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  • 101.
    Ahmadi, Fereshteh
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för socialt arbete och kriminologi, Socialt arbete.
    Rabbani, Mohammad
    University of Tehran.
    Yi, Xiaohe
    Waseda University, Tokyo.
    Hiroko, Kase
    Waseda University, Tokyo.
    Ahmadi, Nader
    Myndigheten för arbetsmiljökunskap, Gävle.
    Spiritual and Secular Existential Meaning-Making Coping Methods among Japanese Cancer Patients2019Ingår i: International Journal of Social Science Studies, ISSN 2324-8033, E-ISSN 2324-8041, Vol. 7, nr 6Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The present article is written on the basis of a sociological international project on meaning-making coping. The aim of the project has been to understand the role of culture in meaning-making coping. The project embarrasses studies among cancer patients in 10 countries. The present article is confined to the results obtained in the study in japan. The main aim was to investigate the impact of culture from a sociological perspective on the choice of coping methods. Twelve participants with various kinds of cancer were interviewed. Several meaning-making coping methods are found in the present study. This study underlines the importance of investigating cultural and social context when investigating into the use of the meaning-making coping methods in different countries.

  • 102.
    Ahmadi, Fereshteh
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för socialt arbete och kriminologi, Socialt arbete.
    Ristiniemi, Jari
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för humaniora, Religionsvetenskap.
    Linblad, Inger
    Södertörns högskola.
    Schiller, Lina
    Perceptions of death among children in Sweden2019Ingår i: International Journal of Children's Spirituality, ISSN 1364-436X, E-ISSN 1469-8455, Vol. 24, nr 4, s. 415-433Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The article discusses children’s thoughts about death. Research was carried out in two elementary schools in Sweden among 40 children between 6 and 9 years of age, data were collected through text reading, movie viewing and dialogues with children. The main results reveal child-specific thoughts about the end of life, i.e., ideas children construe on their own. The findings also show society- and time-specific thoughts that children take from their societal and cultural context. The article proposes an integrative approach between these two: it is only when the categories of child-specific and society- and time-specific thoughts are combined that we get a fair picture of children’s perceptions of death. The main finding is that children form ideas of their own; they are not completely under the influence of their societal and cultural context. Children take over ideas from their surrounding society but they also express ideas produced by themselves.

  • 103.
    Ahmadi, Fereshteh
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för socialt arbete och kriminologi, Socialt arbete.
    Tavares, Rita
    Center for Psychology at the University of Porto, Portugal; Faculty of Psychology and Education Sciences, University of Porto, Portugal.
    Matos, Paula M.
    Center for Psychology at the University of Porto, Portugal; Faculty of Psychology and Education Sciences, University of Porto, Portugal.
    Tomás, Carla
    Department of Psychology, Instituto Superior Manuel Teixeira Gomes, Algarve, Portugal.
    Ahmadi, Nader
    Swedish Agency for Work Environment Knowledge, Gävle, Sweden.
    Secular Existential Meaning-Making Coping Among Cancer Patients in Portugal: A Qualitative Study2019Ingår i: Illness, crisis and loss, ISSN 1054-1373, E-ISSN 1552-6968Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    For understanding the role of culture in coping in different cultural settings, we have conducted studies among cancer patients in 10 countries, within the framework of an international study on meaning-making coping. This article reports on part of the results we obtained from a study in Portugal; specifically, the reported findings are restricted to nonreligious/spiritual coping methods, methods we call secular existential meaning-making coping. The main aim is to identify the diversity of coping methods using a cultural lens. Thirty-one participants with various kinds of cancer were interviewed. Six different kinds of coping methods related to secular existential coping emerged from thematic analyses of the interviews: discourse of the self, positive solitude, nature, positive transformational orientation, body–mind relationship, and working. Findings revealed that these six methods facilitated patients’ psychological adaptation to the oncological disease. The findings suggest the importance of considering cultural and social context when exploring coping strategies among cancer patients. 

  • 104.
    Ahmadi, Fereshteh
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för vårdvetenskap och sociologi, Ämnesavdelningen för socialt arbete.
    Tornstam, Lars
    Sociologiska institutionen, Uppsala universitet.
    De Gamla Flygande Holländarna: Pendlande invandrare med dubbla tillgångar1996Ingår i: Socialmedicinsk Tidskrift, ISSN 0037-833X, nr 7-8, s. 379-384Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 105.
    Ahmadi, Fereshteh
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för vårdvetenskap och sociologi, Ämnesavdelningen för socialt arbete.
    Tornstam, Lars
    Sociologiska institutionen, Uppsala Universitet.
    The Old Flying Dutchman: Shuttling Immigrant with Double Assets1996Ingår i: Journal of Aging and Identity, ISSN 1087-3732, E-ISSN 1573-3491, Vol. 1, nr 3, s. 191-210Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 106.
    Ahmadi Lewin, Fereshteh
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för vårdvetenskap och sociologi, Ämnesavdelningen för socialt arbete.
    Gerotranscendence and Different Cultural Settings2001Ingår i: Ageing and Society, ISSN 0144-686X, Vol. 21, nr 4, s. 395-415Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

     Within the framework of an international research project aimed at studying the impact of different cultural settings on gerotranscendent development, six groups of older people distinguished by religiosity and cultural origin were studied. A life history approach, followed by thematic semi-structured interviews, was applied. One of the objectives was to inquire about the possible impact of religion, conceived of as a cultural setting, on development towards gerotranscendence. The findings of this inquiry gave rise to two hypotheses as to the relationship between ge ro transcendence and religiosity. The first hypothesis is that the internalisation of mystical-type ideas in individuals' ways of thinking is probably a factor involved in the development of a gerotranscendent view of life. In other words, whether individuals practice their 'religion' in a spiritual, nonorganisational way, or in an organisational way, may play a role for development towards gerotranscendence. The second hypothesis is that certain characteristics, such as the secular and individualistic features of modern societies, may delay development towards gerotranscendence.

  • 107.
    Ahmadi Lewin, Fereshteh
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för vårdvetenskap och sociologi, Ämnesavdelningen för socialt arbete.
    Gerotranscendence and Life Satisfaction: Studies of religious and secular Iranians and Turks2000Ingår i: Journal of Religious Gerontology, ISSN 1050-2289, Vol. 12, nr 1, s. 17-41Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A possible relationship between gerotranscendence and life satisfaction was examined using the life narrative approach followed by thematic semi-structured interviews with religious and secular Iranians residing in Sweden and religious and secular Turks residing in Turkey. Both the Turkish and the Iranian studies provide support for the hypothesis that there is a relationship between gerotranscendence and life satisfaction. Both studies show that persons who displayed evidence of gerotranscendence also displayed evidence of life satisfaction. Additionally, neither of the studies revealed informants displaying gerotranscendence in the absence of discernable life satisfaction.

  • 108.
    Ahmadi Lewin, Fereshteh
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för vårdvetenskap och sociologi, Ämnesavdelningen för socialt arbete.
    Hemmets betydelse för äldre invandrare: En litteraturöversikt och riktlinjer för fortsatt forskning och teoribildning2000Rapport (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 109.
    Ahmadi Lewin, Fereshteh
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för vårdvetenskap och sociologi, Ämnesavdelningen för socialt arbete.
    Identity Crisis and Integration: The divergent Attitudes of Iranian Immigrant Men and women towards Integration into Swedish society2001Ingår i: International Migration, ISSN 0020-7985, Vol. 39, nr 3, s. 121-135Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of this article is to show the divergent attitudes of Iranian immigrant men and women towards integration into Swedish society.

    As several studies have shown, Iranian women have a better chance of adjusting to Western societies than Iranian men. This article discusses the notion that one of the important reasons for this is the determining role of professional position in the life of Iranian immigrants in Sweden.

    As a result of the improvement in their work status and therefore an improvement in their social position, Iranian immigrant women now have greater possibilities than Iranian immigrant men to overcome the identity crisis which ordinarily makes ethnic groups and cultural minorities lose their sense of fitting into their new social reality.

    This results, in its turn, in the women having a positive attitude towards the new society and increases the extent of their desire for integration into the new society.

  • 110.
    Ahmadi Lewin, Fereshteh
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för vårdvetenskap och sociologi, Ämnesavdelningen för socialt arbete.
    Investigating the Religious and Spiritually-oriented Coping Strategies in the Swedish Context: A review of literature and directions for future research2001Ingår i: Illness, Crisis & Loss, ISSN 1054-1373, Vol. 9, nr 4, s. 336-356Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 111.
    Ahmadi Lewin, Fereshteh
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för vårdvetenskap och sociologi, Ämnesavdelningen för socialt arbete.
    Islam och feminism: hur västerländska idéer behandlas inom islamisk feminism i Iran2000Ingår i: Sofia, ISSN 0281-8787, nr 1, s. 13-21Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 112.
    Ahmadi Lewin, Fereshteh
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för vårdvetenskap och sociologi, Ämnesavdelningen för socialt arbete.
    The Late Modern Age and Adoption to Social and Value Changes in Later life2002Ingår i: Reflections on Diversity and Change in Modern Society: a Festschrift for Annick Sjögren / [ed] Nadia Banno Gomes, Botkyrka: Multicultural Centre , 2002Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 113.
    Ahmadi Lewin, Fereshteh
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för vårdvetenskap och sociologi, Ämnesavdelningen för socialt arbete.
    The Meaning of Home among Elderly Immigrants: Directions for Future Research and Theoretical Development2000Ingår i: Housing Studies, ISSN 0267-3037, E-ISSN 1466-1810, Vol. 16, nr 3, s. 353-370Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper discusses the notion that, in research on elderly immigrant housing, it is not enough to delineate the residential geography of different elderly immigrant groups or to study the economic and social reasons for their segregated habitations and exclusiveness. It is also necessary to understand, in the spatial context, the degree of integration and the differences between groups. In explaining these differences, consideration should be given to each elderly immigrant group's own value system, norms and preferences. It is argued that one necessary task in this endeavour is to gain knowledge about different elderly immigrant groups' understandings of what a home symbolises - what home means to them in the context of their particular ways of thinking and culture. From this point of view, the paper concludes that, when investigating the meaning of 'home' among elderly immigrants, an integrative theoretical approach based on an experiential perspective and a phenomenological and developmental perspective are deemed appropriate to be adopted.

  • 114.
    Ahmadi Lewin, Fereshteh
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för vårdvetenskap och sociologi, Ämnesavdelningen för socialt arbete.
    Lewin, Bo
    Uppsala universitet.
    Sexualitet och heder: identitet i kris hos unga människor med utländsk bakgrund2003Ingår i: Ungdom, kulturmöten, identitet / [ed] Nader Ahmadi, Stockholm: Liber , 2003, 2, s. 139-158Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 115.
    Ahmadi Lewin, Fereshteh
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för vårdvetenskap och sociologi, Ämnesavdelningen för socialt arbete.
    Tornstam, Lars
    Elderly Iranian Immigrants in Sweden2000Ingår i: Proceedings Vol II: Social and Environmental Issues of Aging, Tehran: Goroh Bonoval Nikokar Publishing , 2000Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 116.
    Ahmadi, Nader
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för vårdvetenskap och sociologi, Ämnesavdelningen för socialt arbete.
    Asylsökande barn med uppgivenhetssymtom: kunskapsöversikt och kartläggning2005Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    En studie om situationen för sylsökande barn med uppgivenhetssymtom genomförd i två delar: en kunskapsöversikt och en kartläggning.

    Syftet har varit att ge en bild av såväl den internationella och nationella kunskapsnivån som problematikens omfattning och de drabbde barnens psykosociala tillstånd.

  • 117.
    Ahmadi, Nader
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för vårdvetenskap och sociologi, Ämnesavdelningen för socialt arbete.
    Asylsökande barn med uppgivenhetssymtom: trauma, kultur, asylprocess2006Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 118.
    Ahmadi, Nader
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för socialt arbete och psykologi, Socialt arbete.
    Foreword2013Ingår i: Substance Use & Misuse, ISSN 1082-6084, E-ISSN 1532-2491, Vol. 48, nr 13, s. 1283-1284Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 119.
    Ahmadi, Nader
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för socialt arbete och psykologi, Socialt arbete.
    Ahmadi, Fereshteh
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för socialt arbete och psykologi, Socialt arbete.
    The Use of Religious Coping Methods in a Secular Society: A Survey Study Among Cancer Patients in Sweden2017Ingår i: Illness, crisis and loss, ISSN 1054-1373, E-ISSN 1552-6968, Vol. 5, nr 3, s. 171-199Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present article, based on results from a survey study in Sweden among 2,355 cancer patients, the role of religion in coping is discussed. The survey study, in turn, was based on earlier findings from a qualitative study of cancer patients in Sweden. The purpose of the present survey study was to determine to what extent results obtained in the qualitative study can be applied to a wider population of cancer patients in Sweden. The present study shows that use of religious coping methods is infrequent among cancer patients in Sweden. Besides the two methods that are ranked in 12th and 13th place, that is, in the middle (Listening to religious music and Praying to God to make things better), the other religious coping methods receive the lowest rankings, showing how nonsignificant such methods are in coping with cancer in Sweden. However, the question of who turns to God and who is self-reliant in a critical situation is too complicated to be resolved solely in terms of the strength of individuals’ religious commitments. In addition to background and situational factors, the culture in which the individual was socialized is an important factor. Regarding the influence of background variables, the present results show that gender, age, and area of upbringing played an important role in almost all of the religious coping methods our respondents used. In general, people in the oldest age-group, women, and people raised in places with 20,000 or fewer residents had a higher average use of religious coping methods than did younger people, men, and those raised in larger towns.

  • 120.
    Ahmadi, Nader
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för socialt arbete och kriminologi, Socialt arbete.
    Ahmadi, Fereshteh
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för socialt arbete och kriminologi, Socialt arbete.
    Erbil, Pelin
    Oncology Clinique, Humanite Psychiatry, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Cetrez, Önver A.
    Department of Theology, Uppsala University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Religious meaning-making coping in Turkey: a study among cancer patients2019Ingår i: Illness, crisis and loss, ISSN 1054-1373, E-ISSN 1552-6968, Vol. 27, nr 3, s. 190-208Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present project has been to carry out international studies on meaning-making coping among people who have been affected by cancer in a number of societies and, thereby, to try to understand the influence of culture on use of these coping methods. Five countries—Sweden, South Korea, China, Japan, and Turkey—are included in the project. Qualitative semistructured interviews have been conducted with persons with a cancer diagnosis. The research group in each country has used, as a foundation, the interview questions developed for the Swedish study. These questions were, however, modified to better suite the sociocultural context of each participating country. The results presented here concern only Turkey and are restricted to religious coping methods. The study consists of 25 cancer patients (18 females and 7 males) between 20 and 71 years of age. The results of the study in Turkey indicated that the RCOPE (Religious Coping) methods are highly relevant for the interviewees. A sociological analysis of the study made from a cultural perspective showed clearly the importance of the idea of being tolerant (Sabr) for patients when coping with the psychological problems brought about by cancer. The study made it clear that culture plays an essential role in the choice of coping methods.

  • 121.
    Ahmadi, Nader
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för vårdvetenskap och sociologi, Ämnesavdelningen för socialt arbete.
    Hessle, Marie
    Mannikoff, Anna
    Asylsökande barn med uppgivenhetssymtom: ett svenskt fenomen åren 2001-20062006Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 122.
    Ahmadi, Nader
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för socialt arbete och psykologi, Socialt arbete.
    Ljungqvist, ArneSvedsäter, GöranHögskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för hälso- och vårdvetenskap, Idrottsvetenskap.
    Doping and public health2016Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Doping – the use of performance-enhancing substances and methods – has long been a high-profile issue in sport but in recent years it has also become an issue in wider society. This important new book examines doping as a public health issue, drawing on a multi-disciplinary set of perspectives to explore the prevalence, significance and consequences of doping in wider society. It introduces the epidemiology of doping, examines the historical context, and explores the social, behavioural, legal, ethical and political aspects of doping. The book also discusses possible interventions for addressing the problem on organisational and societal levels.

  • 123.
    Ahmadi, Nader
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för socialt arbete och psykologi, Socialt arbete.
    Ljungqvist, Arne
    Svedsäter, Göran
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för hälso- och vårdvetenskap, Idrottsvetenskap.
    Introduction: Doping and Public Health2016Ingår i: Doping and Public Health / [ed] Nader Ahmadi, Arne Ljungqvist, Göran Svedsäter, Abingdon: Routledge, 2016, 1, , s. 151s. 1-10Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of “doping” is usually associated with sport, particularly elite sport. In fact, doping means the use of substances or methods that are banned in sport by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) because of their potentially performance-enhancing effects. Their use is, therefore, considered to be against the fair play spirit of sport and can also include significant health risks for the user. However, the use of many doping substances is no longer limited to the world of sport. Doping substances such as anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are nowadays used also by people who are not competitive athletes but who want to make use of the effects of AAS in making their bodies more muscular, stronger and impressive in conformity with the current masculine body ideal. The use of AAS and similar substances appears to be growing and has been found in a range of countries previously not researched. At least, recent data obtained from customs seizures, court cases and some surveys suggest that the extent of AAS use outside sport has been underestimated, some reasons probably being an underground circulation of such drugs in the gym and fitness culture and the easy availability of them on the internet. One particular concern is the increasing use of nutritional supplements by growing segments of society. A significant percentage of these products have been shown to contain prohibited substances such as steroids that are not listed on the label. This shows that the nutritional supplement industry needs to be more strictly regulated. Until that happens, supplements of dubious value, content and quality will continue to be easily available around the world. What, then, are the possible reasons that active and health-conscious individuals are willing to take the risk to use preparations such as AAS? A review of the research shows that the most important motive behind the use of AAS outside the elite sports environment, i.e., in a fitness context, is to improve physical appearance. Although most users are boys and young and middle-aged men, also women of various ages use doping substances. Different types of slimming pills are popular among women (including hormone preparations), but possibly even more interesting are the new female fitness and appearance ideals that are connected to muscles and strength. The body has become increasingly important for saying something about who we are. The hunt for the perfect appearance creates a situation where denial instead of acceptance of one’s own body influences the individual’s self-image.

  • 124.
    Ahmadi, Nader
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för vårdvetenskap och sociologi, Ämnesavdelningen för socialt arbete.
    Lönnback, Eva Britt
    Tvärkulturellt socialt arbete: av socialarbetare för socialarbetare2005Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 125.
    Ahmadi, Nader
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för socialt arbete och psykologi, Socialt arbete.
    Svedsäter, Göran
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för hälso- och vårdvetenskap, Idrottsvetenskap.
    "The winner takes it all": Individualization and Performance-Enhancing Drugs and Methods in Sport and in Society2016Ingår i: Doping and Public Health / [ed] Nader Ahmadi, Arne Ljungqvist, Göran Svedsäter, Abingdon: Routledge, 2016, 1, , s. 151s. 38-48Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A common misconception in today's society is that everything is (or should be) rational and goal-oriented, which we summarized earlier as pragmatic rationalism. We call this pragmatic rationalism a misconception because it misses a historical fact that individuals' actions are and have never been governed entirely by rational motives. Emotional, ethical and existential considerations influence human actions extensively. Solidarity, willingness to share and even self-sacrifice and prioritizing the good of others before one's own are values that have survived many different economic cultures. Even today's extremely individualized society with its focus on reaching success and winning at any price cannot completely suppress these values. There is an inherent contradiction between the crude egoism of modern individualism and its historical development that largely has its origin in the care of humans.

  • 126.
    Ahmadi, Zahra
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi. KTH.
    Market orientation and public housing companies in the Swedish declining market2016Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The licentiate thesis consists of three papers with the particular topic in public housing. They discuss how the public housing companies manage the transition to higher economic demands meeting increased customer and market requirements. These studies focus specifically on how the public housing company deal with market challenges associated with the decision to demolish, maintain and/or new construction. Market-oriented perspective can be a tool for the public housing companies to achieve better customer value and enhance economic development. Although the market orientation concept has contributed to valuable improvements in research, the thesis assumes that it is necessary to distinguish between that the public housing companies operate market-oriented to meet customer requirements and their focus on innovation. Paper I develops market/innovation types and then investigates how public housing companies adapt to these types. It was found that economic conditions in the municipality have a major impact on the housing companies, causing them to act innovatively and create superior customer value by innovations. The study confirms that the implementation of market and innovation orientation contributes to competitive advantages in growing markets, while weak economic conditions impair implementation in declining markets. Paper II addresses how public housing companies in declining markets act based on the concept of market intelligence. This study suggested and tested whether there is a positive link between collecting customer information, disseminating it in the organization, and responding to customer needs, and whether this link has an impact on strategic performance. The result shows that weak links exist in the process; the efficiency of intelligence distribution in public housing companies is affected mainly by their responsiveness to customer needs. Paper III also addresses the public housing companies’ market strategies in declining markets. This study, based on a market-strategic perspective, compares how public housing companies act in relation to customer wants compared to the private housing market. The result shows that public housing companies are more engaged in carrying out new construction, renovation, and reconstruction, as well as taking more social responsibility compared to the private sector. In particular, their concern for the customers’ social needs is evident.

  • 127.
    Ahmadi, Zahra
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    Moderating effects on market orientation and strategic performance: A study of public housing companies in Sweden2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 128.
    Ahmadi, Zahra
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    Moderating effects on the market orientation and strategic performance relationship in public housing2019Ingår i: Baltic Journal of Management, ISSN 1746-5265, E-ISSN 1746-5273, Vol. 14, nr 4, s. 559-577Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this study is to examine how external factors moderate public housing companies’ market orientation and strategic performance relationship.

    Design/methodology/approach – The quantitative method was applied to data from a survey sent to 289 public housing companies in Sweden. A hierarchical, multicollinearity diagnostics–moderated regression analysis is used to test the research hypotheses.

    Findings – The results reveal moderating factors. The companies take several initiatives to inform themselves about customers’ needs and distribute the information within the company, but economic conditions, as well as market and technological turbulence in the municipalities, moderate the relationship between market orientation and strategic performance. Economic conditions make it difficult for public housing companies to strategically act based on market needs when making decisions and planning construction strategies (strategic performance).

    Research limitations/implications – This study is limited by focusing on public housing companies, a sector that differs radically from the open market. The study highlights the effects of moderating factors that are important for companies’ strategic performance and long-term construction strategies. From this limited focus, researchers might use the results to compare both similar and different market situations.

    Practical implications – The results of the study are useful for companies facing a similar market situation of external moderating constraints. The result might be used in future research related to the area in focus.

    Originality –This research adds new knowledge to market research by including the impact of economic conditions, which provide insight into how to develop and use market knowledge in real estate and public housing markets.

  • 129.
    Ahmadi, Zahra
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    The role of competitive strategy and market orientation: the effect of innovation and sustainability - a study of public housing companies2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 130.
    Ahmadi, Zahra
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi. KTH, Bygg- och fastighetsekonomi.
    The role of market orientation in public housing companies: A study of MO’s effect on construction strategies2018Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of public housing companies in Sweden is strongly influenced by legal, economic, and demographic changes. The companies long tradition of taking responsibility for customer welfare in living have recently been criticized for excessive dominance over price setting, which is claimed to give them competitive advantages in the housing market. New legislation in 2011 requires financial return on investment, implying increased competition with radical changes for the companies. Because of the law, they find themselves transitioning from the role of being responsible for living conditions in Sweden to having to work in a businesslike manner with increased competition.The purpose of this dissertation is to analyze how the public housing companies’ deal with market orientation constructs and what their impact is on construction strategy choices. Theoretically, the market orientation concept is seen as a tool for companies to create superior value for the customers and influence strategic performance, which is a relationship tested and analyzed in this dissertation.The research was conducted through data collection stages using qualitative and quantitative methods. In the first stage, a qualitative pilot study was conducted with interviews of 15 managers in 11 public housing companies in central Sweden. In the second stage, two quantitative comparative studies of public and private housing companies in declining markets in central Sweden were conducted, collecting data from 23 (22 survey respondents) public and 37 private housing companies (16 respondents). In the third and final stage, two quantitative studies were conducted, collecting data from all 289 public housing companies (165 respondents) in Sweden.Results of the five studies show, firstly, that economic condition in the municipality have a major impact on the housing companies’ construction strategies, causing them to act innovatively in order to create superior customer value. Secondly, market orientation efforts contribute to competitive advantages in growing markets, while weak economic conditions limit the companies’ construction strategy choices in declining markets. After analyzing the link between market orientation constructs and construction strategy in declining markets, results showed that the public housing companies demonstrate higher responsiveness to customer demands compared to the private sector, but these have no effects on construction strategy. Thirdly, the analysis of moderating (external) and mediating (corporate social responsibility) effects on the market orientation and construction strategy relationship confirms that economic conditions in society influence construction strategy planning and decisions. The results of the mediating effects of CSR indicate that environmental and social issues have a positive influence on the market orientation and construction strategy relationship.

  • 131.
    Ahmadi, Zahra
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    Berggren, Benny
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    Public housing companies in transition: from governmental tools to profit-making organizations2020Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 132.
    Ahmadi, Zahra
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Lind, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Strategies in decling housing markets: a comparison of public and private housing companies2016Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 133.
    Ahmadi, Zahra
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    Lind, Hans
    School of Architecture and the Built Environment, KTH, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sustainable strategies in a declining housing market: a comparative study2018Ingår i: International Journal of Management Practice, ISSN 1477-9064, E-ISSN 1741-8143, Vol. 11, nr 4, s. 400-421Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is first to examine and comparesustainable strategies within public and private housing companies in decliningmarkets in central Sweden. Then, the study evaluates the impact of newlegislation that requires public housing companies to act in a ‘businesslike’way, in the same way as a long-term private company. A quantitative studywas conducted based on a survey sent to 72 housing companies. The resultsshow that public housing companies are more strategy oriented than privatehousing companies. The results can be viewed as an on-going interactionprocess, where a company’s strategies affect its profit. The study aims toincrease the understanding of activities within housing companies in adeclining market that engage the companies in sustainable strategies toimprove their market knowledge and profit.

  • 134.
    Ahmadi, Zahra
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    Sundström, Agneta
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    The market intelligence impact on strategic performance in declining markets2017Ingår i: International Journal of Applied Business and Economic Research, ISSN 0972-7302, Vol. 15, nr 15, s. 457-473Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines how companies in declining markets operate in the context of market intelligence, responding to customer needs and applying them tostrategic performance. A quantitative survey was sent to 214 public housing companies. The results indicate that market intelligence creates commitment and is significant. A positive relationship was found between data gathering, dissemination, and responsiveness, which indicates that the companies comprehend market needs but companies have difficult to manage construction strategies that improve strategic performance. There was a low value of strategic performance; a link between market intelligence and the chosen strategy was not confirmed. Companies know what the market wants but base their decision on previous strategic performanceon economic conditions in the municipality instead.

  • 135.
    Ahmadi, Zahra
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    Sundström, Agneta
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    The role of market intelligence in declining markets: public housing companies in Sweden2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 136.
    Ahmadi, Zahra
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    Sundström, Agneta
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    The Role of Market Intelligence in Declining Markets: Public Housing Companies in Sweden2015Ingår i: Journal of Nonprofit & Public Sector Marketing, ISSN 1049-5142, E-ISSN 1540-6997Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 137.
    Ahne, Ingemar
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för pedagogik, didaktik och psykologi, Ämnesavdelningen för didaktik.
    Söderhäll, Bengt
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för pedagogik, didaktik och psykologi, Ämnesavdelningen för didaktik.
    HiG har ännu inte nått fram2002Ingår i: Gefle Dagblad, ISSN 1103-9302, Vol. 28 oktoberArtikel, recension (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    HÖGSKOLEDEBATT

    Tisdagen den 21 oktober hade Gefle Dagblad förstasidesrubriken: "Lärarutbildningen som ett dagis" Vi tycker det är en mycket olycklig formulering. Rubriken och artikeln andas fördomar mot förskolan

  • 138. Ahola, Marja
    et al.
    Haikala, Raisa
    Zafar, Afnan
    Opiskelemaan pääsy ja työllistyminen haastavat ulkomaiset korkeakouluopiskelijat – muut maat keräävät osaajat2019Ingår i: LAMK Pro, ISSN 2489-3765, nr 15-novArtikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 139.
    Ahonen-Jonnarth, Ulla
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för matematik, natur- och datavetenskap, Ämnesavdelningen för datavetenskap.
    Dynamic web interface for metabolic pathways2002Ingår i: Promote IT 2002, 2002Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 140.
    Ahonen-Jonnarth, Ulla
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för matematik, natur- och datavetenskap, Ämnesavdelningen för datavetenskap.
    Göransson, A
    Finlay, R
    Growth and nutrient uptake of ectomycorrhizal Pinus sylvestris seedlings treated with elevated Al concentrations and decreased levels of base cations2003Ingår i: Tree Physiology, ISSN 0829-318X, E-ISSN 1758-4469, Vol. 23, nr 3, s. 157-167Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Models of the effects of elevated concentrations of aluminum (Al) on growth and nutrient uptake of forest trees frequently ignore the effects of mycorrhizal fungi. In this study, we present novel data indicating that ectomycorrhizal mycelia may prevent leaching of base cations and Al. Mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal Pinus sylvestris L. seedlings were grown in sand obtained from the B-horizon of a local forest. In Experiment 1, non-mycorrhizal seedlings and seedlings inoculated with Hebeloma cf. longicaudum (Pers.: Fr.) Kumm. ss. Lange or Laccaria bicolor (Maire) Orton were provided with nutrient solution containing 2.5 mM Al. Aluminum did not affect growth of non-mycorrhizal seedlings or seedlings inoculated with L. bicolor. Seedlings colonized by H. cf. longicaudum had the highest biomass production of all seedlings grown without added Al, but the fungus did not tolerate Al. Shoots of seedlings colonized by L. bicolor had the lowest nitrogen (N) concentrations but the highest phosphorus (P) concentrations of all seedlings. The treatments had small but significant effects on shoot and root Al concentrations. In Experiment 2, inoculation with L. bicolor was factorially combined with the addition of a complete nutrient solution, or a solution lacking the base cations K, Ca and Mg, and solutions containing 0 or 0.74 mM Al. Seedling growth decreased in response to 0.74 mM Al, but the effect was significant only for non-mycorrhizal seedlings. Mycorrhizal seedlings generally had higher P concentrations than non-mycorrhizal seedlings. Aluminum reduced P uptake in non-mycorrhizal plants but had no effect on P uptake in mycorrhizal plants. Mycorrhizal colonization increased the pH of the soil solution by about 0.5 units and addition of Al decreased the pH by the same amount. We conclude that the presence of ectomycorrhizal mycelia decreased leaching of base cations and Al from the soil.

  • 141.
    Ahonen-Jonnarth, Ulla
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för matematik, natur- och datavetenskap, Ämnesavdelningen för datavetenskap.
    Odelstad, Jan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för matematik, natur- och datavetenskap, Ämnesavdelningen för datavetenskap.
    Evaluation of simulations with conflicting goals with application to cleaning of young forest stands2006Ingår i: Proceedings of ISC 2006 (Forth International Industrial Simulation Conference), 2006, s. 498-503Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 142.
    Ahonen-Jonnarth, Ulla
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för Industriell utveckling, IT och Samhällsbyggnad, Datavetenskap.
    Odelstad, Jan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för Industriell utveckling, IT och Samhällsbyggnad, Datavetenskap.
    Simulation as a tool for the evaluation of forest management treatments2010Ingår i: ESM'2010 - The 2010 European Simulation and Modelling Conference / [ed] Gerrit K. Janssens, Katrien Ramaekers and An Caris, Ghent: EUROSIS-ETI , 2010, s. 426-433Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cleaning of young forest stands is a multicriteria problem with conflicting goals. This kind of forest management treatment is performed by human beings but it is possible that this work may be performed by artificial agents in the future. The artificial agents need detailed information about how to clean a forest stand and/or what are the goals for cleaning. One problem in development of cleaning rules for artificial cleaning agents is that explicit knowledge about good cleaning results is not detailed. In this paper we present a tool for developing and testing rules and judging evaluation functions for cleaning. We illustrate this tool by presenting examples of some ways to clean forest stands in a computer environment and we present how the cleaning results can be evaluated. In order to obtain material for experiments it is also possible to simulate forest stands using this tool.

  • 143.
    Ahonen-Jonnarth, Ulla
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för matematik, natur- och datavetenskap, Ämnesavdelningen för datavetenskap.
    Odelstad, Jan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för matematik, natur- och datavetenskap, Ämnesavdelningen för datavetenskap.
    Simulation of cleaning of young forest stands2005Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 144.
    Ahonen-Jonnarth, Ulla
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för matematik, natur- och datavetenskap, Ämnesavdelningen för datavetenskap.
    Roitto, M
    Markkola, A M
    Ranta, H
    Neuvonen, S
    Effects of Nickel and Copper on Growth and Mycorrhiza of Scots Pine Seedlings Inoculated with Gremmeniella abietina2004Ingår i: Forest Pathology, ISSN 1437-4781, E-ISSN 1439-0329, Vol. 34, nr 6, s. 337-348Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) seedlings were planted in soil originating from two localities with different background levels of nickel and copper. In addition, some of the seedlings were exposed to additional nickel (20.5 mg Ni/l of soil) or copper (63.5 mg Cu/l of soil), or a combination of both Ni and Cu, via soil without direct shoot exposure during their second growing period. The seedlings were either irrigated with spring water (pH 6) or got only natural rain during the whole field experiment. All seedlings were inoculated with conidia of a shoot-pathogen Gremmeniella abietina during their third growing season, and harvested the following spring. Lengths of shoots of different year-classes were used as growth estimates. In roots, the proportion of fungal (assumedly mycorrhizal) biomass was estimated by measuring ergosterol concentration. Guajacol peroxidase activity was measured. Short roots were classified into two groups according to their condition and the composition of the mycorrhizal community was expressed as a proportion of morphotypes in the roots. The seedlings exposed to additional Ni had higher shoot growth than the seedlings in the other treatments. The mean Ni concentration in the roots of seedlings exposed to additional Ni was 79 p.p.m. and in other seedlings 16 p.p.m. Additional Ni also decreased the frequency of clearly senescent short roots and the proportion of the mycorrhizal morphotype with the thinnest mantle. These results indicate that the Ni exposure levels used in this experiment had some positive effects on the seedlings. The relative fungal biomass was about 6% lower (p = 0.0981) in the fine roots of seedlings treated with additional Cu. The mean Cu concentration in the roots of seedlings exposed to additional Cu was 256 p.p.m. and in other seedlings 29 p.p.m. Peroxidase activity, which was used as a general stress indicator in this study, was not affected by any of the treatments. The shoot growth and the relative biomass of fungi in the fine roots were positively correlated in all seedlings, and this correlation was stronger in seedlings exposed to additional Ni that were not irrigated compared with seedlings not exposed to additional Ni that were irrigated. The frequency of asymptomatic infections of G. abietina was positively correlated with the proportion of senescent short roots in the irrigated seedlings but not in not-irrigated seedlings. The general condition of seedlings may be an important factor for infection by G. abietina when moisture is high enough for the fungi to infect seedlings by conidia.

  • 145.
    Ahrenby, Hanna
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för kultur-, religions- och utbildningsvetenskap, Bildpedagogik.
    Everything is possible!: - what can happen when the content in art education is equal to a visual culture that young people live in and take part of in their everyday life2014Ingår i: 34th World Congress of the International Society for Education through Art (InSEA ) :  Diversity through Art, Change, Continuity, Context: Abstracts : Pecha Kucha Presentations, 2014, s. 1-Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the content of Art in lower secondary school education. What happens when the content is equal to a visual culture that young people live in and take part of in their everyday life? To be able to make a transition from traditional art education such as learning traditional art technics, to explore and work with contemporary visual culture that concerns young people to day, it is crucial to find out what kind of visual culture is relevant to teenagers to day. When I started working at the University of Gävle in Sweden I had the opportunity to look back at my own practise as an art teacher. In a project with pupils between the ages of 13 to 16 were asked to show in photographs and clarifying text, what they thought possibleto do technically in the art class classroom. The 13-year olds took photographs of objects that represented what they saw as possible to do in that classroom. After the pupils had taken, shown and commented on their photographs a discussion with the pupils about the content, possibilities and limitations that they experienced in that art class room followed. As a second part of the project pupils aged 16 were then invited to discuss the same questions. The forms of visual culture that turned out to be the most important to both groups were digital forms of pictures, such as film, photographs made with their mobile phones, and often published on social forums such as Facebook or Instagram, as well as computer games with there visually designed settings. In conclusion the photographs and the discussions following showed that when the pupils could work with a visual media that they meet in their everyday life it gave meaning to the art subject. Some even expressed that in the art class room “everything was possible”.

  • 146.
    Ahrenby, Hanna
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för kultur-, religions- och utbildningsvetenskap, Bildpedagogik.
    Får ungas visuella kultur plats i skolans bildsal?2014Ingår i: Visuella arenor och motsägelsefulla platser: Tio texter om transformativt lärande, identitet och kulturell förändring / [ed] Karlsson, Sten O, Göteborg: Daidalos, 2014, 1, s. 193-218Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 147.
    Ahrenby, Hanna
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Bild- och dramapedagogik.
    Silfver, Birgitta
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Bild- och dramapedagogik.
    Aesthetic learning processes2015Ingår i: 25th EECERA Annual conference 'Innovation, experimentation and adventure in early childhood': Abstract Book, 2015, s. 271-271Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim with our ongoing research is to find out what primary school teacher students (working with 6-8 year old pupils) thought of the meaning of aesthetics in teaching. What are the benefits of an aesthetic learning process? Previous research that we refer to is the dissertation of Tarja Häikö (2007). She investigates how aestethic learning processes are used in school and preschools. Boberg & Högberg (2015) have investigated how aestethic learning processes are used in schools and teacher education. Chemi (2012) has investigated the relationship between art, emotions and learning. Our framework is socio-cultural theory in accordance with Vygotsky (1995). The work of Gardner (2009), Hethland (2013) and Lindström (2010 & 2012) provides us with tools for analysis. The work has an hermeneutic phenomenologic research approach, using narratives (poetry as method). The participants were informed of the study and its aims. The confidentiality of the informants was secured. Consequences for informants were considered. A story can be a powerful way of reporting the results in research. How about using an even more condensed form, like a poem? We assume that the poetic language communicates with the reader in a more sensitive way than other research languages. Can the creation of the haiku in itself be a tool for discovery? We hope that the students will became aware of the usefulness and meaning of aesthetic learning. We also hope for increased use of aesthetic learning processes in schools. 

  • 148.
    Ahrenby, Hanna
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Bild- och dramapedagogik.
    Silfver, Birgitta
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Bild- och dramapedagogik.
    Estetiska lärprocesser: vad ger det studenterna?2015Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 149.
    Ahrné, Karin
    et al.
    SLU.
    Bengtsson, Bengt Åke
    Björklund, Jan-Olof
    Cederberg, Björn
    Eliasson, Claes
    Hydén, Nils
    Jonasson, Jan
    Lindeborg, Mats
    Lst Kalmar Län.
    Ohlsson, Anders
    Palmqvist, Göran
    Ryrholm, Nils
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Biologi.
    Rödlista över fjärilar Lepidoptera2015Ingår i: Rödlistade arter i Sverige 2015 / [ed] Westling, Anna, Uppsala: ArtDatabanken SLU , 2015, s. 98-112Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 150.
    Airey, John
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Eriksson, Urban
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Fredlund, Tobias
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Linder, Cedric
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    On the Disciplinary Affordances of Semiotic Resources2014Ingår i: IACS-2014 Book of abstracts, 2014, s. 54-55Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the late 70’s Gibson (1979) introduced the concept of affordance. Initially framed around the needs of an organism in its environment, over the years the term has been appropriated and debated at length by a number of researchers in various fields. Most famous, perhaps is the disagreement between Gibson and Norman (1988) about whether affordances are inherent properties of objects or are only present when they are perceived by an organism. More recently, affordance has been drawn on in the educational arena, particularly with respect to multimodality (see Linder (2013) for a recent example). Here, Kress et al. (2001) have claimed that different modes have different specialized affordances. Then, building on this idea, Airey and Linder (2009) suggested that there is a critical constellation of modes that students need to achieve fluency in before they can experience a concept in an appropriate disciplinary manner. Later, Airey (2009) nuanced this claim, shifting the focus from the modes themselves to a critical constellation of semiotic resources, thus acknowledging that different semiotic resources within a mode often have different affordances (e.g. two or more diagrams may form the critical constellation).

    In this theoretical paper the concept of disciplinary affordance (Fredlund et al., 2012) is suggested as a useful analytical tool for use in education. The concept makes a radical break with the views of both Gibson and Norman in that rather than focusing on the discernment of one individual, it refers to the disciplinary community as a whole. Put simply, the disciplinary affordances of a given semiotic resource are determined by those functions that the resource is expected to fulfil by the disciplinary community. Disciplinary affordances have thus been negotiated and developed within the discipline over time. As such, the question of whether these affordances are inherent or discerned becomes moot. Rather, from an educational perspective the issue is whether the meaning that a semiotic resource affords to an individual matches the disciplinary affordance assigned by the community. The power of the term for educational work is that learning can now be framed as coming to discern the disciplinary affordances of semiotic resources.

    In this paper we will briefly discuss the history of the term affordance, define the term disciplinary affordance and illustrate its usefulness in a number of educational settings.

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