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  • 101.
    Alm, Sofia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Bending, Nina
    Två typer av arbetsplatsintroduktion2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 102.
    Almkrona, Ebba
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Björkman, Josefine
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Den moderna mobbningen: Nätmobbning bland ungdomar2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of the professionals experiences of cyber bullying among teenagers of the age 14-16. To answer the purpose of the study six semi-structured interviews were performed with professionals who work in close contact with teenagers within the school system and social work. To analyze the results symbolic interactionism is used as well as concepts of attitude and norms. The results demonstrated that teenagers that have experienced cyber bullying can exhibit symptom of depression, self harming behavior and in certain cases performed suicide attempts. One contributing factor to why cyber bullying present to the extent it does is because teenagers are able to be anonymous on the internet. Being anonymous contributes to teenagers being able to act cruel towards each other with little repercussion. By informing teenagers and drawing attention to the impact cyber bullying have on a person is considered the most effective way to prevent cyber bullying to present itself according to interviewed people.

  • 103.
    Almqvist, Josefin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Nilsson, Angelica
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    En handlingsplan kan vara skillnaden mellan liv och död: Socialsekreterares beskrivningar av arbetet med hedersrelaterat våld och förtryck2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how the social services work with honor-related violence and oppression, and how action plans are implemented into the work. Honor-related violence and oppression is a relatively new problem in Sweden and for a long time, the social services have lacked strategies for how the problem should be handled. Evaluations of the social services have shown that several municipalities in Sweden lack specific action plans against honor-related violence and oppression, as well as routines and guidelines for their work in this area. This study is based on qualitative interviews with five professional social workers from different municipalities. Through the interviews, each social worker’s view on the work of honor-related violence and oppression and the importance of the action plan have been highlighted. The results showed that the social workers described their work in a similar way but their view on the importance of an action plan differed. Based on the results of the study, our conclusion was that action plans can be a solid ground that creates a unified structure for the social services, and are therefore important in the work against honor-related violence and oppression. 

  • 104.
    Almström, Mathina
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Social Work.
    Hossain, Jarif
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Social Work.
    Att samverka kring barn med komplexa behov i en specialiserad socialtjänst: En kvalitativ studie om socialarbetares uppfattning av det professionella samarbetet kring barn med behov av samordnade insatser.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie undersöker hur socialarbetare på Socialtjänsten upplever att samverkan mellan enheterna; Barn- och ungdomsenheten samt Enheten för funktionshinder fungerar i praktiken samt hur de ser på eventuella utmaningar med att utreda barn med komplexa behov. Studien byggde på kvalitativa semistrukturerade intervjuer och resultatet har analyserats utifrån organisationsteori och systemteori. Studien visar att enheterna kan betraktas som separata subsystem med olika institutionella logiker. Socialarbetarna beskriver att barn med komplex problematik behöver att de skilda subsystemen kan verka över de organisatoriska fälten och att samverkan är ett värdesatt verktyg. Det uttrycks en klar vilja till att samarbeta men det saknas tydliga direktiv för hur det ska säkerställas i praktiken. I syfte att förbättra samverkansarbetet beskriver socialarbetarna att det behövs fler och regelbundna utbildningstillfällen samt väldefinierade riktlinjer. Denna studie är visserligen inte generaliserbar till hela samhället men indikerar ändå att svårigheterna i samverkansarbetet är möjliga att motverka. 

  • 105.
    Alpmar, Johanna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies.
    Eriksson, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies.
    Patienters upplevelser av att vara döende i cancersjukdom samt vårdas palliativt i hemmet: En litteraturstudie2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The purpose of this study was to describe how adult cancer patients in need of palliative care experience the process of being dying and being cared for at home from a physical and psycho-social perspective. The method for this study was a literary review including 16 scientific articles. Study findings showed that cancer patients in palliative care had a great deal of suffering both physically and psychosocially. Physical discomfort that caused major problems for patients were pain and fatigue. The psychosocial suffering was a major concern for patients experiencing themselves as a burden, but also a concern for how the lives of their relatives would be after their death. Positive experiences of palliative care at home according to the patients was that it contributed to the feeling of being secure and led to better control of symptoms. The negative experiences included fear of not getting help fast enough in case an acute condition would occur, difficulties in having to get help with personal hygiene and being forced to shift responsibility to someone else. It emerged that many patients who initially had the desire to die at home changed their wish when the disease entered its´ final phase and then wanted to be cared for in a hospital

  • 106.
    Al-Sabti, Sarah
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Maycraft Kall, Mathilde
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskornas upplevelser av att ge omvårdnad till patienter inom palliativ vård i hemmet2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Sjuksköterskorna behövde vara flexibla för att kunna hjälpa patienterna med sitt vardagliga liv. Det är viktigt att sjuksköterskan är redo att tillhandahålla palliativ vård på ett professionellt sätt och för att uppnå detta krävs det att sjuksköterskan har ett bra bemötande samt att patienten ges bästa möjliga omvårdnad. Sjuksköterskans arbete inom den palliativa vården är krävande och därför efterfrågas kunskap och erfarenhet hos sjuksköterskan. Syfte: Syftet med studien var att beskriva sjuksköterskors upplevelser av att ge omvårdnad till vuxna patienter som ges palliativ vård i hemmet, samt att beskriva hur de valda artiklarna beskriver undersökningsgruppen. Metod: En deskriptiv litteraturanalys. 11 artiklar granskades och sammanfattades.  Huvudresultat: Att handskas med ett arbete nära döden och anhöriga som ofta hellre vill ha sin egen röst hörd istället för patientens röst är svårt för sjuksköterskan. Sjuksköterskor upplevde palliativ vård som emotionellt påfrestande. Sjuksköterskor beskriver att de genom professionella gränser och kollegialt stöd hanterar arbetet. Slutsats: Att upprätthålla de professionella gränserna är viktigt för sjuksköterskan, samt att kunna få kollegialt stöd. Att få läkaren att förstå vikten av situationen är inte alltid lätt, men är viktigt för sjuksköterskan att kunna göra för att ge patienten den bästa vården och minska patientens lidande.  

  • 107.
    Aludden, Andrea
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Hedlund, Åsa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Attribution: Hur tolkar individer situationer på arbetsplatsen?2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I arbetslivet upplever individer olika situationer, både positiva och negativa. Attribution är ett sätt att snabbt och till synes enkelt tolka och förklara individers reaktioner i dessa situationer. Syftet med uppsatsen var att undersöka attribution på arbetsplatser och att undersöka eventuella skillnader eller samband mellan attribution, utbildning och ålder. Respondenter med olika utbildningsbakgrund rekryterades genom kontakt med olika arbetsplatser. Respondenterna fick besvara en enkät där de fick beskriva fyra upplevda situationer, två positiva och två negativa. Resultatet visar aktör- och observatöreffekten genom att individer tolkar olika situationer på olika sätt gällande dimensionerna orsak och stabilitet där observatören tillskrev situationen högre till dessa dimensioner än aktören. Resultaten visade samband mellan attribution och ålder där ökad ålder korrelerande med bedömningen av stabilitet och inre kontroll. De visade även på skillnader i attribution beroende på utbildningsnivå där lågutbildade och högutbildade bedömde flera av skalmåtten olika gällande de positiva situationerna. Föreliggande uppsats visar på att ytterligare forskning på attribution i arbetslivet behövs.

  • 108.
    Alvarado Orellana, Sara Lucia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Kamariza, Cynthia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    An analysis on how the media describe intimate partner violence from a social constructionist perspective2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to get a better understanding on how Swedish media describes intimate partner violence from a social constructionist perspective. This was done by analysing the way this violence is projected in three Swedish newspapers namely Aftonbladet, Dagens Nyheter & Expressen. Our study focused on heterosexual relationships and investigated how some sample of Swedish newspapers described the image of “men and women as perpetrators; gender construction”, “the presentation of the violence” and “the way society treats intimate partner violence victims (male/female)”. The theoretical approach in this analysis was based on social constructionism with a special focus on gender. In order to address the research objectives, a content analysis was performed and some comment and analysis on themes were given. The research findings revealed that both men and women could be perpetrators and victims of intimate partner violence with a main focus on woman as victims from media.

  • 109.
    Alvesand, Caroline
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Linder, Charlotte
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Ungdomars upplevelse av att leva med Diabetes Mellitus typ 1.: En deskriptiv litteraturstudie.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 debuts in childhood and adolescence. The treatment is self-care that involves blood glucose control, drug treatment and following recommendations on diet and exercise. Nursing's professional area includes children and adolescents. Deviating from self-care activities and secrecy around the disease affects the quality of care for young people. Purpose: To describe the young people's experience of living with Diabetes Mellitus type 1 as well as describing the study groups of the studies examined. Method: Descriptive literature study with twelve scientific articles with qualitative as well as qualitative and quantitative approach. Consequences and differences in the results of the articles have been categorized and themes and subthemes have been identified. Results: Young people experienced difficulties in accepting their illness and wanted to have control over and take responsibility for their illness and increase independence. Young people experienced the feeling of being different and avoiding self-care in social contexts. Difficulties to follow dietary recommendations varied and blood glucose controls were exerted. Support from friends and peers facilitated the performance of self-care. It was positive that nurses showed interest in the lives of adolescents in addition to their DMT1. Nurses were found to fail to get into the situation of young people and to be an emotional support. Conclusion: There is a need for increased support and understanding from nurses. Through increased understanding, the nurse can help to facilitate the transfer of responsibility. This can lead to increased safety and sense of control among adolescents, which may help them dare to share their illness with the environment.

  • 110.
    Alvåg, Amanda
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Anna, Ramberg
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Mödrars upplevelse av postpartumdepression: En litterturstudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 111.
    Alyass, Laila
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Finns det belägg för socialt stöd i arbetsplatsen?: Studie om en myndighet i Mellansverige som har i uppgift att fatta individuella beslut.2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Ohälsa på arbetsplatsen utgör en stor riskfaktor beträffande folkhälsa. Jag har valt att undersöka hur anställda på en myndighet beskriver dess innebörd av socialt stöd och hurvida det är en viktig faktor för arbetslivet att kunna uppleva någon form av socialt stöd. Tidigare forskning har visat att bristande socialt stöd på arbetsplatsen ger en ökad risk för stress, vilket kan resultera i att arbetsglädje och välmående försämras. Med hjälp av socialt stöd från arbetskollegor skapas det arbetsglädje och ett ökat välmående. Syftet: med denna uppsats var att undersöka hurvida handläggare på en myndighet upplever soicalt stöd i arbetet. Detta för att kunna se om sociala stödet har samband med arbetshälsan och hur det påverkar arbetstagarnes vämående. Metod: I studien har en kvalitativ ansats använts, där 4 respondenter intervjuvades på en myndighet i ett län i Mellansverige. I studien har data analyserats och styrkats från en deskriptiv innehållsanalys, där intervjuerna transkriberades och kategoriserades för att kunna få fram resultatet. 

    Resultat: visade att samtliga respondenter upplevde att socialt stöd på arbetsplatsen är något positivt och kan även fungera som ett hjälpmedel främst vid stressiga perioder. Studien har även visat att socialt stöd från arbetskollegor skapar trygghet i arbetet. Detta genom att man vid svåra situationer får stöd från kollegor för att finna lösningar på problem som kan uppstå. Slutsatsen: visar att med ett gott arbetsteam skapas det en förutsättning för en bättre arbetshälsa med ökad välbefinnande även vid stressiga situationer. 

  • 112.
    Amin, Azhin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Criminology.
    Jag älskar döden mer än ni älskar livet! ”: En kvalitativ studie om varför IS/DAESH krigare valt att strida för islamiska staten2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Digital development has made the efficiency of extremist networks possible. Internet and social media have been developed and started to be used as "human web-networks" for the recruitment of like-minded people with the same ideological hopes. For DAESH, this is something positive. The purpose is to give a deeper understanding of why young men join the DAESH. The empirical basis therefore consists of interviews conducted with DAESH warriors who are detained in place in northern Iraq. The opportunity to gain access to these respondents for both the study and the empirical basis is unique. The method used is of a qualitative nature. Furthermore, the profit part represents the empirical basis. Authors have transcribed the interviews, and then conducted a thematidation of collected data. With direct quotes from the material, authors argue that there are recurring patterns in it as respondents. The study concludes that young men join the DAESH because of social disorganization and the lack of strong social ties.

  • 113.
    Amini Alikani, Amineh
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Nygren, Sofia
    Upplevelse, livskvalitet och stöd från sjuksköterskor: en litteraturstudie om fatigue hos personer med MS2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: was to increase understanding of the experience of fatigue in people with MS and fatigues impact on quality of life and how the nurse can support and help people with MS in their everyday life.

    Method: Literature review with a descriptive design. Articles (n=15) were retrieved from Medline via PubMed and Cinahl and manual reference lists, six qualitative, eight quantitative and one with a combination of both approaches.

    Findings: it was found that fatigue in people with MS was an invisible symptom, lead to limitations in their everyday life, increased other symptoms and lead to social changes. People suffering from fatigue had lower quality of life than the general population. The findings showed what kind of support people with MS wanted from nurses. People with MS found their own strategies to manage and relieve fatigue, often without help from nurses.

    Conclusion: Fatigue in people with MS was a troublesome symptom which affected their everyday life and lowered their quality of life. Since fatigue was an invisible symptom it should be approached by nurses. More research is needed about how fatigue in people with MS should be treated and how nurses can best support people with MS to manage and relieve fatigue in their everyday life.

  • 114.
    Amra, Olfat
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Larsson, Malin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Egenvårdens roll i förebyggandet av fotsår vid omvårdnaden av personer med diabetes mellitus typ 1 och typ 2: En litteraturstudie2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 115.
    Amundsson, Ulrika
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Larsson, Sofi
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Psykisk ohälsa bland ungdomar i Sverige2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Att beskriva vilka faktorer som bidrar till psykisk ohälsa bland ungdomar i Sverige.

    Metod: Litteraturstudie med en deskriptiv design. Studien är baserad på 14 vetenskapliga artiklar sökt i databaserna "PubMed" och "Cinahl".

    Resultat: Det visade sig i resultatet att skilda föräldrar är en stor bidragande faktor till ungdomars psykiska ohälsa. Ungdomar som lever med skilda föräldrar har en större risk att drabbas av depression, ångest och att börja utöva negativa beteenden som rökning, dricka alkohol och tidig sexdebut. Andra faktorer som bidrar till psykisk ohälsa var fetma hos ungdomar och låg socioekonomisk status hos föräldrar.

    Slutsats: Resultatet i föreliggande studie visade att ungdomar som lever med skilda föräldrar är en stark bidragande faktor till ungdomars psykiska ohälsa. Även fetma hos ungdomarna och dålig socioekonomisk status hos föräldrar kan leda till psykisk ohälsa hos ungdomar. Författarna till föreliggande studie önskar att riktlinjer utvecklas så att sjuksköterskan och andra professioner inom vården lättare ska fånga upp de ungdomar som lider av psykisk ohälsa, genom att ha dessa faktorer i åtanke. Ytterligare forskning inom området bör utföras för att få en tydligare bild av hur familjeförhållanden påverkar den psykiska ohälsan hos ungdomar i Sverige.

  • 116.
    Andarea, Jackline
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Örnblom, Jeanette
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Föräldrars upplevelser av att leva med ett barn 0–13 år, med diabetes typ 1.: En litteraturstudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Today live about 450 000 people with diabetes in Sweden and it makes the disease one of the major diseases. Diabetes mellitus type 1 is a chronic autoimmune disease primarily affects young people. In Sweden live about 7000 children with the disease and fall ill every year approximately 700 children under 15 years. This makes the disease one of the most common chronic diseases in children in Sweden.

    Aims: The purpose of this study was to describe parents' experience of living with a child (0-13 years) with type 1 diabetes mellitus and to describe the data collection methods of the included articles.

    Methods: A descriptive literature study, which included 11 scientific articles, nine articles of qualitative approach, one quantitative and one mixed study. These were analyzed objectively by both authors. The searches took place in PubMed and Cinahl.

    Results: The results show that parents experienced stress and life adjustment when child get diabetes. They felt a sense of worry and they found it difficult to assign responsibility to someone else. Support and information perceived as flawed in different situations, but a healthcare team or a mentor perceived as positive. Data collection methods in the included articles were mostly interviews except one who applied the questionnaire.

    Conclusions: Parents experienced constant worry, lack of support and information. With the right support and information would reduce parents' anxiety and it could also strengthen the child's self-care ability.

  • 117.
    Andersas, Lisa
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Engholm, Malin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Hedersbrottslighetens ideala offer: En kvantitativ genomgång av polisens utredningar av brott med hederskaraktär2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    "The ideal victims of honour-related crime"

    The purpose of this study is to examine if characteristics of victim and perpetrator and circumstances involving the crime, which are described in the theory of "the ideal victim", have an influence on the outcome of police employee’s independent assessment on crimes of honour character. In order to examine this a quantitative method has been applied and a logistic regression has been made of data based on identified crimes whit honour as a motive. The results of the study have shown that eleven variables which has a connection to characteristics and circumstances involving the crime and the investigation, as gender, age and circumstances surrounding reporting the crime, have a significant influence on the outcome. The study’s main conclusion is that no clear connection can be drawn between the outcome of assessments on crimes with an honour motive and the perception of the ideal victim.

  • 118.
    Andersson, Alexandra
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Den stickrädda patienten2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Studies show that about 10% of the world population suffer from needle fear. Consequences for the person with this phobia who knows needle fear is anxiety and avoidance of medical procedures involving injections. This can lead to health problems for the individual and in the worst case lead to the person avoiding all healthcare. It is important that the nurse has knowledge of the factors that can lead to needle fear and what the nursing interventions that can alleviate the suffering of the patient.

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to highlight nurses nursing care measures required to preclude the fear of needles in children. The aim was also to describe the selection groups in the included articles.

    Method: A literature review in which the results of the 12 articles reviewed, analyzed and compiled. Searches were conducted in PubMed, CINAHL and PsycINFO.

    Main Results: The result showed that the environment's design is important as children get injections, and how well the child was prepared for needle insertion. The result showed that even small children have the opportunity to benefit from training on needle insertion procedures. Adjusting the time it takes for a baby and a toddler to adapt must be allowed to steer healthcare. Distraction was used as a method before the needle insertion but that the best were of distraction was not needed.

    Conclusions: The environment´s design is important as children get injections and nurse can reduce the feeling of a hospital or clinic by adapting the environment and provide for distracting toys. It is important that children know what would happen at the needle insertion procedure and even smaller children can benefit from education about needle injection procedures and understand the importance of them. The nurse can by adjusting the session time for the child's needs and validate the child's feelings reduce anxiety and fear of the needle fearing children.

  • 119.
    Andersson, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Distriktssköterskors upplevelse av förskrivingsrätten: Ambivalens och variationer i möjligheter och utnyttjandegrad2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Bakgrund:

    Förskrivningsrätten för distriktssköterskor infördes 1994. Syftet var att förenkla och effektivisera hälso- och sjukvården. Det har framkommit att förskrivningsrätten använts i olika omfattning bland distriktssköterskorna. Syfte: Syftet med studien var att beskriva distriktssköterskors upplevelser av förskrivningsrätten. Metod: En kvalitativ ansats med en deskriptiv design användes. Tio distriktssköterskor från en hälsocentral och en distriktssköterskemottagning intervjuades. Resultat: Temat "Distriktssköterskorna är ambivalenta till sin förskrivningsrätt och varierar i synen på möjligheter och utnyttjandegrad" bildades ur sju kategorier. Resultatet visade att distriktssköterskorna upplevde att det var bra att ha möjligheten att förskriva men möjligheten och graden av utnyttjande varierade. De upplevde att det var meningslöst att förskriva receptfria läkemedel. Brist på uppdatering i förskrivningsrätten och av nya läkemedel försvårar förskrivningen. Distriktssköterskorna uppgav att förskrivningsrätten underlättade arbetet och förkortade vårdkedjan samt stärkte yrkesrollen. De upplevde att deras förskrivning var en stor fördel för patienten. Slutsats : Distriktssköterskorna upplever ambivalens till sin möjlighet att förskriva läkemedel och utnyttjar inte förskrivningsrätten i den utsträckning de skulle kunna. Det kan bero på att de upplever det meningslöst att förskriva receptfria läkemedel och att de inte har möjlighet att uppdatera sin kunskap. Det finns även de som menade att förskrivningsrätten underlättar, stärker yrkesrollen och är en fördel för patienten.

    Nyckelord:

    Distriktssköterska, läkemedelsförskrivning, förskrivningsrätt, upplevelser.

  • 120.
    Andersson, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Mammors upplevelse att ha ett barn med atopiskt eksem och deras upplevelse av stöd från BVC-sköterskan2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: En ökning har skett av atopiska eksem, hösnuva och astma i slutet av 1900-talet, sjukdomarna har klassats som ett folkhälsoproblem. Det går inte att bota atopiska eksem, förebyggande behandling mot torr hud och klåda är mest effektiva sättet att hantera sjukdomen och lindra den. Atopiska eksem kan leda till försämrad livskvalité både för barnet och familjen. Syfte: Syftet med studien var att beskriva hur mammor upplever att det är att ha ett barn med atopiska eksem samt hur de behandlar och lindrar barnets symtom. Syftet var ckså att beskriva vilket stöd de får från BVC-sköterskan och hur de upplever det stödet. Metod: Studien har en beskrivande design med en kvalitativ ansats. I studien har åtta mammor till barn med atopiska eksem från två förskolor intervjuats. Intervjuerna transkriberades och analyserades med kvalitativ innehållsanalys.  Huvudresultat: Analysen av intervjuerna resulterade i temat: Att ständigt vara orolig för sitt barn, analysen har också resulterat i tre kategorier som handlar om att mammorna beskrev det ständiga smörjande som ett stressmoment. Mammorna undvek kemikalier i vardagen som de trodde kunde påverka barnens känsliga hy. Mammorna kände sig dåliga som förälder då de inte kunde bota barnens atopiska eksem. Mammorna tyckte att BVC-sköterskans bemötande var bra, men att de inte fick tillräckligt stöd med atopiska eksemet hos barnen. Slutsatser: Atopiska eksem påverkar barn och familjers livssituation, barnet och familjen blir påminda om eksemet igenom det ständiga klådan, sömnlösa nätter och föräldrarnas ständiga oro över barnet. Mammorna tyckte att BVC-sköterskans stöd inte var tillräckligt.

  • 121.
    Andersson, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Berglund, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Distriktssköterskors och sjuksköterskors erfarenheter om och reflektioner av arbetsmiljön i kommunaliserad hemsjukvård - En intervjustudie2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract (MB och AA)

    District and registered nurses work with various tasks and in different services includinghome care. The patient’s home becomes the nurse’s workplace. The aim of the study was to describe district nurses’/registered nurses’ perceptions and experiences of the work environment in municipalized home care, among those with short and long professional experience. Descriptive design and qualitative approach was used. Five participants with shortand six with long professional experiences were interviewed. The material was analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The results for participants with short work experience led to fivecategories: factors influencing workload, factors affecting collaboration, relationships and ethical dilemmas, organizational conditions and leadership, and lack of communicationreduce patient safety. The work was experienced physically diverse increased number ofpatients and time constraints led to stress. The work also felt joyful with good relationships to patients and families. Ethical dilemmas arose from divergent views of the patient’s health care needs. The results among participants with long professional experience revealed four categories: nursing in home environment, factors affecting communication and collaboration, tomunicipalize home care is a conversion process and a lack of leadership. The work was described as physically demanding but varied. Shortcomings of communication and information meant that important patient information was missing. District nurses felt theirspecialist competence undervalued. The conclusion is that regardless short or long professional experience, the participants witnessed of positive and negative aspects in their work environment. The work was perceived sensed but increased understanding and supportfrom managers about the work situation was desired. When working in home care, it can be difficult to affect work environment factors of importance because the work is performed inpatients’ homes.

  • 122.
    Andersson, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies.
    Öberg, Fia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies.
    Sjuköterskestudenters attityder till hivrelaterad sjukdom och hivpositiva patienter: En litteraturstudie2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to describe nursing students' attitudes towards HIV- related illness and people living with HIV. A further aim was to examine the study groups on the basis of selection and non-response in the selected articles that were included in the study.  The study has a descriptive design and is based on 13 articles with both quantitative and qualitative approach. The results showed that negative attitudes were present in varying degrees among nursing students in all continents. This result was found, despite the fact that the majority of the participants in the studies were positive to nurse and treat people living with HIV- related illness.

    Factors that appeared to influence attitudes were age, work experience, knowledge of HIV - related disease and knowing someone living with HIV. There was also a connection between country, culture and nursing students' attitudes.

    The students were often found to have negative attitudes which were based on lack of awareness and fear which frequently led to stigmatization of the patient group. It turned out that there was a lack of knowledge among the students and that few had adequate knowledge of HIV - related disease and its transmission routes.

    The conclusion is that nursing students during their training does not get sufficient knowledge about HIV - related illness. This can result in difficulties to meet people living with HIV when the aspiring nurse may experience insecurity in meeting the patient.

  • 123.
    Andersson, Annika
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Jansson, Marie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Mammamisshandel: En kunskapsöversikt över barns upplevelse av pappans våld mot mamman2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to give a general picture of children’s experience of their

    father`s violence against their mothers, and to look at how this problem can be

    constructed in the research literature. The question at issue was: How does the research

    literature discuss children’s experiences of domestic violence, with focus on the themes

    the child’s home environment, the violent father, the abused mother, and the social,

    physical and psychological consequences of the violence for the child? The study is a

    selective review of nine primary documents. A social constructionist theory was used to

    analyze the results. The results showed that these children find their home environment

    unpredictable and they can have difficulties to attaching to their parents. The mothers

    caring ability is described as insufficient and the children have a conflicting

    understanding of both their parents. Through mutual interaction, the family members

    construct and obtain each others roles in the family.

  • 124.
    Andersson, Axel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Effektiviteten av högintensiv intervallträning som behandling för Typ 2 Diabetes: En litteraturstudie2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund Det finns många olika varianter av diabetes men av alla personer som har diagnostiserats med sjukdomen så har 80-90% typ 2 diabetes (T2D). Sjukdomen kan uppstå av ärftliga faktorer och förekommer ofta i äldre åldrar men kan utvecklas i samband med en ohälsosam livsstil. Vid behandling av T2D är en livsstilsförändring viktigast och sker främst genom förändrade kost- och träningssvanor. Traditionellt har länge måttligt intensiv uthållighetsträning (MICT) i 150 min/vecka rekommenderats till målgruppen som träningsform. Syfte Syftet med studien är att undersöka effektiviteten av högintensiv intervallträning som behandling för vuxna människor med typ 2 diabetes eller prediabetes. Metod Studien är en deskriptiv systematisk litteraturöversikt som innebär att tillgänglig forskning sammanställs inom ett specifikt ämnesområde för att skapa förståelse för forskningsområdet. Sökningar har skett i databaserna PubMed och samlingsdatabasen Discovery där MeSH termer och friasökningar har kombinerats för att täcka en så stor del av forskningsfältet som möjligt. Resultat 11 artiklar valdes ut och resultatet delades upp i tre olika kategorier mellan glykemisk kontroll, högintensiv intervallträning (HIIT) i jämförelse med MICT och genomförbarheten av HIIT med self-efficiency theory som utgångspunkt. HIIT gav liknande eller bättre effekter på glykemisk kontroll (HbA1c) jämfört med MICT. I studier där genomförbarheten av ett HIIT protokoll nämns så visade samtliga positiva resultat oavsett interventionens längd. Slutsats Liknande eller bättre förbättringar på glykemisk kontroll går att uppnå genom en lägre träningsvolym än de traditionellt rekommenderade 150 min/vecka med måttlig intensitet och HIIT skulle kunna rekommenderas som behandlingsmetod för typ 2 diabetiker samt personer med prediabtes inom vården.

  • 125.
    Andersson, Birgitta
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies.
    Ndengu, Joana
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies.
    Patienters kunskap om och upplevelser av att vara MRSA-bärare: - En litteraturstudie2011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna litteraturstudie var att beskriva hur patienter med MRSA upplevde att bli vårdade samt hur de upplevde bemötandet från sjukvårdspersonalen. Metoden: Studien var en beskrivande litteraturstudie baserad på 15 vetenskapliga artiklar som granskats och kvalitetsbedömts. Resultatet: Resultatet visade att patienternas kunskap om MRSA varierade. Upplevelsen av att ha fått MRSA fick en stor känslomässig påverkan på livet och de var oroliga för framtiden. Orsaken till infektionen trodde vissa berodde på dålig personlig hygien. Upplevelsen av isolering kändes traumatisk och ledde till ångest och depression för många patienter men var också positivt för en del. Patiener med MRSA upplevde att det rådde brist på information från sjukvårdspersonalen om hur MRSA påverkade deras liv. Bemötandet upplevdes obehagligt eftersom personalen hade ett oprofessionellt förhållningssätt mot de infekterade patienterna. Många var rädda för att föra smittan vidare till familjen och vänner. Slutsats: Ytterligare studier behövs för att belysa hur kunskap hos patienter och sjukvårdspersonal varierade. Isoleringen upplevdes trauamatisk och det rådde brist på information och bemötande.

  • 126.
    Andersson, Carola
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Pagard, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Distriktssköterskors/sjuksköterskors reflektioner kring kommunikation och informationsöverföringsprocessen mellan hemsjukvården och annan vårdgivare2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet till föreliggande studie var att beskriva distriktssköterskors/sjuksköterskors reflektioner kring kommunikation och informationsöverföringsprocessen mellan hemsjukvården och annan vårdgivare. Författarna till föreliggande studie fick fram att brister i kommunikationen såväl muntliga som skriftliga mellan distriktssköterskorna/sjuksköterskorna i hemsjukvården och annan vårdgivare förekom. Det medförde till extra arbete för distriktssköterskorna/sjuksköterskorna samt dålig kontroll av arbetssituationen och svårigheter att utföra deras arbetsuppgifter. Distriktssköterskornas/sjuksköterskornas beskrev en påtaglig känsla av maktlöshet i sin arbetssituation. Kanters teori handlar om det grundläggande behovet av att få egenmakt i sin organisation för att kunna utföra optimal omvårdnad. Författarna till föreliggande studie såg att problematik inom kommunikation och informationsöverföringsprocessen framkom tydlig från båda områdena trots att den ena organisationen bedrivits i 20 år och den andra var nystartad. Slutsatsen från föreliggande studie blev att vårdkedjan inte var starkare än svagaste länken när informationsöverföringsprocessen brustit. I samhällsläget idag med allt fler äldre som kan komma ifråga till att vara i behov av avancerad vård i hemmet och samtidigt bedrivas kostnadseffektivt, har vi inte råd med dessa misstag som medfört till ett onödigt lidande för patienterna och en komplicerad arbetssituation för distriktssköterskorna/sjuksköterskorna.

  • 127.
    Andersson, Caroline
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Nilsson, Madeleine
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Det kompetenta barnet?: En kvalitativ studie om socialsekreterares syn på barns möjlighet till delaktighet vid familjehemsplaceringar2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 128.
    Andersson, Elisabeth
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies.
    Englund, Kerstin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies.
    Omvårdnadspersonalens beskrivning av sina upplevelser av möter med utåtagerande personer med demenssjukdom och betydelsen av bemötandet2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to describe how care givers experience working with people who suffer from dementia and acting out behaviour and to illustrate the importance of the care givers approach. Sixteen caregivers were interviewed from different nursing homes in the middle of Sweden. The interviews were analyzed with qualitative content analysis. The result is divided into two content areas. The analysis of the first content area, care givers experiences of meeting people with dementia and acting out behaviour, resulted in three categories, which deals with the approach. The categories were; to be insecure, to feel a challenge and to be secure. To have co-workers nearby resulted in feeling secure. A challenge was to make the person suffering from dementia feel well once again. To be inexperienced resulted in insecurity among the care givers. The second area of content was, the care givers description of the value of a good approach when meeting people suffering from dementia and acting out behaviour. The analysis of that content area resulted in four categories; to be clear, to be calm, to be experienced and to be accepted. To be calm and use few words was successful. To have knowledge and to be appreciated made the care giving work easier. The result of the study illustrates different approaches from care givers in their contact with patients with dementia and how care givers experienced that contact.

  • 129.
    Andersson, Ellinor
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies.
    Har ett idrottsmedlemskap som barn någon betydelse för den fysiska aktiviteten som vuxen?2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether students' memberships in sports clubs has affected their attitudes towards physical activity and physical activity level. It was a qualitative descriptive survey based on individual interviews. Results showed that there was a pattern between the former sports membership and current patterns of physical activity.  For instance, those who liked playing football at a young age, continue to adopt the same type of exercise today. This pattern applies to other types of physical activity, with or without club membership. In addition, many respondents thought that a club membership at a young age could have an impact on their physical activity as adults. This was mainly due to the positive feeling that sportsmen perception, that physical activity was something good and fun. Social cohesion in sport was the one thing that many of those interviewed believed was a major reason why sports, was perceived as positive.

  • 130.
    Andersson, Emelie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies.
    Lagerbäck, Sandra
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies.
    Effekter på smärta och hälsa av akupunkturbehandling hos personer med fibromyalgi: En litteraturstudie2011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I världen lever cirka 3-5 procent av befolkningen med det långvariga smärtsyndromet fibromyalgi. Det är svårt att finna behandlingar mot fibromyalgi då det inte finns någon vetenskap om vad som orsakar syndromet. Syftet med föreliggande litteraturstudie var att beskriva effekterna på smärta och hälsa av akupunkturbehandling hos personer med fibromyalgi samt beskriva kvaliteten av de valda artiklarnas metod. Studien utformades med en deskriptiv design där 11 vetenskapliga artiklar inkluderades och sammanställdes. Litteratursökningarna utfördes i databaserna Medline (PubMed) samt Cinahl. Resultatet visade att akupunktur gav positiva kortsiktiga effekter på smärta och hälsa i kombination med farmakologisk behandling hos personer med fibromyalgi. Däremot var långtidseffekten av akupunktur inte betydande effektiv. Placebo visade sig även ge en god effekt. Akupunktur gav betydande minskning av smärta genom en förhöjd aktivering av endogena opioidreceptorer samt genom ökat blodflöde i hud och muskler. Slutsatsen av studien var att akupunktur med fördel kan användas tillsammans med farmakologisk behandling till personer med fibromyalgi. För att kunna ge en god omvårdnad är det viktigt att få kunskap och förståelse om akupunktur som behandlingsmetod till denna population. För att dra några slutsatser om akupunktur kan ge några långsiktiga effekter behövs mer forskning inom området.

  • 131.
    Andersson, Eva
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies.
    Fogelberg, Margareta
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies.
    Varför stannar hon?: en kvalitativ studie om kvinnomisshandel2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose with this study was to create understanding why women stay in destructive relations. To succeed with this a qualitative method was chosen to execute the examination. Interviews were carried through with three women as well as with staff from the women´s crisis center and the police, then the text was analyzed and the result was shown. The result showed that women go through a process where they through adaptation gradually lose themselves. This is done by power and control from the men. The result shows that there is an evident pattern in the women´s experiences that can be referred to Lundgren´s (2004) Normaliseringsprocess (Normalizing process). An important conclusion appeared to be that it depends where in the process the woman is at the moment that determine if she manage to abandon the man. If the woman has not come to that turning-point but has got help from relatives or professionals to abandon the man there is a risk that she might return to the relation. Another conclusion showed that the turning-point is individual for every single woman.

  • 132.
    Andersson, Eva-Marie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Persson, Karin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Friskvårdsförmåner och förändringar i motionsvanor hos brevbärare2010Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to determine if wellness benefits led to any changes in exercise habits among employed postmen. The study was a cross-sectional study carried out by a quantitative method. The collection of data took the form of a questionnaire. The sample consisted of 30 postmen employed at a post office in northern Sweden. The results show that of the postman who use health care benefits, there has been a relatively small change in exercise habits. The results also show that consistently for all respondents was health the main motivation factor for exercise. Time aspect was a factor for not using the wellness benefits. The study showed a state of health is the primary motivational factor to exercise both for those using health care benefits and for those who do not use them.

  • 133.
    Andersson, Fredrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Christina, Lindberg
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskans vårdande på akutmottagningen – ur ett patientperspektiv: En deskriptiv litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The emergency department has a high patient inflow and this results in increased waiting times for patients with low priority injuries and diseases/conditions. The confidentiality in health care prevents the nurse from giving information on why other patients are prioritized over them. Nurses can with the knowledge of patients' experiences of care in the emergency department, get a better understanding and through this provide more individualized care and increased satisfaction of patients.

    Aim: To describe patients' experiences of care from nurses in the emergency department. Furthermore, the aim of this study was to examine the data collection method of the included articles.

    Methods: A literature study with descriptive design. The twelve included scientific articles were sought out in the databases CINAHL and PubMed. The approaches of these are quantitative, qualitative or mixed.

    Results: Many patients felt that the treatment they received by the nurse in the emergency department was good. The good hospitality, ability to listen and the high competence of the nurse brought a mutual respect between nurse and patient. During the waiting time, however, the patients sometimes felt as a burden on nurses and in some cases even felt ignored. The lack of contact with the nurses during the waiting time meant that the patients did not receive the information they deemed necessary. Patients described that the nurse communication was adequate and that they used an easy to understand language.

    Conclusion: Most patients were satisfied with the care they received by the nurse in the emergency department. They felt that the nurse had a high level of competence and communication was adequate. However, there were patients who felt that the information was inadequate.

  • 134.
    Andersson, Gabriella
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Johansson, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Vårdpersonalens erfarenheter av hot och våld inom demensvård och somatisk vård på särskilt boende: Litteraturstudie2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna litteraturstudie var att beskriva vårdpersonalens erfarenheter av hot och våld inom demensvård och somatisk vård på särskilt boende. Ett annat syfte var att undersöka vilka förebyggande åtgärder vårdpersonal kan använda sig av vid dessa situationer. Föreliggande studie är en litteraturstudie med deskriptiv design.  Artiklar söktes i databasen Cinahl vilket resulterade i tolv inkluderande artiklar av kvalitativ och kvantitativ ansats. Författarna har valt att granska artiklarnas undersökningsgrupp och bortfall. Resultatet visade att hot- och våldsituationer är vanligt på särskilt boende och ofta uppkommer i samband med hjälp vid personlig hygien, påklädning och toalettbesök. Vårdpersonalens upplevelse av våld beror på deras tidigare erfarenheter och attityder. Varje vårdpersonal har en egen tolkning av vad våld innebär samt att graden av tolerans skiljer sig mellan olika individer. Genom att ha ökad kunskap, förmåga att kommunicera samt en professionell attityd och viljan att konsultera med andra i vårdteamet kan personalen förebygga ett aggressivt beteende på sin arbetsplats. Vårdpersonalen antog flera olika strategier för att hantera hot- och våldsituationer hos personer med aggressivt och utåtagerande beteende, t.ex. distraktion, personcentrerat förhållningssätt och kommunikation. Läkemedelsbehandling ansågs inte vara en förstahandsåtgärd. Inom det kliniska arbetet kommer vårdpersonalen på särskilt boende att stöta på svåra situationer och utåtagerande beteenden hos äldre och äldre med demenssjukdomar. Därför är det viktigt att som vårdpersonal ha kunskap om bemötande samt kommunikation för att kunna hantera dessa situationer.

  • 135.
    Andersson, Gunilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies.
    Kvinnliga första linjens chefers uppfattning om sin ledarroll inom kommunal äldreomsorg2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

     När en person blir utsedd till chef sker det inom en organisation. Ramverk med regler och rutiner finns inom varje organisation. I uppdraget att vara chef ligger att leda och styra verksamheten, med de resurser som finns. Chefen får auktoritets utrymme som ger rätten att fatta beslut och verkställa de med hjälp av sin formella makt. Chefen förväntas göra det som bidrar till fortsatt existens och utveckling och får lösa problem som uppstår i organisationen. Nya krav och behov leder till att en arbetsledare ska kunna agera såväl som ledare och chef. För att utöva ledarskap måste utövaren förstå skillnaden mellan att leda och utveckla nödvändiga möjligheter för att leda och att vara chef samt, utveckla möjligheterna att leda. Ledaren måste vara kreativa, kunna agera och lösa konflikter, värdera problem, lyssna och kommunicera. För att kunna besvara syftet i studien och beskriva kvinnliga första linjens chefers uppfattning av sin ledarroll inom kommunal äldreomsorg, kändes det naturligt att välja en kvalitativ ansats med beskrivande design och 10 kvinnliga chefer intervjuades. Resultatet visade att första linjens chefer upplevde stor arbetsbelastning. Chefen skulle en vara närvarande chef för att kunna stödja personalen i deras arbete. Upplevelsen av krav från många håll och känslan av att inte alltid räcka till upplevdes frustrerande. Konflikter fanns på de flesta arbetsplatserna.

     

     

  • 136.
    Andersson, Hanna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Eriksson, Charlotte
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Motivation på arbetet, en fråga om personlighet?: En kvantitativ studie mellan motivation och personlighet.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Work motivation has shown positive effects on job satisfaction and well-being. Research reports that personality explained some part of what motivates employees. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the same results could be see on the Swedish labor market. The study measured background factors, motivation through the work values ​​questionnaire (WWQ) and personality through the ten item personality inventory (TIPI). 128 full-time employees answered the survey. The results showed significant correlations for security and conditions (MF1) with personality, gender and education level. Personal development and stimulation (MF3) significantly correlated with personality and employment. A multiple regression analysis showed that agreeableness, gender, age and education level contributed to the explained variance in MF1. Extraversion contributed to the explained variance of MF3. The same results were found in this study as in earlier research, personality traits and background factors stands for a part of the explained variance in motivation.

  • 137.
    Andersson, Helena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Äldre motionärers upplevelser av motionsträning: en beskrivande intervjuundersökning2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: Older people's experiences of exercise training: a survey based on a descriptive design.

    Course: Public Health: Theory and method of application and degree, 30 credits. University of Gävle, health education program.

    Author: Helena Andersson

    Purpose: According to earlier research the western population is aging. This may affect, the older peoples`s physical disability in one form or another. The consequences may be that the need off care can increase. However elderly can prevent a variety of age-related diseases by being physically active. The study will examine how older people view physical activity and participation of other social activities. This is to improve understanding of older people's health and what can be done in the future.

    Method: The study was conducted using a qualitative approach, in which four semi-structured interviews were conducted with older adults who exercise regularly. The interviews were based on a thematic interview guide with specific themes that gave informants space to talk freely about the issues raised. The sample consisted of three women and one man where the youngest was 63 and the oldest 74 years old.

    Results: Exercise was the highest priority of this group of people. It was in the connection with social interaction that the exercise became complete according to the informants. The place for exercise was found to be important; to train with others, seemed to generate joy, power, energy and motivation. This meant that all informants were rarely sick, which also was something that was pointed out. They exercise to obtain more healthy years.

  • 138.
    Andersson, Inger
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science.
    Hofsten, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Medical science.
    Häggström, Elisabeth
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science.
    Case seminars open new doors to understanding – students’ experiences of learning2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 139.
    Andersson, Izabelle
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Är Instagram en pådrivande faktor till utvecklande av Ortorexi?: En kvalitativ innehållsanalys om hur flödet av bilder på Instagram påverkar unga kvinnors kroppsuppfattning, fysiska aktivitet och matvanor i relation till fenomenet ortorexi.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to explore if young women aged 18-20 years experienced that Instagram affected their body image, their physical activity and their eating habits in relation to the phenomenon orthorexia. The method for the study was a qualitative content analysis based on semi-structured interviews with four young women with the age of 18-20 years old. The results showed that Instagram affected young women's body image, their physical activity and their eating habits. Primarily body image and physical activity were most affected, eating habits were less affected. The results showed that there were both a positive and a negative impact, but by far a negative impact. Respondents experienced feelings like anxiety and guilt when, for example, a training session did not go as planned or after they had eaten an unhealthy meal. Their mindset and emotions that came forward in the results were partly linked to the phenomenon of orthorexia. The young women were adversely affected by the pictures and videos on Instagram and also by other social media. They exposed themselves to develop mental and physical ill health. Society should consider prioritizing the young women to prevent them from falling into the mindset that is similar to the phenomenon of orthorexia. 

  • 140.
    Andersson, Jennifer
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Kvällspigg eller morgonpigg? Mat-, sömn- och motionsvanor hos gymnasieelever år 1 i förhållande till dygnstyp: En tvärsnittsstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Andersson. J (2015). Morningness or Eveningness? Food-, sleep-, and physical activity habits among high school students in relation to Chronotype. Bachelor thesis in Public Health science. Department of work- and public Health science. Academy of health and Occupational Studies. University of Gävle, Sweden.

     

    Aim: The aim of the study was to compare food-, sleep-, and physical activity habits among high school students in relation to morning- or evening type (Chronotype). Methods: In a cross-sectional study data were collected by use of a questionnaire comprising 24 questions concerning the participants´ food-, sleep-, and physical activity habits. The questionnaire was distributed to 77 students. A total of 77 (100%) individuals, 41 males and 36 females, participated in the study. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics and comparative chi-square test. Results: Students were divided into two groups; morningtypes (n= 23) and evening types (n= 54). Morningness was associated with sufficient sleep and sleep of good quality during weekdays compared with eveningness. Morning types also tend to eat breakfast more often before school than evening types. Evening types showed a higher physical activity level. Conclusions: Chronotype was associated lifestyle among students in vocational secondary school year one. Early school start does not benefit adolescents that are evening types and it has a negative impact on sleep- and food habits. 

  • 141.
    Andersson, Jenny
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Arnestad, Linda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Samverkan behövs för ett gott socialt arbete: En studie om hur socialarbetare upplever samverkan och samarbete kring klienter med missbruksproblematik2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The increased specialization of human-welfare organizations put higher demands on collaboration. People with substance abuse often have a complex set of problems that requires collaboration. The purpose of our study was to increase knowledge about the meaning and perception of collaboration around clients with addiction problems. We used a qualitative research method, with data based on interviews with four social workers. Themes were identified in the data and then analysed in relation to the social constructionism, system theory and previous research. We found that collaboration depends largely on the individual social worker’s willingness and persistence to lead the case, for the client’s entire needs. Collaboration was mainly perceived as something important and essential. Organizational barriers and shortcomings were mentioned, but aspects such as working culture, approaches, relationships and respect were considered to be of greater importance. The main conclusion in our study was that collaboration is seen as highly relevant and something positive.

  • 142.
    Andersson, Johanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Att arbeta som jourtjej: krav och rekrytering2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 143.
    Andersson, Josefine
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Rosén, Caroline
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Upplevelser av att vårda en närstående med demenssjukdom: En deskriptiv litteraturstudie2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Today, approximately 160,000 people live with dementia in Sweden and globally, the number of affected people is approximately 50 million. Dementia is a collective name for a variety of brain diseases that occur from brain damage. As dementia often materializes gradually overtime, it tends to lead to a family member becoming the caregiver of the person who is sick.

    Aim: The aim of this literature study was to illustrate the experience of those caring for a relative with dementia as well as to describe the study groups in the included studies.

    Method: This study is a literature review with descriptive design consisting of twelve scientific articles with a qualitative approach.

    Main results: Becoming a caregiver to a relative with dementia was rarely a choice but it was a role in which the family member grows into. Many people experienced the role as a caregiver as complex and it was common to experience feelings of insecurity, isolation, fatigue and frustration. The approach and method for managing the disease differed significantly for each caregiver analyzed during this study, however humor, acceptance and religion were often employed as coping mechanisms. The result was compiled with seven subheadings: From family to family caregiver, Support in care, Insecurity, ignorance and difficult situations, More than a full time job, Loss and fear of the future, Coping strategies, and Methodological aspect – study groups.

    Conclusion: Being a family caregiver was a challenge to most people. Many have expressed the gravity of receiving both societal support and help from other family members to obtain relief within their role, but in spite of this, the caregiver often took the greater responsibility. Therefore, a critical change in the support is necessary to enable them to want, and be able, to continue to fulfill the important work they do. 

  • 144.
    Andersson, Julia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Criminology.
    Somvall, Elvira
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Criminology.
    Varför köper män sex?: En kvalitativ studie om mäns sexköp av kvinnor2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to examine why men purchase sex from women. The study includes internet as an arena for these purchases. The study material was collected through four telephone-interviews and one email-interview with men that have purchased sex on the internet. The study material has been analyzed with previous studies on the subject, radical feminism theory, self-control theory, routine activity theory and techniques of neutralization. The results showed that sex was purchased mainly because it was easier from an emotional perspective than to establish a sexual relationship. Sexual dissatisfaction with a partner and personal characteristics were described to have an effect on the men’s ability to have sex. The purchase then seemed to be the only way to satisfy their sexual needs. The internet enables several advantages. The purchase becomes practically easier at the same time as it offers anonymity.

    Keywords:

    sexbuyers, Sweden, internet, prostitution.

  • 145.
    Andersson, Kajsa
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Jansson, Linnea
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Nyutexaminerade sjuksköterskors upplevelser av arbetsrelaterad stress samt stressens konsekvenser: En kvalitativ intervjustudie2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to describe newly graduated nurses' experiences of work-related stress and to describe their experiences of what consequences stress can lead to. A descriptive interview study with qualitative approach was used. Data collection was performed by eight semi-structured interviews. The collected data was analyzed using qualitative manifest content analysis. The main result demonstrates that newly graduated nurses experienced stress in the beginning of their profession, partly because it is a time of uncertainty. Newly graduated nurses have described a decreased experience of stress with increased knowledge and experience, and reduced demands on herself in the professional role. Nursing is described to be stressful due to a variety of causes but there are measures that can be used to reduce stress. Stress has been described to cause consequences both for the nurse as an individual and for the care of patients, which has been described to result in feelings such as frustration and inadequacy. In line with Benner's theory it can be stated that newly graduated nurses undergo a professional development which lead to a experience of decreased stress. Stress in the nursing profession is a complex problem that must be dealt with on several fronts. For the newly graduated nurse it is very important that she is gentle with herself in the professional role by not having too high demands on herself to be able to practice her profession, that is carry out optimal patient-focused nursing.

  • 146.
    Andersson, Karin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Arbetsrelaterad stress och dess inverkan på möjligheten till att vara fysiskt aktiv, hos ett urval av grundskolelärare: Intervjuundersökning2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 147.
    Andersson, Karin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies.
    Hedlund, Petra
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies.
    Sjuksköterskans kunskaper om kvinnovåld: en litteraturstudie2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    År 2007 anmäldes 19600 fall av våld mor kvinnor där förövaren var en manlig bekant till kvinnan. Mörkertalet är stort och våldet är ofta väl dolt bakom hemmets väggar. Syftet med denna litteraturstudie var att belysa vilka kunskaper sjuksköterskan behövde för att kunna identifiera/urskilja kvinnor utsatta för våld i nära relation samt ge en god omvårdnad till dessa när de sökte till hälso- och sjukvården. Ur de granskade artiklarna utläste författarna fem teman "Urskilja kvinnor utsatta för våld i nära relation", "Att möta våldsutsatta kvinnor", "Våldsutsatta kvinnors erfarenheter av vården", "Sjuksköterskans behov av riktlinjer och utbildning" och " Sjuksköterskans inställning till att ställa frågan". Det framkom att sjuksköterskor behövde riktlinjer och utbildning/erfarenhet för att kunna identifiera och ge en god omvårdnad till kvinnor utsatta för våld i nära relation. En god omvårdnad för dessa kvinnor innebar att sjuksköterskan vågade fråga om deras situation, vågade ta emot svaret och förmedla vidare kontakt.

    En slutsats författarna drar efter denna litteraturstudies genomförande är att forskning om sjuksköterskors kunskaper inom detta område bör undersökas ytterligare. Vidare bör det även forskas om vilken kunskap om detta ämne sjuksköterskestudenter erhåller i sin utbildning till sjuksköterska.

  • 148.
    Andersson, Katarina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies.
    Den självskattade stressen och energin bland dag- och skiftarbetare på ett skogsindustriföretag i Mellansverige.2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 149.
    Andersson Kraft, Emelie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Distriktsköterskans arbete med och reflektioner kring behandlingen av vuxna patienter med övervikt och fetma: En kvalitativ intervjustudie med distriktssköterskor på landstingsdrivna vårdcentraler i Uppsala län2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Övervikt och fetma är ett växande problem i Sverige och delar av världen. Det är en riskfaktor för andra somatiska sjukdomar och har en negativ inverkan på livskvalitén. Syftet med denna studie var att beskriva distriktsköterskors arbete med och reflektioner kring behandlingen av vuxna patienter med övervikt och fetma. Studien var av kvalitativ ansats med deskriptiv design och genomfördes genom semistrukturerade intervjuer med åtta distriktssköterskor på landstingsdrivna vårdcentraler i Uppsala län. Resultatet av studien visade att mätvärden och samtal var viktiga verktyg för att distriktssköterskorna ska kunna identifiera patientens övervikt eller fetma. I behandlingen av övervikt och fetma var motiverande samtal, tvärprofessionellt arbete, fysisk aktivitet på recept och kostråd centrala delar. Liksom de stöd som distriktssköterskan utgjorde för patienten i beteendeförändringen. Patientens brist på motivation eller vilja kunde försvåra samarbetet mellan patient och distriktssköterska. Slutsatsen av studien visade att distriktssköterskorna hade en betydande roll i patientens beteendeförändring mot en hälsosammare livsstil och viktminskning. Distriktssköterskorna hade kunskap och kompetens att hjälpa patienten i arbetet med beteendeförändringen men mer kunskap behövdes för att kunna utveckla vården. Riktlinjer för hur övervikt och fetma ska tas om hand och behandlas inom vården var viktiga och hjälpte distriktssköterskorna att motivera sitt arbete hos verksamhetschefer. Distriktssköterskorna följde delvis vårdprogrammet för fetma hos vuxna i Uppsala län.

  • 150.
    Andersson, Kristina
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Biology.
    Gullberg, Annica
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Biology.
    Hussénius, Anita
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Scantlebury, Kathryn
    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Delaware, USA.
    "We do science, we don't do gender!" Challenging science teaching education: Gender awareness in contructing knowledge of science and science teaching2015In: Feminist Pedagogy in Higher Education : Critical Theory and Practice / [ed] T. P. Light, J. Nicolas & R. Bondy, Waterloo, ON, Canada: Wilfrid Laurier University Press , 2015Chapter in book (Refereed)
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