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  • 101.
    Eliasson, Ingegärd
    et al.
    Urban Climate Group, Physical Geography, Department of Earth Sciences, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för psykologi.
    Westerberg, Ulla
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Thorsson, Sofia
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet. Urban Climate Group, Physical Geography, Department of Earth Sciences, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Lindberg, Fredrik
    Urban Climate Group, Physical Geography, Department of Earth Sciences, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Climate and behaviour in a Nordic city2007In: Landscape and Urban Planning, ISSN 0169-2046, E-ISSN 1872-6062, Vol. 82, no 1-2, p. 72-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Four urban public spaces, representing various designs and microclimates, were investigated in Gothenburg, Sweden, in order to estimate how weather and microclimate affect people in urban outdoor environments. The research strategy was both multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary and included scientists from three disciplines: architecture, climatology and psychology. The project is based on common case studies carried out during four seasons, including measurements of meteorological variables, interviews and observations of human activity at each place. Multiple regression analysis of meteorological and behavioural data showed that air temperature, wind speed and clearness index (cloud cover) have a significant influence on people's assessments of the weather, place perceptions and place-related attendance. The results support the arguments in favour of employing climate sensitive planning in future urban design and planning projects, as the physical component of a place can be designed to influence the site-specific microclimate and consequently people's place-related attendance, perceptions and emotions.

  • 102.
    El-Mekawy, Mohamed
    et al.
    Future Position X, Gävle, Sweden.
    Östman, Anders
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    Shahzad, Khuram
    KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Towards Interoperating CityGML and IFC Building Models: A Unified Model Based Approach2011In: Advances in 3D Geo-Information Sciences / [ed] Kölbe T., König G. & Nagel C., Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer, 2011, p. 73-93Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    CityGML represents 3D urban objects that can be shared over different applications, whereas, IFC provides a very detailed semantic model for 3D building representations using constructive elements like beams, walls, etc. Attempts have been made to interoperate CityGML and IFC for seeking useful common applications. However, these efforts use a unidirectional method (mostly from IFC to CityGML) for conversion processes. Abidirectional method can lead to development of unified applications in the areas of urban planning, building construction analysis, homeland security, etc.The benefits of these applications clearly appear at the operational level (e.g., cost reduction, unified data-view), and at the strategic level (e.g., crisis management and increasing the analyses capabilities). In this paper, we presentan approach for interoperating CityGML and IFC based on development of aunified building model for converting IFC to CityGML and vice versa. The conversion is a two-steps process in which a model is firstly converted to the unified model and secondly to the target model. Finally, we demonstrate the approach and outcome of each step by a hospital building case that is located in Norrtälje City, north of Stockholm, Sweden.

  • 103.
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    et al.
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Redman, Charles L.
    School of Sustainability, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Department of History, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; , Stockholm Resilience Center, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Costanza, Robert
    Crawford School of Public Policy, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia.
    History of Urbanization and the Missing Ecology2013In: Urbanization, Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services: Challenges and Opportunities: A Global Assessment / [ed] Thomas Elmqvist, Michail Fragkias, Julie Goodness, Burak Güneralp, Peter J. Marcotullio, Robert I. McDonald, Susan Parnell, Maria Schewenius, Marte Sendstad, Karen C. Seto, and Cathy Wilkinson, Dordrecht: Springer, 2013, p. 13-30Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter, we explore the historical dimension of urbanization and why the ecology of urbanization has, until recently, been missing. We discuss the consequences of this for our perceptions of urbanization throughout history and also discuss the emerging reintroduction of ecology and the concept of natural capital into the global discourse on urbanization and sustainability. Humans and the institutions they devise for their governance are often successful at self-organizing to promote their survival in the face of virtually any environment challenge. However, from history we learn that there may often be unanticipated costs to many of these solutions with long-term implications on future societies. For example, increased specialization has led to increased surplus of food and made continuing urban growth possible. But an increased urban - rural disconnection has also led to an alienation of food production from the carrying capacity of the land. While connections and feedbacks with the hinterland that supported growing urban centres were often apparent in the past, this has increasingly been lost in a globalized world. The neglect of a social-ecological perspective and the current disconnect between the urban and the rural risks mean that important feedback mechanisms remain invisible, misinforming policy and action with large consequences for global sustainability. We argue that through reintroducing the social-ecological perspective and the concept of natural capital it is possible to contribute to a redefinition of urban sustainability through making invisible feedbacks and connections visible.

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  • 104.
    Engfeldt, Andreas
    et al.
    Lantmäteriet.
    Olsson, Per-Anders
    Lantmäteriet.
    Steffen, Holger
    Lantmäteriet.
    Lidberg, Martin
    Lantmäteriet.
    Ågren, Jonas
    Lantmäteriet.
    Sekowski, Marcin
    Institute of Geodesy and Cartography, Poland.
    Krynski, Jan
    Institute of Geodesy and Cartography, Poland.
    Bryskhe, Henrik
    Lantmäteriet.
    Nielsen, Jens Emil
    Danish Technical University, Denmark.
    Strykowski, Gabriel
    Danish Technical University, Denmark.
    RG 2000 – the New Gravity Reference Frame of Sweden2019In: Geophysica, ISSN 0367-4231, E-ISSN 2324-0741, Vol. 54, no 1, p. 69-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increased need for improved geoid models for Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) height determination calls for additional gravity observations and quality assurance of existing data. In this perspective, a modern gravity system and the renovation of an already existing high order gravity network is considered as a moderate strategic investment which provides a firm foundation for further activities. Here the new gravity reference frame RG 2000 for Sweden is presented. RG 2000 is realized by absolute gravity observations at 109 stations. The absolute points are connected via old and new relative gravity observations, including another 216 points. Points and observations have been chosen so that good overlap with the older Swedish reference frames, RG 62 and RG 82, is achieved, allowing to evaluate the older frames and transformations between them. RG 2000 is based on a zero permanent tide system with epoch 2000.

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  • 105.
    Enver, Pekin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science.
    Minska matsvinnet i skolan: Ett pilotprojekt på tre grundskolor i Ljusdals kommun2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The author (Enver Pekin) has chosen to dwell into the subject of wasted foods and more specifically wasted foods in elementary schools.

    Food waste can be divided into two subgroups; food waste such as fish bones, coffee grounds, and egg shells, and wasted food that could have been saved had it been handled differently. Both food waste and wasted foods occur in every part of the grocery chain and impact our environment negatively. The production of grocery in of itself impact our environment through, among other things, greenhouse gases and the over fertilisation of substances such as nitrogen and phosphorus.

    Some estimations show that up to one third of all produced foods are thrown. This impacts the environment in ways that are unnecessary and even unsustainable in regard to how we use vital resources such as fresh water and natural grounds. Swedish school kitchens throw an estimated 50 000 tons of food per year, half of which are regarded as wasted foods.

    This study’s objective has been to examine how information campaigns impact the school children’s behaviour. For this purpose, an experiment has been designed and implemented on three selected schools in the province of Ljusdal. The aim has been to get the students to throw less food. Earlier research has shown that there is a possibility of reducing wasted foods with up to 20 %.

    Results of this experiment have shown that wasted foods in regard to plate portions has been reduced by 29 %. The results thereby corroborate earlier research which implies that information campaigns could eventually be used as a means to impact behaviour. How information campaigns are designed could also be of significance in regard to the resulting outcome.

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  • 106.
    Eriksson, Christoffer
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Khorshed, Dorothy
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Fallstudie om hur Gävle kommun kan minska sitt dricksvattensvinn2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To ensure sustainable development UN approved 17 sustainable development goals in the year of 2015, in which goal six specifies to ensure water and sanitation for all, and specified in goal six target indicator four, in a more effective way. To have an average of 24% in losses of the total amount of produced drinking water in Sweden is not effective, and Gävle municipality isn´t any better with their recorded drinking water wastage between 28-40% the last years. A big part of the losses of drinking water are assumed to be water that the municipality uses within their daily work such as rinsing of the drinking water network and inadequate measurements of the used drinking water. The aim of this study is to create groundwork for an action plan for how Gästrike Vatten can work to minimize their drinking water losses in Gävle municipality.To identify what the organization considers to be most important is a good first step in creating an action plan, to then select key elements to which goals can be phrased to ese future comparisons with similar organizations. Through internet research, surveys, interviews, computer analysis, in addition literature searches Gävle munici-palities condition of soil, dimensions- and materials of the drinking water network have been established.Gävle Vatten works actively to reduce their commercial drinking water losses by sealing water hydrants and installing water kiosks all around the municipality. The first step to localize leaks in the network is by district division which seven out of the eight respondents use. Acoustic leak detection is the most common secondary step to localize leaks more accurately that Gävle municipality uses, however certain difficulties can emerge. Most of the new drinking water pipelines are made from plastic, which has a lower sound conductivity then pipelines made from metal.It is a continual process to reduce ones drinking water losses to an acceptable level, one which Gävle municipality has already started. To potentiate the effect of their work an action plan is recommended within the organization to identify goals and ways to achieve them so that the company’s resources can be distributed accord-ingly. Their next step can be to work with active leak detection, more specifically with gas injection that works well on metal as well as plastic pipelines. To acquire more accurate measurements of the consumed drinking water, digital water meters are recommended at the consumers.The authors believe that Gävle municipality has good conditions to continue devel-oping their work to minimize their drinking water losses.

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  • 107.
    Eriksson, Ola
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering. Profu i Göteborg AB, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Bisaillon, Mattias
    Multiple system modelling of waste management2011In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 31, no 12, p. 2620-2630Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to increased environmental awareness, planning and performance of waste management has become more and more complex. Therefore waste management has early been subject to different types of modelling. Another field with long experience of modelling and systems perspective is energy systems. The two modelling traditions have developed side by side, but so far there are very few attempts to combine them. Waste management systems can be linked together with energy systems through incineration plants. The models for waste management can be modelled on a quite detailed level whereas surrounding systems are modelled in a more simplistic way. This is a problem, as previous studies have shown that assumptions on the surrounding system often tend to be important for the conclusions. In this paper it is shown how two models, one for the district heating system (MARTES) and another one for the waste management system (ORWARE), can be linked together. The strengths and weaknesses with model linking are discussed when compared to simplistic assumptions on effects in the energy and waste management systems. It is concluded that the linking of models will provide a more complete, correct and credible picture of the consequences of different simultaneous changes in the systems. The linking procedure is easy to perform and also leads to activation of project partners. However, the simulation procedure is a bit more complicated and calls for the ability to run both models.

  • 108.
    Eriksson, Philip
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Andra slänger mat, inte jag: Nudging för mindre matsvinn i skolor2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Food waste is a problem that permeates the whole food supply chain and cause economic losses, negative effects on the climate and environment and depletion of finite resources. The scale of required change necessary to counteract the negative effects is huge. In Swedens schools food waste loss is a matter of a costly wastage, both from an environmental perspective, but also with regard to municipalities' limited resources. Due to this, there is a big demand for waste loss reducing measures. Something that can help mitigate the extent of the food waste problem is behavioral change. Unfortunately, we cannot expect change to occur on one’s own. We need tools that can nudge us in the right direction.

    This thesis is a theoretical base that explores and describes how nudging, a tool for sustainable behaviors, can be a part of the solution to the food waste problem in school canteens. Recommendations for design and implementation of such change strategies are presented, with a special focus on planned interventions (nudges) and practical application. The goal is that the study will contribute to the application of behavioral insights in the environmental field. The foundation of the thesis consists of two earlier studies, a literature study, aimed at examining nudging as a tool for sustainable societal development, and a pilot study, aimed at examining students' behavior in canteens, and how they deal with leftovers. The first study found a number of practical shortcomings if nudging (the tool) is to be used successfully, long-term and more extensively in environmental work. The pilot study found irrationally made decisions among students.

    In order to answer how nudging can be part of the solution to the food waste problem in schools, the thesis applied the strategic framework for sustainable development. According to the strategic framework for sustainable development nudges employs as a catalyzing action while nudging is a tangible tool for strategic behavior change management. In the thesis nudging and nudges are presented as two separate parts of the behavior change management process, this also illustrates how each part can be part of the solution to the problem, because it clarifies the scope of the notions and their role in resolving the issue. Based on knowledge gained from the pilot study, the thesis draws conclusions that there is a theoretical potential to use nudging to encourage sustainable development in school canteens and reduce food waste, especially when students are about to leave the canteen, but also in the serving situation and during everyday school hours. Identified areas to focus on when applying nudges were mainly evaluation and feedback, smart anchors, order, normative messages, commitment, reminders, fewer options, strategic planning, loss disclosure and less social proof.

    In addition to this, the thesis finally gave suggestions for working with nudging from an above- or below perspective (by integrating assessment questions in the decision-making process) to adjust the application of interventions.

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    Andra slänger mat, inte jag - Nudging för mindre matsvinn i skolor
  • 109.
    Eriksson, Sofia
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Miljövetenskap.
    Skånes, Helle
    Hammer, Monica
    Södertörns högskola, Miljövetenskap.
    Lönn, Mikael
    Södertörns högskola, Miljövetenskap.
    Current distribution of older and deciduous forests as legacies from historical use patterns in a Swedish boreal landscape (1725–2007)2010In: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, E-ISSN 1872-7042, Vol. 260, no 7, p. 1095-1103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We combine historical maps and satellite derived data to reconstruct the development of a Swedish boreal landscape over the past 300 years. The aim is to understand legacies from past use patterns in present-day forest composition and consequences for conservation objectives from a landscape perspective. We analyze landscape development in cross-tabulation matrixes, building change trajectories. These trajectories are tested in linear models to explain the distribution of present-day landscape composition of coniferous, mixed, and deciduous forests >110 years. Of 49 tested change trajectories, 11 showed a significant association. Associations for mixed and coniferous forests were similar and linked to characteristics such as forest continuity, which characterized the studied landscape. Deciduous older forests did not show any association to forest continuity but were more likely to occur on areas that specifically shifted from forests with grazing in the 1720s to open impediment (likely indicating low tree coverage) in the 1850s. There were large shifts and spatial redistribution in ownerships over time. Use patterns and legacies varied between small- and large-scale ownership categories as well as within small-scale categories. The legacies found in the study indicate a complex origin of heterogeneous landscape elements such as older deciduous forests. Additionally, the origin of the legacies indicates a potential need to diversify conservation management based on the influence of past use patterns. Despite large inconsistencies in historical and contemporary data we argue that this type of analysis could be used to further understand the distribution of landscape elements important for conservation objectives.

  • 110.
    Eshagh, M.
    et al.
    K N Toosi University of Technology, Department of Geodesy, Tehran, Iran .
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute. Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Division of Geodesy and Geoinformatics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Quality description for gravimetric and seismic moho models of fennoscandia through a combined adjustment2012In: Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica Hungarica, ISSN 1217-8977, E-ISSN 1587-1037, Vol. 47, no 4, p. 388-401Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The gravimetric model of the Moho discontinuity is usually derived based on isostatic adjustment theories considering floating crust on the viscous mantle. In computation of such a model some a priori information about the density contrast between the crust and mantle and the mean Moho depth are required. Due to our poor knowledge about them they are assumed unrealistically constant. In this paper, our idea is to improve a computed gravimetric Moho model, by the Vening Meinesz-Moritz theory, using the seismic model in Fennoscandia and estimate the error of each model through a combined adjustment with variance component estimation process. Corrective surfaces of bi-linear, bi-quadratic, bi-cubic and multi-quadric radial based function are used to model the discrepancies between the models and estimating the errors of the models. Numerical studies show that in the case of using the bi-linear surface negative variance components were come out, the bi-quadratic can model the difference better and delivers errors of 2.7 km and 1.5 km for the gravimetric and seismic models, respectively. These errors are 2.1 km and 1.6 km in the case of using the bi-cubic surface and 1 km and 1.5 km when the multi-quadric radial base function is used. The combined gravimetric models will be computed based on the estimated errors and each corrective surface.

  • 111. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Fagerström, Arne
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Cunningham, Gary M.University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    A good life for all: Essays on sustainability celebrating 60 years of making life better2017Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    For a better world now and in the future

    For a world that sustains itself for genereations to come, the University of Gävle is an ambitious and development-oriented organization with a focus on sustainability now and in the future. Under the leadership of Dr. Maj-Britt Johansson, the University is creating a sustainable community. This book commemorates her efforts in hounour of her 60th birthday.

    The ten essays here show the wide variety of sustainability activities under her leadership, not limited to ecological issues, includning science, social work, building design and contruction, and World Hertiage sites, along with a variety of other cutting-edge topics.

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    sammanfattning
  • 112.
    Falk, Anders B.
    et al.
    SLU.
    Lindström, Svante
    University of Gävle, Central University Administration.
    Mattsson, Magnus
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Wright, Sandra A. I.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Biology.
    Influence of some weather parameters on the susceptibility of apple fruit to postharvest grey mould attack2018In: Proceedings 2018, 2018, p. 124-127Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several cultural and weather factors during the season influence the susceptibility of apple fruit to post-harvest pathogens. In the present study, the effect of different weather parameters on postharvest susceptibility of apples of the cv. ‘Ingrid Marie’ to grey mould was investigated. In 2015, apple fruit were collected from orchards in Southern Sweden, where local weather stations monitored different parameters. After harvest, the fruit were tested for susceptibility to grey mould by artificially inoculating them with%FLQHUHD. Lesion development was monitored over a 10-day-period. Analysis of results for a few orchards showed that cold weather for over a month preceding harvest and a low total number of growth degree days gave apples that were more susceptible to grey mould. This study was carried out in conventional orchards, but the conclusions can be important also for organic production, since they deal with the general effect of sunshine, temperature and rain, factors that may strengthen fruit during cultivation, regardless of production type. Future studies may focus on organic production to investigate whether these effects are general and also apply to organic production.

  • 113.
    Falk Dikici, Selina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Visualisering och kvantifiering av klorparaffiner: En studie av flödet av klorparaffiner på Rörverk 98, Sandvik AB2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sandvik AB is an industrial group with operations throughout the world. One of the company's three business areas, Sandvik Materials Technology, develops and manu-factures stainless steel products. In production, they seek to replace hazardous mate-rials/substances with less hazardous alternatives or minimize the use of them. A sus-pected environmentally hazardous substance used in industry is chloroparaffins. Sandvik AB manufactures seamless stainless steel tubes with pilgering, where chlo-roparaffins (chlorine oil) are used as lubricants and coolants and these have an im-portant role for the production and for productivity. Sandvik AB uses chlorine oil containing long-chain chloroparaffins. During pilgering, the lubricant is added in conjunction with the activities that make the steel pipes come into contact with the steel tools. The purpose of the study was to carry out a survey of the flow of chloro-paraffins on one of Sandvik's tube plants, Rörverk 98. This has been done by apply-ing the substance flow analysis method (SFA), which is a tool used for analyzing a single substance in a given system. In this study, SFA was applied through six steps. In steps 1 and 2, study objectives and systems are defined. The aim was to convey new dimensions of information to the company and that the approach would be clearly and comprehensively reported. The system definition was to investigate the chlorine paraffin flow, at Rörverk 98, for 28 months. In steps 3 and 4, an inventory and design of the flow chart were carried out. The survey has been carried out through a literature review of Sandvik AB's reports and visits with interviews at the plant. With information from the inventory, a flow chart was created and flows were quantified. In step 5, the mass balance between incoming and outgoing flows was calculated using layers, this is the primary flow. In the last step, step 6, the re-sult was interpreted by applying the HS-method used to calculate the uncertainty of the results. The uncertainty factor is used to calculate a possible minimum and max-imum flow. The result of the survey has been visualized by creating a clear picture of the system and the chlorine paraffin flow and the risk of spillage on/from the pipeline. Within the study's system boundary, it is identified that there is a risk of spreading via emissions to air as well as by drips from cranes outside the plant. The mass balance resulted in a primary flow with a difference of 2.2% kg Cl between in-coming flow and outgoing flow with bearing. The difference may be due to inaccu-racies in inventory data or knowledge gaps such as unknown emissions. The im-provement measures recommended that Sandvik AB shall carry out regularly docu-mented inventory of flows and stocks, thereby gaining a greater insight into the chlorine paraffin flow. Lack of information about the substance made it difficult to determine how they can behave in the system. Future studies are required to deter-mine the environmental impact of long-chain chlorinated paraffins.

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  • 114.
    Farzipour-Saein, Ali
    et al.
    Department of Geology, University of Isfahan, Iran.
    Nilfouroushan, Faramarz
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Berggrundsgeologi.
    Koyi, Hemin
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Berggrundsgeologi.
    The effect of basement step/topography on the geometry of the Zagros fold and thrust belt (SW Iran): an analogue modeling approach2013In: International journal of earth sciences, ISSN 1437-3254, E-ISSN 1437-3262, Vol. 102, no 8, p. 2117-2135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Systematic analogue models are run to study the variation in deformation across basement steps in the Zagros Fold-Thrust Belt. Our model results demonstrate that basement configuration/topography influences the sedimentation thickness and, hence, the kinematics and geometric evolution of the fold and thrust belt. The greater the difference in thickness between the adjacent cover units across a basement step, the sharper and clearer will be the offset the deformation front. Based on model results, we conclude that in a fold-thrust belt, where basement step/topography is covered by a layer of ductile salt acting as a decollement, the effect of the salt decollement on the evolution of the belt is far greater than the effect of thickness variation of the cover units.

  • 115.
    Findler, Florian
    et al.
    Vienna University of Economics and Business, Vienna, Austria.
    Schönherr, Norma
    Vienna University of Economics and Business, Vienna, Austria.
    Lozano, Rodrigo
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Management. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Reider, Daniela
    Vienna University of Economics and Business, Vienna, Austria.
    Martinuzzi, André
    Vienna University of Economics and Business, Vienna, Austria.
    The impacts of higher education institutions on sustainable development: a review and conceptualization2019In: International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, ISSN 1467-6370, E-ISSN 1758-6739, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 23-38Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    This paper aims to conceptualize impacts of higher education institutions (HEIs) on sustainable development (SD), complementing previous literature reviews by broadening the perspective from what HEIs do in pursuit of SD to how these activities impact society, the environment and the economy.

    Design/methodology/approach

    The paper provides a systematic literature review of peer-reviewed journal articles published between 2005 and 2017. Inductive content analysis was applied to identify major themes and impact areas addressed in the literature to develop a conceptual framework detailing the relationship between HEIs’ activities and their impacts on SD.

    Findings

    The paper identifies six impact areas where direct and indirect impacts of HEIs on SD may occur. The findings indicate a strong focus on case studies dealing with specific projects and a lack of studies analyzing impacts from a more holistic perspective.

    Practical implications

    This systematic literature review enables decision-makers in HEIs, researchers and educators to better understand how their activities may affect society, the environment and the economy, and it provides a solid foundation to tackle these impacts.

    Social implications

    The review highlights that HEIs have an inherent responsibility to make societies more sustainable. HEIs must embed SD into their systems while considering their impacts on society.

    Originality/value

    This paper provides a holistic conceptualization of HEIs’ impacts on SD. The conceptual framework can be useful for future research that attempts to analyze HEIs’ impacts on SD from a holistic perspective.

  • 116.
    Finnveden, Göran
    et al.
    KTH, Miljöstrategisk analys.
    Ekvall, Tomas
    IVL.
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, Miljöstrategisk analys (flyttat 20130630).
    von Borgstede, Chris
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Eriksson, Ola
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Forsfält, Thomas
    Konjunkturinstitutet.
    Guath, Mona
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Henriksson, Greger
    KTH, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Ljunggren Söderman, Maria
    IVL.
    Stemarck, Åsa
    IVL.
    Sundqvist, Jan-Olof
    IVL.
    Svenfelt, Åsa
    KTH, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå Tekniska Universitet.
    Åkesson, Lynn
    Lunds Universitet.
    Regeringen måste satsa på resurseffektivt samhälle2013In: Dagens nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447, no 2013-04-01Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Regeringen förbereder en avfallspolitisk proposition. Den kommer förhoppningsvis att klargöra vem som ska ha ansvaret att samla in våra förpackningar. Men fokus borde också ligga på hur vi kan gå mot ett samhälle där resurser används så effektivt som möjligt, skriver forskare på miljöområdet.

  • 117.
    Fobbe, Lea
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Management. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Lozano, Rodrigo
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Management. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Carpenter, Angela
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Management. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Proposing a holistic framework to assess sustainability performance in seaports2020In: European port cities in transition: Moving towards more sustainable sea transport hubs, Springer, 2020, p. 149-168Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 118. Folke, Carl
    et al.
    Colding, Johan
    Olsson, Per
    Hahn, Thomas
    Interdependent Social-Ecological Systems and Adaptive Governance for Ecosystem Services2007In: The SAGE handbook of environment and society / [ed] Jules N. Pretty, Andy Ball, Ted Benton, Julia Guivant, David Lee, David Orr, Max Pfeffer and Hugh Ward, Los Angeles: Sage Publications, 2007, p. 536-552Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 119.
    Fregidou-Malama, Maria
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Jakobsson, Sonny Karl Oskar
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Local produced and organic food for sustainable development2017In: Consuming the Environment / [ed] Eva Åsén Ekstrand, 2017, p. 25-26Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyses the perceptions of consumers with regard to local produced and organic food in the region of Gävleborg, Sweden. The aim of the study is to investigate consumers` attitudes by giving insight in why consumers buy local produced and organic food and how they conceive them. Quantitative data was collected through the use of structured questionnaire. We approached six hundred seventeen consumers outside twelve grocery stores directly after their shopping.  The study shows consumers have the opinion that local produced and organic food have higher quality than other kind of food,  their production supports sustainable environmental development and promotes the local society and local business. Consumers older than 65 years are more positive than younger ones to local produced and organic food and women are willing to pay more for purchasing the food.

    The results illustrate that consumers think it is difficult to allocate local produced and organic food in the stores, the assortment is poor and the prices of organic food are high. The correlations between attitudes regarding Organic, Organic Local produced, and Local produced foods show that the consumers consider them as related, but not identical. It also indicates that consumers have vague attitudes about Local Produced foods and lack knowledge to define them.

    Differences in price sensitivity demonstrate that consumers are willing to pay more for Organic and Local produced foods, showing there is value in, and demand for reliable guarantee label systems such as KRAV. We suggest a cooperation between public authorities and business organizations to develop trustworthy guarantee label system for Local produced foods.

    We see a need for marketing and information campaigns to develop knowledge of what Organic and Local produced foods stand for to increase trust and awareness. By emphasizing on positive partial characteristics such as non-Genetically modified organisms (GMO) in marketing/information campaigns, negative connotation to organic as expensive may be avoided when educating consumers about the definition of organic foods.

    We propose comparative studies in other regions and countries as well as studies about visibility and availability of organic and/or local produced foods in the shops.

  • 120. Fryksten, Jonas
    et al.
    Nilfouroushan, Faramarz
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Analysis of Clay-Induced Land Subsidence in Uppsala City Using Sentinel-1 SAR Data and Precise Leveling2019In: Remote Sensing, ISSN 2072-4292, E-ISSN 2072-4292, Vol. 11, no 23, article id 2764Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Land subsidence and its subsequent hazardous effects on buildings and urban infrastructure are important issues in many cities around the world. The city of Uppsala in Sweden is undergoing significant subsidence in areas that are located on clay. Underlying clay units in parts of Uppsala act as mechanically weak layers, which for instance, cause sinking of the ground surface and tilting buildings. Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) has given rise to new methods of measuring movements on earth surface with a precision of a few mm. In this study, a Persistent Scatterer InSAR (PSI) analysis was performed to map the ongoing ground deformation in Uppsala. The subsidence rate measured with PSI was validated with precise leveling data at different locations. Two ascending and descending data sets were analyzed using SARPROZ software, with Sentinel-1 data from the period March 2015 to April 2019. After the PSI analyses, comparative permanent scatterer (PS) points and metal pegs (measured with precise leveling) were identified creating validation pairs. According to the PSI analyses, Uppsala was undergoing significant subsidence in some areas, with an annual rate of about 6 mm/year in the line-of-sight direction. Interestingly, the areas of great deformation were exclusively found on postglacial clay.

  • 121.
    Ganas, Athanassios
    et al.
    National Observatory of Athens, Greece.
    Kapetanidis, Vasilis
    University of Athens, Greece.
    Nilfouroushan, Faramarz
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Steffen, Holger
    Lidberg, Martin
    Deprez, Aline
    CNRS-UGA, France.
    Socquet, Anne
    CNRS-UGA, France.
    Walpersdorf, Andrea
    University of Grenoble, France.
    D'Agostino, Nicola
    INGV, France.
    Avallone, Antonio
    INGV, France.
    Legrand, Juliette
    ROB.
    Fernandes, Rui
    UBI-C4G.
    Nastase, Eduard Ilie
    National Institute for Earth Physics.
    Bos, Machiel
    UBI-C4G.
    Kenyeres, Ambrus
    BFKH Budapest, Bulgaria.
    Developments on the EPOS-IP pan-european strain rate product2018In: Book of Abstracts of the 36th General Assembly of the European Seismological Commission / [ed] D'Amico S., Galea P., Bozionelos G., Colica E., Farrugia D., Agius M.R., 2018, article id ESC2018-S2-749Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Strain rates are of great importance for Solid Earth Sciences. Within the EU Horizon 2020 project EPOS-IP WP10 (Global Navigation Satellite System - GNSS thematic core services) a series of products focused on strain rates derived from GNSS data is envisaged. In this contribution, we present preliminary results from 452 permanent European GNSS stations, operating until 2017 and processed at UGA-CNRS (Université Grenoble Alpes, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique). We calculate the strain-rate field using two open-source algorithms recommended by EPOS-IP, namely the VISR (Velocity Interpolation for Strain Rate) algorithm (Shen et al., 2015) and STIB (Strain Tensor from Inversion of Baselines), developed by Masson et al., (2014) as well as the SSPX software suite (Cardozo and Allmendinger, 2009). The vertical velocity component is ignored in this stage and other sources of deformation (GIA, hydrological, anthropogenic et al.) are not considered in the interpretation. We compare the results derived from different methods and discuss the similarities and differences. Overall, our first results reproduce the gross features of tectonic deformation in both Italy and Greece, such as NE-SW extension across the Apennines and N-S extension in Central Greece. It is anticipated that the significant increase of GNSS data amount associated with the operational phase of EPOS project in the forthcoming years will be of great value to perform an unprecedented, reliable strain rate computation over the western Eurasian plate.

  • 122.
    Gido, Nureldin A. A.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Amin, Hadi
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Nilfouroushan, Faramarz
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Satellite monitoring of mass changes and ground subsidence in Sudan’s oil fields using GRACE and Sentinel-1 data2020Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Monitoring environmental hazards, due to natural and anthropogenic causes, is one of the important issues, which requires proper data, models, and cross-validation of the results. The geodetic satellite missions, e.g. the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and Sentinel-1, are very useful in this aspect. GRACE missions are dedicated to model the temporal variations of the Earth’s gravity field and mass transportation in the Earth’s surface, whereas Sentinel-1 collects Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data which enables us to measure the ground movements accurately. Extraction of large volumes of water and oil decreases the reservoir pressure, form compaction and consequently land subsidence occurs which can be analyzed by both GRACE and Sentinel-1 data. In this paper, large-scale groundwater storage (GWS) changes are studied using the GRACE monthly gravity field models together with different hydrological models over the major oil reservoirs in Sudan, i.e. Heglig, Bamboo, Neem, Diffra and Unity-area oil fields. Then we correlate the results with the available oil wells production data for the period of 2003-2012. In addition, using the only freely available Sentinel-1 data, collected between November 2015 and April 2019, the ground surface deformation associated with this oil and water depletion is studied. Due to the lack of terrestrial geodetic monitoring data in Sudan, the use of GRACE and Sentinel-1 satellite data is very valuable to monitor water and oil storage changes and their associated land subsidence over our region of interest. Our results show that there is a significant correlation between the GRACE-based GWS change and extracted oil and water volumes. The trend of GWS changes due to water and oil depletion ranged from -18.5 to -6.2mm/year using the CSR GRACE monthly solutions and the best tested hydrological model in this study. Moreover, our Sentinel-1 SAR data analysis using Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) method shows high rate of subsidence i.e. -24.5, -23.8, -14.2 and -6 mm/year over Heglig, Neem, Diffra and Unity-area oil fields respectively. The results of this study can help us to control the integrity and safety of operations and infrastructure in that region, as well as to study the groundwater/oil storage behavior.

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  • 123.
    Gido, Nureldin A. A.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Amin, Hadi
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Nilfouroushan, Faramarz
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Satellite monitoring of mass changes and ground subsidence in Sudan’s oil fields using GRACE and Sentinel-1 data2020Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Monitoring environmental hazards, due to natural and anthropogenic causes, is one of the important issues, which requires proper data, models, and cross-validation of the results. The geodetic satellite missions, e.g. the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and Sentinel-1, are very useful in this aspect. GRACE missions are dedicated to model the temporal variations of the Earth’s gravity field and mass transportation in the Earth’s surface, whereas Sentinel-1 collects Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data which enables us to measure the ground movements accurately. Extraction of large volumes of water and oil decreases the reservoir pressure, form compaction and consequently land subsidence occurs which can be analyzed by both GRACE and Sentinel-1 data. In this paper, large-scale groundwater storage (GWS) changes are studied using the GRACE monthly gravity field models together with different hydrological models over the major oil reservoirs in Sudan, i.e. Heglig, Bamboo, Neem, Diffra and Unity-area oil fields. Then we correlate the results with the available oil wells production data for the period of 2003-2012. In addition, using the only freely available Sentinel-1 data, collected between November 2015 and April 2019, the ground surface deformation associated with this oil and water depletion is studied. Due to the lack of terrestrial geodetic monitoring data in Sudan, the use of GRACE and Sentinel-1 satellite data is very valuable to monitor water and oil storage changes and their associated land subsidence over our region of interest. Our results show that there is a significant correlation between the GRACE-based GWS change and extracted oil and water volumes. The trend of GWS changes due to water and oil depletion ranged from -18.5 to -6.2mm/year using the CSR GRACE monthly solutions and the best tested hydrological model in this study. Moreover, our Sentinel-1 SAR data analysis using Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) method shows high rate of subsidence i.e. -24.5, -23.8, -14.2 and -6 mm/year over Heglig, Neem, Diffra and Unity-area oil fields respectively. The results of this study can help us to control the integrity and safety of operations and infrastructure in that region, as well as to study the groundwater/oil storage behavior.

  • 124.
    Gido, Nureldin A. A.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences. Division of Geodesy and Satellite Positioning, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences. Division of Geodesy and Satellite Positioning, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sjöberg, Lars E.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences. Division of Geodesy and Satellite Positioning, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    A gravimetric method to determine horizontal stress field due to flow in the mantle in Fennoscandia2019In: Geosciences Journal, ISSN 1226-4806, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 377-389Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mass changes and flow in the Earth's mantle causes the Earth's crust not only to movevertically, but also horizontally and to tilt, and produce a major stress in the lithosphere.Here we use a gravimetric approach to model sub-lithosphere horizontal stress in theEarth's mantle and its temporal changes caused by geodynamical movements likemantle convection in Fennoscandia. The flow in the mantle is inferred from tectonicsand convection currents carrying heat from the interior of the Earth to the crust. Theresult is useful in studying how changes of the stress influence the stability of crust.The outcome of this study is an alternative approach to studying the stress and itschange using forward modelling and the Earth's viscoelastic models. We show that thedetermined horizontal stress using a gravimetric method is consistent with tectonicsand seismic activities. In addition, the secular rate of change of the horizontal stress,which is within 95 kPa/year, is larger outside the uplift dome than inside.

  • 125.
    Gido, Nureldin A. A.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences. Division of Geodesy and Satellite Positioning, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences. Division of Geodesy and Satellite Positioning, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sjöberg, Lars E.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences. Division of Geodesy and Satellite Positioning, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tenzer, Robert
    Department of Land Surveying and Geo‑Informatics, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
    Studying permafrost by integrating satellite and in situ data in the northern high-latitude regions2019In: Acta Geophysica, ISSN 1895-6572, E-ISSN 1895-7455, Vol. 67, no 2, p. 721-734Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an exceptional opportunity of achieving simultaneous and complementary data from a multitude of geoscience and environmental near-earth orbiting artificial satellites to study phenomena related to the climate change. These satellite missions provide the information about the various phenomena, such as sea level change, ice melting, soil moisture variation, temperature changes and earth surface deformations. In this study, we focus on permafrost thawing and its associated gravity change (in terms of the groundwater storage), and organic material changes using the gravity recovery and climate experiment (GRACE) data and other satellite- and ground-based observations. The estimation of permafrost changes requires combining information from various sources, particularly using the gravity field change, surface temperature change, and glacial isostatic adjustment. The most significant factor for a careful monitoring of the permafrost thawing is the fact that this process could be responsible for releasing an additional enormous amount of greenhouse gases emitted to the atmosphere, most importantly to mention carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane that are currently stored in the frozen ground. The results of a preliminary numerical analysis reveal a possible existence of a high correlation between the secular trends of greenhouse gases (CO2), temperature and equivalent water thickness (in permafrost active layer) in the selected regions. Furthermore, according to our estimates based on processing the GRACE data, the groundwater storage attributed due to permafrost thawing increased at the annual rates of 3.4, 3.8, 4.4 and 4.0 cm, respectively, in Siberia, North Alaska and Canada (Yukon and Hudson Bay). Despite a rather preliminary character of our results, these findings indicate that the methodology developed and applied in this study should be further improved by incorporating the in situ permafrost measurements.

  • 126.
    Giusti, Matteo
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Marcus, Lars
    Nature Routines and Affinity with the Biosphere: A Case Study of Preschool Children in Stockholm2014In: Children, Youth and Environments, ISSN 1546-2250, E-ISSN 1546-2250, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 16-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Do nature-deficit routines undermine affinity with the biosphere? We assessed social-ecological features in Stockholm that afford nature experiences and analyzed the accessibility of these natural areas to preschools. We then selected preschools with contrasting accessibilities. The nature routines resulting from differing outdoor possibilities in preschool life were investigated in relation to children’s affinity with the biosphere. Preschools with routines closer to nature have children who are more empathetic and concerned for non-human life forms, and more cognitively aware of human-nature interdependence. We conclude that, nature-rich routines in cities significantly correlate with higher children’s ability to develop affinity with the biosphere.

  • 127.
    Gordon, Line
    et al.
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Crona, Bea
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Global Economic Dynamics and the Biosphere Program, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Henriksson, Patrik
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; WorldFish, Jalan Batu Maung, Bayan Lepas, Penang, Malaysia.
    van Holt, Tracy
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Global Economic Dynamics and the Biosphere Program, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden; Leonard N Stern School of Business, Center for Sustainable Business, New York, NY, United States.
    Jonell, Malin
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lindahl, Therese
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Troell, Max
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Barthel, Stephan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering. Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Deutsch, Lisa
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Global Economic Dynamics and the Biosphere Program, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden; Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Haider, L. Jamila
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rockström, Johan
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Queiroz, Cibele
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rewiring food systems to enhance human health and biosphere stewardship.2017In: Environmental Research Letters, ISSN 1748-9326, E-ISSN 1748-9326, Vol. 12, no 10, article id 100201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Food lies at the heart of both health and sustainability challenges. We use a social-ecological framework to illustrate how major changes to the volume, nutrition and safety of food systems between 1961 and today impact health and sustainability. These changes have almost halved undernutrition while doubling the proportion who are overweight. They have also resulted in reduced resilience of the biosphere, pushing four out of six analysed planetary boundaries across the safe operating space of the biosphere. Our analysis further illustrates that consumers and producers have become more distant from one another, with substantial power consolidated within a small group of key actors. Solutions include a shift from a volume-focused production system to focus on quality, nutrition, resource use efficiency, and reduced antimicrobial use. To achieve this, we need to rewire food systems in ways that enhance transparency between producers and consumers, mobilize key actors to become biosphere stewards, and re-connect people to the biosphere

  • 128.
    Grift, Jeroen
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Forest Change Mapping in Southwestern Madagascar using Landsat-5 TM Imagery, 1990 –20102016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The main goal of this study was to map and measure forest change in the southwestern part of Madagascar near the city of Toliara in the period 1990-2010. Recent studies show that forest change in Madagascar on a regional scale does not only deal with forest loss, but also with forest growth However, it is unclear how the study area is dealing with these patterns. In order to select the right classification method, pixel-based classification was compared with object-based classification. The results of this study shows that the object-based classification method was the most suitable method for this landscape. However, the pixel-based approaches also resulted in accurate results. Furthermore, the study shows that in the period 1990–2010, 42% of the forest cover disappeared and was converted into bare soil and savannahs. Next to the change in forest, stable forest regions were fragmented. This has negative effects on the amount of suitable habitats for Malagasy fauna. Finally, the scaling structure in landscape patches was investigated. The study shows that the patch size distribution has long-tail properties and that these properties do not change in periods of deforestation.

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  • 129. Gustavsson, E
    et al.
    Lennartsson, T
    Westin, A
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Psychology.
    Eliasson, I
    The flowering mountain - marketing a 18th century landscape in a 21st century world2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 130.
    Harrie, Lars
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Larsson, Karin
    Lund University.
    Tenenbaum, David
    Lund University.
    Horemuz, Milan
    Royal Institute of Technology (KTH).
    Ridefelt, Hanna
    National mapping and land registration authority, Gävle, Sweden.
    Lysell, Gunnar
    National mapping and land registration authority, Gävle, Sweden.
    Brandt, S. Anders
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    Sahlin, Eva A.U.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    Adelsköld, Göran
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Högström, Mats
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lagerstedt, Jakob
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Some strategic national initiatives for the Swedish education in the geodata field2014In: Connecting a Digital Europe through Location and Place: Selected best short papers and posters of the AGILE 2014 Conference, 3‐6 June 2014, Castellón, Spain / [ed] Joaquin Huerta, Sven Schade, Carlos Granell, AGILE Digital Editions , 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes national cooperation in Sweden launched by its universities and authorities, aimed at improving geodata education. These initiatives have been focused upon providing common access to geodata, the production of teaching materials in Swedish and organizing annual meetings for teachers. We argue that this type of cooperation is vital to providing high quality education for a poorly recognized subject in a country with a relatively small population.

  • 131. Hedblom, M
    et al.
    Gunnarsson, B
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Psychology.
    Schaefer, M
    Behzad, I
    Thorsson, P
    Lundström, J
    Urban parks and forests reduce physiological stress while city centers do not: comparisons of visual virtual realities, bird songs, noise and smells2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 132. Hedblom, M
    et al.
    Gunnarsson, B
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Psychology.
    Thorsson, P
    Lundström, J
    Urban parks and forests reduce physiological stress while cities do not: comparisons of visual virtual realities, bird songs and natural smells2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 133. Hedblom, M
    et al.
    Gunnarsson, B
    Ode Sang, Å
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Psychology.
    Perception of urban green space in relation to soundscape, biodiversity, demography, naturalness, place identity and well-being2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 134. Hedblom, M
    et al.
    Gunnarsson, B
    Ode Sang, Å
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Psychology.
    Lundström, J
    Urban woodlands and their importance for biodiversity and human well-being2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 135. Hedblom, M
    et al.
    Gunnarsson, G
    Schaefer, M
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Psychology.
    Thrsson, P
    Lundström, J. N
    The sound of nature: birdsong and health in urban green areas2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 136.
    Hedblom, M.
    et al.
    Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden; Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hedenås, H.
    Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Blicharska, M.
    Natural Resources and Sustainable Development, Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Swedish Biodiversity Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Adler, S.
    Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden; Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden; Asian School of the Environment, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang, Singapore .
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Psychology.
    Mikusiński, G.
    Grimsö Wildlife Research Station, Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Riddarhyttan, Sweden; School for Forest Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skinnskatteberg, Sweden .
    Svensson, J.
    Department of Wildlife, Fish and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Sandström, S.
    Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Sandström, P.
    Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Wardle, D. A.
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden; Asian School of the Environment, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang, Singapore.
    Landscape perception: linking physical monitoring data to perceived landscape properties2020In: Landscape research, ISSN 0142-6397, E-ISSN 1469-9710, Vol. 45, no 2, p. 179-192Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Changes in the landscape affect not only people’s well-being but also how people perceive and use the landscape. An increasing number of policies have highlighted the importance of conserving a landscape’s recreational and aesthetical values. This study develops and evaluates a model that links people’s perceptions of a mountain landscape to physical monitoring data. Using a questionnaire, we revealed how respondents working with the Swedish mountains characterise the Magnificent Mountain landscape (as defined by Swedish policy objectives) and translated these characteristics into data from the National Inventory of Landscapes in Sweden (NILS). We found 14 potential indicators that could be derived from the existing NILS physical monitoring data and which could be used to monitor changes in the landscape values as perceived by people. Based on the results, we suggest how to simultaneously utilise field sampling of physical data and field photos to provide temporal information about landscape perception.

  • 137.
    Hillman, Karl
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Damgaard, Anders
    Department of Environmental Engineering, DTU Environment, Technical University of Denmark.
    Eriksson, Ola
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Jonsson, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Fluck, Lena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Climate Benefits of Material Recycling: Inventory of Average Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Denmark, Norway and Sweden2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this project is to compare emissions of greenhouse gases from material recycling with those from virgin material production, both from a material supply perspective and from a recycling system perspective. The method for estimating emissions and climate benefits is based on a review, followed by a selection, of the most relevant publications on life cycle assessment (LCA) of materials for use in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. The proposed averages show that emissions from material recycling are lower in both perspectives, comparing either material supply or complete recycling systems. The results can be used by companies and industry associations in Denmark, Norway and Sweden to communicate the current climate benefits of material recycling in general. They may also contribute to discussions on a societal level, as long as their average and historic nature is recognised.

  • 138.
    Hillman, Karl
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Rickne, Annika
    University of Gothenburg.
    Balancing Variety Creation and Selection: Governing Biofuels in Sweden 1990-20102012In: Paving the Road to Sustainable Transport: Governance and innovation in low-carbon vehicles / [ed] Måns Nilsson, Karl Hillman, Annika Rickne, Thomas Magnusson, Routledge, 2012, 1, p. 235-259Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 139.
    Hollander, Ernst
    KTH, Industriell ekonomi och organisation.
    Varför var det så segt?: om lågriskkemi, miljödriven innovation och kravformning1995Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 140.
    Iguchi, Masahiko
    et al.
    Tokyo Institute of Technology.
    Hillman, Karl
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    The Development of Fuel Economy Regulation for Passenger Cars in Japan2012In: Paving the Road to Sustainable Transport: Governance and innovation in low-carbon vehicles / [ed] Måns Nilsson, Karl Hillman, Annika Rickne, Thomas Magnusson, Routledge, 2012, 1, p. 57-74Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 141.
    Isendahl, Christian
    et al.
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Barthel, Stephan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Archeology, history, and urban food security: integrating cross-cultural and long-term perspectives2018In: Routledge Handbook of Landscapes and Food / [ed] Joshua Zeunert and Tim Waterman, New York: Routledge, 2018, 1, p. 61-73Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 142.
    Ives, Christopher D.
    et al.
    School of Geography, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, United Kingdom; Faculty of Sustainability, Leuphana University, Lueneburg, Germany.
    Giusti, Matteo
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Sweden.
    Fischer, Joern
    Faculty of Sustainability, Leuphana University, Lueneburg, Germany.
    Abson, David J.
    Faculty of Sustainability, Leuphana University, Lueneburg, Germany.
    Klaniecki, Kathleen
    Faculty of Sustainability, Leuphana University, Lueneburg, Germany.
    Dorninger, Christian
    Faculty of Sustainability, Leuphana University, Lueneburg, Germany.
    Laudan, Josefine
    Faculty of Sustainability, Leuphana University, Lueneburg, Germany.
    Barthel, Stephan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering. Stockholm Resilience Centre, Sweden.
    Abernethy, Paivi
    Faculty of Sustainability, Leuphana University, Lueneburg; Germany Royal Roads University, Victoria, BC, Canada.
    Martín-López, Berta
    Faculty of Sustainability, Leuphana University, Lueneburg, Germany.
    Raymond, Christopher M.
    Department of Landscape Architecture, Planning and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Kendal, David
    School of Ecosystem and Forest Sciences & Melbourne School of Design, The University of Melbourne, Australia.
    von Wehrden, Henrik
    Faculty of Sustainability, Leuphana University, Lueneburg, Germany.
    Human–nature connection: a multidisciplinary review2017In: Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, ISSN 1877-3435, E-ISSN 1877-3443, Vol. 26-27, p. 106-113Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In sustainability science calls are increasing for humanity to (re-)connect with nature, yet no systematic synthesis of the empirical literature on human–nature connection (HNC) exists. We reviewed 475 publications on HNC and found that most research has concentrated on individuals at local scales, often leaving ‘nature’ undefined. Cluster analysis identified three subgroups of publications: first, HNC as mind, dominated by the use of psychometric scales, second, HNC as experience, characterised by observation and qualitative analysis; and third, HNC as place, emphasising place attachment and reserve visitation. To address the challenge of connecting humanity with nature, future HNC scholarship must pursue cross-fertilization of methods and approaches, extend research beyond individuals, local scales, and Western societies, and increase guidance for sustainability transformations.

  • 143.
    Jacobson, Lisa
    et al.
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University.
    Åkerman, Jonas
    KTH.
    Giusti, Matteo
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Bhowmik, K. Avit
    Karlstads universitet.
    Tipping to staying on the ground: Internalized knowledge of climate change crucial for transformed air travel behavior2020In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 12, no 5, article id 1994Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Air travel accounts for a major share of individual greenhouse gas emissions, particularly for people in high-income countries. Until recently, few have reduced flying because of climate concerns, but currently, a movement for staying on the ground is rising. Sweden has been a focal point for this movement, particularly during 2018–2019, when a flight tax was introduced, and air travel reduction was intensely discussed in the media. We performed semi-structured interviews with Swedish residents, focusing primarily on individuals who have reduced flying because of its climate impact. We explore how such individual transformation of air travel behavior comes about, and the phases and components of this process. Applying a framework of sustainability transformation, we identify incentives and barriers in personal and political spheres. We show that internalized knowledge about climate change and the impact of air travel is crucial for instigating behavioral change. Awareness evokes negative emotions leading to a personal tipping point where a decision to reduce or quit flying is made. However, the process is often counteracted by both personal values and political structures promoting air travel. Even individuals with a strong drive to reduce flying feel trapped in social practices, norms and infrastructures. Hence, we argue that personal and political spheres interact complexly and to reduce flying at larger scales, interventions are needed across spheres, e.g., change of norms, effective policy instruments and better alternatives to air travel.

  • 144.
    Jakobsson, Sonny
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    Fregidou-Malama, Maria
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    Ditt Val Spelar Roll: Gävleborgs konsumenters attityder till lokalproducerade livsmedel2005Conference paper (Other academic)
    Download (pdf)
    Informationsblad
  • 145.
    Jiang, Bin
    Department of Land Surveying and Geo-informatics, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
    A topological pattern of urban street networks: universality and peculiarity2007In: Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, ISSN 0378-4371, E-ISSN 1873-2119, Vol. 384, no 2, p. 647-655Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we derive a topological pattern of urban street networks using a large sample (the largest so far to the best of our knowledge) of 40 US cities and a few more from elsewhere of different sizes. It is found that all the topologies of urban street networks based on street-street intersection demonstrate a small world structure, and a scale-free property for both street length and connectivity degree. More specifically, for any street network, about 80% of its streets have length or degrees less than its average value, while 20% of streets have length or degrees greater than the average. Out of the 20%, there are less than 1 % of streets which can form a backbone of the street network. Based on the finding, we conjecture that the 20% streets account for 80% of traffic flow, and the I% streets constitute a cognitive map of the urban street network. We illustrate further a peculiarity about the scale-free property.

  • 146.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    New Paradigm in Mapping: A Critique on Cartography and GIS2019In: Cartographica, ISSN 0317-7173, E-ISSN 1911-9925, Vol. 54, no 3, p. 193-205Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As noted in the epigraph, a map was long ago seen as the map of the map, the map of the map, of the map, and so on endlessly. This recursive perspective on maps, however, has received little attention in cartography. Cartography, as a scientific discipline, is essentially founded on Euclidean geometry and Gaussian statistics, which deal respectively with regular shapes and more or less similar things. It is commonly accepted that geographic features are not regular and that the Earth's surface is full of fractal or scaling or living phenomena: far more small things than large ones are found at different scales. This article argues for a new paradigm in mapping, based on fractal or living geometry and Paretian statistics, and – more critically – on the new conception of space, conceived and developed by Christopher Alexander, as neither lifeless nor neutral, but a living structure capable of being more living or less living. The fractal geometry is not limited to Benoit Mandelbrot's framework, but tends towards Christopher Alexander's living geometry and is based upon the third definition of fractal: A set or pattern is fractal if the scaling of far more small things than large ones recurs multiple times. Paretian statistics deals with far more small things than large ones, so it differs fundamentally from Gaussian statistics, which deals with more or less similar things. Under the new paradigm, I make several claims about maps and mapping: (1) the topology of geometrically coherent things – in addition to that of geometric primitives – enables us to see a scaling or fractal or living structure; (2) under the third definition, all geographic features are fractal or living, given the right perspective and scope; (3) exactitude is not truth – to paraphrase Henri Matisse – but the living structure is; and (4) Töpfer's law is not universal, but the scaling law is. All these assertions are supported by evidence, drawn from a series of previous studies. This article demands a monumental shift in perspective and thinking from what we are used to in the legacy of cartography and GIS. 

  • 147.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Review of Else/Where: Mapping - New Cartographies of Networks and Territories2008In: Cartographic Journal, ISSN 0008-7041, E-ISSN 1743-2774, Vol. 36, no 5, p. 769-771Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 148.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Scaling as a design principle for cartography2017In: Annals of GIS, ISSN 1947-5683, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 67-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are two fundamental laws of geography: scaling law and Tobler’s law. Scaling law is available across all scales ranging from the smallest to the largest, and it states that there are far more small things than large ones in geographic space. Tobler’s law is available in one scale, and it states that more or less similar things tend to be nearby or related. In this short article, I claim scaling as a design principle for cartography, but what I really wanted to convey is that scaling must become a dominant principle, if not the principle, of cartographic design. All other principles can, should, and must be subordinated to the major and dominant one.

  • 149.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Wholeness as a hierarchical graph to capture the nature of space2015In: International Journal of Geographical Information Science, ISSN 1365-8816, E-ISSN 1365-8824, Vol. 29, no 9, p. 1632-1648Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to Christopher Alexander’s theory of centers, a whole comprises numerous, recursively defined centers for things or spaces surrounding us. Wholeness is a type of global structure or life-giving order emerging from the whole as a field of the centers. The wholeness is an essential part of any complex system and exists, to some degree or other, in spaces. This paper defines wholeness as a hierarchical graph, in which individual centers are represented as the nodes and their relationships as the directed links. The hierarchical graph gets its name from the inherent scaling hierarchy revealed by the head/tail breaks, which is a classification scheme and visualization tool for data with a heavy-tailed distribution. We suggest that (1) the degrees of wholeness for individual centers should be measured by PageRank (PR) scores based on the notion that high-degree-of-life centers are those to which many high-degree-of-life centers point, and (2) that the hierarchical levels, or the ht-index of the PR scores induced by the head/tail breaks, can characterize the degree of wholeness for the whole: the higher the ht-index, the more life or wholeness in the whole. Three case studies applied to the Alhambra building complex and the street networks of Manhattan and Sweden illustrate that the defined wholeness captures fairly well human intuitions on the degree of life for the geographic spaces. We further suggest that the mathematical model of wholeness be an important model of geographic representation, because it is topological oriented, which enables us to see the underlying scaling structure. The model can guide geodesign, which should be considered as the wholeness-extending transformations that are essentially like the unfolding processes of seeds or embryos, for creating built and natural environments of beauty or with a high degree of wholeness.

  • 150.
    Jiang, Bin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Brandt, S. Anders
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    A Fractal Perspective on Scale in Geography2016In: ISPRS International Journal of Geo-information, ISSN 2220-9964, Vol. 5, no 6, article id 95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scale is a fundamental concept that has attracted persistent attention in geography literature over the past several decades. However, it creates enormous confusion and frustration, particularly in the context of geographic information science, because of scale-related issues such as image resolution and the modifiable areal unit problem (MAUP). This paper argues that the confusion and frustration arise from traditional Euclidean geometric thinking, in which locations, directions, and sizes are considered absolute, and it is now time to revise this conventional thinking. Hence, we review fractal geometry, together with its underlying way of thinking, and compare it to Euclidean geometry. Under the paradigm of Euclidean geometry, everything is measurable, no matter how big or small. However, most geographic features, due to their fractal nature, are essentially unmeasurable or their sizes depend on scale. For example, the length of a coastline, the area of a lake, and the slope of a topographic surface are all scale-dependent. Seen from the perspective of fractal geometry, many scale issues, such as the MAUP, are inevitable. They appear unsolvable, but can be dealt with. To effectively deal with scale-related issues, we present topological and scaling analyses illustrated by street-related concepts such as natural streets, street blocks, and natural cities. We further contend that one of the two spatial properties, spatial heterogeneity, is de facto the fractal nature of geographic features, and it should be considered the first effect among the two, because it is global and universal across all scales, which should receive more attention from practitioners of geography.

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