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  • 1.
    Grooten, Wilhelmus Johannes Andreas
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Physiotherapy, Huddinge, Sweden; Functional Area Occupational Therapy & Physiotherapy, Allied Health Professionals Function, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sandberg, Lisa
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Physiotherapy, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Ressman, John
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Physiotherapy, Huddinge, Sweden; Sports medicine clinic, Bosön, Swedish Sports Confederation Centre, Lidingö, Sweden.
    Diamantoglou, Nicolas
    Ryggkirurgiskt Centrum, Stockholm, AB, Sweden.
    Johansson, Elin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Karolinska Institutet, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Physiotherapy, Huddinge, Sweden; Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research, University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden.
    Rasmussen-Barr, Eva
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Physiotherapy, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Reliability and validity of a novel Kinect-based software program for measuring posture, balance and side-bending2018In: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, ISSN 1471-2474, E-ISSN 1471-2474, Vol. 19, no 1, article id 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Clinical examinations are subjective and often show a low validity and reliability. Objective and highly reliable quantitative assessments are available in laboratory settings using 3D motion analysis, but these systems are too expensive to use for simple clinical examinations. Qinematic™ is an interactive movement analyses system based on the Kinect camera and is an easy-to-use clinical measurement system for assessing posture, balance and side-bending. The aim of the study was to test the test-retest the reliability and construct validity of Qinematic™ in a healthy population, and to calculate the minimal clinical differences for the variables of interest. A further aim was to identify the discriminative validity of Qinematic™ in people with low-back pain (LBP).

    METHODS: We performed a test-retest reliability study (n = 37) with around 1 week between the occasions, a construct validity study (n = 30) in which Qinematic™ was tested against a 3D motion capture system, and a discriminative validity study, in which a group of people with LBP (n = 20) was compared to healthy controls (n = 17). We tested a large range of psychometric properties of 18 variables in three sections: posture (head and pelvic position, weight distribution), balance (sway area and velocity in single- and double-leg stance), and side-bending.

    RESULTS: The majority of the variables in the posture and balance sections, showed poor/fair reliability (ICC < 0.4) and poor/fair validity (Spearman <0.4), with significant differences between occasions, between Qinematic™ and the 3D-motion capture system. In the clinical study, Qinematic™ did not differ between people with LPB and healthy for these variables. For one variable, side-bending to the left, there was excellent reliability (ICC =0.898), excellent validity (r = 0.943), and Qinematic™ could differentiate between LPB and healthy individuals (p = 0.012).

    CONCLUSION: This paper shows that a novel software program (Qinematic™) based on the Kinect camera for measuring balance, posture and side-bending has poor psychometric properties, indicating that the variables on balance and posture should not be used for monitoring individual changes over time or in research. Future research on the dynamic tasks of Qinematic™ is warranted.

  • 2.
    Johansson, Elin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Bolin, Malin
    Avdelningen för Samhällsvetenskap, Mittuniversitetet .
    Olofsdotter, Gunilla
    Avdelningen för Samhällsvetenskap, Mittuniversitetet .
    Jämställd arbetshälsa? Genus, arbetsorganisation och fysisk belastning inom detaljhandeln2018In: FALF KONFERENS 2018 Arbetet – problem eller potential för en hållbar livsmiljö?   10-12 juni 2018 Gävle: Program och abstracts / [ed] Per Lindberg, Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2018, p. 118-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund

    Det har länge varit känt att kvinnor har betydligt sämre arbetshälsa än män. En viktig orsak är att kvinnor och män till stor del befinner sig i olika branscher, men forskning tyder påatt arbetshälsan är ojämnställd även inom t.ex. städbranschen, monteringsyrken och detaljhandel. Kvinnor och män i dessa yrken har ofta olika arbetsuppgifter och kvinnornas uppgifter är överlag mer enahanda och repetitiva än männens. Kvinnor tros också ha en högre biomekanisk belastning än män när de utför samma arbetsuppgift, möjligen därför att arbetsstationer och verktyg ofta anpassats utifrån mannen som norm. Könssegregeringen på arbetsmarknaden och inom organisationer verkar alltså vara en viktig orsak till bristande jämställdhet i belastningsrelaterad arbetshälsa inom vissa yrken. Kunskapen om hur arbetsroller och arbetsvillkor påverkar belastningar hos kvinnor och män är i stora delar åldersdigen och inte anpassad till svenska förhållanden. Dessutom saknas studier av könsskillnader i fysisk belastning i relation till hur arbetet organiseras på enskilda arbetsplatser. Detaljhandeln är en lämplig bransch att studera då den sysselsätter män och kvinnor i någorlunda likartad omfattning och förekomsten av belastningsbesvär är hög. Dessutom har forskning visat att de arbetsuppgifter som förekommer i detaljhandeln har en stor spännvidd i fysisk belastning och att de olika arbetsuppgifterna är genuskodade, dvs ses som ”kvinnliga” eller ”manliga”.

    Syfte

    Att undersöka kvinnors och mäns arbetsuppgifter, arbetsbelastningar, arbetsvillkor och belastningsbesvär inom en organisation i detaljhandeln, och förklara organisatoriska orsaker till könsskillnader och -likheter. Syftet är också att ta reda på hur dessa förhållanden ändras över tid.

    Metod

    Två matvarubutiker inom samma koncern med vardera ca 50 anställda studeras. I varje butik samlas data in vid två tillfällen med ett års mellanrum. Kvantitativa och kvalitativa metoder används: Semi-strukturerade intervjuer med chefer för att kartlägga organisationoch bemanning; enkät till de anställda med frågor om arbetssituation, muskuloskeletala besvär mm; fokusgruppsintervjuer med ett urval anställda för fördjupad insikt i arbetsroller, arbetsvillkor och arbetsmiljö; mätning av arbetsställningar, arbetsrörelser och puls på ca hälften av de anställda. Under mätperioden dokumenteras olika arbetsuppgifter i en dagbok och under en dag videofilmas den anställde under arbete. Datainsamling påbörjas i mars 2018 och preliminära resultat väntas tillgängliga under våren. Studien finansieras av Arbetsmiljöverket och Högskolan i Gävle.

  • 3.
    Johansson, Elin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Lund Rasmussen, Charlotte
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Lyskov, Eugene
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Compositional analysis of sedentary behavior and physical activity during work and leisure among male and female office workers2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To determine the extent to which male and female office workers differ in their time-use composition of sitting behaviors (SB) and physical activity (PA) during work and leisure.

    Methods: SB and PA was measured using thigh-worn accelerometers for up to 8 full days in 77 male and 104 female office workers. Daily time-use compositions during work and leisure were described in four exhaustive categories, i.e. sitting in short (<30  min) and long (≥30 min) bouts, standing, and active behaviors. Following a compositional data analysis procedure, isometric log-ratios (ilr) were calculated to express time in sitting relative to non-sitting, short relative to long sitting bouts, and standing relative to active behaviors. Differences between sexes (men and women) and domains (work and leisure) were examined on the basis of these ilrs using ANOVA.

    Results: At work, time spent sitting in short bouts, long bouts, standing, and active was, on average, 34%, 36%, 22% and 8% among men and 31%, 37%, 24% and 8% among women. Corresponding proportions during leisure were 34%, 25%, 28% and 13% among men and 29%, 28%, 31% and 12% among women. Time spent sitting relative to non-sitting differed significantly between work and leisure (ilr sitting-vs-non-sitting, partial eta squared=0.09, p<0.01). During leisure, men used proportionally more time than women in short sitting bouts (ilr short-vs-long, partial eta squared=0.06, p<0.01) and spent more time in active behaviors relative to standing (ilr standing-vs-active, partial eta squared=0.04, p<0.01). No significant sex differences were observed during work (p>0.05).

    Conclusions:  The leisure behavior observed among men is probably more beneficial for health than that observed for women. However, both men and women spent a major proportion of their time sitting, both at and outside their office work, and they were, in general, only little active. Thus, both men and women could benefit from interventions to reduce SB and increase PA both at work and during leisure.

  • 4.
    Johansson, Elin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Lund Rasmussen, Charlotte
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen.
    Lyskov, Eugene
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Sedentary and physical activity behaviours during work and leisure among male and female office workers of different age: A compositional analysis2019In: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, ISSN 1479-5868, E-ISSN 1479-5868Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Bolin, Malin
    Department of Social Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Olofsdotter, Gunilla
    Department of Social Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Johansson, Elin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Equal health at work? Protocol for an observational study of work organisation, workload and musculoskeletal complaints among women and men in grocery retail2019In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Johansson, Elin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Bolin, Malin
    Forum för genusvetenskap, Mittuniversitetet i Sundsvall.
    Olofsdotter, Gunilla
    Forum för genusvetenskap, Mittuniversitetet i Sundsvall.
    Jämställd arbetshälsa? Genus, arbetsorganisation och fysisk belastning inom detaljhandeln2019In: Arbetsmiljö och ohälsa i ett genusperspektiv. Uppdragsforskning med relevans för tillsynsverksamheten. Rapport 2019:7, Stockholm: Arbetsmiljöverket , 2019, p. 22-42Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Johansson, Elin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Sitting, standing and physical activity among male and female office workers of different age: behaviours examined using compositional data analysis2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Excessive sitting is an increasing concern in working life. Negative health effects may, to some extent, be mitigated by interrupting prolonged sitting by standing or more active behaviours, like walking. Alternations between these behaviours may also influence variation in neck-shoulder-arm exposures, and thus musculoskeletal disorder risks. This study examined time spent sitting, standing and active among office workers, and determined the extent to which these behaviours differed by gender and age.

    Methods. Ninety-nine workers at a Swedish government agency (50/49 men/women; mean(SD) age 47.1(9.0) years) wore a thigh accelerometer (Actigraph GT3X) for five working days. Data were processed to give the percentage of time spent sitting in short (<30 min) and long (≥30 min) bouts, in standing, and in more active behaviours. In adding up to 100%, such data are constrained and inherently dependent. This requires further examination to be performed using Compositional Data Analysis (CoDA). Thus, Isometric Log-transformed Ratios were constructed, describing sitting vs. non-sitting (sit/nonsit), short-bout vs. long-bout sitting (shortsit/longsit), and standing vs. active (stand/active). These ratios were examined for pairwise correlations, and for associations with gender and age.

    Results. On average, workers spent 28.9%, 42.2%, 21.6%, and 7.3% time in shortsit, longsit, standing, and active. Sit/nonsit correlated negatively with shortsit/longsit (r=–0.49) and stand/active (r=–0.64); shortsit/longsit correlated positively with stand/active (r=0.19). Gender showed small associations with all three ratios (partial-ƞ2=0.01-0.03; p=0.08-0.43). Stand/active increased with increasing age (partial-ƞ2=0.07; p=0.01), while sit/nonsit and shortsit/longsit were very weakly associated with age (partial-ƞ2=0.01 and 0.01; p=0.26 and 0.40).

    Conclusions. Workers spending more time sitting also spent a larger part of that time in long, uninterrupted sitting bouts. However, when not sitting, these workers were more physically active than workers who sat less. These behaviours differed little by gender and age, besides older workers being relatively less active during non-sitting periods.

  • 8.
    Wilhelmus Johannes Andreas, G.
    et al.
    Karolinska Insitutet, Department of Neurobiology, Caring Sciences and Society, División of Physical Therapy, Sweden.
    Johansson, Elin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Observational Methods for Assessing Ergonomic Risks for Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders: A Scoping Review2018In: Revista Ciencias de la Salud, ISSN 1692-7273, Vol. 16, no Special Issue, p. 8-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (wrmsds) are one of the most common causes of absence from work. Exposures in the work environment can cause or aggravate the impact of these musculoskeletal disorders and the identification of ergonomic exposures are essential in risk assessment. It is important to assess all three key indicators of these exposures (intensity, frequency and duration) for being able to estimate the risk level for the development of wrmsds. Aim: This paper aims to give an overview of some of the observational methods that can be used for assessment of ergonomic risks at the workplace. Methods: This study was conducted as a scoping review of the medical and ergonomic literature and official governmental webpages in Sweden, U.S.A. and the Netherlands. Results: In total, 19 different observational methods were identified. We summarize our findings based on the body parts that were studied and what key indicators were assessed: 1) intensity of the work load (posture and force production), 2) frequency of the work load (e.g. repetitive movements), and 3) the duration of the work load (e.g. static work). In an appendix we include a brief presentation of these methods together with the work sheet (if available) and the source reference of the observational method. Conclusion: For ergonomists that perform risk assessments, there is a large number of observational assessment tools available and it is important to understand that different methods can be used simultaneously to be able to estimate the objective risk levels for wrmsds. © 2018, Universidad del Rosario. All rights reserved.

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