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  • 101.
    Frelin, Anneli
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för kultur-, religions- och utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Fostering democratic relations: Comparing teacher practices from preschool to high school2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In democratic societies, an important goal of education is to foster democratic citizens, which includes experiences of democratic relations. How do teachers interpret and carry out this mission? Are there differences between the levels of schooling and if so which? In an explorative study, interviews with teachers from preschool to high school were conducted and analyzed eliciting practical arguments (Fenstermacher & Richardson, 1993). The informants described their mission as intertwined in everyday activities, teaching democracy “as a way of life” in the spirit of Dewey. Whereas e.g. empathy was only discussed by preschool teachers, balancing equal relationships was addressed by all informants from preschool to high school. Progression of democratic learning runs parallel to addressing ever-present relational issues of democratic character.

  • 102.
    Frelin, Anneli
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för kultur-, religions- och utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Lyhörda lärare: Professionellt relationsbyggande i förskola och skola2012 (oppl. 1)Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 103.
    Frelin, Anneli
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för kultur-, religions- och utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Professionally present: highlighting the temporal aspect of teachers' professional judgment2014Inngår i: Teacher Development, ISSN 1366-4530, E-ISSN 1747-5120, Vol. 18, nr 2, s. 264-273Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Novice teachers need to develop their professional judgment. Teaching isperformed in the face of imperfect, complex but above all continuously emergentsituations. These matters have not received adequate attention in theories relatingto professional judgment and professionality in teaching or in the contemporarydiscourse of education policy. The purpose of this conceptual article is thereforeto contribute to the understanding of teachers’ judgment.By discussing empirical examples that indicate how sensing and knowing guidejudgment, concepts are introduced that are intended to further the understanding of teachers’professional judgment; something that will hopefully benefit teacher education as well as practicing teachers.

  • 104.
    Frelin, Anneli
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för kultur-, religions- och utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Reclaiming teachers' professional judgment in an age of accountability2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 105.
    Frelin, Anneli
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för kultur-, religions- och utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Teacher Educators’ Teaching of Professional Judgment – Grounds for Discussion2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this contribution is to make some grounds for discussion regarding teacher educators’ task of helping their students to enhance their professional judgment in times when calls for evidence-based practice in education tend to steer focus away from it. The first part contains some conceptual remarks regarding judgment and its relation to evidence. The second touches upon the conditions in which teachers in many countries try to practice their judgment are addressed. Thirdly, the role of teacher educators is discussed in light of a model that visualizes conflicts regarding trust and importance of issues such as social justice. In the end questions of what teacher educators committed to social justice can or should do regarding professional judgment given the circumstances concludes the text.

  • 106.
    Frelin, Anneli
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för kultur-, religions- och utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Teachers’ situated professional judgment in an age of standards and measurement2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is first, to explore the role of situated judgment in emergent and recurrent situations in the classroom for teacher professionalism, and second, to contribute to the discussion of the applicability of management theories on education. Teachers’ professional judgments in the classroom are made in the face of imperfect, complex if not contradictory, but above all, continuously emergent situations, circumstances that make profound difference for the kinds of judgments that are, and can be, made. How can we further understand and discuss these as part of teacher professionalism, and how can we understand teachers’ possibilities for making professional judgments in relation the consequences of prevailing trends on policy levels in Europe today?

    Research on professions commonly use criteria for professions such as that they provide an important public service, involve a theoretically as well as practically grounded expertise and have a distinct ethical dimension which calls for expression in a code of practice (see e.g. Carr, 2000). However, some attempts to be viewed as a profession actually decrease the possibilities for acting professionally. For example, the attempt to standardize and raise status of practice in education through developing competency standards (building on the notion that complex judgments are possible to standardize), has been criticized by Carr and Skinner (2009) as a key problem that erodes or discourages more integrated perspectives on educational practice (see also Ball, 2009). Moreover, the increased relational complexity brought about by the intensification of teachers’ work may decrease the space possible for professional judgment, in several ways. This development is a reality in many Western countries of today, where the educational sector is reformed in order to mirror the private sector, as a consequence of the influence of actors such as the OECD and the World Bank (Ball, 2003). In combination with shrinking public finances this leads to an intensification of teachers’ work (e.g. Apple, 2007; Goodson & Norrie, 2005; Hargreaves, 2000). A market logic and a ‘language of learning’ (see Biesta, 2006) treats as insignificant certain complexities of teachers’ work. The ‘blame and shame’ tactics and high stakes testing produces risk management strategies where teachers may even ask for rules in order to avoid blame (Lindqvist & Nordänger, 2006). All these developments contribute to reducing the space for professional judgment. Ball (2009) even deems professionalism as an ethical-cultural practice as having no future or place in the present regime of performativity and managerialism.

    In this context, in order to contribute to the discussion on teachers’ professional judgment, I draw here on theories of complexity (Osberg & Biesta, 2010) and practical knowledge (Beckett, 1996; Beckett & Hager, 2002) in an analysis of examples of teachers’ judgments. More specifically, through a combination of theoretical elements from complexity, and the notion of hot action; action that is performed without time for reflection, I illuminate and draw attention to the significance of the present in teachers’ professional judgment. 

    Method

    A phenomenological analysis of two examples of teacher judgment illustrates the significance of the corporeal, present moment in teacher judgment. The examples were collected as part of a past qualitative study (Frelin, 2010) where 11 teachers’ experience of teaching was explored in-depth, from 22 one hour interviews. During these interviews the teachers were asked to elaborate on their practical arguments (Fenstermacher & Richardson, 1993). Some of the informants were particularly elaborate about their judgments while teaching. The accounts from two teachers, one pre-school teacher, and one secondary school Mathematics and Science teacher, both male, was re-analyzed using phenomenological methodology. The teachers’ stories about their experiences of teaching were interpreted with special attention to lived space, body, time and human relation (Van Manen, 1990). More specifically the role of the corporeal experience in the present moment, making judgments in relation to a student, was brought to the fore.

    Expected Outcomes

    The results show that the teachers draw on both their past knowledge and on their embodied presence in the present when making judgments regarding how to act in relation to a student. For example, a distinction emerged between knowing and sensing, where the first regards what is brought to the moment and the second what emerges in the moment, was shown to be of importance. The results empirically underline the situated and complex nature of teacher professionality. They also indicate what professionalism as an ethical-cultural practice (Ball, 2009) may look like. In educational policy today, education has increasingly been conceived as a preset exchange of knowledge for grades. In the discussion I bring up how one consequence of this economical view is that the present becomes bereaved of significance for professional judgment. However, teachers’ professional judgment cannot be reduced to gathering up information and making a calculation – it is about interaction between human subjects where knowing and sensing come together.

  • 107.
    Frelin, Anneli
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för kultur-, religions- och utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Edling, Silvia
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Do I make your life better?: Exploring implications for the scope of teacher responsibility2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of education can broadly be understood as an intervention into the lives of the students for the sake of their well-being, and for the continuation of society. Teachers are given a responsibility for educating the young, a responsibility being expressed in various policy documents on different levels. However, as these documents are in constant need of interpretation, and sometimes are vague and even contradict each other, teachers are left to interpret what their responsibility entails in everyday situations.

     

    The empirical material consists of teacher interviews. These accounts of teachers’ felt responsibility for promoting their students’ well-being, are compared to teacher responsibility as expressed in contemporary research on social and moral responsibility within education. A central approach in this paper is the assumption that the ways people speak about their experiences, has the potential for widening the understanding of teachers’ work in relation to value issues.

     

    The results answers questions about the possibilities for understanding the notion of teacher responsibility without overlooking the dynamics expressed in teachers’ descriptions of responsibility in everyday work situations.

  • 108.
    Frelin, Anneli
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för kultur-, religions- och utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Gershon, Walter S
    Kent State University, Ohio, USA.
    Grannäs, Jan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för kultur-, religions- och utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Marknadsstyrning skapar oönskade elever2014Inngår i: Pedagogiska Magasinet, ISSN 1401-3320, Vol. 2Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    När skolor drivs som företag, börjar de också göra riskanalyser enligt samma ekonomiska principer. Resultatet blir att vissa elever ses som ekonomiska risker och därmed blir oönskade eller i värsta fall bortvalda.

  • 109.
    Frelin, Anneli
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för kultur-, religions- och utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Grannäs, Jan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för kultur-, religions- och utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Direct and Indirect Educational Relationships: the Varying Significance of Content in School Relationships2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 110.
    Frelin, Anneli
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för kultur-, religions- och utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Grannäs, Jan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för kultur-, religions- och utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Navigating Middle Ground: A Spatial Perspective on the Borderlands of Teacher-Student Relationships in Secondary School2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Positive teacher-student relationships are important for student learning. One factor that promotes such relationship is closeness. Yet, the teacher-student relationship is a professional one and there are limits to how close teachers and students can get without crossing this professional boundary. The purpose of this paper is to use spatial theories in order to explore how teachers and students in secondary education view and navigate border territories of positive and professional teacher-student relationships. Data is drawn from a combined case study where teachers and students were interviewed. Spatial theory aids the analysis, where we ask: Where, when and how are positive teacher-student relationships negotiated in schools, how do teachers and students reason regarding the borderlands of teacher-student relationships, and how do they navigate them? Preliminary results include instances when teachers intentionally work at attaining closeness, and when they back off to distance themselves in order to keep a professional distance. Students, although they appreciate closeness, are very sensitive to teachers trying to overstep the boundary. Both teachers and students point to informal situations and places in schools as significant for building positive relationships. The scientific significance includes the novel use of spatial theory that is fruitful for shedding new light on interpersonal processes in schools, and the results are of value for teachers as well as for future research on understanding and improving professional teacher-student relationships. 

  • 111.
    Frelin, Anneli
    et al.
    Department of Curriculum Studies, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Grannäs, Jan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för kultur-, religions- och utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Negotiations left behind: in-between spaces of teacher-student negotiation and their significance for education2010Inngår i: Journal of Curriculum Studies, ISSN 0022-0272, E-ISSN 1366-5839, Vol. 42, nr 3, s. 353-369Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper argues against a view of curriculum as a means for moulding students into, and making teachers accountable for, something pre-determined and singularly governed by qualification demands of the labour market. It makes a case for the value of inter-subjective teacher–student relationships in education and addresses the significance of negotiations and their open-endedness. This paper draws its empirical material from case studies for which interviews were the main source for gathering data. The data analyses were made using the AtlasTi software designed for qualitative analysis. In the empirical material were found instances of negotiations in which inter-subjective relationships are established and maintained; negotiations that are rendered obscured or even invisible from a qualification purpose but that influence the educational processes. The results show that teachers and students creatively use potentials within contextual conditions to attain relationships which sometimes constitute a precondition for education.

  • 112.
    Frelin, Anneli
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för kultur-, religions- och utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Grannäs, Jan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för kultur-, religions- och utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Questioning the modern conception of time: The politics of complexity reduction in education2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 113.
    Frelin, Anneli
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för kultur-, religions- och utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Grannäs, Jan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för kultur-, religions- och utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Results and accountability: Marginalization of the educational interpersonal space2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 114.
    Frelin, Anneli
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för kultur-, religions- och utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Grannäs, Jan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för kultur-, religions- och utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Studying relational spaces in secondary school: applying a spatial framework for the study of borderlands and relational work in school improvement processes2014Inngår i: Improving Schools, ISSN 1365-4802, E-ISSN 1475-7583, Vol. 17, nr 2, s. 135-147Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article introduces a theoretical framework for studying school improvement processes such as making school environments safer. Using concepts from spatial theory, in which distinctions between mental, social and physical space are applied, makes for a multidimensional analysis of processes of change. In a multi-level case study, these were combined with task perception analysis, where all categories of personnel and management in the school were studied. The results indicated the significance of borderlands in the school for helping students, of organizational transgressions aimed at “making things work” and of social spaces created in the borderlands that contributed to the necessary social glue in the school. This theoretical framework offers alternative and fruitful lenses which can enrich studies of school improvement processes. The use of multiple data sources allows for triangulation, which in turn improves the validity and reliability of the results.

  • 115.
    Frelin, Anneli
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för kultur-, religions- och utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Grannäs, Jan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för kultur-, religions- och utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    The production of present and absent presences in education2013Inngår i: Journal of Pedagogy, ISSN 1338-1563, E-ISSN 1338-2144, Vol. 4, nr 2, s. 139-161Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing on the distinction between absent and present presences, this article contributes to our understanding of how new managerial and performative discourses are played out in a secondary school context in Sweden. The consequences of numerous educational reforms during the last 20 years include a surge of new independent schools and increased segregation between students due to individual school choice. Following international trends, a yearly national municipal school ranking is published, drawing much attention both in the media and on the policy level, intensifying pressure for results at the municipal level. A case study was conducted in one bottom-ranked Swedish secondary school over the 2012-13 school year, focusing on how relationships between students and staff were negotiated in informal spaces and places. The results illustrate how absent presences and present presences are produced in the practice of schooling. The present presences were publication of results, raising merit scores and grading pressure, and the absent presences were the role of the media in the self-image of schools, increased workload for teachers, the misuse of statistical data and demoralization and determination. The results contribute to the understanding of a) the challenges that teachers and schools are faced with as a consequence of the new managerial and performative discourses in educational settings, and b) the means they draw on to face and resist them in their everyday practices.

  • 116.
    Frelin, Anneli
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för kultur-, religions- och utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Mbugua, Tata
    University of Scranton, Scranton, PA, USA.
    Rice, Janice
    Lynchburg College, Lynchburg, VA, USA.
    Awareness, Appreciation and Attitude change: Teaching Global Citizenship and Intercultural Competence2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Teaching students to embrace the idea of global citizenship involves raising awareness, appreciating differences and changing attitudes. Sometimes it is understood in terms of intercultural competence (Cushner, 2009, 2012). This process entails de-centering from one’s comfort zone and perspectives to the world, which can be challenging and raise resistance. The purpose of this presentation is to use Multiple Perspectives or Perspective Consciousness paradigm (Merrifield, 2003) to bring new insights to teaching global citizenship and intercultural competence. Barbara Thayer-Bacon’s (2008) work on pluralism frames our discussion. Participants will engage in hands-on and minds-on activities to deepen their experiential and conceptual understanding. 

  • 117.
    Frelin, Anneli
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för kultur-, religions- och utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Nordänger, Ulla-Karin
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    Lindqvist, Per
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    Fransson, Göran
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för kultur-, religions- och utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Lessons learned – changing times: 87 former teacher graduates on their careers during 15 years2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 118.
    Grannäs, Jan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för kultur-, religions- och utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Framtidens demokratiska medborgare: Om ungdomar, medborgarskap och demokratifostran i svensk skola2011Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis attempts to deepen our understanding of the democratic assignment for Swedish schools. The school is a public space that all children and youth are a part of which gives it a prominent opportunity for fostering democratic citizens of the future. The purpose of the study is to increase the knowledge of this assignment, based on the students’ stories of how they experience it. The theoretical framework draws upon a spatial perspective and educational theory inspired by a radical view of democracy. A multiple case study was conducted based on three cases, chosen in order to achieve socioeconomic variation. A mixed method approach has been applied to the study: interviews, observations, documents and quantitative data have been analyzed using a thematic analysis framework. The results show that the democratic assignment of schools is complex and filled with legal, social, ideological, and ethical tensions. For the purpose of creating a school environment that meets the democratic assignment, systematic work and guidelines for school personnel, students, and parents appear to be necessary. The study has clearly shown that the conditions for the democratic assignment may differ markedly between schools and that peer socialization is of great importance for the outcome. The influence and potential of diversity on the democratic assignment of schools is clear. From a curriculum micro perspective, the study has brought attention to how the view of the (non-)competent student is relevant for the democratic assignment, as well as the bases on which this notion of (non-)competence rest. It is suggested that the view of the democratic assignment is extended, from a narrow focus on democratic decision-making processes to a wider focus that also takes into account the ongoing everyday negotiation processes between teachers and students that have impact on what is perceived as political action and democratic arenas.

  • 119.
    Grannäs, Jan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för kultur-, religions- och utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    On Political Judgment and Emotions in Citizenship Education2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 120.
    Grannäs, Jan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för kultur-, religions- och utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Political Judgement in Education2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper argues that there is a need to bring in the concept of political judgment to the discussion oncitizenship education. There is also a need to enlarge the view on political judgment by recognizing emotionsas an important part of an individual’s cognition and perception. Furthermore, results are presented from acontent analysis of the international ICCS report (IEA, 2009) in which the analysis starts from a distinctionbetween political knowledge and political judgment. In line with the distinction, this paper critiques an overrelianceon the notion of progression in education based on predetermined subject matter and outcomes,which is reflected in the ICCS report (IEA, 2009) as a knowledge-first hegemony. This refers to the skills for afuture democratic citizenship as purely cognitive phenomena, where “knowledge” is to be transferred throughschooling. Drawing on the work of Mouffe (1995) and Biesta (2006, 2007), teachers’ and students’ politicaljudgment – in a wider understanding by also taking into account emotions, beliefs, norms, and values (cf.Bauman, 1995; Marcus, 2000) – becomes a key concept in recognizing and understanding an extended viewof political skills and action in the everyday practices of schooling. In order to strengthen the argument onpolitical judgment, empirical example from multiple case studies conducted at a Swedish school arepresented. These show a recurrent situation in which students enact their political judgment in a settingwhere political action is not recognized as acceptable behaviour. The paper concludes with a discussion ofthe ICCS report in relation to the suggested enlarged view on political judgment.

  • 121.
    Grannäs, Jan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för kultur-, religions- och utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    The Abstract Citizen: Minority Youths Qualifying for Citizenship2014Inngår i: Citizenship Teaching and Learning, ISSN 1751-1917, E-ISSN 1751-1925, Vol. 9, nr 2, s. 157-173Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on the Swedish school's democratic mission to foster active democratic citizens in relation to fundamental human rights, the National Education Act and the National Curriculum for the compulsory school system. This is done by showing the tension contained in policy documents and giving examples of how this is played out in the everyday practices of schooling. The overall democratic mission for the Swedish school system—to prepare the younger generation for Swedish citizenship—takes place within the nation state and therefore carries with it historical and cultural norms, values ​​and laws that in certain ways become relevant to various minority groups in the country. In this paper, the notion of the abstract citizen is used to elaborate on the imaginary of the nation and its ideal citizens. The empirical material consists of two case studies, both of which are situated in the same Swedish town and have been chosen in order to achieve socioeconomic variation. A mixed method approach has been applied to the study. The results show the complexities that result from the tension that exists in the policy documents with regard to the school’s responsibility to prepare the younger generation for an active, democratic citizenship characterised by virtues such as democratic, pluralistic and tolerant. An important feature is the school staff's professional judgement, i.e. an awareness of the grounds on which students are treated and which opportunities exist for individuals to differ from the majority of the population. Such situations of response and processes of socialising and disciplining create practices of inclusion and exclusion. In democratic terms, the notion of the abstract citizen must be constantly negotiated and renegotiated in the policy implementation and enactment in the everyday practice of schooling. 

  • 122.
    Grannäs, Jan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för kultur-, religions- och utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Frelin, Anneli
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för kultur-, religions- och utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Concerns and Student Back-up in the Common Areas in School: The Significance of the Borderlands2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the often neglected preconditions for a productive educational environment is that students feel positive about coming to school and that they have meaningful relationships in school. In this paper, attention is directed towards the common areas that lie within the school but outside of classrooms, e.g. corridors, school yards and dining halls. The concept of the “borderlands of the common areas” in everyday activities at schools is addressed. We explore common area spaces and practices, along with the intentions of the personnel that are responsible for them.

    This paper presents data from a research project aiming at exploring the relational interplay between school personnel and students, its functions and complexity in the secondary school context. A year-long case study is being conducted during the 2012-13 school year at a secondary school that has recently been renovated and where the staff is working to improve the school environment. We make use of multiple data sources, including document analysis, mapping, observations and interviews. In the analyses, spatial theories are applied, a novel approach within the field. These are fruitful for understanding the factors that contribute to positive relational processes within the school context  (cf Author 1 & Author 2; Ferrare & Apple, 2010).  

    The common areas in the school are easily neglected and can be described as “non-places” in the everyday activities. The results indicate that the common areas in the school are used for practices addressing student concerns, aimed at improving conditions for students so that they can concentrate on studying. These borderland practices are viewed as constructed social spaces, where students can feel safe and enjoy coming to school.  These two predicaments are in turn preconditions for enhancing students’ ability to study and to succeed.

  • 123.
    Grannäs, Jan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för kultur-, religions- och utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Frelin, Anneli
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för kultur-, religions- och utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    In the face of Neo-Liberalism: Public educators and resources for defending a democratic discourse2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 124.
    Grannäs, Jan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för kultur-, religions- och utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Frelin, Anneli
    Uppsala Universitet, Instutionen för didaktik.
    Present vs Absent Presence: Visualizing Uncounted Occurrences In Education2010Inngår i: The Nordic Educational Research Association (NERA), 2010Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Globally, the new common vocabulary of educational policies uses rhetoric from business which has redefined education as serving the labor market, bringing concepts as accountability, efficiency and performance standards (Lipman, 2009) For instance in Sweden, the educational system has responded with an increased focus on National tests and other control features (Liedman, 2009; Pettersson, 2008). Various educational reforms have been launched with the purpose of strengthening Sweden’s competition and economic growth (Sundberg, 2005). The underlying logic of these societal and educational developments and the rhetoric that is used make certain features count while others are obscured (see e.g. Apple, 2009; Kumashiro, 2008). Such complexity reduction is a political product which is why one needs to ask “for whom and in whose interest” it is being reduced (Biesta, 2008). In an earlier work (Grannäs & Frelin, 2009) we addressed the political significance of the temporal dimension of education within the current educational climate which constitute a challenge for teachers and students, and directed critique towards the consequences of over-pre-determination of knowledge outcomes for teachers’ working conditions. We argued that in a climate of post-fordism structuring and language render some events obscured and sometimes impossible to address within the educational system. In another work (Frelin & Grannäs, 2010), we argued that the “view of education as exclusively aimed at pre-determined and predictable outcomes /.../ obliterates the possibilities for teachers and students to negotiate the content or other educational issues.” However, in our empirical study we found that despite the conditions, teachers and students worked to attain what we termed intersubjective spaces of negotiation which proved to be significant for education although impossible to plan or predict. They struggled in order to balance demands of the system with the demands that need to be met in order for the system to work, but were impossible to address within it (Frelin & Grannäs, 2010). Over the last 30 years the neo-liberal ideology production has been so pervasive that a massive reframing in society have taken place which have made the managerial discourse a major part of our commonsense (Apple, 2009). This development makes it hard, for teachers, to speak and ‘make sense’ using concepts outside the managerial discourse. Inspired by Apple’s term absent presence (Apple, 1999) we argue that events within the managerial discourse, which can and become allowed to occur within it, are to be termed present presences. That is, what counts can only be within the managerial discourse as present presence. The events that are outside of the managerial discourse or uncounted, but still need to be addressed are termed absent presences. By naming them absent presences we want to achieve two things; first, absent presences acknowledges their presence and significance in educational situations, and second, absent presences visualizes their invisibility within the managerial rhetoric of educational policy, and organizational structure of schools. Based on this research, we suggest that what teachers do in their everyday practices is to take responsibility for the uncounted voices and actions in order to make the counted work – that is absent presence as condition for the present presence.

  • 125.
    Grannäs, Jan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för kultur-, religions- och utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Frelin, Anneli
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för kultur-, religions- och utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Spaces of Surveillance2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In several European countries, the number of surveillance cameras in schools has risen dramatically during the last decade. For example, in Sweden, the development has gone from only one school with surveillance cameras in 1997 to 20% of all schools in 2008. In 2012 a survey showed that more than half of these schools had a higher number of cameras than permitted by the National Data Inspection Board, and/or used them longer hours than permitted. In the UK, the instalment of CCTV  cameras have spread, from placements outdoors aimed at protection against intruders to corridors and other indoor spaces aimed at monitoring bad behaviour (Hope, 2009). According to Monahan (2009) one profound effect of surveillance in schools is the integration of law enforcement that may displace other social and educational missions of the everyday school activities. There is interplay between how media describes adolescents and increased camera surveillance in schools. Media contributes to a culture of fear in which schools produce so-called "victims" and "criminals" (Giroux, 2004; Monahan, 2009).

    This paper uses newspaper coverage to map 1) the occurrence of articles regarding surveillance cameras in schools over time, and 2) the stated arguments for using them.

    The articles forming the basis for the analysis were selected using a national data base (Retriever)[1] covering the absolute majority of Swedish newspaper press, including trade press. The selected articles were published spanning the years 2002­­‑2012 and contained the key words “surveillance” and “school”. The search yielded a total amount of 1600 articles. This paper is based on an analysis of the 120 most relevant articles. Data has been analysed using thematic analysis (Boyatzis, 1998).

    The number of articles on camera surveillance in schools rose from 22 in 2002 to 323 in 2010, after which there is a decline. The larger part of the newspapers was located in areas marked by marginalization and segregation.

    The arguments given for placing camera surveillance in schools are (in order from the most common to the least): to 1) reduce vandalism, 2) reduce costs, 3) prevent criminal acts, and 4) improve the work environment for the students and the staff.

    Discussions of underlying causes of problems are rare, and the developments seem to be part of the risk discourse where a wider range of behaviours are criminalized. An overall result of the article analysis is a trend that is in line with the development of surveillance in schools that already have taken place in United States and Great Britain.

  • 126.
    Grannäs, Jan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för kultur-, religions- och utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Frelin, Anneli
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för kultur-, religions- och utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Using a spatial perspective for analyzing teachers’ task perception in the educational environment2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 127.
    Grannäs, Jan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för kultur-, religions- och utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Nordqvist, Ingrid
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för kultur-, religions- och utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Björklund, Elisabeth
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för kultur-, religions- och utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Report Work Package 4: Test evaluation and finalizing training program2010Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 128.
    Grannäs, Jan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för kultur-, religions- och utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Nordqvist, Ingrid
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för kultur-, religions- och utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Björklund, Elisabeth
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för kultur-, religions- och utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    The ASSIST project: Structured in-service training for pre-school assistants and pre-school teachers2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 129.
    Grannäs, Jan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för kultur-, religions- och utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Nyman-Kurkiala, Pia
    Åbo Akademi, Åbo, Finland.
    Söderberg, Patrik
    Åbo Akademi, Åbo, Finland.
    Youth, Citizenship and Democracy: A comparative study on regional follow-up of national youth policy in Nordic countries2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 130.
    Gustafsson, Christina
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för kultur-, religions- och utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Fakultetsopponenten sammanfattar två avhandlingar med montessoritema2012Inngår i: Pedagogisk forskning i Sverige, ISSN 1401-6788, E-ISSN 2001-3345, Vol. 17, nr 3-4, s. 264-270Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 131.
    Gustafsson, Christina
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för kultur-, religions- och utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Introduktion till boken och dess teman2012Inngår i: Kvalificerad som lärare?: Om professionell utveckling, mentorskap och bedömning med sikte på lärarlegitimation / [ed] Christina Gustafsson & Göran Fransson, Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2012, s. 7-20Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 132.
    Gustafsson, Christina
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för kultur-, religions- och utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Kan erfarenheter från högskolan bidra till diskussionen om legitimation för lärare och förskollärare?2012Inngår i: Kvalificerad som lärare? Om professionell utveckling, mentorskap och bedömning med sikte på lärarlegitimation / [ed] Christina Gustafsson & Göran Fransson, Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2012, s. 227-260Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 133.
    Gustafsson, Christina
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för kultur-, religions- och utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik. Universitetet i Uppsala.
    Nasjonal forskerskole for laererutdanningene (NAFOL): En utvärdering efter halva tiden2013Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 134.
    Gustafsson, Christina
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för kultur-, religions- och utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Varför finns ingen debatt kring montessoripedagogiken?2010Inngår i: Vägval i skolans historia, ISSN 1652-0610, Vol. 10, nr 2, s. 3-9Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 135.
    Gustafsson, Christina
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för kultur-, religions- och utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Dahl, Hanne Marlene
    Roskilde University.
    Gaardhöje, Jens Jörgen
    University of Copenhagen.
    Gustafsson, Göran
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Nexö, Ebba
    Aarhus University.
    Mid-term Evaluation of Five National Research Schools: Report submitted by the evaluation panel2013Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 136. Bestill onlineKjøp publikasjonen >>
    Gustafsson, Christina
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för kultur-, religions- och utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Fransson, GöranHögskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för kultur-, religions- och utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Kvalificerad som lärare?: om professionell utveckling, mentorskap och bedömning med sikte mot lärarlegitimation2012Collection/Antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vilka utmaningar möter nya lärare?

    Vilka utmaningar och möjligheter finns det i lämplighetsprövningen av nya lärare och förskollärare?

    Vad betyder lärarlegitimationen för lärares och förskollärarnas professionella positioner?

    I denna bok diskuteras och problematiseras reformerna med introduktionsperiod, mentorskap, lämplighetsprövning och legitimation för lärare och förskollärare. Reformerna innebär att många möjligheter skapas, men de innebär också en hel del nya utmaningar, svårigheter och dilemman. Hur kan reformerna förstås? Vilka utmaningar är förknippade med mentorskapet och lämplighetsprövningen? Hur kan nya lärare och förskollärare uppleva och reflektera kring sitt arbete? Detta är exempel på några teman som problematiseras i denna bok. Till grund för problematiseringarna ligger intervjuer med nya lärare, mentorer, rektorer och högskollärare, enkäter till förskolechefer samt forskningsöversikter och teoretiska genomgångar. Sammantaget bidrar boken med viktig kunskap om reformernas utmaningar och dilemman, om hur nya lärare upplever och försöker hantera den första tiden samt om hur mentorskap och lämplighetsprövning kan förstås och genomföras. Boken vänder sig till alla som vill veta mer om komplexiteten i reformerna och som söker inspiration till lösningar. Den kan med fördel användas inom mentorsutbildningar eller utbildningar av rektorer och förskolechefer inför lämplighetsprövningen. Antologin utgör en rapport inom ramen för forskningsprojektet Didaktiska perspektiv på nya lärares professionella utveckling som finansierats av Vetenskapsrådet och av Högskolan i Gävle.

  • 137.
    Gustafsson, Christina
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för kultur-, religions- och utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Fransson, Göran
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för kultur-, religions- och utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Morberg, Åsa
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för kultur-, religions- och utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Nordqvist, Ingrid
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för kultur-, religions- och utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Att arbeta i högskolan: utmaningar och möjligheter2010 (oppl. 2 [omarb.])Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under de närmaste åren rekryteras ett betydande antal nya lärare av olika kategorier till högskolor och universitet. Det sker i en tid då studentgrupperna blir större och mer heterogena, då nationell och global konkurrens ökar. Samtidigt skärps de ekonomiska förutsättningarna och kraven på studenternas anställningsbarhet efter genomförd utbildning. En bra yrkesintroduktion ökar lärarnas möjligheter att lyckas väl i sin professionella yrkesutveckling. I boken problematiserar författarna såväl högskolornas uppdrag som förutsättningarna för högskolelärares arbete. De lyfter fram undervisningen i högskolan: föreläsningar, seminarier, handledning, examination, nätbaserad utbildning och värderingar. Boken behandlar även högskolelärares utvecklings- och karriärmöjligheter inklusive en diskussion om dokumentation av meriter. Den nya upplagan har omarbetats grundligt i ljuset av de förändringar som ägt rum på organisations- och styrningsnivå. Kapitlet om nätbaserad utbildning är helt omskrivet och ett kapitel om examination har tillkommit. Att arbeta i högskolan – utmaningar och möjligheter är lämplig för både nya och mer erfarna lärare inom högskolan.

  • 138.
    Gustafsson, Christina
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för kultur-, religions- och utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Fransson, Göran
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för kultur-, religions- och utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Morberg, Åsa
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för kultur-, religions- och utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Nordqvist, Ingrid
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för kultur-, religions- och utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Teaching and Learning in Higher Education: challenges and Possibilities2011Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In the next few years a conciderable number of new teachers of different categories will be recruited to higher education institutions. This will also coincide with larger and more heterogeneous student groups and an increase in national and global competition. At the same time, the economic prerequisites and demands for students’ employability after university are becoming much more stringent. A good professional induction increases teachers’ opportunities of succeeding in their professional development.

    In the book the authors problematise the higher institutions’ mandate as the prerequisite for higher education teachers’ work. They highlight the various aspects of teaching in the higher educational institution: lectures, seminars, supervision, examinations, online education and values. The book also addresses the higher education teacher’s development and career possibilities and discusses the documentation of qualifications. This is the English version of Att arbeta i högskolan that was revised in 2010. Teaching and Learning in Higher Education – Challenges and Possibilities is suitable for new and more experienced teachers in a higher education context.

  • 139.
    Gustafsson, Christina
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för kultur-, religions- och utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Fransson, Göran
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för kultur-, religions- och utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Morberg, Åsa
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för kultur-, religions- och utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Nordqvist, Ingrid
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för kultur-, religions- och utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Hallström, Monica
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för kultur-, religions- och utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Lindgren, Ulla
    Umeå Universitet.
    Professionell och/eller legitimerad? Didaktiska perspektiv på nya lärares professionella utveckling.2010Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 140.
    Hallström, Monica
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för kultur-, religions- och utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Om "genusfällor", uppvaknande och intresse2012Inngår i: Kvalificerad som lärare? Om professionell utveckling, mentorskap och bedömning med sikte mot lärarlegitimation / [ed] Christina Gustafsson och Göran Fransson, Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2012, s. 197-226Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 141.
    Hammarberg, Annie
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för kultur-, religions- och utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Att utmana studenters föreställningar: med genus som exempel2012Inngår i: I mötet mellan vetenskap och lärande: 13 högskolepedagogiska utmaningar / [ed] Göran Fransson & Helena Hammarström, Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2012, s. 67-79Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 142.
    Hammarberg, Annie
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för kultur-, religions- och utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Liljestrand, Johan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för kultur-, religions- och utbildningsvetenskap, Pedagogik.
    The Construction of the Child on Documentation Panels in the Swedish Pre-School2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the Swedish pre-school, documentation of children’s activity is mandated in the national syllabus, Lpfö -98 (Skolverket, 2010). There are different documentations, both concerning material, e.g. photos, drawings, videos and for different purposes. One kind of documentation which is prominent for different kinds of actors in the pre-school, is the documentation panels of children’s activities posted on the walls (Helm, Beneke & Steinheimer1998; Kline 2008). Such “publications” can be seen as a case for how the pedagogues are interpreting the task of documenting the activity of the children in relation to their educational goals. However, documentation of children is always a social construction, focusing on certain things while excluding (possible) others. The documentation is not only a presentation of what is going on in the daily practice of the pre-school, but a discursive practice in which children are being constructed in different ways (Lenz Taguchi 2010). Our purpose is to explore how constructions of the child are performed in documentation panels in Swedish pre-schools.  The theoretical framework is taken from post-structural theory and from visual methodology (Rose 2007). The material consists of photographs from documentations from which a selection of documentations has been made. Some preliminary categories are discerned and will be presented in our paper. 

     

    Our preliminary findings show that the child is constructed mostly (but not only) in relation to educational goals which are attached to photographs with an accompanying text, constructing the child as e.g. someone who is learning and as someone being socialized as a “good pal”. The documentation panels focus mainly on good examples, i.e. of successful development and with a claim of capturing such a process in the public documentations. Our project is exploring both the local preconditions as well as the local consequences of the increasing accountability in the pre-school sector, and can be regarded as relevant for educational research in Scandinavia.

  • 143.
    Hofsten, Anna
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för hälso- och vårdvetenskap, Medicinvetenskap.
    Gustafsson, Christina
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för kultur-, religions- och utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Häggström, Elisabeth
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för hälso- och vårdvetenskap, Vårdvetenskap.
    Case seminars open doors to deeper understanding: Nursing students’ experiences of learning2010Inngår i: Nurse Education Today, ISSN 0260-6917, E-ISSN 1532-2793, Vol. 30, nr 6, s. 533-538Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    The Case Method is a teaching method in which cases from real life inspire students to actively seek knowledge that they discuss in structured seminars. Case seminars in health education have been evaluated, compared and discussed, but descriptions that can help us understand how students learn in the seminars have not previously been published. In a Swedish nursing programme, where case seminars have been used for several years, students were asked to write about their experiences of learning in the seminars. The aim of the present study was to describe this learning process from the students' point of view.

    METHOD:

    Written data were analysed using content analysis.

    FINDINGS:

    A theme concerning how the Case Method opens doors to deeper understanding was identified as a thread running through different codes and categories. Students described the importance of new perspectives and their wish to participate in discussions with other students. The students indicated that the structure, which involved pre-prepared cases and writing on the white board, positioned their own knowledge in a wider context and that the learning atmosphere enabled everyone to participate.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    The Case Method seems to involve students in a way that deepens their understanding and critical thinking.

  • 144.
    Holmberg, Jörgen
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för kultur-, religions- och utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Added Value? Preschool Teacher Students’ Views On And Examples Of The Added Value Of ICT As A Tool For Learning2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In today’s digitalized society the potential of digital technologies and how to use these to support learning has increasingly become a focus of research. Since preschool children’s use of ICT is continuously increasing, more interest is also being paid to the question of how ICT can be used for pedagogical purposes in preschools, although research in this area is still limited (Sandvik, Smørdal & Østerud 2012). The use of ICT in preschools is itself a controversial matter. Earlier research has questioned whether young children should be subjected to ICT (Straker et al 2009; Kalas 2010). A growing number of studies, however, identify the potential of ICT as a tool for learning in preschools when the use of ICT is based on pedagogical principles and supports learning of an intended content (McCarrick & Li 2007; McKenney & Voogt 2009). In other words, if ICT is to be used to create a pedagogical added value in preschools, preschool teachers must develop an ability to integrate pedagogical knowledge, content knowledge and technological knowledge.

    The aim of this study is to examine what kind of added pedagogical value pre-service preschool teachers think educational technologies can bring to preschools and to analyze their oral, written and practical digital examples and presentations of such added value through the lenses of the theoretical framework of Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK).

    Mishra and Koehler (2008) has built on Shulman’s (1986) pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) to create a conceptual framework that also includes technological knowledge and the ability to successfully integrate this with their pedagogical knowledge and content knowledge. They label their conceptual framework Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK). The TPACK framework has proven useful as a tool for describing the type of knowledge required by teachers for successful technology integration (Voogt et al 2012).  A teacher that possesses TPACK knows how to successfully integrate ICT in their practice to create an added pedagogical value. Thus, looking for signs of TPACK means looking for signs of successful technology integration. Hence there are a number of studies that try to measure teachers’ or student teachers’ TPACK with the intention of identifying successful ICT integration (Angeli & Valanides 2009; Kramarski & Michalsky 2010). In this study the theoretical framework TPACK is used to analyze preschool teacher students’ oral presentations, written texts and digital examples of ICT use for added value in preschools.

    The following research questions have been formulated: - What types of arguments did the preschool teacher students present to support or questions the use of ICT to create added pedagogical value in preschools? - What types of examples were given of successful ICT use for added pedagogical value in preschools by the preschool teacher students in their written documentation? - To what extent do the preschool teacher students’ practical digital examples show signs of added pedagogical value by successful ICT integration (i.e. to what extent do the preschool teacher students’ digital examples show signs of TPACK or other subdomains in the TPACK framework)

  • 145.
    Holmberg, Jörgen
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för kultur-, religions- och utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Brenner, Mats
    Högskolan i Gävle, Biblioteket.
    Hallen, Maivor
    Högskolan i Gävle, Biblioteket. University Library of Gävle.
    Planning and implementing in-service ICT-training to support development of higher education teachers’ technological pedagogical content knowledge2013Inngår i: The Joy of Learning - Enhancing Learning Experience Improving Learning Quality: 2013 Annual EDEN Conference, Oslo, Norway, 2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Theoretical underpinnings in the planning of the in-service training

    The rapid technological development and the growth of online learning, present new challenges for higher education teachers and institutions. Web 2.0 tools create new opportunities for teachers and students to communicate, collaborate and contribute by different modalities. The need for teachers to harness this potential in order to be able to respond to the changing needs and expectations of their students make in-service training of higher education online teachers a priority. What is often overlooked in in-service initiatives however, is that teachers have varying degrees of technological competence and pedagogical competence. They also teach different kinds of content to students with different pre-existing knowledge, etc.  

    This poster presents the implementation and outcomes of two simultaneous in-service training initiatives at the University of Gävle, Sweden. The initiatives were aimed at developing online teachers’ ability to successfully integrate ICT in their teaching. When planning this initiative we deliberately wanted to avoid techno centrism and a narrow focus on standards or competencies. Instead we were inspired by Mishra & Koehler’s theoretical framework TPACK (Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge) which recognises that developing the ability to successfully integrate ICT as a tool for learning means understanding the reciprocal relationship between technological knowledge, pedagogical knowledge and content knowledge (Mishra & Koehler 1986; 1987). Mishra & Koehler has built on Shulman’s (1986) pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) to create a conceptual framework that also includes technological knowledge and the ability to successfully integrate this with their pedagogical knowledge and content knowledge. In other words, a teacher that possesses TPACK knows how to successfully integrate ICT in their practice to create an added pedagogical value.

  • 146.
    Insulander, Eva
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture & Communication, Västerås, Sweden.
    Lindstrand, Fredrik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för kultur-, religions- och utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Towards a social and ethical view of semiosis: Examples from the museum2013Inngår i: Multimodality and Social Semiosis: Communication, Meaning-making, and Learning in the Work of Gunther Kress / [ed] Margit Böck, Norbert Pachler, New York: Routledge, 2013, s. 225-236Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 147.
    Jenkins-Parker, Marie
    et al.
    University of Limerick, Ireland.
    Edling, Silvia
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för kultur-, religions- och utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Francia, Guadalupe
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Responding to the educational needs of Muslim children in a non-Islamic state: a UK-Sweden comparative study2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 148.
    Jokinen, H.
    et al.
    Finnish Institute for Educational Research, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Heikkinen, H. L. T.
    Finnish Institute for Educational Research, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Morberg, Åsa
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för kultur-, religions- och utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    The induction phase as a critical transition for newly qualified teachers2012Inngår i: Transitions and Transformations in Learning and Education / [ed] Päivi Tynjälä, Marja-Leena Stenström and Marjatta Saarnivaara, Springer Netherlands, 2012, 1, s. 169-185Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter addresses the issue of becoming a teacher, with the induction phase as a critical transition from initial teacher education to the lifelong professional learning of teachers, and mentoring as a tool of support. It presents newly qualified teachers’ views on initial teacher education and discusses the need for fostering the connection between teacher training and the induction year. New teachers’ views on teacher induction and mentoring are based on research findings in Finland and other Nordic countries. Another important question addresses how initial teacher education can facilitate the metamorphosis of a student teacher into an autonomous teacher. The new teachers’ experiences of mentoring have been highly positive, and they wished to see it made a standard practice. The mentoring meetings have served them as a useful interaction that supported them in their work and enabled them to learn from each other and from an experienced mentor. The mentees considered mentoring a highly important tool for inducting new teachers and fostering their professional growth. The results suggest that all new teachers should have access to either team-based or individual mentoring over the course of one or two school years.

  • 149. Kochan, Frances
    et al.
    Feldman, Philip
    Hager, Mark J.
    Dominguez, Nora
    Searby, Linda
    Brondyk, Susan
    McMahan, Sarah K.
    Fransson, Göran
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för kultur-, religions- och utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Green, Andre M.
    Myers, Susan D.
    Green, Andre
    Kent, Andrea
    Creating a Comprehensive Mentoring Research Agenda: Literature Reviews and Future Directions2013Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 150.
    Leijon, Marie
    et al.
    Malmö Högskola.
    Lindstrand, Fredrik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för kultur-, religions- och utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Socialsemiotik och design för lärande: två multimodala teorier om lärande, representation och teckenskapande2013Inngår i: Pedagogisk forskning i Sverige, ISSN 1401-6788, E-ISSN 2001-3345, Vol. 17, nr 3-4, s. 171-192Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
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