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  • 1.
    Geidne, Susanna
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Jerlinder, Kajsa
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för folkhälso- och idrottssvetenskap, Idrottsvetenskap.
    Jämlik idrott och funktionsnedsättningar2019Ingår i: Idrotten och (o)jämlikheten: I medlemmarnas eller samhällets intresse? / [ed] Christine Dartsch, Johan R Norberg & Johan Pihlblad, Stockholm: Centrum för idrottsforskning , 2019, s. 133-148Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Hur kan föreningsidrotten passa alla oavsett förutsättningar? Forskning visar att föreningar måste bli bättre på att anpassa ordinarie aktiviteter, snarare än att skilja grupper åt. En jämlik idrottsrörelse kräver en mångfald av aktiviteter - alla vinner på att all organiserad idrott inte ser likadan ut.

  • 2.
    Geidne, Susanna
    et al.
    Örebro universitet.
    Jerlinder, Kajsa
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för folkhälso- och idrottssvetenskap, Idrottsvetenskap.
    Sports clubs and young people with disabilities - a matter of equality?2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Movement and physical activity is one of the largest public health challenges of our time. A setting that is particularly suitable for promoting physical activity is sports clubs, which are the main setting for leisure time activities in many countries. Sports club activities have the apparent potential to promote health in a comprehensive way and to contribute to overall physical activity levels, psychosocial health as well as healthy behaviors. From an equality perspective, it is therefore worrisome that young people with disabilities participate to lesser extent than other adolescents. Research in this field have mostly focused on consequences and barriers for young people who not participate in sports. Strategies for participation and especially from an equality perspective have been studied less. This study aims to explore how young people with disabilities are involved in sports clubs and how this can be understood within a framework of equality. Methods: this empirical study from Sweden builds on four focus groups including up to five participants from regional sports federations and sports clubs in two Swedish regions. The interviews are analyzed with conceptual pairs such as equality/equity, equality/inequality, inclusion/integration, adapt sport/adapt child and prerequisites/barriers for equality. Results: results are presented about how equality is regarded concerning this target group as well as prerequisites and barriers for equality. Conclusions: it can be concluded that even though young people with disabilities hardly is a homogenous group some overall conclusions can be drawn. A solution is to go from adapting sport for disabled persons to adapting sport for all people. Sports have to be adapted to the participants, not the other way around. Equality in sport implies diversity. Diverse sport, organized differently will lead to more people doing sports for longer in life, which will benefit everyone, both individually and at the societal level. Funding: the study is funded by the Swedish research council for sport science.

  • 3.
    Qvarfordt, Anna
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för folkhälso- och idrottssvetenskap, Idrottsvetenskap. Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Anti-doping – a legitimate effort?: Elite athletes' perspectives on policy and practice2019Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The global anti-doping enterprise in sport is a comprehensive system in which the athlete is at the centre of regulation, scrutiny and control. There is limited knowledge about the implications of this extensive control system for athletes and about how athletes perceive the system; little is known about possible consequences of these implications and perceptions for the legitimacy of the system. The overall aim of this thesis is to analyse the legitimacy of global anti-doping policy and practice from the perspectives of international elite athletes.

    Four articles are included in this compilation thesis. The first illustrates, based on a discourse analytical approach, how claims for legitimacy of the anti-doping system are produced in policy documents aimed at athletes. The second explores the perceptions and legitimacy of anti-doping policy and practice through a survey aimed at elite athletes in different sports and from different regions of the world. The third article examines, through an interview study, how athletes in different contexts experience the practice of anti-doping and what consequences this may have for the system's legitimacy. The interview study was also the basis for the fourth article, focusing on the athletes' experiences and perceptions of their opportunities for compliance and how this is related to their view of the system's legitimacy. Using the four articles as a basis, the analysis of legitimacy within the anti-doping system is expanded in the thesis through an overarching analytical framework inspired by David Beetham.

    The results show that the legitimacy of the policy documents is based on essentially authoritative, but also rational, arguments for justifying the anti-doping enterprise. Elite athletes are generally in favour of anti-doping policy and the principle that doping should be prohibited. However, when the rules are implemented into practice, problems to do with lack of procedural justice arise which may have an impact on the system's legitimacy. Procedures in the system are perceived as having a negative effect on sportspersons' private life, and as ineffective and unequally implemented across the world; also, athletes have little influence over decision-making processes. Anti-doping practice is moreover perceived to cause structural inequalities due to inequality in access to technology, education and knowledge as well as supportive systems. Most athletes wish to comply with the rules, but many struggle with lack of control and have limited scope for taking responsibility regarding compliance with the doping rules. Even when athletes are dutiful and perform acts that confer legitimacy to the rules and the authorities, some experiences and perceptions could endanger the legitimacy of antidoping, as seen in the overall legitimacy analysis of the thesis. Athletes' perceptions of inequality, ineffectiveness and lack of leeway can be interpreted as a lack of rule conformity to the anti-doping authority. There also appears to be a lack of shared normative beliefs between sportspersons and the anti-doping authorities, as many athletes feel that their opinions are not taken into account. Decision-making processes that do not pay attention to the perceptions of those involved can result in a discrepancy between the rules and the norms.

    The international anti-doping system is a major international enterprise with comprehensive rules that need to be applied equally around the world, and that also need to be legitimated in different countries where athletes have different conditions to comply with the regulations. In this thesis, I have shown that these different conditions have consequences for the ability to comply with the rules and also for the application of the regulations. The far-reaching rules mean that procedures within the system are experienced as causing a number of negative consequences. I have shown that this poses a risk to the legitimacy of the system if these problems are not addressed.

  • 4.
    Qvarfordt, Anna
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för folkhälso- och idrottssvetenskap, Idrottsvetenskap.
    Ahmadi, Nader
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för socialt arbete och kriminologi, Socialt arbete.
    Bäckström, Åsa
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm.
    Hoff, David
    Lund universitet.
    Limitations and duties: elite athletes’ perceptions of compliance with anti-doping rules2019Ingår i: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this article is to examine how elite athletes perceive their own responsibilities and possibilities to be compliant with the anti-doping regulations, and to draw conclusions about what these perceptions mean in relation to the legitimacy of the anti-doping system. A qualitative research design, with interviews conducted with athletes globally, was employed to capture elite sportspersons’ views on anti-doping policy and procedures. The analysis was based on a theoretical framework on legitimacy. The findings show that athletes’ situation is characterized by limited information and a lack of leeway. At the same time, athletes find themselves obliged to be dutiful. We discuss the complex situation of simultaneously facing perceived limitations and duties, and consider the limits that athletes experience in relation to compliance, which may place the legitimacy of the anti-doping system at risk.

  • 5.
    Qvarfordt, Anna
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för folkhälso- och idrottssvetenskap, Idrottsvetenskap. Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogisk idrottsforskning.
    Hoff, David
    Lunds universitet.
    Bäckström, Åsa
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Ahmadi, Nader
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för socialt arbete och kriminologi, Socialt arbete.
    From fighting the bad to protecting the good: legitimation discourses in WADA’s athlete guides2019Ingår i: Performance Enhancement & Health, E-ISSN 2211-2669Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The global anti-doping effort in sport is based upon perceptions of the system as desirable, proper and appropriate and thus considered legitimate. The legitimacy of the anti-doping system has earlier been studied bottom-up, based on the views of athletes. In order to gain greater understanding of legitimation processes, it is also important to study legitimation strategies top-down, used by decision-making and governing bodies. The aim of this study was to use Fairclough's critical discourse analytical approach to analyse the social construction of legitimacy in the World Anti-Doping Agency's three editions of a guide to anti-doping rules aimed at athletes. The analysis was performed based on van Leeuwen's four specific legitimation strategies: authorization, rationalization, moral evaluation and mythopoesis. Our analysis shows that the legitimation of the anti-doping discourse as constructed in the athlete guides that has accompanied anti-doping regulations for more than a decade is characterized by continuity as regards an authoritarian attitude, but also by change towards a more rational and athlete-centred stance. A shift can be seen in the construction of legitimacy in the anti-doping discourse from “fighting the bad” to “protecting the good”. We discuss the moral evaluation strategy as a way to construct legitimacy for anti-doping efforts and sport in general towards a wider public. In the light of the results of this study, we conclude that policymaking in relation to doping issues should take into account the dimension of the discursive top-down legitimation, which could affect how the policy is received at the level of the athletes and provide conditions for a sustainable anti-doping system. 

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