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  • 101.
    Fregidou-Malama, Maria
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    Jakobsson, Sonny Karl Oskar
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    Local produced and organic food for sustainable development2017Ingår i: Consuming the Environment / [ed] Eva Åsén Ekstrand, 2017, s. 25-26Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyses the perceptions of consumers with regard to local produced and organic food in the region of Gävleborg, Sweden. The aim of the study is to investigate consumers` attitudes by giving insight in why consumers buy local produced and organic food and how they conceive them. Quantitative data was collected through the use of structured questionnaire. We approached six hundred seventeen consumers outside twelve grocery stores directly after their shopping.  The study shows consumers have the opinion that local produced and organic food have higher quality than other kind of food,  their production supports sustainable environmental development and promotes the local society and local business. Consumers older than 65 years are more positive than younger ones to local produced and organic food and women are willing to pay more for purchasing the food.

    The results illustrate that consumers think it is difficult to allocate local produced and organic food in the stores, the assortment is poor and the prices of organic food are high. The correlations between attitudes regarding Organic, Organic Local produced, and Local produced foods show that the consumers consider them as related, but not identical. It also indicates that consumers have vague attitudes about Local Produced foods and lack knowledge to define them.

    Differences in price sensitivity demonstrate that consumers are willing to pay more for Organic and Local produced foods, showing there is value in, and demand for reliable guarantee label systems such as KRAV. We suggest a cooperation between public authorities and business organizations to develop trustworthy guarantee label system for Local produced foods.

    We see a need for marketing and information campaigns to develop knowledge of what Organic and Local produced foods stand for to increase trust and awareness. By emphasizing on positive partial characteristics such as non-Genetically modified organisms (GMO) in marketing/information campaigns, negative connotation to organic as expensive may be avoided when educating consumers about the definition of organic foods.

    We propose comparative studies in other regions and countries as well as studies about visibility and availability of organic and/or local produced foods in the shops.

  • 102. Fryksten, Jonas
    et al.
    Nilfouroushan, Faramarz
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för datavetenskap och samhällsbyggnad, Samhällsbyggnad.
    Analysis of Clay-Induced Land Subsidence in Uppsala City Using Sentinel-1 SAR Data and Precise Leveling2019Ingår i: Remote Sensing, ISSN 2072-4292, E-ISSN 2072-4292, Vol. 11, nr 23, artikel-id 2764Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Land subsidence and its subsequent hazardous effects on buildings and urban infrastructure are important issues in many cities around the world. The city of Uppsala in Sweden is undergoing significant subsidence in areas that are located on clay. Underlying clay units in parts of Uppsala act as mechanically weak layers, which for instance, cause sinking of the ground surface and tilting buildings. Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) has given rise to new methods of measuring movements on earth surface with a precision of a few mm. In this study, a Persistent Scatterer InSAR (PSI) analysis was performed to map the ongoing ground deformation in Uppsala. The subsidence rate measured with PSI was validated with precise leveling data at different locations. Two ascending and descending data sets were analyzed using SARPROZ software, with Sentinel-1 data from the period March 2015 to April 2019. After the PSI analyses, comparative permanent scatterer (PS) points and metal pegs (measured with precise leveling) were identified creating validation pairs. According to the PSI analyses, Uppsala was undergoing significant subsidence in some areas, with an annual rate of about 6 mm/year in the line-of-sight direction. Interestingly, the areas of great deformation were exclusively found on postglacial clay.

  • 103.
    Ganas, Athanassios
    et al.
    National Observatory of Athens, Greece.
    Kapetanidis, Vasilis
    University of Athens, Greece.
    Nilfouroushan, Faramarz
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för Industriell utveckling, IT och Samhällsbyggnad, Samhällsbyggnad, GIS.
    Steffen, Holger
    Lidberg, Martin
    Deprez, Aline
    CNRS-UGA, France.
    Socquet, Anne
    CNRS-UGA, France.
    Walpersdorf, Andrea
    University of Grenoble, France.
    D'Agostino, Nicola
    INGV, France.
    Avallone, Antonio
    INGV, France.
    Legrand, Juliette
    ROB.
    Fernandes, Rui
    UBI-C4G.
    Nastase, Eduard Ilie
    National Institute for Earth Physics.
    Bos, Machiel
    UBI-C4G.
    Kenyeres, Ambrus
    BFKH Budapest, Bulgaria.
    Developments on the EPOS-IP pan-european strain rate product2018Ingår i: Book of Abstracts of the 36th General Assembly of the European Seismological Commission / [ed] D'Amico S., Galea P., Bozionelos G., Colica E., Farrugia D., Agius M.R., 2018, artikel-id ESC2018-S2-749Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Strain rates are of great importance for Solid Earth Sciences. Within the EU Horizon 2020 project EPOS-IP WP10 (Global Navigation Satellite System - GNSS thematic core services) a series of products focused on strain rates derived from GNSS data is envisaged. In this contribution, we present preliminary results from 452 permanent European GNSS stations, operating until 2017 and processed at UGA-CNRS (Université Grenoble Alpes, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique). We calculate the strain-rate field using two open-source algorithms recommended by EPOS-IP, namely the VISR (Velocity Interpolation for Strain Rate) algorithm (Shen et al., 2015) and STIB (Strain Tensor from Inversion of Baselines), developed by Masson et al., (2014) as well as the SSPX software suite (Cardozo and Allmendinger, 2009). The vertical velocity component is ignored in this stage and other sources of deformation (GIA, hydrological, anthropogenic et al.) are not considered in the interpretation. We compare the results derived from different methods and discuss the similarities and differences. Overall, our first results reproduce the gross features of tectonic deformation in both Italy and Greece, such as NE-SW extension across the Apennines and N-S extension in Central Greece. It is anticipated that the significant increase of GNSS data amount associated with the operational phase of EPOS project in the forthcoming years will be of great value to perform an unprecedented, reliable strain rate computation over the western Eurasian plate.

  • 104.
    Gido, Nureldin A. A.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för datavetenskap och samhällsbyggnad, Samhällsbyggnad. Division of Geodesy and Satellite Positioning, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för datavetenskap och samhällsbyggnad, Samhällsbyggnad. Division of Geodesy and Satellite Positioning, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sjöberg, Lars E.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för datavetenskap och samhällsbyggnad, Samhällsbyggnad. Division of Geodesy and Satellite Positioning, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    A gravimetric method to determine horizontal stress field due to flow in the mantle in Fennoscandia2019Ingår i: Geosciences Journal, ISSN 1226-4806, Vol. 23, nr 3, s. 377-389Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Mass changes and flow in the Earth's mantle causes the Earth's crust not only to movevertically, but also horizontally and to tilt, and produce a major stress in the lithosphere.Here we use a gravimetric approach to model sub-lithosphere horizontal stress in theEarth's mantle and its temporal changes caused by geodynamical movements likemantle convection in Fennoscandia. The flow in the mantle is inferred from tectonicsand convection currents carrying heat from the interior of the Earth to the crust. Theresult is useful in studying how changes of the stress influence the stability of crust.The outcome of this study is an alternative approach to studying the stress and itschange using forward modelling and the Earth's viscoelastic models. We show that thedetermined horizontal stress using a gravimetric method is consistent with tectonicsand seismic activities. In addition, the secular rate of change of the horizontal stress,which is within 95 kPa/year, is larger outside the uplift dome than inside.

  • 105.
    Gido, Nureldin A. A.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för datavetenskap och samhällsbyggnad, Samhällsbyggnad. Division of Geodesy and Satellite Positioning, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för datavetenskap och samhällsbyggnad, Samhällsbyggnad. Division of Geodesy and Satellite Positioning, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sjöberg, Lars E.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för datavetenskap och samhällsbyggnad, Samhällsbyggnad. Division of Geodesy and Satellite Positioning, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tenzer, Robert
    Department of Land Surveying and Geo‑Informatics, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
    Studying permafrost by integrating satellite and in situ data in the northern high-latitude regions2019Ingår i: Acta Geophysica, ISSN 1895-6572, E-ISSN 1895-7455, Vol. 67, nr 2, s. 721-734Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an exceptional opportunity of achieving simultaneous and complementary data from a multitude of geoscience and environmental near-earth orbiting artificial satellites to study phenomena related to the climate change. These satellite missions provide the information about the various phenomena, such as sea level change, ice melting, soil moisture variation, temperature changes and earth surface deformations. In this study, we focus on permafrost thawing and its associated gravity change (in terms of the groundwater storage), and organic material changes using the gravity recovery and climate experiment (GRACE) data and other satellite- and ground-based observations. The estimation of permafrost changes requires combining information from various sources, particularly using the gravity field change, surface temperature change, and glacial isostatic adjustment. The most significant factor for a careful monitoring of the permafrost thawing is the fact that this process could be responsible for releasing an additional enormous amount of greenhouse gases emitted to the atmosphere, most importantly to mention carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane that are currently stored in the frozen ground. The results of a preliminary numerical analysis reveal a possible existence of a high correlation between the secular trends of greenhouse gases (CO2), temperature and equivalent water thickness (in permafrost active layer) in the selected regions. Furthermore, according to our estimates based on processing the GRACE data, the groundwater storage attributed due to permafrost thawing increased at the annual rates of 3.4, 3.8, 4.4 and 4.0 cm, respectively, in Siberia, North Alaska and Canada (Yukon and Hudson Bay). Despite a rather preliminary character of our results, these findings indicate that the methodology developed and applied in this study should be further improved by incorporating the in situ permafrost measurements.

  • 106.
    Giusti, Matteo
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Marcus, Lars
    Nature Routines and Affinity with the Biosphere: A Case Study of Preschool Children in Stockholm2014Ingår i: Children, Youth and Environments, ISSN 1546-2250, E-ISSN 1546-2250, Vol. 24, nr 3, s. 16-42Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Do nature-deficit routines undermine affinity with the biosphere? We assessed social-ecological features in Stockholm that afford nature experiences and analyzed the accessibility of these natural areas to preschools. We then selected preschools with contrasting accessibilities. The nature routines resulting from differing outdoor possibilities in preschool life were investigated in relation to children’s affinity with the biosphere. Preschools with routines closer to nature have children who are more empathetic and concerned for non-human life forms, and more cognitively aware of human-nature interdependence. We conclude that, nature-rich routines in cities significantly correlate with higher children’s ability to develop affinity with the biosphere.

  • 107.
    Gordon, Line
    et al.
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Crona, Bea
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Global Economic Dynamics and the Biosphere Program, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Henriksson, Patrik
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; WorldFish, Jalan Batu Maung, Bayan Lepas, Penang, Malaysia.
    van Holt, Tracy
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Global Economic Dynamics and the Biosphere Program, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden; Leonard N Stern School of Business, Center for Sustainable Business, New York, NY, United States.
    Jonell, Malin
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lindahl, Therese
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Troell, Max
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Miljöteknik. Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Deutsch, Lisa
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Global Economic Dynamics and the Biosphere Program, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden; Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Haider, L. Jamila
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rockström, Johan
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Queiroz, Cibele
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rewiring food systems to enhance human health and biosphere stewardship.2017Ingår i: Environmental Research Letters, ISSN 1748-9326, E-ISSN 1748-9326, Vol. 12, nr 10, artikel-id 100201Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Food lies at the heart of both health and sustainability challenges. We use a social-ecological framework to illustrate how major changes to the volume, nutrition and safety of food systems between 1961 and today impact health and sustainability. These changes have almost halved undernutrition while doubling the proportion who are overweight. They have also resulted in reduced resilience of the biosphere, pushing four out of six analysed planetary boundaries across the safe operating space of the biosphere. Our analysis further illustrates that consumers and producers have become more distant from one another, with substantial power consolidated within a small group of key actors. Solutions include a shift from a volume-focused production system to focus on quality, nutrition, resource use efficiency, and reduced antimicrobial use. To achieve this, we need to rewire food systems in ways that enhance transparency between producers and consumers, mobilize key actors to become biosphere stewards, and re-connect people to the biosphere

  • 108.
    Grift, Jeroen
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för Industriell utveckling, IT och Samhällsbyggnad, Samhällsbyggnad, GIS.
    Forest Change Mapping in Southwestern Madagascar using Landsat-5 TM Imagery, 1990 –20102016Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The main goal of this study was to map and measure forest change in the southwestern part of Madagascar near the city of Toliara in the period 1990-2010. Recent studies show that forest change in Madagascar on a regional scale does not only deal with forest loss, but also with forest growth However, it is unclear how the study area is dealing with these patterns. In order to select the right classification method, pixel-based classification was compared with object-based classification. The results of this study shows that the object-based classification method was the most suitable method for this landscape. However, the pixel-based approaches also resulted in accurate results. Furthermore, the study shows that in the period 1990–2010, 42% of the forest cover disappeared and was converted into bare soil and savannahs. Next to the change in forest, stable forest regions were fragmented. This has negative effects on the amount of suitable habitats for Malagasy fauna. Finally, the scaling structure in landscape patches was investigated. The study shows that the patch size distribution has long-tail properties and that these properties do not change in periods of deforestation.

  • 109.
    Harrie, Lars
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Larsson, Karin
    Lund University.
    Tenenbaum, David
    Lund University.
    Horemuz, Milan
    Royal Institute of Technology (KTH).
    Ridefelt, Hanna
    National mapping and land registration authority, Gävle, Sweden.
    Lysell, Gunnar
    National mapping and land registration authority, Gävle, Sweden.
    Brandt, S. Anders
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för Industriell utveckling, IT och Samhällsbyggnad, Samhällsbyggnad/GIS-Institutet.
    Sahlin, Eva A.U.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för Industriell utveckling, IT och Samhällsbyggnad, Samhällsbyggnad/GIS-Institutet.
    Adelsköld, Göran
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Högström, Mats
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lagerstedt, Jakob
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Some strategic national initiatives for the Swedish education in the geodata field2014Ingår i: Connecting a Digital Europe through Location and Place: Selected best short papers and posters of the AGILE 2014 Conference, 3‐6 June 2014, Castellón, Spain / [ed] Joaquin Huerta, Sven Schade, Carlos Granell, AGILE Digital Editions , 2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes national cooperation in Sweden launched by its universities and authorities, aimed at improving geodata education. These initiatives have been focused upon providing common access to geodata, the production of teaching materials in Swedish and organizing annual meetings for teachers. We argue that this type of cooperation is vital to providing high quality education for a poorly recognized subject in a country with a relatively small population.

  • 110.
    Hedblom, M.
    et al.
    Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden; Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hedenås, H.
    Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Blicharska, M.
    Natural Resources and Sustainable Development, Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Swedish Biodiversity Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Adler, S.
    Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden; Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden; Asian School of the Environment, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang, Singapore .
    Knez, Igor
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Psykologi.
    Mikusiński, G.
    Grimsö Wildlife Research Station, Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Riddarhyttan, Sweden; School for Forest Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skinnskatteberg, Sweden .
    Svensson, J.
    Department of Wildlife, Fish and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Sandström, S.
    Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Sandström, P.
    Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Wardle, D. A.
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden; Asian School of the Environment, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang, Singapore.
    Landscape perception: linking physical monitoring data to perceived landscape properties2019Ingår i: Landscape research, ISSN 0142-6397, E-ISSN 1469-9710Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Changes in the landscape affect not only people’s well-being but also how people perceive and use the landscape. An increasing number of policies have highlighted the importance of conserving a landscape’s recreational and aesthetical values. This study develops and evaluates a model that links people’s perceptions of a mountain landscape to physical monitoring data. Using a questionnaire, we revealed how respondents working with the Swedish mountains characterise the Magnificent Mountain landscape (as defined by Swedish policy objectives) and translated these characteristics into data from the National Inventory of Landscapes in Sweden (NILS). We found 14 potential indicators that could be derived from the existing NILS physical monitoring data and which could be used to monitor changes in the landscape values as perceived by people. Based on the results, we suggest how to simultaneously utilise field sampling of physical data and field photos to provide temporal information about landscape perception.

  • 111.
    Hillman, Karl
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Miljöteknik.
    Damgaard, Anders
    Department of Environmental Engineering, DTU Environment, Technical University of Denmark.
    Eriksson, Ola
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Miljöteknik.
    Jonsson, Daniel
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Miljöteknik.
    Fluck, Lena
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Miljöteknik.
    Climate Benefits of Material Recycling: Inventory of Average Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Denmark, Norway and Sweden2015Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this project is to compare emissions of greenhouse gases from material recycling with those from virgin material production, both from a material supply perspective and from a recycling system perspective. The method for estimating emissions and climate benefits is based on a review, followed by a selection, of the most relevant publications on life cycle assessment (LCA) of materials for use in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. The proposed averages show that emissions from material recycling are lower in both perspectives, comparing either material supply or complete recycling systems. The results can be used by companies and industry associations in Denmark, Norway and Sweden to communicate the current climate benefits of material recycling in general. They may also contribute to discussions on a societal level, as long as their average and historic nature is recognised.

  • 112.
    Hillman, Karl
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Teknisk miljövetenskap.
    Rickne, Annika
    University of Gothenburg.
    Balancing Variety Creation and Selection: Governing Biofuels in Sweden 1990-20102012Ingår i: Paving the Road to Sustainable Transport: Governance and innovation in low-carbon vehicles / [ed] Måns Nilsson, Karl Hillman, Annika Rickne, Thomas Magnusson, Routledge, 2012, 1, s. 235-259Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 113.
    Hollander, Ernst
    KTH, Industriell ekonomi och organisation.
    Varför var det så segt?: om lågriskkemi, miljödriven innovation och kravformning1995Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 114.
    Iguchi, Masahiko
    et al.
    Tokyo Institute of Technology.
    Hillman, Karl
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Teknisk miljövetenskap.
    The Development of Fuel Economy Regulation for Passenger Cars in Japan2012Ingår i: Paving the Road to Sustainable Transport: Governance and innovation in low-carbon vehicles / [ed] Måns Nilsson, Karl Hillman, Annika Rickne, Thomas Magnusson, Routledge, 2012, 1, s. 57-74Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 115.
    Isendahl, Christian
    et al.
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Miljöteknik.
    Archeology, history, and urban food security: integrating cross-cultural and long-term perspectives2018Ingår i: Routledge Handbook of Landscapes and Food / [ed] Joshua Zeunert and Tim Waterman, New York: Routledge, 2018, 1, s. 61-73Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 116.
    Ives, Christopher D.
    et al.
    School of Geography, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, United Kingdom; Faculty of Sustainability, Leuphana University, Lueneburg, Germany.
    Giusti, Matteo
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Sweden.
    Fischer, Joern
    Faculty of Sustainability, Leuphana University, Lueneburg, Germany.
    Abson, David J.
    Faculty of Sustainability, Leuphana University, Lueneburg, Germany.
    Klaniecki, Kathleen
    Faculty of Sustainability, Leuphana University, Lueneburg, Germany.
    Dorninger, Christian
    Faculty of Sustainability, Leuphana University, Lueneburg, Germany.
    Laudan, Josefine
    Faculty of Sustainability, Leuphana University, Lueneburg, Germany.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Miljöteknik. Stockholm Resilience Centre, Sweden.
    Abernethy, Paivi
    Faculty of Sustainability, Leuphana University, Lueneburg; Germany Royal Roads University, Victoria, BC, Canada.
    Martín-López, Berta
    Faculty of Sustainability, Leuphana University, Lueneburg, Germany.
    Raymond, Christopher M.
    Department of Landscape Architecture, Planning and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Kendal, David
    School of Ecosystem and Forest Sciences & Melbourne School of Design, The University of Melbourne, Australia.
    von Wehrden, Henrik
    Faculty of Sustainability, Leuphana University, Lueneburg, Germany.
    Human–nature connection: a multidisciplinary review2017Ingår i: Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, ISSN 1877-3435, E-ISSN 1877-3443, Vol. 26-27, s. 106-113Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In sustainability science calls are increasing for humanity to (re-)connect with nature, yet no systematic synthesis of the empirical literature on human–nature connection (HNC) exists. We reviewed 475 publications on HNC and found that most research has concentrated on individuals at local scales, often leaving ‘nature’ undefined. Cluster analysis identified three subgroups of publications: first, HNC as mind, dominated by the use of psychometric scales, second, HNC as experience, characterised by observation and qualitative analysis; and third, HNC as place, emphasising place attachment and reserve visitation. To address the challenge of connecting humanity with nature, future HNC scholarship must pursue cross-fertilization of methods and approaches, extend research beyond individuals, local scales, and Western societies, and increase guidance for sustainability transformations.

  • 117.
    Jakobsson, Sonny
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för ekonomi, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    Fregidou-Malama, Maria
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för ekonomi, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    Ditt Val Spelar Roll: Gävleborgs konsumenters attityder till lokalproducerade livsmedel2005Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 118.
    Jiang, Bin
    Department of Land Surveying and Geo-informatics, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
    A topological pattern of urban street networks: universality and peculiarity2007Ingår i: Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, ISSN 0378-4371, E-ISSN 1873-2119, Vol. 384, nr 2, s. 647-655Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we derive a topological pattern of urban street networks using a large sample (the largest so far to the best of our knowledge) of 40 US cities and a few more from elsewhere of different sizes. It is found that all the topologies of urban street networks based on street-street intersection demonstrate a small world structure, and a scale-free property for both street length and connectivity degree. More specifically, for any street network, about 80% of its streets have length or degrees less than its average value, while 20% of streets have length or degrees greater than the average. Out of the 20%, there are less than 1 % of streets which can form a backbone of the street network. Based on the finding, we conjecture that the 20% streets account for 80% of traffic flow, and the I% streets constitute a cognitive map of the urban street network. We illustrate further a peculiarity about the scale-free property.

  • 119.
    Jiang, Bin
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för datavetenskap och samhällsbyggnad, Samhällsbyggnad.
    New Paradigm in Mapping: A Critique on Cartography and GIS2019Ingår i: Cartographica, ISSN 0317-7173, E-ISSN 1911-9925, Vol. 54, nr 3, s. 193-205Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    As noted in the epigraph, a map was long ago seen as the map of the map, the map of the map, of the map, and so on endlessly. This recursive perspective on maps, however, has received little attention in cartography. Cartography, as a scientific discipline, is essentially founded on Euclidean geometry and Gaussian statistics, which deal respectively with regular shapes and more or less similar things. It is commonly accepted that geographic features are not regular and that the Earth's surface is full of fractal or scaling or living phenomena: far more small things than large ones are found at different scales. This article argues for a new paradigm in mapping, based on fractal or living geometry and Paretian statistics, and – more critically – on the new conception of space, conceived and developed by Christopher Alexander, as neither lifeless nor neutral, but a living structure capable of being more living or less living. The fractal geometry is not limited to Benoit Mandelbrot's framework, but tends towards Christopher Alexander's living geometry and is based upon the third definition of fractal: A set or pattern is fractal if the scaling of far more small things than large ones recurs multiple times. Paretian statistics deals with far more small things than large ones, so it differs fundamentally from Gaussian statistics, which deals with more or less similar things. Under the new paradigm, I make several claims about maps and mapping: (1) the topology of geometrically coherent things – in addition to that of geometric primitives – enables us to see a scaling or fractal or living structure; (2) under the third definition, all geographic features are fractal or living, given the right perspective and scope; (3) exactitude is not truth – to paraphrase Henri Matisse – but the living structure is; and (4) Töpfer's law is not universal, but the scaling law is. All these assertions are supported by evidence, drawn from a series of previous studies. This article demands a monumental shift in perspective and thinking from what we are used to in the legacy of cartography and GIS. 

  • 120.
    Jiang, Bin
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Review of Else/Where: Mapping - New Cartographies of Networks and Territories2008Ingår i: Cartographic Journal, ISSN 0008-7041, E-ISSN 1743-2774, Vol. 36, nr 5, s. 769-771Artikel, recension (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 121.
    Jiang, Bin
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för Industriell utveckling, IT och Samhällsbyggnad, Samhällsbyggnad, GIS.
    Scaling as a design principle for cartography2017Ingår i: Annals of GIS, ISSN 1947-5683, Vol. 23, nr 1, s. 67-69Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There are two fundamental laws of geography: scaling law and Tobler’s law. Scaling law is available across all scales ranging from the smallest to the largest, and it states that there are far more small things than large ones in geographic space. Tobler’s law is available in one scale, and it states that more or less similar things tend to be nearby or related. In this short article, I claim scaling as a design principle for cartography, but what I really wanted to convey is that scaling must become a dominant principle, if not the principle, of cartographic design. All other principles can, should, and must be subordinated to the major and dominant one.

  • 122.
    Jiang, Bin
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för Industriell utveckling, IT och Samhällsbyggnad, Samhällsbyggnad, GIS.
    Wholeness as a hierarchical graph to capture the nature of space2015Ingår i: International Journal of Geographical Information Science, ISSN 1365-8816, E-ISSN 1365-8824, Vol. 29, nr 9, s. 1632-1648Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    According to Christopher Alexander’s theory of centers, a whole comprises numerous, recursively defined centers for things or spaces surrounding us. Wholeness is a type of global structure or life-giving order emerging from the whole as a field of the centers. The wholeness is an essential part of any complex system and exists, to some degree or other, in spaces. This paper defines wholeness as a hierarchical graph, in which individual centers are represented as the nodes and their relationships as the directed links. The hierarchical graph gets its name from the inherent scaling hierarchy revealed by the head/tail breaks, which is a classification scheme and visualization tool for data with a heavy-tailed distribution. We suggest that (1) the degrees of wholeness for individual centers should be measured by PageRank (PR) scores based on the notion that high-degree-of-life centers are those to which many high-degree-of-life centers point, and (2) that the hierarchical levels, or the ht-index of the PR scores induced by the head/tail breaks, can characterize the degree of wholeness for the whole: the higher the ht-index, the more life or wholeness in the whole. Three case studies applied to the Alhambra building complex and the street networks of Manhattan and Sweden illustrate that the defined wholeness captures fairly well human intuitions on the degree of life for the geographic spaces. We further suggest that the mathematical model of wholeness be an important model of geographic representation, because it is topological oriented, which enables us to see the underlying scaling structure. The model can guide geodesign, which should be considered as the wholeness-extending transformations that are essentially like the unfolding processes of seeds or embryos, for creating built and natural environments of beauty or with a high degree of wholeness.

  • 123.
    Jiang, Bin
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för Industriell utveckling, IT och Samhällsbyggnad, Samhällsbyggnad, GIS.
    Brandt, S. Anders
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för Industriell utveckling, IT och Samhällsbyggnad, Samhällsbyggnad, GIS.
    A Fractal Perspective on Scale in Geography2016Ingår i: ISPRS International Journal of Geo-information, ISSN 2220-9964, Vol. 5, nr 6, artikel-id 95Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Scale is a fundamental concept that has attracted persistent attention in geography literature over the past several decades. However, it creates enormous confusion and frustration, particularly in the context of geographic information science, because of scale-related issues such as image resolution and the modifiable areal unit problem (MAUP). This paper argues that the confusion and frustration arise from traditional Euclidean geometric thinking, in which locations, directions, and sizes are considered absolute, and it is now time to revise this conventional thinking. Hence, we review fractal geometry, together with its underlying way of thinking, and compare it to Euclidean geometry. Under the paradigm of Euclidean geometry, everything is measurable, no matter how big or small. However, most geographic features, due to their fractal nature, are essentially unmeasurable or their sizes depend on scale. For example, the length of a coastline, the area of a lake, and the slope of a topographic surface are all scale-dependent. Seen from the perspective of fractal geometry, many scale issues, such as the MAUP, are inevitable. They appear unsolvable, but can be dealt with. To effectively deal with scale-related issues, we present topological and scaling analyses illustrated by street-related concepts such as natural streets, street blocks, and natural cities. We further contend that one of the two spatial properties, spatial heterogeneity, is de facto the fractal nature of geographic features, and it should be considered the first effect among the two, because it is global and universal across all scales, which should receive more attention from practitioners of geography.

  • 124.
    Jiang, Bin
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för Industriell utveckling, IT och Samhällsbyggnad, Samhällsbyggnad/GIS-Institutet.
    Jia, Tao
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för Industriell utveckling, IT och Samhällsbyggnad, Samhällsbyggnad/GIS-Institutet.
    Agent-based simulation of human movement shaped by the underlying street structure2011Ingår i: International Journal of Geographical Information Science, ISSN 1365-8816, E-ISSN 1365-8824, Vol. 25, nr 1, s. 51-64Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Relying on random and purposive moving agents, we simulated human movement in large street networks. We found that aggregate flow, assigned to individual streets, is mainly shaped by the underlying street structure, and that human moving behavior (either random or purposive) has little effect on the aggregate flow. This finding implies that given a street network, the movement patterns generated by purposive walkers (mostly human beings) and by random walkers are the same. Based on the simulation and correlation analysis, we further found that the closeness centrality is not a good indicator for human movement, in contrast to a long-standing view held by space syntax researchers. Instead we suggest that Google's PageRank and its modified version (weighted PageRank), betweenness and degree centralities are all better indicators for predicting aggregate flow.

  • 125.
    Jiang, Bin
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för Industriell utveckling, IT och Samhällsbyggnad, Samhällsbyggnad/GIS-Institutet.
    Liu, Xintao
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för Industriell utveckling, IT och Samhällsbyggnad, Samhällsbyggnad/GIS-Institutet.
    Automatic generation of the axial lines of urban environments to capture what we perceive2010Ingår i: International Journal of Geographical Information Science, ISSN 1365-8816, E-ISSN 1365-8824, Vol. 24, nr 4, s. 545-558Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on the concepts of isovists and medial axes, we developed a set of algorithms that can automatically generate axial lines for representing individual linearly stretched parts of open space of an urban environment. Open space is the space between buildings where people can freely move around. The generation of the axial lines has been a key aspect of space syntax research, conventionally relying on hand-drawn axial lines of an urban environment, often called axial map, for urban morphological analysis. Although various attempts have been made towards an automatic solution, few of them can produce the axial map that consists of the least number of longest visibility lines, and none of them really works for different urban environments. Our algorithms provide a better solution than existing ones. Throughout this article, we have also argued and demonstrated that the axial lines constitute a true skeleton, superior to medial axes, in capturing what we perceive about the urban environment.

  • 126.
    Jiang, Bin
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för Industriell utveckling, IT och Samhällsbyggnad, Samhällsbyggnad/GIS-Institutet.
    Liu, Xintao
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för Industriell utveckling, IT och Samhällsbyggnad, Samhällsbyggnad/GIS-Institutet.
    Computing the fewest-turn map directions based on the connectivity of natural roads2011Ingår i: International Journal of Geographical Information Science, ISSN 1365-8816, E-ISSN 1365-8824, Vol. 25, nr 7, s. 1069-1082Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we introduce a novel approach to computing the fewest-turn map directions or routes based on the concept of natural roads. Natural roads are joined road segments that perceptually constitute good continuity. This approach relies on the connectivity of natural roads rather than that of road segments for computing routes or map directions. Because of this, the derived routes possess the fewest turns. However, what we intend to achieve are the routes that not only possess the fewest turns but are also as short as possible. This kind of map direction is more effective and favored by people because they bear less cognitive burden. Furthermore, the computation of the routes is more efficient because it is based on the graph encoding the connectivity of roads, which is substantially smaller than the graph of road segments. We experimented on eight urban street networks from North America and Europe to illustrate the above-stated advantages. The experimental results indicate that the fewest-turn routes possess fewer turns and shorter distances than the simplest paths and the routes provided by Google Maps. For example, the fewest-turn-and-shortest routes are on average 15% shorter than the routes suggested by Google Maps, whereas the number of turns is just half as much. This approach is a key technology behind FromToMap.org – a web mapping service using openstreetmap data.

  • 127.
    Jiang, Bin
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för Industriell utveckling, IT och Samhällsbyggnad, Samhällsbyggnad/GIS-Institutet.
    Yao, Xiaobai
    University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA.
    Geospatial analysis and modeling of urban structure and dynamics: an overview2010Ingår i: The GeoJournal Library, 2010, Volume 99, Part 1 / [ed] Bin Jiang and Xiaobai Yao, Berlin: Springer , 2010, s. 3-11Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 128.
    Jiang, Bin
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för Industriell utveckling, IT och Samhällsbyggnad, Samhällsbyggnad, GIS.
    Yin, Junjun
    Department of Geography and Geographic Information Science, University of Illinois at Urbana and Champaign, Champaign-Urbana, IL, USA.
    Liu, Qingling
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för Industriell utveckling, IT och Samhällsbyggnad.
    Zipf’s law for all the natural cities around the world2015Ingår i: International Journal of Geographical Information Science, ISSN 1365-8816, E-ISSN 1365-8824, Vol. 29, nr 3, s. 498-522Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Two fundamental issues surrounding research on Zipf’s law regarding city sizes are whether and why this law holds. This paper does not deal with the latter issue with respect to why, and instead investigates whether Zipf’s law holds in a global setting, thus involving all cities around the world. Unlike previous studies, which have mainly relied on conventional census data such as populations and census-bureau-imposed definitions of cities, we adopt naturally (in terms of data speak for itself) delineated cities, or natural cities, to be more precise, in order to examine Zipf’s law. We find that Zipf’s law holds remarkably well for all natural cities at the global level, and it remains almost valid at the continental level except for Africa at certain time instants. We further examine the law at the country level, and note that Zipf’s law is violated from country to country or from time to time. This violation is mainly due to our limitations; we are limited to individual countries, or to a static view on city-size distributions. The central argument of this paper is that Zipf’s law is universal, and we therefore must use the correct scope in order to observe it. We further find Zipf’s law applied to city numbers; the number of cities in the largest country is twice as many as that in the second largest country, three times as many as that in the third largest country, and so on. These findings have profound implications for big data and the science of cities. 

  • 129.
    Jivall, Lotti
    et al.
    Geodata Division, Lantmäteriet, Gävle, Sweden.
    Nilfouroushan, Faramarz
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för datavetenskap och samhällsbyggnad, Samhällsbyggnad. Geodata Division, Lantmäteriet, Gävle, Sweden.
    Al Munaizel, Naim
    Geodata Division, Lantmäteriet, Gävle, Sweden.
    Lilje, Christina
    Geodata Division, Lantmäteriet, Gävle, Sweden.
    Kempe, Christina
    Geodata Division, Lantmäteriet, Gävle, Sweden.
    Maintenance of the National Realization of ETRS89 in Sweden : re-analysis of 20 years’ GPS data for SWEREF stations2019Ingår i: EUREF 2019 Symposium: Abstracts, 2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The national geodetic reference frame of Sweden called SWEREF 99, was adopted in 2000 by EUREF as the realisation of ETRS89 in Sweden and was officially introduced in 2001 as a national reference frame, that eventually in 2007 replaced the former reference frame. The SWEREF 99 reference frame is defined by an active approach through the 21 fundamental SWEPOS permanent GNSS stations, hence relying on positioning services such as the network real time kinematic (NRTK) and post processing service. The SWEREF 99 coordinates are assumed to be fixed in time and no temporal variations are expected. However, the stability of the stations and their coordinates can be altered due to equipment change or software as well as local movements at the reference stations.

    To be able to check all alterations mentioned above and having a backup national network of GNSS stations, approximately 300 passive so-called consolidation stations are used. The consolidation stations are a subset (main part) of the so-called SWEREF stations established from 1996 and onwards. All 300 stations are remeasured with static GNSS for 2x24 hours using choke ring antennas on a yearly basis with 50 stations each year. The original processing was done with the Bernese GNSS software (here called Bernese original) and the reprocessing was carried out with both the Bernese and the GAMIT-GLOBK software packages during 2017-2018.

    The resulting coordinates in SWEREF 99 from GAMIT and Bernese processing are equal at 1.2 mm level for horizontal and 4 mm for vertical components (1 sigma) when using the same models and processing strategy. The original processing, which partly is based on other models and parameters, differs slightly more (rms 2.4mm) for the north component. Our analysis both from Bernese and GAMIT shows that the standard uncertainties for a single SWEREF 99 determination (2x24 hrs) is 2 mm for the horizontal components and 6-7 mm in height. However, since some stations are slowly moving they have slightly increased the estimated uncertainties. It is interesting to note that the repeatability is on the same level also for the original processing, where we have differences in models and parameters used during the years. This indicates that the SWEREF-concept of determining SWEREF 99 coordinates has worked well on the mentioned uncertainty level.

    We performed trend analysis and statistical tests to investigate the stability of the estimated SWEREF 99 coordinates. The analysed station time series (minimum three observations) showed that about 14% of the stations had significant trends at the 95%-level. The possible explanation for those trends can be either local deformation and/or residuals of uplift model and/or computational effects such as lack of good or enough close-by stations for Helmert transformations from ITRF to SWEREF 99.

    The outcomes of the new processing and analysis reported here, are used to analyse the stability of SWEREF99 after two decades. The results have also been used to define the SWEREF 99 component in the fit of theSWEN17_RH2000 new geoid model to SWEREF 99 and RH 2000 (Swedish realisation of EVRS).

  • 130.
    Johansson, Lisa
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik.
    Miljöförutsättningar vid anläggande av snödeponi: Utvärdering av potentiella platser för ny snödeponi i Gävle2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (högskoleexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under vintern faller nederbörd som snö i Gävle. När snömängden överstiger den volym som kan förvaras i anslutning till vägsystemen krävs bortforsling och deponering av snön. Den nuvarande snödeponin i Gävle ska i framtiden nyttjas av Gävle hamn, därmed ska lokalisering för ny plats för snödeponi utredas. Då snö från urbana miljöer innehåller förorenande ämnen är det av stor vikt att utreda depotentiella platsernas miljöförutsättningar.

    Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka hur olika miljöförutsättningar påverkar ett områdes lämplighet för anläggande av en ny snödeponi. Målet är att utifrån kunskap om miljöförutsättningar utvärdera och jämföra fem av Gävle kommun utpekade platser.

    Utifrån miljöförutsättningarna geologi, påverkan på recipient, biologiska konsekvenser, markanvändning och omgivning har de fem föreslagna platserna undersökts och slutligen jämförts. Resultatet visar att plats 3 Ersbo syd är bäst lämpad att ensam utgöra snödeponi i Gävle. Plats 1 Fredriksskans, 2 Duvbacken och 5 Kungsbäck bedöms ha potential att ensamma och/eller i kombination med annan plats utgöra snödeponi i Gävle. Resultatet visar också att plats 4 Ersbo telemast inte bedöms lämplig för anläggande av snödeponi.

    Framtiden kommer innebära utmaningar med exempelvis vattenbrist och ökade vatten- och energibehov. Därför bör kombinationen nya verksamheter och lösningar på sådana problem alltid övervägas. I avsnitt 6.1 diskuteras huruvida deponering av snö skulle kunna ses som en resurs istället för ett problem, och på så sätt inte bara lösa snöomhändertagandet.

  • 131.
    Jongerden, Joost
    et al.
    Sociology and Anthropology of Development Department, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Swagemakers, Paul
    Department of Applied Economics, University of Vigo, Vigo, Pontevedra, Spain.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Connective storylines: A relational approach to initiatives in food provisioning and green infrastructures2014Ingår i: Spanish journal of rural development, ISSN 2171-1216, E-ISSN 2172-2277, Vol. 5, nr 1 (Extra), s. 7-18Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Debates about the design and management of ecosystem services and interweaving of rural and urban spaces in metropolitan regions raise questions about how to conceptualize “the local”. Rather than presupposing spatial settings or identities as rural-urban or local global, attention here shifts to the immediacy of connections and relations. Conceptualized in terms of activity space, this paperpresents a relational analysis and a practice oriented approach. To illustrate the approach, we overview three case studies in food provisioning and show how an analysis in terms of a set of spatially organized activities can generate new insights.

  • 132.
    Joud S., Mehdi
    et al.
    KTH.
    Sjöberg, Lars E.
    KTH.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för Industriell utveckling, IT och Samhällsbyggnad, Samhällsbyggnad, GIS. 1Division of Geodesy and Satellite Positioning, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Use of GRACE Data to Detect the Present Land Uplift Rate in Fennoscandia2017Ingår i: Geophysical Journal International, ISSN 0956-540X, E-ISSN 1365-246X, Vol. 209, nr 2, s. 909-922Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    After more than 13 years of GRACE monthly data, the determined secular trend of gravity field variation can be used to study the regions of glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA). Here we focus on Fennoscandia where long-term terrestrial and high-quality GPS data are available, and we study the monthly GRACE data from three analysis centres. We present a new approximate formula to convert the secular trend of the GRACE gravity change to the land uplift rate without making assumptions of the ice load history. The question is whether the GRACE-derived land uplift rate by our method is related to GIA. A suitable post-processing method for the GRACE data is selected based on weighted RMS differences with the GPS data. The study reveals that none of the assumed periodic changes of the GRACE gravity field is significant in the estimation of the secular trend, and they can, therefore, be neglected. Finally, the GRACE-derived land uplift rates are obtained using the selected post-processing method, and they are compared with GPS land uplift rate data. The GPS stations with significant differences were marked using a statistical significance test. The smallest RMS difference (1.0 mm/a) was obtained by using GRACE data from the University of Texas.

  • 133.
    Joudaki, Masoud
    et al.
    Univ Isfahan, Dept Geol, Esfahan, Iran.
    Farzipour-Saein, Ali
    Univ Isfahan, Dept Geol, Esfahan, Iran.
    Nilfouroushan, Faramarz
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Berggrundsgeologi.
    Kinematics and surface fracture pattern of the Anaran basement fault zone in NW of the Zagros Fold-Thrust Belt2016Ingår i: International journal of earth sciences, ISSN 1437-3254, E-ISSN 1437-3262, Vol. 105, nr 3, s. 869-883Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The preexisting north-south trending basement faults and their reactivation played an important role during the evolution of the Zagros fold-thrust belt. The Anaran basement fault in the Lurestan region, NW of the Zagros, has been considered as a N-S trending basement lineament, although its surface structural expression is still debated. In this study, we use satellite images and field observations to identify and analyze the fractures in the sedimentary cover above the Anaran basement fault. Fracture analysis demonstrates that approaching the Anaran basement fault, the fracture pattern changes. The fractures association with reactivation of the deep-seated preexisting Anaran basement fault can be categorized in 4 sets based on their directions. The mean direction for maximum compressional stress is different between the fault- and fold-related fractures within and around the ABF shear zone. We estimated an orientation of N30±5° for the fault-related fractures and N45±5° for the fold-related fracture sets outside of the ABF shear zone. This difference suggests that the fold-related and fault-related fracture sets have been formed in different two stages of deformation throughout the area. The axial traces of some folds, especially the Anaran anticline, demonstrate a right-lateral offset along the ABF, such that, in central part of the Anaran anticline, the fold axis of this anticline is changed from its original NW–SE trend to approximately north-south trend of the ABF.

  • 134.
    Jönsson, Petra
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Miljövetenskap.
    Mattsson, Julia
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Miljövetenskap.
    "Jag har inget emot kollektivtrafiken om jag säger så, men...": En kvalitativ studie om män och kvinnors resvanor och inställningar till arbetspendling2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The traffic sector is responsible for the greatest amount of greenhouse emissions in Sweden because of its combustion of fossil fuels. Sandviken is the municipality in Gävleborg county that uses the least amount of public transportation in form of bus traffic. The aim of this study is to gain an understanding through qualitative research how the individual looks and reflects upon their own commuting, and to identify which factors that mostly affects the individuals commuting habits. The study is geo-graphically delimited to look to Sandbacka Park. The amount of interview partici-pants was in total 18, seven women and eleven men. The main themes that could be identified from the interviews was stress, environmental awareness, flexibility, effi-ciency and control. The average distance to the workplace was about 19,25 km. In total stated 73% of men and 57% of women that car was the main mode of transport to the workplace. This means that more men than women travelled by car to the workplace, and also show more positive feeling to car use. Many of the par-ticipants of the interview had knowledge of climate change and the connection it has to transportation but could still defend their own individual car use. Some of the men that were interviewed claimed to have a greater need of flexibility and maintain status, which can be an explanation as to why the need of car use is greater with men than women. 42% of women and 27% of men commutes which more sustainable modes of transportation, such as public transportation and walking or bicycling. Two of the women who commuted with public transportation expressed content with their mode of transportation. They had also during the interviews mentioned an environmental awareness, which shows that there is a connection between mak-ing sustainable choices and being content with the chosen more sustainable mode of transportation. The results from Sandbacka Park is generalizable to other work-places with the same kind of prerequisites. This study shows that men have more positive emotions connected to car use and uses the car more as a mode of commut-ing to work. During future studies it may be of importance to focus more on longer interviews timewise to create an even greater understanding of the individuals need and prerequisites when commuting. With a greater sample size a more generalisable result could have been achieved.Key words: Commuting, stress, public transportation, commute mode, travel mode choice, gender

  • 135. Kaviani, A.
    et al.
    Mahmoodabadi, M.
    Rümpker, G.
    Yamini-Fard, F.
    Tatar, M.
    Motavalli-Anbaran, J.
    Rahimzadeh, S.
    Moradi, A.
    Nilfouroushan, Faramarz
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för datavetenskap och samhällsbyggnad, Samhällsbyggnad.
    Complex pattern of seismic anisotropy beneath the Iranian plateau and Zagros2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We performed shear wave splitting analyses on core-refracted teleseismic shear waveforms from 150 broad-bandstations across the Iranian plateau and Zagros to investigate seismic anisotropy in the region. Seismic anisotropyis quantified by shear-wave splitting parameters, i.e. fast polarization direction and split delay time.Our measurements revealed a complex pattern of splitting parameters with variations in the trend and strength ofanisotropy across the tectonic boundaries. This complex pattern implies that a system of simple asthenosphericflow related to the absolute plate motion cannot alone explain our observations and that the lithosphere also hasa significant contribution in many parts. We compare our results to the surface deformation and velocity fieldsinferred from geodetic measurements to assess the role of the mantle in continental deformation. The rotationalpattern of the fast directions around the collision zone in Central Zagros may indicate the presence of a mantleflow around a continental keel beneath the Zagros. The agreement between the crustal and mantle deformationfield in Central Iran implies a vertically coherent deformation in this region, whereas the azimuthal variations insplitting parameters in the collision zone may suggest multi-layered anisotropy with different contributions fromthe crust and mantle.

  • 136.
    Khorrami, F.
    et al.
    National Cartographic Center, Geodesy and Land Surveying, Tehran, Iran (Islamic Republic of).
    Vernant, P.
    Géosciences Montpellier- CNRS, Geosciences, Montpeliier, France.
    Masson, F.
    IPGS/EOST CNRS/University Strasbourg, Earth Sciences, Strasbourg, France.
    Nilfouroushan, Faramarz
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för datavetenskap och samhällsbyggnad, Samhällsbyggnad. Lantmäteriet, Gävle, Sweden.
    Mousavi, Z.
    Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences IASBS.
    Nankali, H.
    National Cartographic Center, Geodesy and Land Surveying, Tehran, Iran (Islamic Republic of).
    Saadat, S.A.
    National Cartographic Center, Geodesy and Land Surveying, Tehran, Iran (Islamic Republic of).
    Walpersdorf, A.
    University Grenoble Alpes- CNRS, ISTerre, Grenoble, France.
    Hosseini, S.
    National Cartographic Center, Geodesy and Land Surveying, Tehran, Iran (Islamic Republic of).
    Tavakoli, P.
    National Cartographic Center, Geodesy and Land Surveying, Tehran, Iran (Islamic Republic of).
    Aghamohammadi, A.
    National Cartographic Center, Geodesy and Land Surveying, Tehran, Iran (Islamic Republic of).
    Alijanzade, M.
    National Cartographic Center, Geodesy and Land Surveying, Tehran, Iran (Islamic Republic of).
    An up-to-date block model and strain rate map of Iran using integrated campaign-mode and permanent GPS velocities2019Ingår i: 27th IUGG General Assembly: G06 - Posters - Monitoring and Understanding the Dynamic Earth With Geodetic Observations, 2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Iran accommodates a large part of the ongoing Arabia-Eurasia collision deformation. Because of such active tectonics, the country suffers from intensive seismicity and frequent destructive earthquakes in different locations.To study further the crustal deformation in Iran, we processed the data collected during 10 years (2006-2015) from the Iranian Permanent GNSS Network and combined them with previously published velocity solutions from GPS survey measurements during 1997–2013. We analysed this velocity field using a continuum approach to compute a new strain rate map for this region and we designed a block model based on the main geological, morphological, and seismic structures. Comparison between both approaches suggests similar results and allow us to present the first comprehensive first order fault slip rate estimates for the whole of Iran. Our results confirm most of the results from previous geodetic studies. Moreover, we also show a trade-off between the coupling ratio of the Iranian Makran subduction interface and the kinematic of the faults north of the Makran in the Jazmurian depression. Although too scarce to accurately estimate a coupling ratio, we show that coupling higher than 0.4 on the plate interface down to a depth of 25 km will induce extension on the E-W faults in the Jazmurian region. However, the sites close to the shoreline suggest a low coupling ratio, hence the coupling on this plate interface is probably more complicated than previously described and the Iranian Makran subduction interface mechanical behaviour might be similar to that on the Hellenic subduction zone.

  • 137. Khorrami, Fateme
    et al.
    Masson, Frederic
    Nilfouroushan, Faramarz
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för Industriell utveckling, IT och Samhällsbyggnad, Samhällsbyggnad, GIS.
    Vernant, Philippe
    Saadat, Seyed Abdoreza
    Nankali, Hamidreza
    Hosseini, Sedigheh
    Aghamohamadi, Azadeh
    An up-to-date GPS velocity field of Iran2017Ingår i: Geophysical Research Abstracts, 2017, Vol. 19, artikel-id EGU2017-7268Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we present an up-to-date velocity field of Iran, including the largest number of data ever presentedon this region. It includes both a synthesis of all previously published campaign data (Raeesi et al., 2016) andall data from the Iranian Permanent GNSS Network (IPGN). The IPGN data cover some parts of Iran whichwere previously scarcely documented. These stations have been measured for 7 years. In total, more than 400instrumented sites are presented. From this velocity field, we calculated the strain rate.In this paper, we will show the contribution of this very dense velocity field to the detailed understanding of theactive tectonics of the various regions of Iran (Makran, Zagros, Alborz, ...).

  • 138.
    Khorrami, Fatemeh
    et al.
    National Cartographic Center, Tehran, Iran.
    Vernant, Philippe
    Géosciences Montpellier, CNRS/University Montpellier, Montpellier, France.
    Masson, Frederic
    IPGS/EOST CNRS/University Strasbourg, Strasbourg Cedex, France.
    Nilfouroushan, Faramarz
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för datavetenskap och samhällsbyggnad, Samhällsbyggnad. Lantmäteriet, Gävle, Sweden.
    Mousavi, Zahra
    Department of Earth Sciences, Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences (IASBS), Zanjan, Iran.
    Nankali, Hamidreza
    National Cartographic Center, Tehran, Iran.
    Saadat, Seyed Abdolreza
    National Cartographic Center, Tehran, Iran.
    Walpersdorf, Andrea
    University Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IRD, IFSTTAR, ISTerre, Grenoble, France.
    Hosseini, Sedighe
    National Cartographic Center, Tehran, Iran.
    Tavakoli, Parastoo
    National Cartographic Center, Tehran, Iran.
    Aghamohammadi, Azade
    National Cartographic Center, Tehran, Iran.
    Alijanzade, Mahnaz
    National Cartographic Center, Tehran, Iran.
    An up-to-date crustal deformation map of Iran using integrated campaign-mode and permanent GPS velocities2019Ingår i: Geophysical Journal International, ISSN 0956-540X, E-ISSN 1365-246X, Vol. 217, nr 2, s. 832-843Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the most extensive and up-to-date unified GPS velocity field for Iran. We processed the data collected during 10 years (2006–2015) from the Iranian Permanent GNSS Network (IPGN) and combined them with previously published velocity solutions from GPS survey measurements during 1997–2013. We analysed this velocity field using a continuum approach to compute a new strain rate map for this region and we designed a block model based on the main geological, morphological, and seismic structures. Comparison between both approaches suggests similar results and allow us to present the first comprehensive first order fault slip rate estimates for the whole of Iran. Our results confirm most of the results from previous geodetic studies. But we also show a trade-off between the coupling ratio of the Iranian Makran subduction interface and the kinematic of the faults north of the Makran in the Jazmurian depression. Indeed, although too scarce to accurately estimate a coupling ratio, we show that coupling higher than 0.4 on the plate interface down to a depth of 25 km will induce extension on the E-W faults in the Jazmurian region. However, the sites close to the shoreline suggest a low coupling ratio, hence the coupling on this plate interface is probably more complicated than previously described and the Iranian Makran subduction interface mechanical behaviour might be similar to that on the Hellenic subduction zone.

  • 139.
    Knez, Igor
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för socialt arbete och psykologi, Psykologi.
    Eliasson, Ingegärd
    Department of Conservation, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Relationships between Personal and Collective Place Identity and Well-Being in Mountain Communities2017Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 8, nr JAN, artikel-id 79Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to investigate the relationships between landscape-related personal and collective identity and well-being of residents living in a Swedish mountain county (N = 850). It was shown that their most valued mountain activities were viewing and experiencing nature and landscape, outdoor recreation, rest and leisure, and socializing with friends/family. Qualitative analyses showed that the most valued aspects of the sites were landscape and outdoor restoration for personal favorite sites, and tourism and alpine for collective favorite sites. According to quantitative analyses the stronger the attachment/closeness/belonging (emotional component of place identity) residents felt to favorite personal and collective sites the more well-being they perceived when visiting these places. Similarly, the more remembrance, thinking and mental travel (cognitive component of place identity) residents directed to these sites the more well-being they perceived in these places. In both types of sites well-being was more strongly predicted by emotional than cognitive component of place-identity. All this indicates the importance of person-place bonds in beneficial experiences of the outdoors, over and above simply being in outdoor environments.

  • 140.
    Knez, Igor
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Thorsson, Sofia
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö. Physical Geography, Department of Earth Sciences, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Influences of culture and environmental attitude on thermal, emotional and perceptual evaluations of a public square2006Ingår i: International journal of biometeorology, ISSN 0020-7128, E-ISSN 1432-1254, Vol. 50, nr 5, s. 258-268Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of the present quasi-experimental study was to examine the influence of culture (Swedish vs Japanese) and environmental attitude (urban vs open-air person) on participants' thermal, emotional and perceptual assessments of a square, within the PET (physiological equivalent temperature) comfortable interval of 18-23 degrees C. It was predicted that persons living in different cultures with different environmental attitudes would psychologically evaluate a square differently despite similar thermal conditions. Consistent with this prediction, Japanese participants estimated the current weather as warmer than did Swedish participants and, consistent with this, they felt less thermally comfortable on the site, although participants in both countries perceived similar comfortable thermal outdoor conditions according to the PET index. Compared to the Japanese, the Swedes estimated both the current weather and the site as windier and colder, indicating a consistency in weather assessment on calm-windy and warm-cold scales in participants in both cultures. Furthermore, Swedish participants felt more glad and calm on the site and, in line with their character (more glad than gloomy), they estimated the square as more beautiful and pleasant than did Japanese participants. All this indicates that thermal, emotional and perceptual assessments of a physical place may be intertwined with psychological schema-based and socio-cultural processes, rather than fixed by general thermal indices developed in line with physiological heat balance models. In consequence, this implies that thermal comfort indices may not be applicable in different cultural/climate zones without modifications, and that they may not be appropriate if we do not take into account the psychological processes involved in environmental assessment.

  • 141.
    Knez, Igor
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för pedagogik, didaktik och psykologi, Ämnesavdelningen för psykologi.
    Thorsson, Sofia
    hysical Geography, Department of Earth Sciences, Göteborg University, Sweden.
    Thermal, emotional and perceptual evaluations of a park: Cross-cultural and environmental attitude comparisons2008Ingår i: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 43, nr 9, s. 1483-1490Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of the present study was to examine the influence of culture (Sweden vs. Japan) and environmental attitude (urban vs. open-air person) on participants' thermal, emotional and perceptual assessments of a park, within the physiological equivalent temperature (PET) comfortable interval of 18-23 degrees C. It was predicted that persons sharing different cultures and environmental attitudes might psychologically differently evaluate a Swedish and a Japanese park despite similar thermal conditions. Consistent with this prediction, Japanese were shown to evaluate the weather as warmer and less good for out-door activity than did Swedes, although and according to the PET index participants in both cultures experienced similar comfortable thermal conditions. Japanese were also shown to evaluate the park as more pleasant and warmer place than did Swedes. However, the Japanese felt emotionally less pleasant at the site than did Swedes. An interaction between culture and environmental attitude indicated tentatively a difference in environmental attitude (urban vs. open-air person) between the two countries as regards the place-related wind sensitivity. All these findings are discussed in terms of culture and environmental attitude suggesting that thermal, emotional and perceptual assessments of a physical place may be intertwined with psychological and cultural processes, rather than fixed by general thermal indices developed in line with the physiological heat balance models. (C) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 142.
    Knez, Igor
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för pedagogik, didaktik och psykologi, Ämnesavdelningen för psykologi.
    Thorsson, Sofia
    Urban Climate Group, Physical Geography, Earth Sciences Centre, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Eliasson, Ingegärd
    Urban Climate Group, Physical Geography, Earth Sciences Centre, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Lindberg, Fredrik
    Urban Climate Group, Physical Geography, Earth Sciences Centre, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Psychological mechanisms in outdoor place and weather assessment: Towards a conceptual model2009Ingår i: International journal of biometeorology, ISSN 0020-7128, E-ISSN 1432-1254, Vol. 53, nr 1, s. 101-111Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The general aim has been to illuminate the psychological mechanisms involved in outdoor place and weather assessment. This reasoning was conceptualized in a model, tentatively proposing direct and indirect links of influence in an outdoor place-human relationship. The model was subsequently tested by an empirical study, performed in a Nordic city, on the impact of weather and personal factors on participants' perceptual and emotional estimations of outdoor urban places. In line with our predictions, we report significant influences of weather parameters (air temperature, wind, and cloudlessness) and personal factors (environmental attitude and age) on participants' perceptual and emotional estimations of outdoor urban places. All this is a modest, yet significant, step towards an understanding of the psychology of outdoor place and weather assessment.

  • 143.
    Kordi, Maryam
    et al.
    National University of Ireland, National Centre for Geocomputation.
    Brandt, Anders
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för Industriell utveckling, IT och Samhällsbyggnad, Samhällsbyggnad/GIS-Institutet.
    Effects of increasing fuzziness on analytic hierarchy process for spatial multicriteria decision analysis2012Ingår i: Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, ISSN 0198-9715, E-ISSN 1873-7587, Vol. 36, nr 1, s. 43-53Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) involves techniques which relatively recently have received great increase in interest for their capabilities of solving spatial decision problems. One of the most frequently used techniques of MCDA is Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). In the AHP, decision-makers make pairwise comparisons between different criteria to obtain values of their relative importance. The AHP initially only dealt with crisp numbers or exact values in the pairwise comparisons, but later it has been modified and adapted to also consider fuzzy values. It is necessary to empirically validate the ability of the fuzzified AHP for solving spatial problems. Further, the effects of different levels of fuzzification on the method have to be studied. In the context of a hypothetical GIS-based decision-making problem of locating a dam in Costa Rica using real-world data, this paper illustrates and compares the effects of increasing levels of uncertainty exemplified through different levels of fuzzification of the AHP. Practical comparison of the methods in this work, in accordance with the theoretical research, revealed that by increasing the level of uncertainty or fuzziness in the fuzzy AHP, differences between results of the conventional and fuzzy AHPs become more significant. These differences in the results of the methods may affect the final decisions in decision-making processes. This study concludes that the AHP is sensitive to the level of fuzzification and decision-makers should be aware of this sensitivity while using the fuzzy AHP. Furthermore, the methodology described may serve as a guideline on how to perform a sensitivity analysis in spatial MCDA. Depending on the character of criteria weights, i.e. the degree of fuzzification, and its impact on the results of a selected decision rule (e.g. AHP), the results from a fuzzy analysis may be used to produce sensitivity estimates for crisp AHP MCDA methods.

  • 144.
    Koyi, Hemin
    et al.
    Hans Ramberg Tectonic Laboratory, Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Nilfouroushan, Faramarz
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för Industriell utveckling, IT och Samhällsbyggnad, Samhällsbyggnad, GIS. Hans Ramberg Tectonic Laboratory, Deptartment of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hessami, Khaled
    International Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Seismology (IIEES), Tehran, Iran.
    Modelling role of basement block rotation and strike-slip faulting on structural pattern in cover units of fold-and-thrust belts2016Ingår i: Geological Magazine, ISSN 0016-7568, E-ISSN 1469-5081, Vol. 153, nr 5-6, s. 827-844Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A series of scaled analogue models are used to study (de)coupling between basement and cover deformation. Rigid basal blocks were rotated about a vertical axis in a 'bookshelf'€™ fashion, which caused strike-slip faulting along the blocks and in the overlying cover units of loose sand. Three different combinations of cover–basement deformations are modelled: (i) cover shortening before basement fault movement; (ii) basement fault movement before cover shortening; and (iii) simultaneous cover shortening with basement fault movement. Results show that the effect of the basement faults depends on the timing of their reactivation. Pre- and syn-orogenic basement fault movements have a significant impact on the structural pattern of the cover units, whereas post-orogenic basement fault movement has less influence on the thickened hinterland of the overlying belt. The interaction of basement faulting and cover shortening results in the formation of rhombic structures. In models with pre- and syn-orogenic basement strike-slip faults, rhombic blocks develop as a result of shortening of the overlying cover during basement faulting. These rhombic blocks are similar in appearance to flower structures, but are different in kinematics, genesis and structural extent. We compare these model results to both the Zagros fold-and-thrust belt in southwestern Iran and the Alborz Mountains in northern Iran. Based on the model results, we conclude that the traces of basement faults in cover units rotate and migrate towards the foreland during regional shortening. As such, these traces do not necessarily indicate the actual location or orientation of the basement faults which created them.

  • 145.
    Lacombe, Olivier
    et al.
    Institut des Sciences de la Terre de Paris (iSTeP), Sorbonne Universités, Paris, France.
    Ruh, Jonas
    Institut des Sciences de la Terre de Paris (iSTeP), Sorbonne Universités, Paris, France; Instituto de Ciencias de la Tierra “Jaume Almera”, CSIC, Barcelona, Spain.
    Brown, Dennis
    Instituto de Ciencias de la Tierra “Jaume Almera”, CSIC, Barcelona, Spain.
    Nilfouroushan, Faramarz
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för Industriell utveckling, IT och Samhällsbyggnad, Samhällsbyggnad, GIS. Geodetic infrastructure Department, Lantmäteriet, Gävle, Sweden.
    Introduction: tectonic evolution and mechanics of basement-involved fold-and-thrust belts2016Ingår i: Geological Magazine, ISSN 0016-7568, E-ISSN 1469-5081, Vol. 153, nr 5-6, s. 759-762Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Defining the structural style of fold-and-thrust belts is an important step for understanding the factors that control their long- and short-term dynamics, for comprehending seismic hazard associated with them, and for assessing their economic potential. While the thin-skinned model (no basement involvement) has long been the driving methodology for cross section construction and restoration of foreland fold-and-thrustbelts, a wealth of new geological and geophysical studies have shown that they are often thick-skinned, that is, basement-involved.

  • 146.
    Larsson, Josefine
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Miljövetenskap.
    Lind, E. E.
    SLU.
    Corell, H.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Grahn, Mats
    Södertörns högskola, Biologi.
    Smolarz, K.
    University of Gdańsk, Gdynia, Poland.
    Lönn, Mikael
    Södertörns högskola, Biologi.
    Regional genetic differentiation in the blue mussel from the Baltic Sea area2017Ingår i: Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, ISSN 0272-7714, E-ISSN 1096-0015, Vol. 195, s. 98-109Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Connectivity plays an important role in shaping the genetic structure and in evolution of local adaptation. In the marine environment barriers to gene flow are in most cases caused by gradients in environmental factors, ocean circulation and/or larval behavior. Despite the long pelagic larval stages, with high potential for dispersal many marine organisms have been shown to have a fine scale genetic structuring. In this study, by using a combination of high-resolution genetic markers, species hybridization data and biophysical modeling we can present a comprehensive picture of the evolutionary landscape for a keystone species in the Baltic Sea, the blue mussel. We identified distinct genetic differentiation between the West Coast, Baltic Proper and Bothnian Sea regions, with lower gene diversity in the Bothnian Sea. Oceanographic connectivity together with salinity and to some extent species identity provides explanations for the genetic differentiation between the West Coast and the Baltic Sea (Baltic Proper and Bothnian Sea). The genetic differentiation between the Baltic Proper and Bothnian Sea cannot be directly explained by oceanographic connectivity, species identity or salinity, while the lower connectivity to the Bothnian Sea may explain the lower gene diversity. © 2016.

  • 147.
    Larsson, Josefine
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Miljövetenskap.
    Lönn, Mikael
    Södertörns högskola, Biologi.
    Lind, Emma E
    SLU.
    Świeżak, Justyna
    University of Gdansk, Gdynia , Poland.
    Smolarz, Katarzyna
    University of Gdansk, Gdynia , Poland.
    Grahn, Mats
    Södertörns högskola, Biologi.
    Sewage treatment plant associated genetic differentiation in the blue mussel from the Baltic Sea and Swedish west coast2016Ingår i: PeerJ, ISSN 2167-8359, E-ISSN 2167-8359, Vol. 4, artikel-id e2628Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Human-derived environmental pollutants and nutrients that reach the aquatic environment through sewage effluents, agricultural and industrial processes are constantly contributing to environmental changes that serve as drivers for adaptive responses and evolutionary changes in many taxa. In this study, we examined how two types of point sources of aquatic environmental pollution, harbors and sewage treatment plants, affect gene diversity and genetic differentiation in the blue mussel in the Baltic Sea area and off the Swedish west coast (Skagerrak). Reference sites (REF) were geographically paired with sites from sewage treatments plant (STP) and harbors (HAR) with a nested sampling scheme, and genetic differentiation was evaluated using a high-resolution marker amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). This study showed that genetic composition in the Baltic Sea blue mussel was associated with exposure to sewage treatment plant effluents. In addition, mussel populations from harbors were genetically divergent, in contrast to the sewage treatment plant populations, suggesting that there is an effect of pollution from harbors but that the direction is divergent and site specific, while the pollution effect from sewage treatment plants on the genetic composition of blue mussel populations acts in the same direction in the investigated sites.

  • 148.
    Larsson, Karolina
    et al.
    Stockholms Stad.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för datavetenskap och samhällsbyggnad, Samhällsbyggnad.
    Paulsson, Jenny
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Representation of 3D cadastral boundaries: From analogue to digital2019Ingår i: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses problems and challenges concerning the process of conversion of 2D analogue cadastral boundary plans into 3D digital information and is based on experiences from a research project on visualization of 3D property boundaries in Sweden. An area next to a newly constructed sports– and event arena in Stockholm, where 3D properties are formed, is used as a case study in the project to illustrate the process and the problems related to it. Focus lies on legal issues, although other aspects are mentioned as well. The rights, restrictions and responsibilities (RRRs) are registered in the national Real Property Register, which also includes registration in the two–dimensional Digital Cadastral Index Map. 

    A description of the process of forming 3D property is included in the paper regarding the documents and parties involved. The result of the study is that it is necessary to interpret two–dimensional cadastral data and textual descriptions in order for it to be used in a digital 3D environment, e.g. BIM.

    The study shows that current legislation has to be investigated and interpreted in detail to be able to add or transform into using 3D models as part of cadastral decisions in Sweden. The current cadastral process is also analysed and suggestions for further development are provided.

  • 149.
    Li, Tao
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö.
    Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) in China: Some potentials and shortcomings2008Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [en]

    A Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) is required to make the spatial data be fully used and well shared by the society. In China, SDI’s has also been established progressively. A thorough understanding of the potentials and shortcomings about SDI in China has a positive significance to clearly identify the future direction and actions.In order to find out the potentials and shortcomings of SDI in China, the current situation of SDI and SDI in China have been assessed through literature review and interview. Then a Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) analysis has been developed. Based on the current experiences of SDI development in China, the thesis concludes that China have a good potential to develop its SDI function. It also points out that there still are some weaknesses needed to be surmounted, such as: lacking advanced technology, data duplication, and lack of skilled workforce. There is a big room and capability to improve the development of Chinese SDI well in the future.

  • 150.
    Lim, Nancy J.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för datavetenskap och samhällsbyggnad, Samhällsbyggnad.
    Brandt, S. Anders
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för datavetenskap och samhällsbyggnad, Samhällsbyggnad.
    Are Feature Agreement Statistics Alone Sufficient to Validate Modelled Flood Extent Quality?: A Study on Three Swedish Rivers Using Different Digital Elevation Model Resolutions2019Ingår i: Mathematical problems in engineering (Print), ISSN 1024-123X, E-ISSN 1563-5147, Vol. 2019, artikel-id 9816098Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydraulic modelling is now, at increasing rates, used all over the world to provide flood risk maps for spatial planning, flood insurance, etc. This puts heavy pressure on the modellers and analysts to not only produce the maps but also information on the accuracy and uncertainty of these maps. A common means to deliver this is through performance measures or feature statistics. These look at the global agreement between the modelled flood area and the reference flood that is used. Previous studies have shown that the feature agreement statistics do not differ much between models that have been based on digital elevation models (DEMs) of different resolutions, which is somewhat surprising since most researchers agree that high-resolution DEMs are to be preferred over poor resolution DEMs. Hence, the aim of this study was to look into how and under which conditions the different feature agreement statistics differ, in order to see when the full potential of high-resolution DEMs can be utilised. The results show that although poor resolution DEMs might produce high feature agreement scores (around F > 0.80), they may fail to provide good flood extent estimations locally, particularly when the terrain is flat. Therefore, when high-resolution DEMs (1 to 5 m) are used, it is important to carefully calibrate the models by the use of the roughness parameter. Furthermore, to get better estimates on the accuracy of the models, other performance measures such as distance disparities should be considered.

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