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  • 1. Berglund, E
    et al.
    Eriksson, Mårten
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för pedagogik, didaktik och psykologi, Ämnesavdelningen för psykologi.
    Johansson, I
    Parental reports of spoken language skills in children with Down syndrome.2001Ingår i: Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research, ISSN 1092-4388, E-ISSN 1558-9102, Vol. 44, nr 1, s. 179-191Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Spoken language in children with Down syndrome and in children in a normative group was compared. Growth trends, individual variation, sex differences, and performance on vocabulary, pragmatic, and grammar scales as well as MaxLU (maximum length of utterance) were explored. Subjects were 330 children with Down syndrome (age range: 1-5 years) and 336 children in a normative group (1;4-2; 4 years;months). The Swedish Early Communicative Development inventory-words and sentences (SECDI-w&s) was employed. Performance of children with Down syndrome at ages 3;0 and 4;0 was comparable with that of children in the normative group at ages 1,4 and 1;8 respectively. In comparison with children in the normative group of similar vocabulary size, children with Down syndrome lagged slightly on pragmatic and grammar scales. The early development proceeded in most cases with exponential or logistic growth. This stresses the great potential of early intervention.

  • 2.
    Eriksson, Mårten
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för pedagogik, didaktik och psykologi, Ämnesavdelningen för psykologi.
    Westerlund, M.
    Berglund, E.
    A screening version of the Swedish Communicative Development Inventories designed for use with 18-month-old children.2002Ingår i: Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research, ISSN 1092-4388, E-ISSN 1558-9102, Vol. 46, nr 5, s. 948-960Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An instrument designed to assess young children's communicative skills at 18 months is described. The instrument consists of a 103-item parental report checklist based on the Swedish version of the Communicative Development Inventories (SECDI). We present descriptive data from a study at the Swedish Community Health Care Centres, including parental reports of 1021 18-month-old children. The response rate was 88%. Performance at the 10th percentile consisted of 8 communicative gestures, 45 comprehended words, and 7 spoken words. The overall results indicate that the instrument is reliable and has validity approximating that of the SECDI. Furthermore, parents of the children with the poorest vocabulary indicated approval of the assessment procedure in interviews especially directed to this group.

  • 3.
    MacCutcheon, Douglas
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Miljövetenskap.
    Pausch, Florian
    Medical Acoustics Group, Institute of Technical Acoustics, Rheinisch Westfalische Technische Hochschule Aachen, Germany.
    Füllgrabe, Christian
    School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, UK.
    Eccles, Renata
    Department of Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology, University of Pretoria, South Africa.
    van der Linde, Jeannie
    Panebianco, Clorinda
    Department of Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology, University of Pretoria, South Africa.
    Fels, Janina
    Medical Acoustics Group, Institute of Technical Acoustics, Rheinisch Westfalische Technische Hochschule Aachen, Germany.
    Ljung, Robert
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Miljövetenskap.
    The contribution of individual differences in memory span and language ability to spatial release from masking in young children2019Ingår i: Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research, ISSN 1092-4388, E-ISSN 1558-9102, Vol. 62, nr 10, s. 3741-3751Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Working memory capacity and language ability modulate speech reception; however, the respective roles of peripheral and cognitive processing are unclear. The contribution of individual differences in these abilities to utilization of spatial cues when separating speech from informational and energetic masking backgrounds in children has not yet been determined. Therefore, this study explored whether speech reception in children is modulated by environmental factors, such as the type of background noise and spatial configuration of target and noise sources, and individual differences in the cognitive and linguistic abilities of listeners.

    Method: Speech reception thresholds were assessed in 39 children aged 5-7 years in simulated school listening environments. Speech reception thresholds of target sentences spoken by an adult male consisting of number and color combinations were measured using an adaptive procedure, with speech-shaped white noise and single-talker backgrounds that were either collocated (target and back-ground at 0°) or spatially separated (target at 0°, background noise at 90° to the right). Spatial release from masking was assessed alongside memory span and expressive language.

    Results and Conclusion: Significant main effect results showed that speech reception thresholds were highest for informational maskers and collocated conditions. Significant interactions indicated that individual differences in memory span and language ability were related to spatial release from masking advantages. Specifically, individual differences in memory span and language were related to the utilization of spatial cues in separated conditions. Language differences were related to auditory stream segregation abilities in collocated conditions that lack helpful spatial cues, pointing to the utilization of language processes to make up for losses in spatial information.

  • 4.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Byggvetenskap - tillämpad psykologi. Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Episodic long-term memory of spoken discourse masked by speech: What is the role for working memory capacity?2012Ingår i: Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research, ISSN 1092-4388, E-ISSN 1558-9102, Vol. 55, nr 1, s. 210-218Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To investigate whether working memory capacity (WMC) modulates the effects of to-be-ignored speech on the memory of materials conveyed by to-be-attended speech.

    Method: Two tasks (reading span, Daneman & Carpenter, 1980; Rönnberg et al., 2008; and size-comparison span, Sörqvist, Ljungberg, & Ljung, 2010) were used to measure individual differences in WMC. Episodic long-term memory of spoken discourse was measured by requesting participants to listen to stories masked either by normal speech or by a rotated version of that speech and to subsequently answer questions on the content of the stories.

    Results: Normal speech impaired performance on the episodic long-term memory test, and both WMC tasks were negatively related to this effect, indicating that individuals with high WMC are less susceptible to disruption. Moreover, further analyses revealed that size-comparison span (a task that requires resolution of semantic confusion by inhibition processes) is a stronger predictor of the effect than is reading span.

    Conclusions: Cognitive control processes support listening in adverse conditions. In particular, inhibition processes acting to resolve semantic confusion seem to underlie the relationship between WMC and susceptibility to distraction from masking speech.

  • 5.
    Westerlund, M.
    et al.
    Central Unit of Child Health Care, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Berglund, E.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Mårten
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för pedagogik, didaktik och psykologi, Ämnesavdelningen för psykologi.
    Can severely language delayed 3-year-olds be identified at 18 months?: Evaluation of a screening version of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories2006Ingår i: Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research, ISSN 1092-4388, E-ISSN 1558-9102, Vol. 49, nr 2, s. 237-247Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of a screening instrument (the Swedish Communication Screening at 18 months of age; SCS18), derived from the Swedish MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory, in identification of 18-month-old children who will be severely language disabled by 3 years of age, the authors (a) analyzed which SCS18's component yielded the best prediction, (b) compared the productivity figures of the SCS18 with those of the traditional method of identification, and (c) tried different cutoff criteria of the SCS18.

    Method: Half of the child health care (CHC) centers in a Swedish county were randomly selected to use the SCS18 (e.g., a checklist supporting parents in assessing their child's word production, word comprehension, and communicative gestures). Remaining CHC centers used an informal assessment. Expressive and receptive language was subsequently judged with an observation for 3-year-olds that is routine in the county. An unselected population of 2,080 children participated at 18 months of age and again at 3 years of age.

    Result: Number of spoken words yielded the best prediction, and SCS18 was superior to the traditional method. A sensitivity of 50%, however, was not enough, and a stricter criterion resulted in too many false positives to be acceptable as routine.

    Conclusion: Although the SCS18 has strength, the age of 18 months seems to be too early for identification of severe language disability.

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