape fire in modern times in Sweden, participated in this study. Before the disaster, a positive association was found between place-identity and wellbeing, indicating that the stronger emotions participants evolved to the place, as well as remembered more and thought about the place, the stronger wellbeing they experienced at the site. After the disaster, the strength of this relationship decreased more than twice, accounted for by the weakening of the emotion-wellbeing link. Accordingly, participants almost lost their emotional bond to the area but maintained their memories and thoughts about the site intact and, by that, their positive wellbeing associations with the location. This indicates tentatively the phenomenon of post-traumatic growth, type of resilience involving operations of cognitive appraisal. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

  • 50.
    Knez, Igor
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Eliasson, Ingegärd
    Department of Conservation, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Relationships between Personal and Collective Place Identity and Well-Being in Mountain Communities2017In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 8, no JAN, article id 79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to investigate the relationships between landscape-related personal and collective identity and well-being of residents living in a Swedish mountain county (N = 850). It was shown that their most valued mountain activities were viewing and experiencing nature and landscape, outdoor recreation, rest and leisure, and socializing with friends/family. Qualitative analyses showed that the most valued aspects of the sites were landscape and outdoor restoration for personal favorite sites, and tourism and alpine for collective favorite sites. According to quantitative analyses the stronger the attachment/closeness/belonging (emotional component of place identity) residents felt to favorite personal and collective sites the more well-being they perceived when visiting these places. Similarly, the more remembrance, thinking and mental travel (cognitive component of place identity) residents directed to these sites the more well-being they perceived in these places. In both types of sites well-being was more strongly predicted by emotional than cognitive component of place-identity. All this indicates the importance of person-place bonds in beneficial experiences of the outdoors, over and above simply being in outdoor environments.

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