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  • 1. Granlund, David
    et al.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för ekonomi, Ämnesavdelningen för nationalekonomi.
    Wikström, Magnus
    Fixed budgets as a cost containment measure for pharmaceuticals2006Ingår i: European Journal of Health Economics, ISSN 1618-7598, E-ISSN 1618-7601, Vol. 7, nr 1, s. 37-45Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In Västerbotten County, Sweden, there are two health centers which (in contrast to all other health centers in the region) bear strict responsibility over their pharmaceutical budget. This study examined whether the prices and quantities of pharmaceuticals prescribed by physicians working at these health centers differ significantly from those prescribed by physicians at health centers with open-ended budgets. Estimation results using matching methods, which allows us to compare similar patients at the different health centers, show that the introduction of fixed pharmaceutical budgets did not affect physicians' prescription behavior, indicating that fixed budgets may not be an efficient measure to reduce costs. Another explanation is that the health centers under study already had taken measures to contain costs, making it hard to further reduce costs.

  • 2.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för ekonomi, Ämnesavdelningen för nationalekonomi.
    Approval Times and the Safety of New Pharmaceuticals2004Ingår i: European Journal of Health Economics, ISSN 1618-7598, E-ISSN 1618-7601, Vol. 5, s. 345-350Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The study examined the relationship between the approval times for new pharmaceuticals and the number of adverse drug reactions reported to the Swedish Medical Products Agency. Yearly time-series data concerning the number of adverse drug reactions, as well as data concerning prices and quantities sold for 25 pharmaceutical substances during the period 1972-1996 were used. The results show that shorter approval times are associated with more adverse drug reactions, but also that the effects are quite small.

  • 3.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för ekonomi, Ämnesavdelningen för nationalekonomi.
    Hellström, Jörgen
    Side Effects of Generic Competition?2004Ingår i: European Journal of Health Economics, ISSN 1618-7598, E-ISSN 1618-7601, Vol. 5, nr 3, s. 203-208Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the relationship between generic drug market shares and the number of reported side effects. Yearly time-series data for the number of reported side effects and information on market shares, prices, and quantities from 1972 to 1996 were used in this study. Poisson and negative binomial regression models were used in the statistical analysis. The results show that increased generic market share increases the number of reported side effects for all estimated models. When studying the relationship at the substance level, increasing generic market shares increases the number of side effects for 7 of the 15 substances. Generic substitution laws and measures to increase generic competition may thus have unintended consequences since these results show a positive relationship between generic market shares and reported side effects.

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