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  • 101.
    Arnell, Susann
    et al.
    Faculty of Medicine and Health, University of Health Care Research Center, Örebro University; School of Health Sciences, The Swedish Insititute for Disability Research (SIDR), Örebro University, Örebro Sweden.
    Jerlinder, Kajsa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science. School of Health Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research (SIDR), Örebro University Sweden.
    Lundqvist, Lars-Olov
    Faculty of Medicine and Health, University of Health Care Research Center, Örebro University; School of Health Sciences, The Swedish Insititute for Disability Research (SIDR), Örebro University, Örebro Sweden.
    Perceptions of Physical Acitivty Participation Among Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Conceptual Model of Conditional Participation2018In: Journal of autism and developmental disorders, ISSN 0162-3257, E-ISSN 1573-3432, Vol. 48, no 5, p. 1792-1802, article id 29236210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adolescents with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are less physically active compared to typically developing peers. The reasons for not being physically active are complex and depend on several factors, which have not been comprehensively described from the adolescent’s perspective. Therefore, the aim was to describe how adolescents with an ASD perceive, experience and reflect on their participation in physical activity. Interviews with 24 adolescents diagnosed with high-functioning ASD, aged 12–16 years, were analysed with qualitative content analysis with an inductive approach. They expressed a variety of reasons determining their willingness to participate, which were conceptualized as: Conditional participation in physical activities. The present study presents an alternative perspective on participation in physical activity, with impact on intervention design.

  • 102.
    Arnells, Malin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Östergrens, Nancy
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Omvårdnadsproblem i samband med polyfarmaci hos äldre personer: En litteraturstudie2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to describe the nursing problems that may arise in connection withpolypharmacy in the elderly. The literature review was done with descriptive design. Datacollection through PubMed and Cinahl. The result was based on 12 quantitative articles. Theresults showed that there was a correlation between polypharmacy and several specificnursing problems among older people. The nursing problems that occurred most among thestudied articles were falls and fractures. It was revealed that the number of used medicinescould be identified as a risk factor for falls and fractures, but also drug type could influence.The results also showed that dizziness and balance problems could be associated withpolypharmacy. Other nursing problems that could connect with polypharmacy was impairednutritional status, such as weight loss and malnutrition. There were also a connection betweengastrointestinal problems and usage of many drugs. The conclusion was that a correlationbetween polypharmacy and several nursing problems among older people were found. A totalof four categories of nursing problems were identified in the studied articles: falls andfractures, impaired nutritional status and malnutrition, gastrointestinal problems, dizzinessand balance problems.

  • 103.
    Arousell, Alida
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Östlund, Lizanne
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Att beskriva personers upplevelser av hur det är att leva med schizofreni, en litteraturstudie2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 104.
    Arvidsson, Angelica
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Spennare, Malin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Sjuksköterskors erfarenheter att vårda patienter med drogmissbruk i sjukvården: En litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Sjuksköterskor möter många olika individer. 780 000 individer över 18 år i Sverige uppskattades 2009 - 2011 ha ett drogmissbruk eller drogberoende. Alla har rätt till samma vårdkvalité oavsett livssituation och bakgrund. Människor med drogberoende känner sig ofta stigmatiserade av samhället. Vilket område Sjuksköterskan än jobbar inom kommer sjuksköterskan någon gång möta patienter med drogmissbruk.

    Syfte: Syftet med denna litteraturstudie var att beskriva sjuksköterskors erfarenheter av att vårda patienter med drogmissbruk inom sjukvården samt beskriva de inkluderade artiklarnas datainsamlingsmetod.

    Metod: denna studie är en beskrivande litteraturstudie. Två stycken databaser användes under sökningen, 12 vetenskapliga artiklar användes i resultatet. Dessa granskades upprepade gånger och sammanställdes.

    Huvudresultat: Sjuksköterskor beskrev ofta negativa erfarenheter av att vårda patienter med drogmissbruk.  Sjuksköterskor beskrev att de ofta upplevde en rädsla och oro inför våldsamma och hotfulla situationer. Att patienter med drogmissbruk hade eget ansvar över sitt liv och hälsa beskrevs av en del av sjuksköterskorna. En del av sjuksköterskorna beskrev att de tyckte att det var viktigt att vara en förespråkare för patienter med drogmissbruk.

    Slutsats: Alla människor har samma rätt till vård och att uppleva hälsa oavsett livssituation och bakgrund. Att leva med drogmissbruk är inget som ska inverka på omvårdnadskvalitén som ges till patienterna. För att utveckla vården och minska patienternas upplevelse av stigmatisering behövs mer och regelbunden utbildning för sjuksköterskor och andra professioner.

  • 105.
    Arvidsson, Elisabet
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    BVC-sköterskors reflektioner av att arbeta med mammor med förlossningsdepression och deras barn: En intervjustudie2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: About 10–15% of new mothers are affected by Post Partum Depression. A new mother with depression means a higher risk of attachmentsproblem with her newborn child. The child health care nurse has a regular contact with newborns and their mothers. Therefor they can have an important role in the process of attachment. Aim: The aim of the study was to describe reflections of the child health care nurses in their work with mothers with Postpartum Depression and their newborn. Method: The present study had a descriptive design with a qualitative approach. Eight child health care nurses  were interviewed with semi-structured interviews. The material was analyzied using qualitative content analysis. Result: A underlying theme was; ”To have knowledge and to know your limitations, for a trustworthy interaction.” The theme had four descriptive categories; ” Ways to discover the mother with a postpartum depression”, ”The interaction with the mother” ”Strategies at work” and ”Challenges in work”. Conclusion: During the study it has been revealed that if guidelines and routines are to work optimally discovering the mother with Post Partum Depression, it requires a good communication. Already at the first meeting a journey began, that could mean a working interaction or not. It required in addition to formal knowledge of Postpartum depression also an ability to interact with the mother. It was about getting the mother´s confidence.

  • 106.
    Arvidsson, Inger
    et al.
    Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
    Hansson, Gert-Ake
    Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Skerfving, Staffan
    Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
    Neck postures in air traffic controllers with and without neck/shoulder disorders2008In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 39, no 2, p. 255-260Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prolonged computer work with an extended neck is commonly believed to be associated with an increased risk of neck-shoulder disorders. The aim of this study was to compare neck postures during computer work between female cases with neck-shoulder disorders, and healthy referents. Based on physical examinations, 13 cases and 11 referents were selected among 70 female air traffic controllers with the same computer-based work tasks and identical work stations. Postures and movements were measured by inclinometers, placed on the forehead and upper back (C7/Th1) during authentic air traffic control. A recently developed method was applied to assess flexion/extension in the neck, calculated as the difference between head and upper back flexion/extension. Results: Cases and referents did not differ significantly in neck posture (median neck flexion/extension: -10° vs. -9°; p=0.9). Hence, the belief that neck extension posture is associated with neck-shoulder disorders in computer work is not supported by the present data

  • 107.
    Arvidsson, Inger
    et al.
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
    Hansson, Gert-Åke
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science.
    Skerfving, Staffan
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
    Changes in physical workload with implementation of mouse-based information technology in air traffic control2006In: International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, ISSN 0169-8141, E-ISSN 1872-8219, Vol. 36, no 7, p. 613-622Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Effects on physical workload were quantified when introducing new information technology in air traffic control. Seven female and seven male air traffic controllers were studied in an old control system, and during simulated - but similar - work in a new, mouse-based system. Postures, movements and muscular load were recorded (inclinometry for head, neck, back and upper arms; goniometry for wrists; electromyography for the trapezius and forearm extensor muscles). The new system was associated with lower movement velocities than the old one (examples; [50th percentiles] head flexion: 2 vs. 5 o/s, P<0.01; right arm elevation: 3 vs. 6 o/s; P<0.01; [90th percentile] wrist flexion: 19 vs. 50 o/s, P<0.01), less varying postures (head: 95th-5th percentile range 17° vs. 34o; P<0.01), and less muscular rest in the right forearm extensors (3.5 vs. 9% of time; P<0.05). The old/new system differences were amplified at high work intensities. The new air traffic control system caused a major change of physical exposures, probably associated with an increased risk of musculoskeletal disorders in arms and hands.

    Relevance to industry

    While this study concerned the specific changes in the introduction of a new air traffic control system, we believe that the findings are applicable to similar technological developments in other settings.

  • 108. Arvidsson, Inger
    et al.
    Hansson, Gert-Åke
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Belastningsskadecentrum.
    Skerfving, Staffan
    "Gamnacke" och nackbesvär vid datorarbete: finns det något samband?2005In: Svenska Läkaresällskapets Riksstämma, 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 109.
    Arvidsson, Lisa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Förstagångsmammors förväntningar på, erfarenheter och reflektioner av kontakten med sjuksköterskan på barnavårdscentralen: En intervjustudie2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 110.
    Askefjord, Nathalie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Eklind, Elin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Humor i omvårdnad: Sjuksköterskans verktyg och patientens upplevelse2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Humor har en multipel inverkan på människan både psykologiskt och fysiologiskt. Över 80 procent av observerade möten i sjukhusmiljö visades innehålla någon form av humor.

    Syfte: Syftet med studien var att beskriva humor som ett verktyg i omvårdnaden, ur ett sjuksköterskeperspektiv. Syftet var också att utforska hur patienter upplever humor. Vidare var syftet att undersöka den metodologisk aspekten, undersökningsgruppen.

    Metod: En allmän litteraturstudie med beskrivande design som grundades på 12 vetenskapliga artiklar.

    Huvudresultat: Sjuksköterskor använde humor som ett verktyg att bygga relationer, skapa band och framkalla en känsla av gemenskap. Enkel vardaglig humor användes mest inom omvårdnad. Mottaglighet för humor hos patienter var individuellt och sjuksköterskan bör tillämpa, baserat på intuition och erfarenhet, rätt humor till rätt patient. Oerfarna sjuksköterskor kunde bära på en rädsla att framstå som oprofessionella vid användning av humor i vårdsituationer. Sjuksköterskor ansåg att stress hade en god inverkan på kvantiteten av humoranvändningen, dock blev de mindre mottagliga för humor från andra. Patienters upplevelse av humor var välvillig och de önskade humor i vårdrelationer.

    Slutsatser: Humor är en viktig del av omvårdnad. Humor kan bidra till ett bättre samspel, skapa lugn och ge ljus åt de mörkaste situationer. Missförstånd kan uppstå i användandet av humor mellan sjuksköterskor och patienter. Sjuksköterskor måste därför vara lyhörda i sin roll och kunna identifiera när och hur humor bör tillämpas. Sjuksköterskor, både nyutexaminerade och mer erfarna bör få mer kunskap om humorfenomenets för- och nackdelar. Detta för att sjuksköterskor ska lita på sin intuition och använda mer humor.

  • 111.
    Asp, Monica
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences.
    Arbete i glädje och sorg: En kvalitativ studie om arbetsglädje för personal på ett äldreboende2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Behovet av personal inom vård- och omsorg beräknas öka. Personal som arbetar i denna sektor står bakom de flesta av anmälningarna av arbetsskada. Det är betydelsefullt att arbeta förebyggande med arbetsmiljö både för att främja anställdas hälsa och utveckla verksamheter. Personal inom äldreomsorg utför ett viktigt arbete för de äldre som är i behov av vård. Syftet i denna uppsats är att genom kvalitativa intervjuer beskriva vårdpersonalens upplevelse av arbetsklimatet och ha Aaron Antonovskys teori om känsla av sammanhang - KASAM som teoretisk modell för att se vad som kan göras för att verka för ett gott arbetsklimat.

    Resultatet visar att den uppskattning personalen får av de boende gör att arbetet upplevs som meningsfullt. Det finns resursbrist i form av personalbrist men även ekonomiska enligt personalens utsagor vilket påverkar hanterbarheten. Personalen upplever att det finns få möjligheter att få utbildning i arbetet och att vidareutbildning i yrket inte lönar sig.

  • 112.
    Aspelin, Johanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Employment status, gender and self-reported health2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 113.
    Aspgren, Emma
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Distriktssköterskors upplevelser av att arbeta med motiverande samtal som ett arbetsverktyg2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att beskriva distriktssköterskors upplevelser av att arbeta med motiverande samtal som arbetsverktyg. Studien hade en kvalitativ ansats med beskrivande design. Nio distriktssköterskor från fyra hälsocentraler i ett landsting i Mellansverige deltog. Data samlades in med semistrukturerade intervjuer och analyserades utifrån kvalitativ innehållsanalys. Tre huvudkategorier framkom (användningsområde, arbetsverktyg, och förändrat arbetssätt) och dessa bildade temat

    "Att förändra fokus i mötet och aktivera patienten". Huvudkategorin Användningsområde visade att motiverande samtal oftast användes i mottagningsarbetet. Vidare ansåg distriktssköterskorna att motiverande samtal fungerade bra inom barn – och skolhälsovården men att motiverande samtal var svårt att använda i palliativ vård. Huvudkategorin Arbetsverktyg visade hur distriktssköterskorna använde sig av motiverande samtal samt vilka delar de ansåg var viktiga för att utöva motiverande samtal. Viktigast var ett respektfullt bemötande av patienten och distriktssköterskorna visade detta genom att ställa öppna frågor. Distriktssköterskorna frågade patienterna om lov för att ge information och identifierade vart i förändringsprocessen som patienterna befann sig. En annan viktig del var att tydliggöra patientens egenansvar. I huvudkategorin Förändrat arbetssätt beskrev distriktssköterskorna hur arbetet hade förändrats sedan utbildningen i motiverande samtal. Den största skillnaden var att patienterna hade ett utökat ansvar nu jämfört med tidigare och att distriktssköterskorna nu fungerade som coach.

  • 114.
    Asplund, Sara
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Distriktssköterskornas erfarenheter och reflektioner kring fysisk aktivitet på recept och motiverande samtal för att främja patientens fysiska aktivitet2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 115.
    Astner, Marcus
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Idrottslärares uppfattningar om inkludering och delaktighet för elever med ADHD i idrottsundervisningen2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte

    Syftet med det här arbetet är att undersöka faktorer som enligt idrottslärare påverkar förutsättningar till delaktighet och inkludering för elever med ADHD i idrottsundervisningen.

    Metod

    Urvalet utgörs av åtta stycken utbildade idrottslärare med erfarenheter av inkluderande undervisning och elever med ADHD. Studien har en kvalitativ karaktär med semistrukturerade intervjuer.

    Huvudresultat

    Resultatet visar att didaktiska aspekter, organisatoriska aspekter och kommunikativa aspekter inom den enskilda skolans organisation, påverkar möjligheter till inkludering och delaktighet i idrottsundervisningen för elever med ADHD, enligt idrottslärare.

    Slutsats

    Slutsatsen i denna rapport blir att det finns gemensamma, men samtidigt motstridiga uppfattningar om inkludering bland idrottslärare, samt att möjligheter till inkludering och delaktighet påverkas av enskilda skolors organisation.

  • 116.
    Awuba, Jude
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Macassa, Gloria
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    HIV/AIDS in Cameroon: Rising gender issues in policy-making matters2007In: African Journal of Health Sciences, ISSN 1022-9272, E-ISSN 2306-1987, Vol. 14, no 3-4, p. 118-128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This literature review investigated gender differentials in HIV/AIDS in Cameroon and to which extent gender was taken into account in the country’s current policy on HIV/AIDS. The review found that in Cameroon women were at increased risk of being infected with HIV/AIDS compared to men and that apart from biological vulnerability, socio-cultural as well as economic factors accounted for those differences. In addition, the review found that at the policy level, the government has drawn up plans to reduce the high prevalence of HIV/AIDS among women. However, although the current policy acknowledged the need for tackling gender differentials in HIV/AIDS transmission; little has been done at the level of implementation. The current policy needs to be implemented in a more effective manner and a multisectorial approach should be explored in order to curb the current trend of the feminization of HIV/AIDS in Cameroon.

  • 117.
    Axelsson, Annica
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskans upplevelser att vårda barn i behov av palliativ omvårdnad: En litteraturstudie2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Background: Palliative care of children becomes relevant in cases where the curative, medical, treatment is no longer sufficient. The nurse's role is to promote the child's best while at the same time it needs to involve and support relatives in the treatment.

    Purpose: The purpose of the present literature study was to describe nurses' experiences of caring for a child in need of palliative care.

    Method: The present study is a literature study with descriptive design. The study result uses eleven articles. The search of selected articles has been performed in PubMed and Cinahl. The selection methods in all articles have been reviewed.

    Main result: The emotional impact of nurses working with children and their relatives in palliative care is inevitable. This emotional impact made it difficult to find a balance between being professional and becoming too private with the affected family. Communication with the child and their related was one of the most important parts of the treatment as it creates a good relationship, which in turn leads to good care.

    The articles in the present study have used convenience sampling, purposive sampling and non-random sampling.

    Conclusion: It has been found to be almost impossible to be emotionally affected in the palliative care of children. To handle this requires experience, support and cooperation from colleagues, as well as good communication with the child and its related.

  • 118.
    Axlund, Elin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Forslin, Ina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Barns erfarenheter av att leva med förälder som har en psykisk sjukdom2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background About 2 % of children aged 0-15 years have at least one parent diagnosed in a psychiatric facility with any mental illness. Three common mental illnesses are schizophrenia, depression and bipolar disorder. Schizophrenia is a common form of psychosis, depression affects human behavior, thoughts and emotional life and bipolar disorder involves symptoms such as depression and mania. 

    Aim The aim of this literature study is to describe children's experiences of living with parent with a mental illness. The study also described the included articles data collection methods. 

    Method This study is a descriptive literature study and the scientific articles were searched in the Cinahl and PsycInfo databases. 

    Main results The result of the articles showed that the children felt different fears by living with the parent who has a mental illness. The fear was that the parent could commit suicide, if the illness was hereditary and that the mood was unstable. The children also felt ashamed of the parent so they found different ways that made them feel more “normal”. An adult responsibility was something the children occupied at an early age by taking care of households chores, their siblings and their sick parent. One wish that the children had was that they wanted more support from the environment, for example, adults from the health care. 

    Conclusion Feelings such as fear, shame and heavy responsibility is common in children of parent with mental illness. Also lack of support and information about the parents illness is experienced by the children and it is therefore important in the nurses work to be able to support these children and accommodate their needs. 

  • 119.
    Axner, Lina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences.
    Att vara kvinna på en mansdominerad arena: Strukturerade intervjuer med tre golfspelande kvinnor2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Inledning Idrotten ses som Sveriges största folkrörelse och har gått från att bara vara tillgänglig för män till att genom de senaste årtionden även vara tillgänglig för kvinnor. Golfsporten ska vara attraktiv för alla och vara lika inkluderande bland alla samhällsgrupper. Med detta avses kön, etnicitet och samhällsgrupp. Inom golfklubben där denna studie är gjord ser fördelningen ut 31 procent kvinnor och 69 procent män. Bakgrund Det finns olika yrken och idrotter som i samhället är mans- och kvinnodominerande. I de mansdominerade yrkena exkluderas ofta kvinnorna och inom idrotten lär man sig från tidig ålder att flickor och pojkar och kvinnor och män ska vara och är på ett visst sätt. Syftet med denna studie är att belysa hur golfspelande kvinnor uppfattar och påverkas av kulturen på en mansdominerad arena. Metod För att kunna svara på syftet användes strukturerade intervjuer med tre golfspelande kvinnor. Resultatet visar att kvinnor ofta upplever att kvinnor vill tillhöra en grupp och detta bidrar till en känsla av tillhörighet. Det är även en skillnad på kvinnor och mäns jargong och hur de kommunicerar med varandra. Kvinnorna upplever att män använder sig av en ”grabbig” och ”gubbig” jargong samt att de använder sig av ett vulgärare och tuffare språk. Männen berör mer sexuella saker medan kvinnornas jargong handlar mer om sociala saker som mode, barn och familj. Resultatet visar även att kvinnor exkluderar kvinnor. Slutsats Kvinnorna uppfattar att ett trevligt och inbjudande bemötande, en känsla av tillhörighet, positiv attityd samt att man blir bemött utifrån ett individperspektiv och inte sitt kön är de viktigaste faktorerna för kvinnorna på golfbanan. Respondenterna uppfattar även att kulturen på den mansdominerade arenan speglar samhället till stor del. Jag kan från resultatet utlysa att kvinnorna påverkas av arenans kultur på olika sätt, det finns både en direkt och en indirekt påverkan. 

  • 120.
    Aziz, Bahoz
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Erfarenhter och uppfattningar kring arbete med hälsofrämjande kulturinsatser för asylsökande och nyanlända barn och ungdomar: En intervjustudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to describe experiences and perceptions of ongoing work with health promotion cultural inserts in four different associations in Gavle municipallity for asylum seekers and newly arrived children and adolescents. The method used was a descriptive empirical qualitative interview with a phenomenological research effort. Five interviews were conducted with four women and one man, from four associations in Gavle municipality. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed with a thematic analysis. The result showed that the staff's perceptions about their work were that the work being conducted was a good method of promoting well-being and contributing to a sense of context for remedying mental ill health. Cooperation with community actors was also a key in their work and made it possible to reach the children and adolescents who were the target group for health-promoting cultural activities. The difficulties perceived were lack of economics, information and structural changes, which made it difficult to implement, follow up and continue their work. The conclusion was that the work with health promoting activities was perceived as a method of integration as well as promoting health. There was also a consensus that the work performed had a good effect in bringing children and young people's families closer to the Swedish society. The obstacles discovered were structural changes, lack of information and too little of economy. One key to success was the cooperation in the local community which made it possible to reach the group.

     

     

  • 121.
    Backlund, Kristina
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Höök, Jessica
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Erfarenheter av sjuksköterskeledd mottagning hos patienter med reumatoid artrit: En litteraturstudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Background: Chronic arthritis rheumatism or rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory joint disease and is the most common arthritis disease, in which headache is joint pain. RA is present in all populations, with varying prevalence. In Scandinavia, the prevalence is approximately 0.7%. The ethnology of RA is a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Living with RA affect the patient physically, emotionally, psychologically and socially, meaning that the whole life situation is affected.

    Aim: The purpose of the literature study was to describe the experiences of nurse-led clinics for patients with rheumatoid arthritis and to present the study groups described in the articles included.

    Methods: A descriptive literature study

    Main results: Patients' experiences of nurse-led clinics were encounters in a warm, friendly and familiar atmosphere. The care was described as person-centered and competent provided and based on each individual's special needs. The nursing specialist skills were highly valued and described to create a sense of security for the patient. The nurse-led clinic was reported readily available, flexible and to create stability in the care. The accessibility also meant that the patients were aware of when and how to contact the nurse. The patient's experience was that good communication with the healthcare staff provided a mutual respect and instilled an increased patient confidence.

    Conclusion: The conclusion of this study was that nurse-led clinics could add value for the patient nursing care. This offered care represented familiarity, hope and confidence for the patients. To achieve added value, good communication and relationship are of the utmost importance, which in turn provide security and create a fundamental possibility in health-promoting care.

  • 122.
    Bahhi, Gusto
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Träningens effekter på testosteronnivån hos äldre överviktiga män: En litteraturstudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Minskade testosteronnivåer hos äldre överviktiga män är ett fenomen som varit omtalat i många år. Allvarliga sjukdomar som kan leda till för tidig bortgång kan förekomma vid för låga testosteronnivåer hos män. I många år har äldre överviktiga män använt sig av medicinska ingrepp för att öka sina hormonnivåer med syftet att återfå sin ungdomliga hälsa och undvika sjukdomar. Syftet med denna studie är att göra en sammanfattning av sökt och hittad litteratur om träningseffekter på testosteronnivåer hos äldre överviktiga män med 29+ i BMI. Metoden som författaren valt är en systematisk litteraturstudie. Resultat utgår från hittade studier från databaserna PubMed och Discovery. Med hjälp av sökord och andra begränsningar hittades relevanta vetenskapliga artiklar som analyserades, evidensvärderades och diskuterades av författaren. Resultaten framfördes från sju hittade artiklar där fyra av de visade att testosteronnivåerna kan ökas genom träning för äldre överviktiga män. Träningsformen som visade bäst resultat var aerob träning och denna träningsform användes i fem av samtliga artiklar. Testosteronnivåökning och andra förbättrade hälsotillstånd resulterades av aerob träning i olika former och tidsperioder. Slutsats: Vid utövandet av aerob träning av olika former under olika tidsperioder kan testosteronnivåer öka hos äldre överviktiga män med 29+ i BMI. Kostmodifiering i kombination med aerob träning visar sig öka chansen för att öka testosteronnivåerna hos drabbade.

  • 123.
    Bahhi, Gusto
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Träningens effekter på testosteronnivån hos äldre överviktiga män: En litteraturstudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Minskade testosteronnivåer hos äldre överviktiga män är ett fenomen som varit omtalat i många år. Allvarliga sjukdomar som kan leda till för tidig bortgång kan förekomma vid för låga testosteronnivåer hos män. I många år har äldre överviktiga män använt sig av medicinska ingrepp för att öka sina hormonnivåer med syftet att återfå sin ungdomliga hälsa och undvika sjukdomar. Syftet med denna studie är att göra en sammanfattning av sökt och hittad litteratur om träningseffekter på testosteronnivåer hos äldre överviktiga män med 29+ i BMI. Metoden som författaren valt är en systematisk litteraturstudie. Resultat utgår från hittade studier från databaserna PubMed och Discovery. Med hjälp av sökord och andra begränsningar hittades relevanta vetenskapliga artiklar som analyserades, evidensvärderades och diskuterades av författaren. Resultaten framfördes från sju hittade artiklar där fyra av de visade att testosteronnivåerna kan ökas genom träning för äldre överviktiga män. Träningsformen som visade bäst resultat var aerob träning och denna träningsform användes i fem av samtliga artiklar. Testosteronnivåökning och andra förbättrade hälsotillstånd resulterades av aerob träning i olika former och tidsperioder. Slutsats: Vid utövandet av aerob träning av olika former under olika tidsperioder kan testosteronnivåer öka hos äldre överviktiga män med 29+ i BMI. Kostmodifiering i kombination med aerob träning visar sig öka chansen för att öka testosteronnivåerna hos drabbade.

  • 124.
    Balazsi, Krister
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Karlstedt, Josefin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Faktorer som är av betydelse för långsiktigt viktminskningsresultat efter gastric bypass: En litteraturstudie2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med denna litteraturstudie var att sammanställa och beskriva faktorer som är av betydelse för långsiktigt viktminskningsresultat, mer än tre år efter gastric bypass.

    Metod: För att besvara studiens syfte gjordes en litteraturstudie med deskriptiv design. Studien har baserats på fjorton vetenskapliga artiklar som har sökts fram via Medline samt genom manuell sökning.

    Resultat: Studien visade att faktorer som var av betydelse för långsiktigt viktminskningsresultat var kost, fysisk aktivitet, beteende, uppföljning, preoperativ viktnedgång samt medicinska faktorer såsom utvidgning av magsäck och gastrojejunal stomi. God kostkvalitet och utövande av fysisk aktivitet visade sig ha ett signifikant samband med långsiktig viktminskning. Beteenden såsom kontroll över matbegär och ätvanor var av stor betydelse. Hetsätning visade sig påverka viktresultatet negativt. Patienter som gick på uppföljning visade större viktminskning på lång sikt liksom patienter som lyckades minska i vikt före operationen.

    Slutsats: Långsiktigt viktresultat efter gastric bypass kan förbättras genom rätt kost, fysisk aktivitet, långsiktig uppföljning samt genom att tidigt upptäcka ohälsosamma ätbeteenden. Mer forskning krävs angående faktorer som påverkar viktresultatet på lång sikt och vad sjukvården kan göra för att påverka dessa.

  • 125.
    Barbieri, Dechristian
    et al.
    Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of São Carlos, São Paulo, BRAZIL.
    dos Santos, Wilian
    Department of Mechatronics Engineering, University of São Paulo, BRAZIL.
    Inoue, Roberto Santos
    Department of Electrical Engineering, Federal University of São Carlos, São Paulo, BRAZIL.
    Gonçalves Siqueira, Adriano Almeida
    Department of Mechatronics Engineering, University of São Paulo, BRAZIL.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Oliveira, Ana Beatriz
    Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of São Carlos, São Paulo, BRAZIL.
    Adjustable sit-stand tables in office settings: development of a system for controlled posture changes2015In: Proceedings of the 19th Triennial Congress of the International Ergonomics Association, Melbourne 9-14 August 2015, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 126.
    Barbieri, Dechristian Franca
    et al.
    Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of São Carlos, Brazil.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Oliveira, Ana Beatriz
    Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of São Carlos, Brazil.
    Comparison of sedentary behaviors in office workers using sit-stand tables with and without semi-automated position changes2017In: Human Factors, ISSN 0018-7208, E-ISSN 1547-8181, Vol. 59, no 5, p. 782-795Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: This study compared usage patterns of two different electronically controlled sit-stand tables during a 2-month intervention period among office workers.

    Background: Office workers spend most of their working time sitting, which is likely detrimental to health. Although the introduction of sit-stand tables has been suggested as an effective intervention to decrease sitting time, limited evidence is available on usage patterns of sit-stand tables, and whether patterns   are influenced by table configuration.

    Methods: Twelve workers were provided with standard sit-stand tables (non-automated table group) and 12 with semi-automated sit-stand tables programmed to change table position according to a pre-set pattern, if the user agreed to the system-generated prompt (semi-automated table group). Table position was monitored continuously for two months after introducing the tables, as a proxy for sit-stand behavior.

    Results: On average, the table was in a “sit” position for 85% of the work-day in both groups; this did not change significantly during the 2-month period. Switches in table position from sit to stand were, however, more frequent in the semi-automated table group than in the non-automated table group (0.65 vs. 0.29 hr-1; p=0.001).

    Conclusion: Introducing a semi-automated sit-stand table appeared to be an attractive alternative to a standard sit-stand table, since it led to more posture variation.

    Application: A semi-automated sit-stand table may effectively contribute to making postures more variable among office workers, and thus aid in alleviating negative health effects of extensive sitting.

  • 127.
    Barbieri, Dechristian
    et al.
    Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of São Carlos.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    de Oliveira, Ana Beatriz
    Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of São Carlos.
    The effect of non-computer tasks on job exposure variability in computer-intensive office work2013In: Eighth International Conference on Prevention of Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders: Abstracts, 2013, p. 334-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 128.
    Barbieri, Dechristian
    et al.
    Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of São Carlos, São Carlos, Brazil.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    dos Santos, Wilian Miranda
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of São Paulo, São Carlos, Brazil.
    Inoue, Roberto Santos
    Department of Electrical Engineering, Federal University of São Carlos, São Carlos, Brazil.
    Siqueira, Adriano
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of São Paulo, São Carlos, Brazil.
    Nogueira, Helen
    Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of São Carlos, São Carlos, Brazil.
    Oliveira, Ana Beatriz
    Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of São Carlos, São Carlos, Brazil.
    Sit-stand tables with semi-automated position changes: a new interactive approach for reducing sitting in office work2017In: IISE Transactions on Occupational Ergonomics and Human Factors, ISSN 2472-5838, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 39-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Introduction of sit-stand tables has been proposed as an initiative to decrease sedentary behavior among office workers and thus reduce risks of negative cardiometabolic health effects. However, ensuring proper and sustainable use of such tables has remained a challenge for successful implementation. Objective: We developed a new system to promote and sustain the use of sit-stand tables. Methods: The system was programmed to change the position of the table between “sit” and “stand” positions according to a regular pre-set pattern, if the user agreed to the system-generated prompts prior to each change. The user could respond to the system-generated prompts by agreeing, refusing or delaying the changes by 2 minutes. We obtained user compliance data when this system was programmed to a schedule of 10 minutes of standing after every 50 minutes of sitting. Compliance was investigated in nine office workers who were offered the semi-automated sit-stand table for two months. Results: On average, the system issued 12-14 alerts per day throughout the period. Average acceptance rate ranged from 75.0-82.4%, and refusal rate ranged from 11.8-10.1% between the first and eighth weeks of intervention (difference not statistically significant). During the first week after introduction, the table was in a standing position for 75.2 min on average, increasing slightly to 77.5 min in the eighth week. Conclusion: Since the workers were essentially sitting down before the table was introduced, these results suggest that the system was accepted well, and led to an effective reduction of sitting during working hours. Users also reported that the system contributed positively to their health and wellbeing, without interrupt their regular work, and that they would like to continue using the sit-stand table even beyond the two-month period, as part of their regular work. Compliance beyond two months of use, however, needs to be verified.

  • 129.
    Barbieri, Dechristian
    et al.
    Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of São Carlos.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    dos Santos, Willian Miranda
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of São Paulo.
    Oliveira, Ana Beatriz
    Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of São Carlos.
    Use of sit-stand stations during the first 2 months after their introduction2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. There is increasing evidence that sedentary behaviour during the workday is associated with negative health effects. In this context, interventions to reduce total sedentary time and breaking up periods of continuous sitting during computerized office work are urgently needed. Several reviews conclude that introducing sit-stand stations may lead to positive effects, but they also state that long-term interventions in real occu-pational settings are still rare. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate usage of sit-stand tables among Brazilian office workers during an intervention lasting two months.

    Methods.Nine office workers (6 females, 3 males; age 42 [SD 12] years) participated. The workers received traditional sit-stand tables and ergonomics information. They then used the workstation for two months. The tables were furnished with a system that recorded and kept track of table use during the intervention period. Table use early and late in the intervention period was compared using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test for repeated measurements.

    Results. In the beginning of the eight-week intervention period, workers, in median, changed table position 2.4 (1.9 – 4.7) times per day, decreasing to 2.3 (1.0 – 3.3) times at the end (P=0.09). Moreover, we also found a non-significant decrease in total time stand-ing per day, from 88.6 (67.4 – 94.3) minutes to 58.8 (33.1 – 95.7) minutes (P=0.31).

    Discussion. Two months after introducing sit-stand tables, some decrease in usage could be seen, if not statistically significant. Based on this, we emphasize that introduction of sit-stand tables should be accompanied by continued encouragement of the workers, preferably informed by a personalized follow up of actual use.

  • 130.
    Barbieri, Dechristian
    et al.
    Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of São Carlos, São Paulo, Brazil.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, USA.
    Oliveira, Ana Beatriz
    Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of São Carlos, São Paulo, Brazil.
    For sit-stand desks, semiautomated prompting may lead the way2017In: Industrial and Systems Engineering at Work, ISSN 2168-9210, Vol. 49, no 5, p. 51-52Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 131.
    Barbieri, Dechristian
    et al.
    Universidade Federal de São Carlos.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Nogueira, Helen
    Universidade Federal de São Carlos.
    Oliveira, Ana Beatriz
    Universidade Federal de São Carlos.
    The ability of non-computer tasks to increase biomechanical exposure variability in computer-intensive office work2015In: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 58, no 1, p. 50-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Postures and muscle activity in the upper body were recorded from 50 academics office workers during 2 hours of normal work, categorised by observation into computer work (CW) and three non-computer (NC) tasks (NC seated work, NC standing/walking work and breaks). NC tasks differed significantly in exposures from CW, with standing/walking NC tasks representing the largest contrasts for most of the exposure variables. For the majority of workers, exposure variability was larger in their present job than in CW alone, as measured by the job variability ratio (JVR), i.e. the ratio between min–min variabilities in the job and in CW. Calculations of JVRs for simulated jobs containing different proportions of CW showed that variability could, indeed, be increased by redistributing available tasks, but that substantial increases could only be achieved by introducing more vigorous tasks in the job, in casu illustrated by cleaning.

  • 132.
    Barbieri, Dechristian
    et al.
    Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of São Carlos, São Carlos, Brasil.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia, USA.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Oliveira, Ana Beatriz
    Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of São Carlos, São Carlos, Brasil.
    The effect of sit-stand workstations to decrease sedentariness in office work: tests of 2 systems with and without automatic reminders2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sedentary behaviors in office workers has become a major public health concern and several initiatives have been proposed to break up sedentary behavior patterns during the performance of computer-intensive office work. Among such initiatives, the use of sit-stand workstations has been suggested to be one of the most promising by recent reviews. However, there still is only limited scientific evidence showing how effective sit-stand workstations are, in reducing sedentary behaviors and also documentation of their sustainability of use in studies of regular office work (i.e. as the “newness” of the system wears off, with time since introduction). This study aimed to document user behaviors and compare the use of two sit-stand workstation based interventions among two groups of administrative office workers: an “autonomous” group in which these workstations were introduced following some general ergonomic guidelines, and another “feedback-system” group in which the sit-stand tables were furnished with a semi-automatic reminder system, programmed to raise the table to a high (i.e. standing) position for 10 minutes after every accumulated 50 minutes of the table being in a low (i.e. sitting) position, i.e. to result in about 83% sitting per day. In addition, the sustainability of the use of these two kinds of sit-stand workstation interventions over two continuous months since their introduction was also studied. The results averaged over two months of usage of the two interventions showed that the percentage (%) sitting time was 87.4 (84.9-89.2) on average in the autonomous group and 84.0 (83.5-85.4) on average in the feedback-system group (P=0.001), and the frequency of switches between sitting and standing was 0.3 (0.2-0.3) per hour in the autonomous group and 0.7 (0.6-0.7) per hour in the feedback-system group (P=0.001). Thus, the sit-stand table system integrated with the automatic reminder system led to more reduction in sitting time and more switches in posture between sitting and standing as compared to the traditional sit-stand table, and behaviors of both groups were seen to be sustained over the 2-month intervention period (no difference across time for any of the variables tested for any group).

  • 133.
    Barbieri, Dechristian
    et al.
    Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of São Carlos.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Oliveira, Ana Beatriz
    Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of São Carlos.
    Variation in upper extremity, neck and trunk postures when performing computer work at a sit-stand station2019In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 75, p. 120-128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to determine the extent of upper arm, neck and trunk posture variation that can be obtained by combining seated and standing computer work, compared to performing only seated computer work. Posture data were recorded for two hours during each of three days of ordinary work from 24 office workers that had been using a sit-stand station for two months. Periods with sitting and standing computer work were identified using on-site observations, and posture means and minute-to-minute variance were determined for both. Expected minute-to-minute posture variability in different temporal combinations of sitting and standing computer work were determined by simulation, and expressed in terms of a Job Variance Ratio, i.e. the relative increase in variability compared to sitting-only work. For all three postures, mean values differed between sitting and standing computer work, and both showed a notable minute-to-minute variability. For most workers, posture variability was larger when combining sitting and standing than when sitting only, and simulations suggested to introduce more standing than what the worker currently practiced. The results indicate that introducing a sit-stand table could, for most office workers, have a positive effect on upper arm, neck and trunk posture variability.

  • 134.
    Barkstedt, Vanda
    et al.
    Centrum för arbets- och miljömedicin, Stockholm.
    Målqvist, Ingela
    Centrum för arbets- och miljömedicin, Stockholm.
    Alderling, Magnus
    Centrum för arbets- och miljömedicin, Stockholm.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Forsman, Mikael
    Centrum för arbets- och miljömedicin, Stockholm.
    Sophämtares fysiska och psykosociala arbetsbelastning2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Arbetet som sophämtare inkluderar manuell hantering som hämtning och hantering av hushållsavfall i kärl och säckar. Det finns tidigare studier som visat att arbetet kan vara tungt med en hög helkroppsbelastning. Tungt arbete förknippas ofta med besvär i rörelseorganen. Psykologiska påfrestningar i arbetet kan också bidra till besvärsuppkomst.

    Biltrafikens arbetsgivarförbund och Svenska Transportarbetareförbundet tog gemensamt initiativ till det här projektet ”Sophämtarnas arbetsmiljö - allas ansvar”. Projektet har utförts av Transportfackens Yrkes- och Arbetsmiljönämnd (TYA) i samarbete med Karolinska Institutet (KI) och Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning (CBF) vid Högskolan i Gävle. I den här delen av projektet var syftet att kartlägga branschens förekomst av arbetsrelaterade besvär och undersöka den fysiska och psykosociala arbetsbelastningen hos sophämtare vid arbete med insamling av hushållsavfall.

    Samtliga Sveriges sophämtare som arbetar med insamling av hushållsavfall, knappt 2000, erbjöds att fylla i ett omfattande frågeformulär avseende arbete och hälsa. Sextiosex procent svarade. Inom projektetet genomfördes också heldagsmätningar av puls och arbetsställningar för rygg och armar på 56 sophämtare som arbetade med baklastande sopbil. På 12 sophämtare som arbetade med sidlastande sopbil genomfördes dessutom mätningar av muskelbelastning i skulder- och underarmsmuskulatur under en hel arbetsdag. I samband med heldagsmätningarna observerades sophämtarnas arbete av en observatör från en efterföljande bil, eller via en personburen videokamera. För att få fram ytterligare information om belastning på skuldror, rygg och knän genomfördes även biomekaniska fältexperiment där sophämtare fick utföra typiska arbetssituationer samtidigt som förekommande skjut- och drag-krafter registrerades.

    Enligt enkätundersökningen ansåg 17 procent av sophämtarna att deras fysiska arbetsförmåga var låg, vilket är samma procentandel som tidigare har registrerats hos flygplanslastare, men något bättre än vad man brukar se bland män med kort utbildningstid.

    Det var vanligare med kroppsliga besvär bland sophämtare än generellt i befolkningen. Andelen med besvär för olika kroppsdelar som skuldror (60 procent), ländrygg (62 procent), nacke (49 procent), händer/handleder (44 procent), motsvarade situationen för flygplanslastare; det fanns dock en skillnad för knän, där 52 procent av sophämtarna hade besvär mot 44 procent av flyglastarna.

    Sophämtarnas psykosociala arbetsbelastning liknade i stort den hos flygplanslastare, och motsvarar generellt förhållandena i den arbetande befolkningen. I genomsnitt rapporterar sophämtarna även samma upplevda stöd ifrån ledningen som andra yrkesgrupper, men sophämtare på arbetsställen med särskilt lågt stöd ifrån ledningen rapporterade fler olyckstillfällen, hade högre förekomst av kroppsliga besvär och lägre arbetsförmåga än sophämtare på arbetsställen med högt stöd. Mycket talande var att många fler, 27 procent skattade låg psykisk arbetsförmåga av dem på arbetsställen med generellt lågt upplevt stöd från ledningen jämfört med 8 procent av dem på arbetsställen med högt stöd.

    Det var vanligare med olycksfallstillbud bland de som angav ett ständigt högt arbetstempo, vilka återfanns både bland de som svarade att de, 64 procent av sophämtarna, som fick och bland de som inte fick gå hem tidigare om de var klara med dagens uppgifter.

    Fyrtiofyra procent av sophämtarna svarade att de en eller flera gånger hade råkat ut för olycksfall som lett till sjukskrivning. Halkolyckor var klart vanligast. Bland de som rapporterade ett ständigt högt arbetstempo var det vanligare med olyckor.

    De 41 kvinnor som ingick i enkätstudien rapporterade generellt högre upplevd fysisk och psykosocial belastning, samt sämre hälsa och arbetsförmåga än sina manliga kollegor.

    Heldagsmätningarna visade att baklastarnas genomsnittliga arbetstid utanför depån var drygt 6½ timma, varav 43 procent utgjordes av bilkörning. Pulsmätningarna visade, liksom enkäterna, att hämtning från flerbostadhus var mera belastande än hämtning i villaområden och på landsbygden. Pulsen var stundtals hög, men i genomsnitt var den för de flesta sophämtare acceptabel enligt internationella rekommendationer.

    De biomekaniska analyserna visade att krafterna vid dragning av sopkärl ibland var höga, speciellt på snöunderlag, men de föreföll inte att innebära några tydliga risker för ländryggen enligt amerikanska rekommendationer för acceptabla nivåer. Det finns dock forskning som indikerar att upprepad exponering för höga dragkrafter kan innebära risk för skulderbesvär. Att hoppa eller att gå framlänges ned från styrhytt var förknippat med knäbesvär, och kan enligt de biomekaniska analyserna även ge höga ländryggsbelastningar.

    Mot bakgrund av dessa resultat kan några rekommendationer/frågeställningar i syfte att förbättra arbetsmiljön vara följande:

    Kan man öka stödet från ledningen? Ledarskaps- och arbetsmiljöutbildning för första linjens chefer? Strategi vid chefsrekrytering?

    Kan man påverka sophämtarna att inte arbeta i ett ”onödigt” högt tempo, om det egentligen inte är bråttom?

    Kan man se till att det finns tid (eller om det redan finns tid, att få sophämtarna att använda denna tid) att arbeta i ett rimligt tempo, och kanske hjälpas åt vid hantering av mycket tunga kärl?

    Kan man få alla att ta sig ner från hytten på "rätt sätt"? Kan man i större utsträckning använda sopbilar med låga insteg?

  • 135.
    Barnekow-Bergkvist, Margareta
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Hedberg, Gudrun
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Pettersson, Ulf
    Sports Medicine Unit, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, University of Umeå, Umeå, Sweden; Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, University of Umeå, Umeå, Sweden.
    Lorentzon, R.
    Sports Medicine Unit, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, University of Umeå, Umeå, Sweden.
    Relationships between physical activity and physical capacity in adolescent females and bone mass in adulthood2006In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 16, no 6, p. 447-455Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates whether physical activity and physical performance in adolescence are positively related to adult bone mineral density (BMD). In 1974, physical activity, endurance, and muscular strength were measured in 204 randomly selected female students, age 16.1 +/- 0.3 year (range 15-17 years). Twenty years later, 36 of the women volunteered to undergo a measurement of their BMD. Women who were members in a sports club in adolescence had significantly higher adult BMD (mean differences of 5% to 17% depending on site) compared with subjects who were not engaged in a sports club. Furthermore, women with persistent weight-bearing activity in adulthood had significantly higher BMD compared with women who had stopped being active or had never been active. The differences ranged between 5% and 19% with the highest difference found in trochanter BMD. Stepwise regression analyses showed that membership in a sports club at baseline was a significant independent predictor of BMD in the total body, lumbar spine, legs, trochanter, and femoral neck, explaining 17-26% of the variation in BMD. Change in body weight was a strong independent predictor of BMD of the total body and arms, explaining 8% of the variation in both sites. In addition, running performance at baseline was an independent predictor of total body BMD, whereas the two-hand lift performance significantly predicted BMD of the total body, legs and trochanter. The hanging leg-lift and handgrip were both significant predictors of arm BMD. In conclusion, membership in a sports club and site-specific physical performance in adolescence together with the change in body weight were significantly associated with adult BMD in premenopausal women

  • 136.
    Basner, Mathias
    et al.
    Department of Psychiatry, Division of Sleep and Chronobiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.
    Brink, Mark
    Federal Office for the Environment, Noise and NIR Division, Bern, Switzerland.
    Bristow, Abigail
    School of Civil and Building Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom.
    de Kluizenaar, Yvonne
    Department of Urban Environment and Safety, The Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research (TNO), Delft, Netherlands.
    Finegold, Lawrence
    Finegold & So, Consultants, 1167 Bournemouth Court, Centerville, Ohio 45459, USA.
    Hong, Jiyoung
    Eco-Transport Research Division, Korea Railroad Research Institute, Republic of Korea.
    Janssen, Sabine A.
    Department of Urban Environment and Safety, The Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research (TNO), Delft, Netherlands.
    Klaeboe, Ronny
    Department of Safety, Security and Environment, Institute of Transport Economics (TØI), Oslo, Norway.
    Leroux, Tony
    School of Speech Language and Audiology, University of Montreal, Montréal (Québec), Canada.
    Liebl, Andreas
    Department of Acoustics, Fraunhofer Institute for Building Physics IBP, Stuttgart, Germany.
    Matsui, Toshihito
    Department of Environmental Engineering, Hokkaido University, Japan.
    Schwela, Dieter
    University of York, Environment Department, Stockholm Environment Institute, York, United Kingdom.
    Sliwinska-Kowalska, Mariola
    Department of Audiology and Phoniatrics, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Poland.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, University of Linköping, Linköping, Sweden.
    ICBEN Review of Research on the Biological Effects of Noise 2011-20142015In: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, E-ISSN 1998-4030, Vol. 17, no 75, p. 57-82Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mandate of the International Commission on Biological Effects of Noise (ICBEN) is to promote a high level of scientific research concerning all aspects of noise-induced effects on human beings and animals. In this review, ICBEN team chairs and co-chairs summarize relevant findings, publications, developments, and policies related to the biological effects of noise, with a focus on the period 2011-2014 and for the following topics: Noise-induced hearing loss; nonauditory effects of noise; effects of noise on performance and behavior; effects of noise on sleep; community response to noise; and interactions with other agents and contextual factors. Occupational settings and transport have been identified as the most prominent sources of noise that affect health. These reviews demonstrate that noise is a prevalent and often underestimated threat for both auditory and nonauditory health and that strategies for the prevention of noise and its associated negative health consequences are needed to promote public health.

  • 137.
    Becker, Wulf
    et al.
    National Food Administration, Uppsala.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    Department of Medical Sciences, Nutrition, Uppsala University.
    Gustafsson, Inga Britt
    Department of Culinary Art.
    Haraldsdóttir, Johanna
    Research Department of Human Nutrition, Royal Veterinary/Agricultural University, Copenhagen.
    Nydahl, Margaretha C.
    Department of Domestic Sciences, Uppsala University.
    Vessby, Bengt O. H.
    Unit for Clinical Nutrition Research, Department of Public Health Sciences, Uppsala University.
    Ytterfors, Arne
    Unit for Clinical Nutrition Research, Department of Public Health Sciences, Uppsala University.
    Precoded food records compared with weighed food records for measuring dietary habits in a population of Swedish adults1998In: Scandinavian Journal of Nutrition/Næringsforskning, ISSN 1102-6480, E-ISSN 1651-2359, Vol. 42, no 4, p. 145-149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a cross-over design, 82 women and men recorded their food intake by a precoded 7-day record book (PR) including both standard portions in household measures and photographs, and a weighed 7-day record (WR), respectively. Single 24-h urine samples, for determination of nitrogen excretion, were collected for 39 subjects during the WR period. Comparing the PR to the WR method, the mean intake of some foods, as cheese, was higher, and bread and vegetables lower. For energy and nutrients, the fat energy percent (E%) was higher, and protein E%, dietary fibre, iron, thiamin, folate, carotene and α-tocopherol were all lower. Protein intake registered by the PR method was 20% lower compared to 24-h urine samples, and 11% lower for the WR method. The results indicate that some of the standard portion sizes, used by the PR method, contributed to the observed differences in food and nutrient intakes. The subjects found it easier and less time-consuming to record their food intake with the PR than with the WR method. The time spent on processing data was reduced by 50% when using the PR method. The results of the study will be used for improvements in the design of the PR for use in large-scale dietary surveys for monitoring dietary habits.

  • 138.
    Becker, Wulf
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap.
    Gustafsson, Inga-Britt
    Haraldsdottir, Johanna
    Nydahl, Margareta
    Vessby, Bengt
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap.
    Ytterfors, A
    Precoded or weighed food records for measuring dietary habits in a population of Swedish adults: I Food intake1996Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 139.
    Begum, Afroza
    et al.
    Mid-Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Rahman, A. F.
    Center for Injury Prevention and Research, Dhaka, Bangladesh; Department of Epidemiology, Bangladesh University of Health Sciences, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Rahman, A.
    Center for Injury Prevention and Research, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Soares, Joaquim
    Mid-Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Reza Khankeh, H.
    Department of Clinical Science and Education, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Macassa, Gloria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Public health science. Department of Health Sciences, Section of Public Health Sciences, Mid-Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden; Department of Clinical Science and Education, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Prevalence of suicide ideation among adolescents and young adults in rural Bangladesh2017In: International Journal of Mental Health, ISSN 0020-7411, E-ISSN 1557-9328, Vol. 46, no 3, p. 177-187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Suicide is a leading cause of death world-wide. However, adolescent suicidal behavior is a neglected public health issue, especially in low-income countries such as Bangladesh. The study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of suicidal ideation among adolescents in a rural community and to examine factors associated with suicidal ideation. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in 2013 among 2,476 adolescents aged 14–19 years, selected randomly from a rural community of Bangladesh. An adapted version of the WHO/SUPRE-MISS questionnaire was used to collect data in the Raiganj sub-district. A two stage screening was performed to identify the suicidal ideation cases. It was found that the life-time prevalence for suicidal ideation was 5 percent among adolescents. The majority of the adolescents with suicidal ideation were females 66 (52.8%), unmarried 103 (82.4%), and students 92 (73%). Suicidal ideation was statistically significantly associated with age, education, occupation, living with parents or others, and house ownership. Respondents who were aged 18–19 years, had secondary school certificate (SSC) and secondary school certificate (HSC) or higher education, were day laborers, had own house, and do not lived with parents had odds ratios of 2.31 (CI 1.46–3.65), 2.38 (CI 1.51–3.77), 4.15 (CI 2.41–7.14), 0.28 (CI 0.13–0.60), 0.14(CI 0.05–0.35), and 1.80 (CI 1.07–3.03), respectively. Among adolescents, the prevalence of life-time suicidal ideation was moderately high. Age, education, occupation, house ownership, and living with parents were statistically significantly associated with suicidal ideation. It is important to design and implement effective community based suicide prevention programs for adolescents in Bangladesh.

  • 140.
    Begum, Tiasha
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Nyström, Valeria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskans erfarenheter av barnmisshandel2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:  Reports of child abuse have increased recently and healthcare staff are obligated by law to report any possible suspicion of child maltreatment to the Social Services. There are a lot of risk factors involved concerning whether a child will be abused or not, factors related to the perpetrators but also factors related to the child itself. Statistically the majority of perpetrators are the child's own parents.

    Aim: To describe the registered nurses experiences of child abuse within healthcare and also to describe one methodological aspect of the articles that this study is based upon.  

    Method: A descriptive literature review based on nine qualitative and three quantitative articles, where the participating registered nurses have experience of children that have been abused. Results: It was found that the nurse’s own personal experiences, based upon their own feelings, the support they received and the actual environment affects how and indeed if child abuse will be reported. Although the registered nurses were aware that they are obliged to report all cases, some nurses failed to report child abuse to the Social Services. The nurses experienced a variety of emotions that arose when they were involved in child abuse cases. All nurses in this study experienced that they lacked knowledge concerning child abuse also a lot of nurses wished that they had had more support during child abuse cases.

    Conclusion: The experience of child abuse cases severely affected the nurses even to the extent that some ignored the signs and failed to report to the Social Services. The registered nurses experienced a need for more support from an experienced colleague and wanted to attain more knowledge and experience themselves. 

  • 141.
    Begun, Afroza
    et al.
    Department of Health Sciences, Mid-Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Viitasara, Eija
    Department of Health Sciences, Mid-Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Soares, Joaquim
    Department of Health Sciences, Mid-Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Rahman, AKM Fazlur
    Department of Epidemiology, Bangladesh University of Health Sciences, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Macassa, Gloria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Public health science. Department of Health Sciences, Mid-Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Parental socio-economic position and suicidal ideation among adolescents in rural Bangladesh2018In: Journal of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, ISSN 2637-8027, Vol. 4, article id 1018Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Suicide is a leading cause of death world-wide and becoming a public health concern among adolescents. However, adolescent suicidal behaviour is a neglected public health issue, especially in low-income countries such as Bangladesh. Of great importance is the understanding of which factors might be related to this growing public problem.

    Objective: To examine the relationship between parental socio-economic position and suicide ideation among adolescents in rural Bangladesh

    Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2013 among 2,476 adolescents, aged 14-19 years, selected randomly from a rural community of Bangladesh. An adapted version of the WHO/SUPRE-MISS questionnaire was used to collect data in the Raiganj sub-district, which is a surveillance area of the Centre for Injury Prevention and Research, Bangladesh (CIPRB).

    Descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression analyses were used to analyze the data. Comparisons of proportions between groups were carried out using the χ2 test. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between parental co-variants and suicidal thoughts among adolescents. The significance level was set atp <0.05. All analyses were performed using SPSS 20.

    Results: The majority of parents had education only up to primary school (mothers 58.7% and fathers 49.5%). Most of them were farmers (53.3% of fathers) and housewives (96.5% of mothers). Monthly income and expenditure of the adolescent’s parents were mainly upto 10,000 taka only. Suicidal ideation is more common among adolescents of low income group parents 104 (5.5%) and who were not living with their parents 18 (8.2%). Adolescent’s suicidal ideation was found to be significantly associated with education, marital status and house ownership of their parents. Not being able to live with their parents was also a significant factor. Parents who received education up to SSC had odds ratio of 2.10 (1.21,3.64) and 1.92 (1.15, 3.23) for mothers and fathers respectively. Parent’s income or expenditure was not associated with adolescent’s suicidal ideation. Adolescent’s suicidal ideation of single parents had higher odds (OR 3.00, CI 1.75-5.19) in comparison to adolescents who had both parents. Adolescents whose parents owned a house and who weren’t living withtheir parents had odds ratios of 0.14 (0.05,0.35), and 1.80 (1.07,3.03) respectively. After adjusting for other covariates parents’ marital status and house ownership significantly associated with the adolescent suicide ideation.

    Conclusion: Parental socio-economic position was asso-ciated with suicidal ideation. Adolescent with single parents were more likely to report suicidal ideation. Low parental education and socio-economic status, marital status, house ownership, not living with parents at home as well as adolescent loneliness were the important factors for suicidal ideation.

  • 142.
    Beihao, Liu
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    Tingting, Chen
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    Elderly people’s adjustment of transition to nursing homes: A descriptive literature review2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 143.
    Bell, Hege Therese
    et al.
    Fakultet for sykepleie og helsevitenskap, Nord universitet, Bodø, Norge.
    Granås, Anne Gerd
    Universitetet i Oslo, Oslo, Norge.
    Omli, Ragnhild
    Institutt for sykepleievitenskap, Norges teknisk-naturvitenskapelige universitet, Trondheim, Norge.
    Enmarker, Ingela
    Fakultet for sykepleie og helsevitenskap, Nord universitet, Bodø, Norge.
    Steinsbekk, Aslak
    UiT: Universitetet i Tromsø – Norges arktiske universitet.
    Nurses' and pharmacists' learning experiences from participating in inter professional medication reviews in primary health care: a qualitative study.2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Objective: Traditionally, drug prescription and follow up have been the sole responsibility of physicians. However, interprofessional medication reviews (IMRs) have been developed to prevent drug discrepancies and patient harm. What participating nurses and pharmacists learn from each other during IMR is poorly studied. The aim of this study was to investigate nurses&#8217; and pharmacists&#8217; perceived learning experience after participating in IMRs in primary health care for up to two years. Setting and Method: A qualitative study with semi-structured focus group interviews and telephone interviews with nurses and pharmacists with experience from IMRs in nursing homes and home based services. The data was analysed thematically by using systematic text condensation. Main outcome measures: A qualitative method is useful when looking at objects from the perspective of how they are experienced. Results: Sixteen nurses and four pharmacists were interviewed. The nurses&#8217; perception of the pharmacist changed from being a controller of drug management routines towards being a source of pharmacotherapy knowledge and a discussant partner of appropriate drug therapy in the elderly. The pharmacists became more aware of the nurses&#8217; crucial role of providing clinical information about the patient to enable individual advice. Increasingly the nurses learned to link the patient&#8217;s symptoms of effect and side effect to the drugs prescribed. With time both professions jointly spoke of an increased awareness of the benefit of working as a team and the perception of contributing to better and more individual care. Conclusion: IMRs in primary health care meet some challenges especially concerning how to ensure participation of all three professions and how to get thorough information about the patient. Possible solutions might be to use shared communication tools like Internet based communication programs and to introduce the patient as a participant at the IMRs.

  • 144.
    Bell, Hege-Therese
    et al.
    Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health Sciences, Nord University, Namsos, Norway; Department of Public Health and General Practice, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Granas, A-G
    School of Pharmacy, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Enmarker, Ingela
    Centre for Care research Mid-Norway, Steinkjer, Norway; Department of Nursing, Mid University, Østersund, Sweden.
    Omli, Ragnhild
    Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health Sciences, Nord University, Namsos, Norway; Centre for Care research Mid- Norway, Steinkjer, Norway.
    Steinsbekk, A.
    Department of Public Health and General Practice, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Nurses’ and pharmacists’ learning experiences from participating in interprofessional medication reviews for elderly in primary health care - a qualitative study2017In: BMC Family Practice, ISSN 1471-2296, E-ISSN 1471-2296, Vol. 18, article id 30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Traditionally, drug prescription and follow up have been the sole responsibility of physicians. However, interprofessional medication reviews (IMRs) have been developed to prevent drug discrepancies and patient harmespecially for elderly patients with polypharmacy and multimorbidity. What participating nurses and pharmacists learn from each other during IMR is poorly studied. The aim of this study was to investigate nurses’ and pharmacists’ perceived learning experience after participating in IMRs in primary health care for up to two years.

    Methods: A qualitative study with semi-structured focus group interviews and telephone interviews with nurses and pharmacists with experience from IMRs in nursing homes and home based services. The data was analysed thematically by using systematic text condensation.

    Results: Thirteen nurses and four pharmacists were interviewed. They described some challenges concerning how to ensure participation of all three professions and how to get thorough information about the patient. As expected, both professions talked of an increased awareness with time of the benefit of working as a team and the perception of contributing to better and more individual care. The nurses’ perception of the pharmacist changed from being a controller of drug management routines towards being a source of pharmacotherapy knowledge and a discussant partner of appropriate drug therapy in the elderly. The pharmacists became more aware of the nurses’ crucial role of providing clinical information about the patient to enable individual advice. Increasingly the nurses learned to link the patient’s symptoms of effect and side effect to the drugs prescribed.

    Conclusions: Although experiencing challenges in conducting IMRs, the nurses and pharmacists had learning experiences they said improved both their own practice and the quality of drug management. There are some challenges concerning how to ensure participation of all three professions and how to get thorough information about the patient.

  • 145.
    Bengtson, Hannah
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Det var kul att se klassen samarbeta: En kvalitativ fokusgruppstudie om högstadieelevers upplevelser av ett hälsoprojekt2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate high school students' experiences of a health project. A high school class in Uppsala participated in a health project during the spring of 2015. 19 of 22 students agreed to participate in this study and the qualitative method used for data collection was focus group interviews. Students were asked to discuss their experiences, thoughts and feelings about the health project and whether they have experienced their own influence on the content of the project. Using content analysis nine themes were found that formed four categories. Knowledge, cooperation and cohesion, conception of identity, influence and participation.

    The results showed that the majority of students do not feel they have markedly increased health knowledge. In contrast, the main results of the project seemed to consist of improved cooperation and shared stance in the class. The students expressed their need for further work of cooperation, in the form of collaborative exercises. One important thing that came up during the interviews was whether the class understood their identity and status of the school. Students' perception as to why their class was selected for the project was based on the class's bad reputation in the school and among teachers.

  • 146.
    Bengtson, Sandra
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Iwermo, Mattias
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Närståendes upplevelser av vården av barn och ungdomar med autismspektrumtillstånd: En deskriptiv litteraturstudie2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Att beskriva de upplevelser av vården som närstående till barn och ungdomar med autismspektrumtillstånd har haft.Metod: Litteraturstudie med beskrivande design. Data samlades in från databaserna PubMed, Cinahl och PsycINFO. Resultatet baserades på 14 artiklar.Resultat: Närståendes generella upplevelse av vården var till en stor del negativ.Diagnosprocessen upplevdes ta för lång tid samt vara för svår. Närstående upplevde också att tillgängligheten av information inte var tillräcklig och att vårdpersonalen inte besatt tillräckligt med kunskap. De upplevde även att det var svårt att få tillgång till hjälp och stöd samt att många kände ett utanförskap utan tillräcklig förståelse för deras livssituation och sorg.Närstående fick en mer positiv upplevelse av vården när diagnosen sattes tidigt och när de upplevde en personlig kontakt med vårdförmedlaren. Vårdpersonal som upplevdes som insatt och kompetent bidrog också till en positiv upplevelseSlutsats: Resultatet av denna litteraturstudie påvisar att det finns brister inom hälso- och sjukvården speciellt bland vårdpersonal som saknar specialistutbildning som till exempel allmänsjuksköterskan. Dessa brister visade sig vara okunskap kring AST och hur detta påverkar närstående samt informationsförmedling till närstående.Svårigheten att få en diagnos då vårdpersonal upplevdes att inte ta närståendes farhågor på allvar var även en brist.En grundläggande utbildning kring AST för allmänsjuksköterskor och läkare skulle sannolikt öka kvaliteten på omvårdnaden för denna grupp.

  • 147.
    Bengtsson, Inger
    et al.
    Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg.
    Lissner, Lauren
    The Sahlgrenska School of Public Health and Community Medicine, Public Health Epidemiology Unit (EPI), Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ljung, Thomas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Medical science.
    Rosengren, Annika
    Department of Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital/Östra, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Thelle, Dag
    Institute of Basic Medical Science, Department of Biostatistics, Oslo, Norway.
    Währborg, Peter
    Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg.
    The cortisol awakening response and the metabolic syndrome in a population-based sample of middle-aged men and women.2010In: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental, ISSN 0026-0495, E-ISSN 1532-8600, Vol. 59, no 7, p. 1012-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective was to explore the relationship between the cortisol awakening response (CAR) and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) as defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program criteria. The final study sample consisted of 91 women (14 with MetS) and 84 men (15 with MetS), aged 45 to 70 years, from a general population sample. The only exclusion criteria were no consent, pregnancy, or insufficient cortisol testing. On the day of measurement (weekday), salivary cortisol was sampled at awakening and 15 minutes after awakening. Relative CAR (CAR%) and the MetS were the main variables studied. Results showed that, in women with the MetS, cortisol at awakening was significantly lower (mean, 8.92 vs 12.33 nmol/L; P = .05) and the CAR was significantly higher (91.4% vs 36.5%, P < .001) than in women without the syndrome. Significant difference in the relative CAR was also present between men and women with MetS (38.5% and 91.4%, respectively; P = .02). No difference was seen in the awakening response comparing men with and without the MetS. In a regression model, the response to awakening was dependent on the MetS in women (F1,89 = 13.19, P < .001); but the model was not significant in men. Furthermore, the awakening response was associated with more depressive symptoms in women (F1,80 = 8.12, P = .01) and with weekday/weekend cortisol sampling in men (F1,82 = 4.63, P = .03). The association between the relative CAR and the MetS remained significant but somewhat attenuated after adjusting for depressive symptoms (P = .01). Results indicate a sex difference in the CAR% in the presence of the MetS independent of depressive symptoms, a known correlate of the MetS.

  • 148.
    Bengtsson, Sebastian
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Fa, Joakim
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskors erfarenheter av stress inom akutsjukvård2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund:

    Akutsjukvård är en varierande arbetsplats där högt patientflöde, tidsbrist och påfrestande situationer är vanligt förekommande, sjuksköterskor vårdar människor som lider av en kritisk skada eller sjukdom där utgången kan bli fatal. Sjuksköterskan måste ha full kontroll och överblick för alla patienter för att snabbt uppmärksamma om en patients tillstånd försämras. Den ofta stressfulla situationen ställer höga krav på sjuksköterskan både fysiskt och psykiskt. Sjuksköterskor försöker vara tidseffektiva genom att fokusera på den medicinska vården vilket kan leda till att patientens behov av att bli bekräftad och att bli lyssnad till brister i de akuta situationerna.

    Syfte:

    Att beskriva sjuksköterskors erfarenheter av stress inom akutsjukvård.

    Metod:

    Litteraturstudie med beskrivande design där tio artiklar användes. En artikel var av kvantitativ ansats och en använde mixed method, de resterande artiklarna var av kvalitativ ansats.

    Huvudresultat:

    Sjuksköterskorna beskrev hur brister i organisationen medförde högre arbetsbelastning och ledde till att stress upplevdes som oundvikligt inom akutsjukvård. Sjuksköterskorna beskrev arbetsmiljön som oförutsägbar och påfrestande och medförde fysiska såväl som psykiska konsekvenser. Detta till följd av en brist på strategiska verktyg och resurser för att hantera den upplevda stressen. Sjuksköterskorna upplevde att på grund av tidsbrist kände de sig otillräckliga i sitt holistiska arbetssätt och att de under bättre omständigheter hade kunnat ge en bättre omvårdnad till patienterna. Det totala antalet deltagare i studierna var 333 sjuksköterskor och majoriteten var kvinnor i åldrarna 20-62 år.

    Slutsatser:

    Genom förbättrade arbetsförhållanden och kunskap om copingstrategier kan vården och hälsan hos sjuksköterskorna förbättras vilket gynnar omvårdnaden och patienten.

  • 149.
    Bergabo-Lundqvist, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Lindkvist, Anders
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskans erfarenheter av att arbeta med triage på en akutmottagning: litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Triage is a tool used to carry out assessments and priorities of patients in emergency rooms. The assessment of the patients is divided into different levels according to their health needs. The purpose of the assessments is to ensure that those who have the greatest need of assistance are taken care of first. A registered nurse performs this assessment.

    Aim: To describe the nurse´s experience working with triage in a emergency department and to describe the data collection method used in the articles included in the result.

    Method: A literature study with descriptive design, were ten scientific articles were included. A search for scientific material was carried out ant retrieved from the University of Gävle databases Cinahl and PubMed and through a manual search of the two databases.

    Results: It emerged that nurses describes causes like lack of education, a lack of experience and factors that affect the work environment has been shown to be important for their experience in working with triage. Selected items data collections methods consisted of interview studies, surveys, observational studies and a web-based survey.

    Conclusion: The results reveled three main factors affecting nurse´s experience of triage: Clinical experience, work environment and education. The factors, each individually is important for nurse’s occupation, not just in emergency care, but also in other areas in healthcare. Despite the great variety influx of patients in emergency rooms the nurse’s professional satisfaction is but if more emphasis was placed on creating a more enjoyable working environment, providing training and reviewing clinical significance of professional experience at the triage then work satisfaction migh be even higher.

  • 150.
    Bergdahl, Emma
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Hinder och möjligheter för företagssköterskor vid införandet av goda matvanor hos företag2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

     

    Emma Bergdahl

    Obstacles and opportunities among occupational health nurses when implementing healthy eating habits.

    C thesis in Public Health. Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies. University of Gävle. Autumn 2012

     

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate which obstacles and opportunities nurses within occupational health find when trying to implement healthy eating habits among the employees in their respective company. Another objective was to see if the nurses worked according to the Guidelines, issued by the National Board of Health and Welfare.

    Method: The study was a quantitative study and conducted among nurses in central Sweden. A web survey was distributed to nurses who chose to participate. The response rate was 66 percent. The results were compiled in Excel since the characters and results are displayed in the form of figures, text and quotes.

    Results: The results showed that the most common obstacles found by nurses when trying to implement healthy eating habits among workers, were lack of motivation, lack of time and finances of companies. The opportunities were motivation, cooperation with other actors and adequate knowledge in the field. Healthy eating habits received low priority among the nurses.

    Conclusion: Motivation will always be necessary in order to change lifestyle or habits. Therefore, a high priority must be to work more with how to motivate those individuals who may not be so inclined to make a change.

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