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  • 101.
    Forsman, Mikael
    et al.
    Karolinska institute, Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Lodin, Camilla
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Richter, Hans
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Co-variation in time between near-far accommodation of the lens and trapezius muscle activity2012Ingår i: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 41, nr Suppl. 1, s. 3393-3397Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Visual strain and discomfort may contribute to the generation of work-related musculoskeletal disorders among e.g. computer workers. A positive correlation on a group level between eye-lens accommodation and trapezius muscle activity has been reported. In this study we investigated the possibility of a direct, fast, connection between lens accommodation and trapezius muscles activity. The subjects focused alternately on Near and Far targets, with a mean switch time of 5 s, through four different lenses. The cross-correlation, R(tau) was computed, between the time signals of accommodation and electromyography (EMG) from 23 subjects. In the overall mean R(tau) of 736 curves, a small but significant correlation peak (0.019) with a delay (of the EMG signal) of about 0.3 s, revealed a small common component in the two signals. Among the lenses, the positive lens (3.5 D), showed the highest correlation peak (0.040). The correlation may be caused by a direct “hard-wired” connection between the ciliary and trapezius muscles. But it could also be caused indirectly by the subject’s need for a more stable head in a more demanding visual task. The latter is supported by the result that the correlation was the highest in the positive lens condition. The present correlation is however weak and it has probably a low practical importance.

  • 102.
    Forsman, Mikael
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Neumann, Patrick
    Ryerson University, Mechanical Engineering, Toronto.
    Palmerud, Gunnar
    Arbets- och miljömedicin, Göteborgs universitet.
    Winkel, Jörgen
    Institutionen för sociologi och arbetsvetenskap, Göteborgs universitet.
    Mechanical exposures in serial flow assembly - a proactive intervention research approach2013Ingår i: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The EU End of Life Vehicle (ELV) Directive 2000/53/EC has prompted rationalization initiatives to facilitate recycling of material and components from ELVs. In the present study, technical recordings were used to assess operators' mechanical exposures in a new serial flow system for full material recovery in car disassembly as compared with those of a previous study of traditional craft-type-parallel disassembly. Estimated task-specific mechanical exposures served as a base to simulate how further rationalisation may affect ergonomics in car disassembly. The time proportion of ‘direct work’ (deemed value-adding tasks) was about 30% in both systems, i.e. substantially lower than in modern forward factories. Movement velocities were higher in the new serial system, implying a higher risk for musculoskeletal disorders, while mixed results were found in the comparison of postures.

    Simulations revealed increased mechanical exposures, illustrated by increased time in high risk conditions, and decreased duration in low-exposure conditions, when indirect tasks and disturbances (deemed non-value-adding) were removed.

    This may illustrate the underlying mechanism of how rationalisations to eliminate "waste" can reduce valuable recovery time and increase employee injury risk over time.

  • 103.
    Forsman, Mikael
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Neumann, Patrick
    Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Ryerson University, Toronto.
    Palmerud, Gunnar
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, University of Gothenburg.
    Winkel, Jörgen
    Department of Sociology and Work Science, University of Gothenburg.
    Simulating the effects of efficiency improvement efforts in car disassembly2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 104.
    Garell, Moa
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Arbetsmotivation och psykisk hälsa bland sjuksköterskor inom psykiatrin: En jämförande studie mellan yngre och äldre sjuksköterskor2015Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Sjuksköterskor vilka arbetar inom psykiatrin har en psykiskt tungarbetsmiljö och är drabbade av ohälsa. Samtidigt är sambandet mellan arbetsmotivationoch välmående förhållandevis väl teoretiskt befäst och forskning har visat att motivationär en betydande mekanism i utvecklandet av utmattningssyndrom. Bland sjuksköterskortycks arbetsmotivationen variera mellan olika åldrar. Studier inom området som gjortsmed psykiatrisjuksköteskor är dock begränsade. Syfte: Syftet med föreliggande studievar att undersöka skillnader i inre arbetsmotivation, psykiskt välbefinnande ochutmattning mellan yngre (≤40 år) och äldre (>40år) sjuksköterskor anställda inompsykiatrin. Ett ytterligare syfte var att undersöka vilka aspekter av inre arbetsmotivationsom var relaterade till psykiskt välbefinnande och utmattning i de tvåsjuksköterskegrupperna. Metod: Studien var en kvantitativ observationsstudie med entvärsnittsdesign och gruppjämförelser, vilken genomfördes som en enkätundersökning.Den oberoende variabeln var ålder och de beroende variablerna utgjordes av inrearbetsmotivation (autonomi, samhörighet och kompetens), psykiskt välbefinnande ochutmattning. Urvalet bestod av 60 sjuksköterskor. Analyser gjordes i SPSS (22,0). Chi2analyser, ANOVA för upprepad mätning, separata ANOVOR, t-tester (independentsample) samt linjära regressionsanalyser genomfördes. Resultat: Sjuksköterskorna hadegenerellt sett en förhållandevis hög inre arbetsmotivation. Autonomi (M= 4,73) var detmotivationsbehov som skattades lägst. Autonomi skattades högre bland de yngre (M =5,02, SD = 0,77) än bland de äldre (M = 4.55, SD = 0,81). Dessutom visades att bådeäldre och yngre sjuksköterskor som upplevde sig kompetenta på arbetet också hade etthögre psykiskt välbefinnande. Kompetens var dock enbart relaterat till lägre grad avutmattning bland de äldre. Slutsats: Studien visade att det fanns skillnader i hur yngreoch äldre sjuksköterskor skattade arbetsmotivation. Kompetens visades vara detmotivationsbehov som hade samband med psykiskt välbefinnande och för att kunnaförbättra den psykiska hälsan bland sjuksköterskor bör fokus således läggas påkompetensutveckling i arbetet.

  • 105.
    Garza, Jennifer
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Heiden, Marina
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Reliability of using observations when assessing different posture variables2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Working in extreme postures has been identified as a risk factor for musculoskeletal symptoms. Directly measuring work postures is considered to be the most accurate approach for assessing these exposures, but it is often not feasible to directly measure posture due to time or budget constraints. Alternatively, direct measurements of postures can be predicted based on observations of workers’ postures. Since observers are known to differ in posture ratings, it may, however, be necessary to develop calibration procedures for each specific observer.

    Methods. Arm and back postures of a random sample of 28 paper mill workers were measured via inclinometry and also were assessed by three observers from videos. Linear models with participant number and observer as random effects were resolved to assess whether or not observed postures were associated with the corresponding inclinometer values and if the effect of observer on slope and intercept was significant (p<0.05). The variance explained by these models was compared to the variance explained by corresponding linear models yet with observer entered as a fixed effect (i.e. allowing different slopes and intercepts for different observers).

    Results. For all postures, the variance explained was similar when using observer as a fixed compared to a random effect (R-squared ranging from 0.41 to 0.56 for observer as fixed or random effect). Throughout, participant was the major source of variance.

    Discussion. Our findings of similar amounts of variance explained when using observer as a fixed compared to a random effect for all postures indicates that calibration models developed for each individual observer may not necessarily perform better than a general calibration applying to any observer. Since posture observations explained only a small proportion of directly measured posture variance, observation may not be very useful in this setting

  • 106.
    Gilson, Nicholas
    et al.
    University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.
    Hall, Caitlin
    University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    van der Beek, Allard
    Department of Public and Occupational Health, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Huysmans, Maaike
    Department of Public and Occupational Health, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Straker, Leon
    School of Physiotherapy and Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Sedentary and physical activity behaviour in ‘blue-collar’ workers: A systematic review of accelerometer studies2019Ingår i: Journal of Physical Activity and Health, ISSN 1543-3080, E-ISSN 1543-5474, Vol. 16, nr 11, s. 1060-1069Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: This systematic review assessed evidence on the accelerometer-measured sedentary and physical activity (PA) behavior of nonoffice workers in “blue-collar” industries.

    Methods: The databases CINAHL, Embase, MEDLINE, PubMed, and Scopus were searched up to April 6, 2018. Eligibility criteria were accelerometer-measured sedentary, sitting, and/or PA behaviors in “blue-collar” workers (≥10 participants; agricultural, construction, cleaning, manufacturing, mining, postal, or transport industries). Data on participants’ characteristics, study protocols, and measured behaviors during work and/or nonwork time were extracted. Methodologic quality was assessed using a 12-item checklist.

    Results: Twenty studies (representing 11 data sets), all from developed world economies, met inclusion criteria. The mean quality score for selected studies was 9.5 (SD 0.8) out of a maximum of 12. Data were analyzed using a range of analytical techniques (eg, accelerometer counts or pattern recognition algorithms). “Blue-collar” workers were more sedentary and less active during nonwork compared with work time (eg, sitting 5.7 vs 3.2 h/d; moderate to vigorous PA 0.5 vs 0.7 h/d). Drivers were the most sedentary (work time 5.1 h/d; nonwork time 8.2 h/d).

    Conclusions: High levels of sedentary time and insufficient PA to offset risk are health issues for “blue-collar” workers. To better inform interventions, research groups need to adopt common measurement and reporting methodologies.

  • 107.
    Gilson, Nicholas
    et al.
    The University of Queensland, Australia.
    Hall, Caitlin
    The University of Queensland, Australia.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    van der Beek, Allard
    VU University Medical Centre, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Huysmans, Maaike
    VU University Medical Centre, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Straker, Leon
    Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Sedentary behaviour and physical activity in blue collar workers: a systematic review of accelerometer studies2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 108.
    Gold, Judith E
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Hallman, David
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Hellström, Fredrik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Björklund, Martin
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umea University, Umeå Sweden.
    Crenshaw, Albert G.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Djupsjöbacka, Mats
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Heiden, Marina
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Piligian, George
    Department of Occupational Medicine, Epidemiology and Prevention, North Shore-Long Island Jewish Health System, Great Neck, NY, USA.
    Barbe, Mary F.
    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Temple University Medical School, Philadelphia, PA, USA..
    Systematic review of biochemical biomarkers for neck and upper-extremity musculoskeletal disorders2016Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 42, nr 2, s. 103-124Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective:  This study systematically summarizes biochemical biomarker research in non-traumatic musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs).  Two research questions guided the review:  1) Are there biochemical markers associated with neck and upper extremity MSDs? and, 2) Are there biochemical markers associated with the severity of neck and upper extremity MSDs? 

    Methods:  A literature search was conducted in PubMed and SCOPUS.  Eighty-seven studies met primary inclusion criteria.  Following a quality screen, data were extracted from 44 sufficient quality articles.

    Results:  Most of the 87 studies were cross-sectional and utilized convenience samples of patients as both cases and controls.  A response rate was explicitly stated in only 11 (13%) studies.  Less than half of the studies controlled for potential confounding through restriction or in the analysis.  Most sufficient quality studies were conducted in older populations (mean age in one or more analysis group > 50 yrs).

    In sufficient quality articles, 82% demonstrated at least one statistically significant association between the MSD(s) and biomarker(s) studied.  Evidence suggested that: a) the collagen repair marker TIMP-1 is decreased in fibroproliferative disorders, b) 5-HT (serotonin) is increased in trapezius myalgia, and c) triglycerides are increased in a variety of MSDs.  Only five studies showed an association between a biochemical marker and MSD severity.

    Conclusion: While some MSD biomarkers were identified, limitations in the articles examined included possible selection bias, confounding, spectrum effect (potentially heterogeneous biomarker associations in populations according to symptom severity or duration) and insufficient attention to co-morbid conditions. A list of recommendations for future studies is provided.

  • 109.
    Gold, Judith E.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Gold Standard Research Consulting, Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania, USA.
    Kurowski, Alicia
    Center for the Promotion of Health in the New England Workplace, University of Massachusetts Lowell, Massachusetts, USA.
    Gore, Rebecca
    Center for the Promotion of Health in the New England Workplace, University of Massachusetts Lowell, Massachusetts, USA.
    ProCare, Research team
    Center for the Promotion of Health in the New England Workplace, University of Massachusetts Lowell, Massachusetts, USA.
    Punnett, Laura
    Center for the Promotion of Health in the New England Workplace, University of Massachusetts Lowell, Massachusetts, USA.
    Knee pain in nursing home workers after implementation of a safe resident handling program2018Ingår i: American Journal of Industrial Medicine, ISSN 0271-3586, E-ISSN 1097-0274, Vol. 61, nr 10, s. 849-860Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Approximately 25-30% of nursing personnel experience knee pain (KP). We sought to identify physical and psychosocial work exposures, and personal factors related to prevalent, incident, and persistent KP 5-8 years after safe resident handing program (SRHP) implementation in nursing homes.

    Methods: Health and exposure information was obtained from worker surveys 5-6 years (“F5”) and 7-8 years (“F6”) post-SRHP implementation. Prevalent KP correlates were examined at F5; persistent and incident KP predictors were analyzed at F6, utilizing robust Poisson multivariable regression.

    Results: F5 KP prevalence (19.7%) was associated with combined physical exposures, and with either high job strain or low social support, in separate models. Two-year persistent KP was similarly associated with these psychosocial exposures. Being overweight was associated with KP in all analyses.

    Conclusions: The SRHP program did not eliminate knee physical loading, which should be reduced to prevent nursing home worker KP. Workplace psychosocial exposures (high job strain, low social support) also appeared germane.

  • 110.
    Gold, Judith E.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Lewis, Charlotte
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Elcadi, Guilherme H.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Trapezius oxygenation and hemodynamics during work : a field study using EMG and Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS)2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Relative blood volume (RBV) and muscle oxygenation (TSI) can be measured using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), but no studies have used NIRS with workers performing their job in the field. The study aims were (1) to assess day-to-day within-subjects dispersion in NIRS measurements during work, and (2) to determine whether trapezius RBV and TSI differed between office and industrial workers. Electromyography (EMG) measured trapezius muscle activity.

    Methods. Portable NIRS and EMG instruments were adhered to the trapezius of healthy female industrial (n = 8) and office (n = 10) workers for approximately four hours on two separate days. Mean and standard deviation (SD) RBV, TSI and 50th percentile EMG were calculated for both days separately. Participants were videotaped to demarcate work and rest periods, and to qualitatively assess ergonomic exposures. Two-way mixed effects models were constructed to examine outcomes, with occupation (office/industrial) and work/rest as fixed effects and subject as a random effect.

    Results. Industrial workers appeared to have more variable arm postures and handled heavier loads than office workers. The between-days variability of RBV and TSI indicated that NIRS performed well in an occupational setting. Median trapezius EMG showed an effect of occupation (p < 0.0001), and an interaction between occupation and work/rest (p < 0.0001). As expected, industrial workers had higher median EMG overall and during work, but office workers had a higher EMG during rest. Similar results for EMG SD were found. Mean RBV and RBV SD were greater in industrial workers. No effects on mean TSI were found. However, TSI SD was higher in industrial workers, while TSI SD was greater in office workers during rest.

    Discussion. NIRS had a satisfying reliability and showed face validity with respect to expected responses to occupational work. NIRS shows promise as a method for measuring hemodynamics in the field.

  • 111.
    Gold, Judith
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Gold Standard Research Consulting, Bryn Mawr, PA, USA.
    Hallman, David
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Hellström, Fredrik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Björklund, Martin
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Crenshaw, Albert G.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Barbe, Mary
    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Temple University Medical School,.
    Ali, Sayed
    Department of Radiology, Temple University Medical School,.
    Systematic review of quantitative imaging biomarkers for neck and shoulder musculoskeletal disorders2017Ingår i: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, ISSN 1471-2474, E-ISSN 1471-2474, Vol. 18, artikel-id 395Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    This study systematically summarizes quantitative imaging biomarker research in non-traumatic neck and shoulder musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). There were two research questions: 1) Are there quantitative imaging biomarkers associated with the presence of neck and shoulder MSDs?, 2) Are there quantitative imaging biomarkers associated with the severity of neck and shoulder MSDs?

    Methods

    PubMed and SCOPUS were used for the literature search. One hundred and twenty-five studies met primary inclusion criteria. Data were extracted from 49 sufficient quality studies.

    Results

    Most of the 125 studies were cross-sectional and utilized convenience samples of patients as both cases and controls. Only half controlled for potential confounders via exclusion or in the analysis. Approximately one-third reported response rates. In sufficient quality articles, 82% demonstrated at least one statistically significant association between the MSD(s) and biomarker(s) studied. The literature synthesis suggested that neck muscle size may be decreased in neck pain, and trapezius myalgia and neck/shoulder pain may be associated with reduced vascularity in the trapezius and reduced trapezius oxygen saturation at rest and in response to upper extremity tasks. Reduced vascularity in the supraspinatus tendon may also be a feature in rotator cuff tears. Five of eight studies showed an association between a quantitative imaging marker and MSD severity.

    Conclusions

    Although research on quantitative imaging biomarkers is still in a nascent stage, some MSD biomarkers were identified. There are limitations in the articles examined, including possible selection bias and inattention to potentially confounding factors. Recommendations for future studies are provided.

  • 112.
    Gold, Judith
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Hallman, David
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Hellström, Fredrik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Björklund, Martin
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Piligian, George
    Department of Occupational Medicine, Epidemiology and Prevention, North Shore-Long Island Jewish Health System, Great Neck, NY.
    Barbe, Mary F.
    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Temple University Medical School, Philadelphia.
    Biochemical biomarkers for MSDs: systematic review results2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Although the potential for musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) biomarkers to detect subclinical disease and monitor MSD severity was discussed more than 20 years ago, only one review on biochemical biomarkers exclusive to humans has been published (Saxton 2000). The aim of this study was to systematically summarize biochemical biomarker research in neck and upper extremity MSDs that could appear in a work-related context. Two research questions guided the review: (1) Are there biochemical markers associated with neck and upper extremity MSDs? (2) Are there biochemical markers associated with the severity of neck and upper extremity MSDs?

    Methods: A literature search was conducted in PubMed and SCOPUS. 87 studies met primary inclusion criteria. Following a quality screen, data were extracted from 44 sufficient-quality articles.

    Results. Most of the 87 studies were cross-sectional and utilized convenience samples of patients as both cases and controls. A response rate was explicitly stated in only 11 (13%) studies. Less than half of the studies controlled for potential confounding through restriction or in the analysis. Most sufficient-quality studies were conducted in older populations (mean age in one or more analysis group > 50 yrs). In sufficient-quality articles, 82% demonstrated at least one statistically significant association between the MSD(s) and biomarker(s) studied. Evidence suggested that: (a) the collagen repair marker TIMP-1 is decreased in fibroproliferative disorders, (b) 5-HT (serotonin) is increased in trapezius myalgia, and (c) triglycerides are increased in a variety of MSDs. Only five studies showed an association between a biochemical marker and MSD severity.

    Discussion. While some MSD biomarkers were identified, limitations in the articles examined included possible selection bias, confounding, spectrum effect (potentially heterogeneous biomarker associations in populations according to symptom severity or duration) and insufficient attention to co-morbid conditions. A list of recommendations for future studies is provided.

  • 113.
    Gold, Judith
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Kietrys, David
    University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Stratford, NJ, USA.
    Gerg, Michael
    Temple University.
    Touch screen size affects neck and wrist posture and thumb usage during texting2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purposes

    Mobile devices with various screen sizes are now popular.  Screen size may affect how persons choose to interact when typing with such devices.  Self-reported duration and frequency of text messaging has been associated with musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) symptoms, particularly in the shoulder, neck, and thumb (1, 2).  It is unknown which aspects of mobile device usage may increase MSD risk.  However, non-neutral neck and wrist postures are associated with MSDs in office workers engaging in keyboarding (3-8).  The study aim was to determine if mobile device screen size affects neck and/or wrist posture during self-determined texting positions.  Also, fingers used in texting were tabulated by screen size, as this may affect MSD risk.

     

    Methods

    Three touch screen mobile devices of different screen sizes – 3.5” (Apple iPod Touch MC544LL), 7” (Samsung Galaxy Tab GT-P1010) and 9.5” (Apple iPad 2) -- were randomly presented to asymptomatic college students (n = 20).  Each device was made ready for simulated texting by activating the “Notes” or a similar application.  Devices were placed screen down on a table 1 m away from the participant.  Participants retrieved the device, resumed sitting in a chair, and spent as much time as desired to determine how they wanted to text “hi how are you” repeatedly for 10 seconds.  Wrist and neck postures were measured through electrogoniometry and sagittal plane motion analysis, respectively.  Fingers used to text and whether the device was placed on the lap were noted.  Excel (Microsoft Corp., Redmond, WA) and SAS V9.3 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) were used in data analysis.  Outcome variable trends by screen size were determined using SAS PROC GLM for repeated measures, with p < 0.05 denoting statistical significance.

     

    Results

    Ninety percent of subjects using the 3.5” screen chose to text with both thumbs (table).  As screen size increased, more used the right index finger as more varied texting styles were chosen.  Additionally, more placed the entire device or its bottom edge on their lap.  Wrist extension and ulnar deviation, and cervical flexion increased with increasing screen size (test for trend, all p < 0.01, table).

     

    Conclusions

    Greater prevalence of non-neutral neck and wrist postures were found during texting with increasing touch screen size.  These factors may increase MSD risk.  However, decreased thumb usage occurs with greater screen size.  Such larger screens may be protective against thumb symptoms.  Further studies are warranted.

     

  • 114.
    Gold, Judith
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mohamed, Feroze
    Temple University.
    Ali, Sayed
    Temple University.
    Barbe, Mary
    Temple University.
    Serum and MRI biomarkers in mobile device texting: a pilot study2014Ingår i: Human Factors, ISSN 0018-7208, E-ISSN 1547-8181, Vol. 56, nr 5, s. 864-872Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: We aimed to determine if serum biochemical and MRI biomarkers differed between high volume (≥ 230 texts sent/day; n = 5) and low volume (≤ 25 texts sent/day; n = 5) texters.  A secondary aim was to ascertain what correlations between the biochemical and imaging biomarkers could tell us about the pathophysiology of early onset tendinopathies.

    Background: Text messaging has become widespread, particularly among college-aged young adults.  There is concern that high rates of texting may result in musculoskeletal disorders, including tendinopathies.  Pathophysiology of tendinopathies is largely unknown.

    Method: Ten females with a mean age of 20 were recruited. We examined serum for 20 biomarkers of inflammation, tissue degeneration and repair. We used conventional MRI and MRI mean intratendinous signal intensity (MISI) to assess thumb tendons.  Correlations between MISI and serum biomarkers were also examined.

    Results: Three high volume texters had MRI tendinopathy findings as did one low volume texter.  Increased serum TNF-R1 was found in high volume texters compared to low volume texters, as were non-significant increases in MISI in two thumb tendons.  Serum TNF-R1 and TNF-α correlated with MISI in these tendons, as did IL1-R1. 

    Conclusion: These results suggest that early onset tendinopathy with concurrent inflammation may be occurring in prolific texters. Further studies with larger sample sizes are needed for confirmation.

  • 115.
    Gold, Judith
    et al.
    Department of Public Health, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA.
    Mohamed, Feroze
    Temple University.
    Ali, Sayed
    Temple University.
    Barbe, Mary
    Temple University.
    Serum and MRI biomarkers in mobile device texting: a pilot study2012Ingår i: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, 2012, s. 1150-1154Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Text messaging has become widespread, particularly among college-aged young adults.There is concern that high rates of texting may result in musculoskeletal disorders, including tendinopathies. We examined serum biomarkers, conventional MRI findings, and MRI mean intratendinous signal-to-noise ratio (MISI) of thumb tendons to determine if high volume texters (≥ 230 texts sent/day; n = 5) would be more likely than low volume texters (≤ 25 texts sent/day; n = 5) to have early onset tendinopathy and inflammation. Three of the high volume texters had MRI findings of tendinopathy as did one low volume texter. Increased serum TNF-R1 was found in high volume texters compared to low volume texters of college age, as were non-significant increases in MISI in 2 thumb tendons. Serum TNF-R1 and TNF-α correlated with the MISI in these tendons, as did IL1-R1. These results suggest that early onset tendinopathy with concurrent inflammation may be occurring in prolific texters. Further studies with larger sample sizes are needed to confirm these findings.

     

  • 116.
    Gold, Judith
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Punnett, Laura
    Department of Work Environment, University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, Massachusetts, USA.
    Gore, Rebecca
    Department of Work Environment, University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, Massachusetts, USA.
    ProCare Research Team, .
    Department of Work Environment, University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, Massachusetts, USA.
    Predictors of low back pain in nursing home workers after implementation of a safe resident handling programme2017Ingår i: Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1351-0711, E-ISSN 1470-7926, Vol. 74, nr 6, s. 389-395Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives. Healthcare workers have high rates of low back pain (LBP) related to handling patients. A large chain of nursing homes experienced reduced biomechanical load, compensation claims and costs following implementation of a safe resident handling programme (SRHP). The aim of this study was to examine whether LBP similarly declined and whether it was associated with relevant self-reported occupational exposures or personal health factors.

    Methods. Worker surveys were conducted on multiple occasions beginning with the week of first SRHP introduction (baseline). In each survey, the outcome was LBP during the prior 3 months with at least mild severity during the past week. Robust Poisson multivariable regression models were constructed to examine correlates of LBP cross-sectionally at 2 years (F3) and longitudinally at 5–6 years (F5) post-SRHP implementation among workers also in at least one prior survey.

    Results. LBP prevalence declined minimally between baseline and F3. The prevalence was 37% at F3 and cumulative incidence to F5 was 22%. LBP prevalence at F3 was positively associated with combined physical exposures, psychological job demands and prior back injury, while frequent lift device usage and ‘intense’ aerobic exercise frequency were protective. At F5, the multivariable model included frequent lift usage at F3 (relative risk (RR) 0.39 (0.18 to 0.84)) and F5 work– family imbalance (RR=1.82 (1.12 to 2.98)).

    Conclusions. In this observational study, resident lifting device usage predicted reduced LBP in nursing home workers. Other physical and psychosocial demands of nursing home work also contributed, while frequent intense aerobic exercise appeared to reduce LBP risk.

  • 117.
    Gold, Judith
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Department of Public Health, Temple University, Philadelphia, United States ; West Virginia University, Injury Control Research Center, Morgantown, United States .
    Rauscher, Kimberly
    West Virginia University, Injury Control Research Center, Morgantown, United States; Department of Occupational and Environmental Health Sciences, West Virginia University, School of Public Health, Morgantown, United States .
    Zhu, Motao
    West Virginia University, Injury Control Research Center, Morgantown, United States ; Department of Epidemiology, West Virginia University, School of Public Health, Morgantown, United States .
    A validity study of self-reported daily texting frequency, cell phone characteristics, and texting styles among young adults2015Ingår i: BMC Research Notes, ISSN 1756-0500, E-ISSN 1756-0500, Vol. 8, artikel-id 120Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Texting is associated with adverse health effects including musculoskeletal disorders, sleep disturbances, and traffic crashes. Many studies have relied on self-reported texting frequency, yet the validity of self-reports is unknown. Our objective was to provide some of the first data on the validity of self-reported texting frequency, cell phone characteristics including input device (e.g. touchscreen), key configuration (e.g., QWERTY), and texting styles including phone orientation (e.g., horizontal) and hands holding the phone while texting.

    Methods

    Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire and observation of a texting task among college students ages 18 to 24. To gauge agreement between self-reported and phone bill-derived categorical number of daily text messages sent, we calculated percent of agreement, Spearman correlation coefficient, and a linear weighted kappa statistic. For agreement between self-reported and observed cell phone characteristics and texting styles we calculated percentages of agreement. We used chi-square tests to detect significant differences (α = 0.05) by gender and study protocol.

    Results

    There were 106 participants; 87 of which had complete data for texting frequency analyses. Among these 87, there was 26% (95% CI: 21–31) agreement between self-reported and phone bill-derived number of daily text messages sent with a Spearman’s rho of 0.48 and a weighted kappa of 0.17 (95% CI: 0.06-0.27). Among those who did not accurately report the number of daily texts sent, 81% overestimated this number. Among the full sample (n = 106), there was high agreement between self-reported and observed texting input device (96%, 95% CI: 91–99), key configuration (89%, 95% CI: 81–94), and phone orientation while texting (93%, 95% CI: 86–97). No differences were found by gender or study protocol among any items.

    Conclusions

    While young adults correctly reported their cell phone’s characteristics and phone orientation while texting, most incorrectly estimated the number of daily text messages they sent. This suggests that while self-reported texting frequency may be useful for studies where relative ordering is adequate, it should not be used in epidemiologic studies to identify a risk threshold. For these studies, it is recommended that a less biased measure, such as a cell phone bill, be utilized.

  • 118.
    Gold, Judith
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Rauscher, Kimberly
    West Virginia University.
    Zhu, Motao
    West Virginia University.
    Validity of Self-reported Texting Frequency, Texting Styles, and Cell Phone Characteristics among College Students2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purposes

    Self-reported duration and frequency of text messaging has been associated with musculoskeletal disorders (1, 2).  The only published study examining self-reported texting validity is among young adolescents (3).  Overestimation in lower volume and underestimation in higher volume texters occurred as compared with service provider information.  The corresponding validity in college students is unknown.  The current objective was to determine the validity of self-reported categorical number of daily texts sent.  Much as office workers have been found to overestimate their computer keyboard usage (4-6), it was hypothesized that texters would overestimate daily texts sent.  Since phone characteristics (e.g., keyboard type and phone orientation), and texting styles (number of hands holding phone, fingers used to text) may affect the risk of musculoskeletal disorders, we also assessed their self-reported validity.

     

    Methods

    College students (n = 108) filled out a questionnaire noting daily texts sent, phone characteristics, and texting styles.  Their phone bill was used for verification of daily texts sent, and they were observed texting a short message to verify phone characteristics and texting styles.  A linear weighted kappa statistic was used to gauge the agreement between categorical self-reported and phone-bill derived daily text messages sent.  Percentages of agreement were presented to ascertain concordance between self-reported and observed cell phone characteristics and texting styles.  Gender was examined as a potential confounder.

     

    Results

    Subjects overestimated their daily texts sent in all phone-bill verified texting volumes. The weighted kappa statistic was 0.18 (95% CI: 0.07-0.30) with 43.8% agreement.  There was little difference in recall by gender. 

     

    High agreement (> 92%) was achieved between self-reported and observed input device, phone manufacturer, and phone orientation when texting (figure).  However, there was low agreement between self-reported and observed texting styles.  There was little difference in validity by gender.

     

    Conclusions

    College students consistently overestimated the number of daily texts sent.  This occurred in all frequencies of text messaging, suggesting that risk underestimation will occur in epidemiology studies where self-reported texting is an exposure variable.  Hence, any such studies should rely on a more valid measure, i.e., a phone bill.  Validity of self-reported texting style was low.  However, texting style as observed during a short trial executed under experimental conditions may not be reflective of the more diverse texting style(s) that would be observed during extended periods and in real-world settings for the students.  Further research is needed to confirm the study findings in other age groups.

  • 119.
    Grooten, Wilhelmus Johannes Andreas
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Physiotherapy, Huddinge, Sweden; Functional Area Occupational Therapy & Physiotherapy, Allied Health Professionals Function, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sandberg, Lisa
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Physiotherapy, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Ressman, John
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Physiotherapy, Huddinge, Sweden; Sports medicine clinic, Bosön, Swedish Sports Confederation Centre, Lidingö, Sweden.
    Diamantoglou, Nicolas
    Ryggkirurgiskt Centrum, Stockholm, AB, Sweden.
    Johansson, Elin
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Karolinska Institutet, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Physiotherapy, Huddinge, Sweden; Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research, University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden.
    Rasmussen-Barr, Eva
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Physiotherapy, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Reliability and validity of a novel Kinect-based software program for measuring posture, balance and side-bending2018Ingår i: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, ISSN 1471-2474, E-ISSN 1471-2474, Vol. 19, nr 1, artikel-id 6Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Clinical examinations are subjective and often show a low validity and reliability. Objective and highly reliable quantitative assessments are available in laboratory settings using 3D motion analysis, but these systems are too expensive to use for simple clinical examinations. Qinematic™ is an interactive movement analyses system based on the Kinect camera and is an easy-to-use clinical measurement system for assessing posture, balance and side-bending. The aim of the study was to test the test-retest the reliability and construct validity of Qinematic™ in a healthy population, and to calculate the minimal clinical differences for the variables of interest. A further aim was to identify the discriminative validity of Qinematic™ in people with low-back pain (LBP).

    METHODS: We performed a test-retest reliability study (n = 37) with around 1 week between the occasions, a construct validity study (n = 30) in which Qinematic™ was tested against a 3D motion capture system, and a discriminative validity study, in which a group of people with LBP (n = 20) was compared to healthy controls (n = 17). We tested a large range of psychometric properties of 18 variables in three sections: posture (head and pelvic position, weight distribution), balance (sway area and velocity in single- and double-leg stance), and side-bending.

    RESULTS: The majority of the variables in the posture and balance sections, showed poor/fair reliability (ICC < 0.4) and poor/fair validity (Spearman <0.4), with significant differences between occasions, between Qinematic™ and the 3D-motion capture system. In the clinical study, Qinematic™ did not differ between people with LPB and healthy for these variables. For one variable, side-bending to the left, there was excellent reliability (ICC =0.898), excellent validity (r = 0.943), and Qinematic™ could differentiate between LPB and healthy individuals (p = 0.012).

    CONCLUSION: This paper shows that a novel software program (Qinematic™) based on the Kinect camera for measuring balance, posture and side-bending has poor psychometric properties, indicating that the variables on balance and posture should not be used for monitoring individual changes over time or in research. Future research on the dynamic tasks of Qinematic™ is warranted.

  • 120.
    Gupta, Nidhi
    et al.
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Hallman, David
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Dumuid, Dorothea
    Alliance for Research in Exercise, Nutrition and Activity (ARENA), School of Health Sciences, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, Australia.
    Vij, Akshay
    Institute for Choice, University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia.
    Lund Rasmussen, Charlotte
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark; Section of Social Medicine, Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Birk Jørgensen, Marie
    Department of Forensic Science, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark; Department of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Movement behavior profiles and obesity: a latent profile analysis of 24-h time-use composition among Danish workers2019Ingår i: International Journal of Obesity, ISSN 0307-0565, E-ISSN 1476-5497Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background/objectives

    An element of obesity prevention is increasing total physical activity energy expenditure. However, this approach does not incorporate the balance of various movement behaviors—physical activity, sedentary behaviors and sleep - across domains of the day. We aimed to identify time-use profiles over work and leisure, termed ‘movement behavior profiles’ and to investigate their association with obesity.

    Subjects/methods

    Eight-hundred-and-seven workers completed (a) thigh accelerometry and diaries to determine their 24-h composition of behaviors (sedentary and standing, light physical activity and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity at work and leisure, and time in bed) and (b) obesity measurements. Movement behavior profiles were determined using latent profile analyses of isometric log-ratios of the 24-h composition, and labeled according to animal movement behavior traits. Linear models were applied to determine the association between profiles and obesity.

    Results

    Four profiles were identified, labeled as “Chimpanzees” (n = 226), “Lions” (n = 179), “Ants” (n = 244), and “Koalas” (n = 158). “Chimpanzees” work time was evenly distributed between behaviors while their leisure time was predominantly active. Compared to Chimpanzees, “Lions” were more active at work and sedentary during leisure and spent more time in bed; “Ants” were more active at work and during leisure; “Koalas” were more sedentary at work and leisure and spent similar time in bed. With “Chimpanzees” as reference, “Lions” had least favorable obesity indicators: +2.0 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.6, 3.4) %body fat, +4.3 cm (1.4, 7.3) waist circumference and +1.0 (2.0, 0.0) Body Mass Index (BMI), followed by “Koalas” +2.0 (0.4, 3.7) %body fat, +3.1 cm (0.1, 6.0) waist circumference, and +0.8 (−0.30, 1.94) BMI. No significant differences were found between “Chimpanzees” and “Ants”.

    Conclusions

    Movement behavior profiles across work and leisure time-use compositions are associated with obesity. Achieving adequate balance between work and leisure movement behaviors should be further investigated as a potential obesity prevention strategy.

  • 121.
    Gupta, Nidhi
    et al.
    The National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Denmark.
    Hallman, David
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Dumuid, Dorothea
    Alliance for Research in Exercise, Nutrition and Activity (ARENA), School of Health Sciences, University of South Australia, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.
    Vij, Akshay
    Institute for Choice, University of South Australia, North Sydney, Australia.
    Lund Rasmussen, Charlotte
    The National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Denmark.
    Birk Jørgensen, Marie
    The National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Denmark.
    Korshøj, Mette
    The National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Denmark.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    The National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Denmark.
    Physical-behavior profiles and aerobic capacity: A latent profile analysis of 24-hour time-use composition among Danish workers2019Ingår i: ICAMPAM 2019: Oral Abstracts, Maastricht: ICAMPAM , 2019, artikel-id O.11.4Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction Obtaining a balance between exercise and recovery is an established approach in Exercise Science to improve aerobic capacity. However, it is unknown how different 24-h time-use profiles depicting a balance between physical behaviors (i.e. physical activities, sedentary behavior and sleep) across main domains of the day are associated with aerobic capacity. We aimed to identify such 'physical-behavior (PB) profiles' and to investigate their association with aerobic capacity. Methods Workers (n=807) participated in thigh-accelerometry to determine 24-h time-use composition of physical activity, sedentary and standing during work and leisure, as well as time in bed. Åstrand submaximal cycle ergometer test was used to estimate aerobic capacity. The PB profiles were determined using latent profile analysis of isometric log-ratios representing the 24-hour composition. Linear models were applied to determine the cross-sectional association between physical-behavior profiles and aerobic capacity. Results Four PB profiles were identified that were labeled based on animal traits; Chimpanzees (n=226), Lions (n=179), Ants (n=244), and Koalas (n=158). Compared to Chimpanzees (at work, in mins; sedentary=197, standing=145, physical activity=117; and at leisure in mins; physical activity=114, standing=121, time in bed= 440); Lions were more active at work, sedentary at leisure and spent more time in bed; Ants had more physical activity at work and similar physical activity and time in bed at leisure; Koalas were more sedentary at work and leisure and spent more time in bed. Compared to Chimpanzees, Koalas had lower aerobic capacity (mlO2/kg/min): -3.7 (95%CI -6.0,-1.5), followed by Lions -3.6 (-5.5,-1.7) and Ants -1.8 (-3.7,- 0.1). Conclusions Physical-behavior profiles based on 24-h time-use composition are associated with aerobic capacity. Obtaining a balance between physical behaviors at work and leisure may be a promising approach for improving aerobic capacity.

  • 122.
    Gupta, Nidhi
    et al.
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Hallman, David
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Aadahl, Mette
    Research Centre for Prevention and Health, Glostrup Hospital, Denmark; Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Jørgensen, Marie Birk
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Are Temporal Patterns of Sitting Associated with Obesity among Blue-Collar Workers?: A Cross Sectional Study Using Accelerometers2016Ingår i: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 16, nr 1, artikel-id 148Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Little is known about the association of objectively measured temporal patterns of sitting (i.e., how sitting is distributed across time) with obesity indicators. We aimed to investigate the extent to which temporal patterns of sitting (time spent in long, moderate and brief uninterrupted sitting periods) are associated with obesity indicators (body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and fat percentage), independently from moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and total sitting time among blue-collar workers.

    Methods

    Workers (n=205) wore Actigraph GT3X+ accelerometers on the thigh and trunk for 1-4 working days. The time-line of sitting on working days was computed using the validated Acti4 software. Total sitting time and time spent sitting in brief (≤5 mins), moderate (>5 and ≤30 mins), and long (>30mins) periods were determined for the whole day, and for leisure and work separately. Obesity indicators, i.e. BMI (kg/m2), waist circumference (cm) and fat percentage were objectively measured. Associations between duration of sitting periods and each obesity indicator were determined using linear regression analysis adjusted for several potential confounders including objectively measured MVPA and total sitting time.

    Results

    Sitting time in brief periods was negatively associated with obesity indicators for the whole day (BMI, P<0.01; fat percentage, P<0.01; waist circumference, P<0.01) and work (BMI, P<0.01; fat percentage, P<0.01; waist circumference, P<0.01), but not for leisure time. Sitting time in long periods was positively associated with obesity indicators for the whole day (waist circumference, P=0.05) and work (waist circumference, P=0.01; BMI, P=0.04), but not for leisure time. Sitting in moderate periods was not associated with obesity indicators for any domain.

    Conclusion

    Time spent in brief and long periods of sitting during the whole day and at work were inversely associated with obesity indicators when adjusting for MVPA and total sitting time, while sitting during leisure time did not show these associations. Thus, the temporal distribution of sitting seems to influence the relationship between sitting and obesity.

  • 123.
    Gupta, Nidhi
    et al.
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Hallman, David
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Korshøj, Mette
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Association between Body Mass Index and objectively measured sitting patterns at work and during leisure among blue-collar workers2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 124.
    Gupta, Nidhi
    et al.
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Heiden, Marina
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Aadahl, Mette
    Research Centre for Prevention and Health, The Capital Region of Denmark, Glostrup, Denmark; Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Korshøj, Mette
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Birk Jørgensen, Marie
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark; Institute of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    What is the effect on obesity indicators from replacing prolonged sedentary time with brief sedentary bouts, standing and different types of physical activity during working days?: A cross-sectional accelerometer-based study among blue-collar workers2016Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, nr 5, artikel-id e0154935Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    The aim of the study was to investigate if (a) substituting total sedentary time or long sedentary bouts with standing or various types of physical activity and (b) substituting long sedentary bouts with brief sedentary bouts; is associated with obesity indicators using a cross sectional isotemporal substitution approach among blue-collar workers.

    Methods

    A total of 692 workers from transportation, manufacturing and cleaning sectors wore an Actigraph GT3X+ accelerometer on the thigh for 1–4 working days. The sedentary (sit and lie), standing, walking, and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) time on working days was computed using validated Acti4 software. The total sedentary time and uninterrupted sedentary time spent in brief (≤5 mins), moderate (>5 and ≤30 mins), and long (>30mins) bouts, were determined for the whole day and during work and non-work time separately. The obesity indicators, BMI (kg/m2), waist circumference (cm) and fat percentage were objectively measured. Isotemporal substitution modelling was utilized to determine the linear association with obesity indicators of replacing 30 min of total sedentary time or long sedentary bouts with standing, walking or MVPA and separately replacing 30 min of long sedentary bouts with brief sedentary bouts.

    Results

    Workers [mean (standard deviation, SD); age = 45.1 (9.9) years, BMI = 27.5 (4.9) kg/m2, %BF = 29.6 (9.5), waist circumference = 94.4 (13.0) cm] sat for 2.4 hours (~32% of the measured time, SD = 1.8 hours) across the day during work period and 5.5 hours (~62% of the measured time, SD = 1.5 hours) during non-work period. Most of the sedentary time was accrued in moderate bouts [work = 1.40 (SD = 1.09) hours] during work and in long bouts during non-work [2.7 (SD = 1.4) hours], while least in long sedentary bouts during work [work = 0.5 (SD = 0.9)] and in brief sedentary bouts [0.5 hours (SD = 0.3)] during non-work. Significant associations with all obesity indicators were found when 30 min of total sedentary time or long sedentary bouts were replaced with standing time (~1–2% lower) or MVPA (~4–9% lower) during whole day, work, and non-work periods. The exception was that a statistically significant association was not observed with any obesity indicator when replacing total sedentary time or long sedentary bouts with standing time during the work period. Significant beneficial associations were found when replacing the long sedentary bouts with brief sedentary bouts (~3–5% lower) during all domains.

    Conclusion

    Replacing total sedentary time and long sedentary bouts, respectively, not only with MVPA but also standing time appears to be beneficially associated with obesity indicators among blue-collar workers. Additionally, replacing long sedentary bouts with brief sedentary bouts was also beneficially associated with obesity indicators. Studies using prospective design are needed to confirm the findings.

  • 125.
    Gupta, Nidhi
    et al.
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen.
    Heiden, Marina
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen.
    Improving questionnaire-based estimates of occupational physical activity of blue-collar workers by individual and work related information2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Questionnaire-based information of occupational physical activities is extensively used, but susceptible to systematic errors. Calibration modeling may reduce errors and improve precision of questionnaire-based information by transforming the selfreported data into more correct estimates of “true” exposure. We aimed (1) to determine the ability of unadjusted ratings of Saltin and Grimby’s Occupational Physical Activity (SGOPA) question to estimate objectively measured sedentary behaviour, physical activity and cardiovascular load, and (2) to develop and evaluate statistical models calibrating SGOPA ratings into expected values of objectively measured exposures.

    Methods. 214 blue-collar workers responded to a questionnaire comprising the SGOPA question and questions on several individual and work-related factors. They wore two accelerometers measuring time spent in sedentary and in physical activities, and one Actiheart monitoring cardiovascular load (eventually expressed as %Heart Rate Reserve) for one to four days. Least-squares linear regression models were developed to predict each objectively measured exposure from SGOPA and additional self-reported individual and work-related predictors.

    Results. SGOPA alone explained 22% (R2 adjusted=21%) of the variance between individuals in sedentary behaviour and physical activities, and 8% (R2 adjusted =7%) of the variance in high cardiorespiratory load. When adding predictors related to individual and work to the regression model, explained variance increased to 51% (R2 adjusted=46%) for both sedentary behaviour and physical activities, and to 27% (R2 adjusted=19%) for high cardiorespiratory load. Bootstrap validation suggested that explained variance would be reduced by 9-15% for the three exposures when using the model on other data sets.

    Discussion. SGOPA itself shows only limited ability to predict objectively measured sedentary behaviour, physical activities and cardiovascular load at work, but the performance of a calibration model can be considerably improved by adding further self-reported predictors.

  • 126.
    Gupta, Nidhi
    et al.
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Heiden, Marina
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark; Department of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark .
    Is self-reported time spent sedentary and in physical activity differentially biased by age, gender, body mass index and low-back pain?2018Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 44, nr 2, s. 163-170Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives We aimed at determining the extent to which age, gender, BMI and low back pain (LBP) influence bias in self-reported sedentary behavior and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) among blue-collar workers. 

    Methods 147 workers wore an Actigraph accelerometer on the thigh for 2-4 consecutive working days. Proportional time spent sedentary and in MVPA was determined using the Acti4 software. The same variables were also self-reported in a questionnaire. The difference between self-reported and accelerometer-based sedentary time and MVPA was calculated and linearly regressed against age, gender, BMI, and self-reported LBP intensity as main effects, as well as interaction terms combining each of these factors with objectively measured exposure.   

    Results Workers objectively spent 64% of their time sedentary and 9% in MVPA. On average, self-reports underestimated sedentary time by 1.5 time percentage points and overestimated MVPA by 5.5%. Workers with mild/no LBP appeared to have the same size of self-report bias in MVPA regardless of how much MVPA they actually had, while workers with high LBP overestimated MVPA to an increasing extent with increasing exposure (interaction: B 0.29, 95%CI 0.05 to 0.53). Age was positively associated with self-report bias in sedentary time (B=0.31, 95%CI=0.09 - 0.54, P=0.008) regardless of actual sedentary time.

    Conclusions LBP and age, but not BMI and gender, introduced differential bias in self-reported information on sedentary behavior and MVPA among blue-collar workers. This result suggests that bias correction in future studies based on self-reports of sedentary time and MVPA should account for LBP and age.

  • 127.
    Gupta, Nidhi
    et al.
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen.
    Heiden, Marina
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen.
    Prediction of objectively measured physical activity and sedentariness among blue-collar workers using survey questionnaires2016Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 42, nr 3, s. 237-245Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives We aimed at developing and evaluating statistical models predicting objectively measured occupational time spent sedentary or in physical activity from self-reported information available in large epidemiological studies and surveys.

    Methods Two-hundred-and-fourteen blue-collar workers responded to a questionnaire containing information about personal and work related variables, available in most large epidemiological studies and surveys. Workers also wore accelerometers for 1-4 days measuring time spent sedentary and in physical activity, defined as non-sedentary time.Least-squares linear regression models were developed, predicting objectively measured exposures from selected predictors in the questionnaire.

    Results A full prediction model based on age, gender, BMI, job group, self-reported occupational physical activity, and self-reported occupational sedentary time explained 63% (R2 adjusted) of the variance of both objectively measured occupational sedentary time and physical activity time since these two exposures were complementary. Single-predictor models based only on self-reported information about either occupational physical activity or occupational sedentary time explained21% and 38%, respectively, of the variance of the objectively measured exposures. Internal validation using bootstrapping suggested that the full and single-predictor models would show almost the same performance in new data sets as in that used for modelling.

    Conclusions Both full and single-predictor models based on self-reported information typically available in most large epidemiological studies and surveys were able to predict objectively measured occupational time spent sedentary or in physical activity, with explained variances ranging from 21% to 63%.

  • 128.
    Gupta, Nidhi
    et al.
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen .
    Lund Rasmussen, Charlotte
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen .
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen .
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Time-based data in occupational studies - the whys, some hows and the remaining challenges in Compositional Data Analysis (CoDA)2019Ingår i: Annals of Occupational Hygiene, ISSN 0003-4878, E-ISSN 1475-3162Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 129.
    Gupta, Nidhi
    et al.
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Heiden, Marina
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Hallman, David
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Birk Jørgensen, Marie
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    1National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Gender differences in time spent sedentary and in physical activity during leisure: A comparison of data analyzed using a traditional approach and compositional data analysis2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 130.
    Gupta, Nidhi
    et al.
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mateu-Figueras, Gloria
    Department of Computer Science, Applied Mathematics and Statistics, University of Girona.
    Heiden, Marina
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Hallman, David
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Birk Jørgensen, Marie
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen.
    A comparison of standard and compositional data analysis in studies addressing group differences in sedentary behavior and physical activity2018Ingår i: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, ISSN 1479-5868, E-ISSN 1479-5868, Vol. 15, nr 1, artikel-id 53Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Data on time spent in physical activity, sedentary behavior and sleep during a day is compositional in nature, i.e. they add up to a constant value, typically 100% time. Compositional data have fundamentally different properties from unconstrained data in real space, and require other processing and analysis procedures, referred to as compositional data analysis (CoDA). Most physical activity and sedentary behavior studies, however, still apply analytical procedures adapted to data in real space, which can lead to misleading results. The present study describes a comparison of time spent sedentary and in physical activity between age groups and sexes, and investigates the extent to which results obtained by CoDA differ from those obtained using standard analytical procedures.

    Methods. Time spent sedentary, standing, and in physical activity (walking/running/stair climbing/cycling) during work and leisure was determined for 1-4 days among 677 blue-collar workers using accelerometry. Differences between sexes and age groups were tested using MANOVA, using both a standard approach and a CoDA approach based on isometric log-ratio transformed data.  

    Results. When determining differences between sexes in time used for different activities at work, the effect size using standard analysis (η2=0.045, p<0.001) was 15% smaller than that obtained with CoDA (η2=0.052, p<0.001), although both approaches suggested a statistically significant difference. When determining corresponding differences between age groups, CoDA resulted in a 60% larger, and significant, effect size (η2=0.012, p=0.02) than that obtained with the standard approach (η2=0.008, p=0.07). During leisure, results with standard (age; η2=0.007, p=0.09; sex; η2=0.052, p<0.001) and CoDA (age; η2=0.007, p=0.09; sex; η2=0.051, p<0.001) analyses were similar.

    Conclusion. Results and, hence, inferences concerning differences by age and sex in time spent sedentary and in physical activity at work differed between CoDA and standard analysis. We encourage researchers to use CoDA in similar studies, in order to adequately account for the compositional nature of data on physical activity and sedentary behavior

  • 131.
    Gupta, Nidhi
    et al.
    National Research Centre for Working Environment, Copenhagen Denmark.
    Storda Christiansen, Caroline
    National Research Centre for Working Environment, Copenhagen Denmark.
    Hallman, David
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Korshøj, Mette
    National Research Centre for Working Environment, Copenhagen Denmark.
    Gomes Carneiro, Isabella
    National Research Centre for Working Environment, Copenhagen Denmark.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for Working Environment, Copenhagen Denmark.
    Is Objectively Measured Sitting Time Associated with Low Back Pain?: A Cross-Sectional Investigation in the NOMAD study2015Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, nr 3, artikel-id e0121159Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Studies on the association between sitting time and low back pain (LBP) have found contrasting results. This may be due to the lack of objectively measured sitting time or because socioeconomic confounders were not considered in the analysis.

    Objectives: To investigate the association between objectively measured sitting time (daily total, and occupational and leisure-time periods) and LBP among blue-collar workers.

    Methods: Two-hundred-and-one blue-collar workers wore two accelerometers (GT3X+ Actigraph) for up to four consecutive working days to obtain objective measures of sitting time, estimated via Acti4 software. Workers reported their LBP intensity the past month on a scale from 0 (no pain) to 9 (worst imaginable pain) and were categorized into either low (≤5) or high (>5) LBP intensity groups. In the multivariate-adjusted binary logistic regression analysis, total sitting time, occupational and leisure-time sitting were both modeled as continuous (hours/day) and categorical variables (i.e. low, moderate and high sitting time).

    Results: The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed a significant positive association between total sitting time (hours) and high LBP intensity (odds ratio; OR=1.43, 95%CI=1.15-1.77, P=0.01). Similar results were obtained for leisure-time sitting (OR=1.45, 95%CI= 1.10-1.91, P=0.01), and a similar but non-significant trend was obtained for occupational sitting time (OR=1.34, 95%CI 0.99-1.82, P=0.06). In the analysis on categorized sitting time, high sitting time was positively associated with high LBP for total (OR=3.31, 95%CI= 1.18-9.28, P=0.03), leisure (OR=5.31, 95%CI= 1.57-17.90, P=0.01), and occupational (OR=3.26, 95%CI= 0.89-11.98, P=0.08) sitting time, referencing those with low sitting time.

    Conclusion: Sitting time is positively associated with LBP intensity among blue-collar workers. Future studies using a prospective design with objective measures of occupational sitting time are recommended.

  • 132.
    Gustafsson, Klas
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Division of Insurance Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Institute of Environmental Medicine, Unit of Intervention and Implementation Research for Worker Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Marklund, Staffan
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Division of Insurance Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Aboagye, Emmanuel
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Institute of Environmental Medicine, Unit of Intervention and Implementation Research for Worker Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Presenteeism as a predictor of disability pension: A prospective study among nursing professionals and care assistants in Sweden2019Ingår i: Journal of Occupational Health, ISSN 1341-9145, E-ISSN 1348-9585, Vol. 61, nr 6, s. 453-463Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to examine how presenteeism affects the risk of future disability pension among nursing professionals and care assistants (assistant nurses, hospital ward assistants, home-based personal care workers, and child care assistants). A specific objective was to compare health and social care employees with all other occupations.

    METHODS: The study was based on a representative sample of working women and men (n = 43 682) aged 16-64 years, who had been interviewed between 2001 and 2013 for the Swedish Work Environment Survey conducted every second year since 1989. Information on disability pension was obtained from the Social Insurance Agency's database (2002-2014). The studied predictors were related to disability pension using Cox's proportional hazard regression with hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) and selected confounders were controlled for. The follow-up period was 6.7 years (SD 4.2).

    RESULTS: Health and social care employees with frequent presenteeism showed a particularly elevated risk of future disability pension after adjusting for sex, sociodemographic variables, physical and psychosocial working conditions, and self-rated health symptoms. In the amalgamated occupational group of nursing professionals and care assistants, the impact on disability pension of having engaged in presenteeism four times or more during the prior year remained significant (HR = 3.72, 95% CI = 2.43-5.68).

    CONCLUSIONS: The study suggests that frequent presenteeism contributes to an increased risk of disability pension among nursing professionals and care assistants as well as among all other occupations.

  • 133.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Folkhälsovetenskap.
    Anderzén, Ingrid
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University.
    Lindberg, Per
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Managerial masculinity : an issue for wellbeing at work.: Reflections on the borderline between middle level management and fathering, using life-history method.2016Ingår i: Scientific Programme: Wellbeing at Work 2016, 2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives

    In this paper we reflect on potential linkages within and between masculinity, management and wellbeing. The aim is to reveal the tensions in which technocratic managerial masculinity faces difficulties when combined with fathering and its consequences for wellbeing, both on individual- and family level.

    Methods

    Audio-recorded life-history interviews were conducted with employees, at three companies in Sweden during spring 2014. One of them was with a former manager, also a father, which is the subject of this paper. The tran-scribed interview formed the basis of an individual case study that was interpretive analyzed using a gender theoretic approach.

    Results

    Managerial masculinity is revealed as obstacles such as hegemonic expectations of not being good enough which is emerging in contradictive situations between hospital visits and office deadlines. To cope with hege-monic masculinity displaced in a contradictive cornerstone the embodiment of thoughts, ideas and experien-ces became transformed into a wish to quit the leadership assignment, a process in which support from colle-agues, relatives and friends were recognized as important. The decision to quit was immediately followed by a relief, but over time became mixed-up with sorrowful feelings of lack. Looking back at the event makes a shift in value-system prominent: The informant’s self-understanding has been transformed from prioritizing level of sa-lary and the value of money to instead emphasize broader values in life expressed in terms of family wellbeing.

    Conclusion

    Through the tensions that emerge from ‘changing faces of masculinity’ the capacity to navigate life is reshaped. As long as hegemonic masculinity is taken for granted it is difficult to challenge and question it. But when ideas, experiences and feelings are transformed from a personal- to a cultural level they become possible to share with others: a process of exchange through which alternative ways of doing are crystallized. Personal experi-ences are thus transformed into collective possessions and given new meanings. We interpret the exchange of thoughts and ideas as expression of supportive interaction, shown to prompt new kinds of enactment in personal lives – thus a potential for wellbeing at work

  • 134.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Folkhälsovetenskap.
    Lindberg, Per
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Rethinking potential connection between gender, work- and family life and how to link the emerging reasoning to well-being2015Ingår i: Proceedings 19th Triennial Congress of the IEA, Melbourne 9-14 August 2015, 2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    How women and men negotiate roles and relationships is crucial for having the potential to combine paid work with other parts of their life. How women and men actually do this can be understood as constrained by what women and men are expected to do. Earlier research on organizational working patterns has revealed links between such constraints and gender relations (Acker, 1990). ”Processes of transformation” (Gustafsson, 2007) is a theoretical concept that will be used here in this paper to explore a potential connection between working life and family life, as varying and gendered. How these two spheres of life are situationally connected will have implications for well-being. It is this theoretical reasoning that will be illustrated in this paper, how it works in practice, through the use of empirical examples from an ongoing larger study on work and health.

    In mainstream literature, the term “work–life balance” is frequently used, often in very simplified ways, concealing underlying dynamism and complexity. “Women” as a group and “men” as a group are often seen as fixed, unproblematic gender categories, classifying bodies and therewith define gender. It is therefore not surprising that gender categoricalism can become the basis in occupational health. If categorical thinking on gender is parked on the top of biological difference, gender relations and “roles” correspond with natural differences and thus serve to mask how underlying gender relations, contradictive and ambivalent, produce and reproduce men’s privileged position simultaneously with women’s subordination (Connell, 1987). Using categorical thinking on gender risk to become contradictive, since expected change in health promotion programs at work may fail.

    To understand how a balance can be struck between work and family-life obligations, contradictions and ambivalences need to be made visible and gender variations as well as nuances have to be sought for. We herewith call for a re-thinking of how the connection between gender, work, family and well-being can be seen and practiced through occupational health policy. An analytical tool able to facilitate this re-thinking in occupational health practices will be suggested in this paper. We are convinced that it is this kind of concepts that are needed right now in order to mobilize an acceleration of ongoing gender transformation that would contribute to improve health and well-being, both in work and family spheres of life.

    This paper is part of a comprehensive intervention study on occupational health and well-being among blue- and white-collar workers, both women and men, in three companies in Sweden. In the baseline questionnaire, the employees mentioned that work–life balance is most significant for them as they strive to achieve well-being and health. This is the motivation for a study whose overall purpose is to contribute to a better understanding of potential linkages between gender, work and family, and well-being. The aim of this paper is threefold. First, it focuses on how employed women and men “do gender” when combining earning and caring activities and looks at the contributions or limitations or both. Second, it considers how the gender regime can be seen as providing a context for various gender-related limitations and opportunities, and differences and similarities between the employed women and men in three companies in Sweden. Third, it illuminates an alternative approach for combining gender, work, family and well-being.

  • 135.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Folkhälsovetenskap.
    Lindberg, Per
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Anderzen, Ingrid
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Using gender as analytical tool in an analysis of a manager's health: Reflection on life-history method2016Ingår i: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, ISSN 1070-5503, E-ISSN 1532-7558, Vol. 23, nr Suppl. 1, s. S64-S64, artikel-id O197Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: It is a lack of research on the meanings of genderdynamism in relation to manager’s health in Sweden.The purpose of this paper was therefore to reflect on whether gender form, -content and/or, -arena, either contribute to reproduce or transform surrounding condition on the job and in the family and also its consequences for health, both on individual and family level.

    Methods: A semi-structured life-history interview was conducted with aformer manager on the basis of gender theory and written verbatim into a transcript. A life-history case was elaborated using gender as an analytical tool. By sorting and comparing already gendered life events, both on the job and in the family, the main findings evolved.

    Results: Paradoxically a turning point in Jan’s life became prominent with a personal crisis, and this was explained by how several minor shifts of genderedform,-content and -arena co-occurred.This resulted in that a gender neutral form of agency appeared possible to try out in practice. When this was done the conditions on the job and in the family were shaped in accordance with what is meant with good lives for all.

    Conclusion: In most gender research the force of gender is limited due to its cross-sectional focus through time. But with the life-history research gender relations become prominent in its multiplicity, illuminating minor shifts of ongoing processes of transformation, understood as patterns of agency.

  • 136.
    Haapakangas, Annu
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Turku University of Applied Sciences, Turku, Finland.
    Hallman, David
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Jahncke, Helena
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Self-rated productivity and employee well-being in activity-based offices: the role of environmental perceptions and workspace use2018Ingår i: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 145, s. 115-124Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Activity-based offices are increasingly popular. However, productivity and well-being in these work environments have been little researched. The aims of this study were to quantitatively determine perception and use of the activity-based office environment in relation to self-rated productivity and well-being at work, and to identify important predictors of these outcomes. Four activity-based offices in a large Swedish government agency were surveyed 12 months after implementation.Two hundred and thirty-nine respondents were included in the analyses. Linear regression models, adjusted for relevant covariates, were constructed separately for predictors measuring satisfaction with different aspect of the environment (physical environment, privacy, communication, personalization, personal storage, IT functions and cleaning) and office use (the number of daily workspace switches, different workspaces used and the time spent looking for a workspace). Satisfaction with the physical environment, privacy and communication had the strongest positive association with self-rated productivity and well-being at work. Increased workspace switching was associated with higher productivity, while an increase in self-reported time spent searching for a workspace was associated with lower productivity and well-being. However, predictors related to office use generally explained only a small proportion of variance in the two outcomes. The results suggest that office developers should focus particularly on privacy needs but also on communication, personalization, smooth workspace switching and minimization of work time spent looking for available workspaces.

  • 137.
    Haapakangas, Annu
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Hallman, David
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Jahncke, Helena
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    The effects of moving into an activity-based office on communication, social relations and work demands – A controlled intervention with repeated follow-up2019Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Psychology, ISSN 0272-4944, E-ISSN 1522-9610, Vol. 66, artikel-id 101341Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    When organizations adopt activity-based workplaces (ABWs), improved interaction is a common goal. Yet, few controlled longitudinal studies have been conducted on the effects of ABWs on interaction, social relations and work demands. The aim of this natural intervention study was to investigate the effects of moving into an ABW on satisfaction with communication, on social relations (i.e., social support and social community) and on work demands (i.e., quantitative demands, emotional demands and work pace) 3 months and 12 months after the relocation. The study included four offices which relocated into an ABW and one control office that did not. Questionnaire data from 408 respondents were analyzed with linear mixed models. Satisfaction with communication and the sense of belonging to a community had decreased 3 and 12 months after the relocation. Work pace was not affected while small, mostly short-term, negative effects on social support, quantitative demands and emotional demands were only observed among employees who had moved to ABWs from private offices. Differences between office sites were also observed. The results suggest that, to avoid negative outcomes, organizations moving to ABWs should focus on solving difficulties in locating colleagues at the office and on supporting particularly workers from private offices in adopting activity-based working.

  • 138.
    Hadrevi, Jenny
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Hellström, Fredrik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Kieselbach, Thomas
    Umeå Universitet.
    Malm, Christer
    Umeå Universitet.
    Pedrosa-Domellöf, Fatima
    Umeå Universitet.
    Protein differences between human trapezius and vastus lateralis muscles determined with a proteomic approach2011Ingår i: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, ISSN 1471-2474, E-ISSN 1471-2474, Vol. 12, nr 181Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The trapezius muscle is a neck muscle that is susceptible to chronic pain conditions associated with repetitive tasks, commonly referred to as chronic work-related myalgia, hence making the trapezius a muscle of clinical interest. To provide a basis for further investigations of the proteomic traits of the trapezius muscle in disease, two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) was performed on the healthy trapezius using vastus lateralis as a reference. To obtain as much information as possible from the vast proteomic data set, both one-way ANOVA, with and without false discovery rate (FDR) correlation, and partial least square projection to latent structures with discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were combined to compare the outcome of the analysis.

    Results

    The trapezius and vastus lateralis showed significant differences in metabolic, contractile and regulatory proteins, with different results depending on choice of statistical approach and pre-processing technique. Using the standard method, FDR correlated one-way ANOVA, 42 protein spots differed significantly in abundance between the two muscles. Complementary analysis using immunohistochemistry and western blot confirmed the results from the 2D-DIGE analysis.

    Conclusions

    The proteomic approach used in the present study combining 2D-DIGE and multivariate modelling provided a more comprehensive comparison of the protein profiles of the human trapezius and vastus lateralis muscle, than previously possible to obtain with immunohistochemistry or SDS-PAGE alone. Although 2D-DIGE has inherent limitations it is particularly useful to comprehensively screen for important structural and metabolic proteins, and appears to be a promising tool for future studies of patients suffering from chronic work related myalgia or other muscle diseases.

  • 139.
    Hadrévi, Jenny
    et al.
    Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports Medicine Unit, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Björklund, Martin
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports Medicine Unit, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Kosek, Eva
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hällgren, Solveig
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Professional Development, Umeå University, Sweden.
    Antti, Henrik
    Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Fahlström, Martin
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Professional Development, Umeå University, Sweden.
    Hellström, Fredrik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Systemic differences in serum metabolome: a cross sectional comparison of women with localised and widespread pain and controls2015Ingår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 5, artikel-id 15925Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Chronic musculoskeletal pain exists either as localised to a single region or as widespread to multiple sites in several quadrants of the body. Prospective studies indicate that widespread pain could act as a far end of a continuum of musculoskeletal pain that started with chronic localised pain. The mechanism by which the transition from localised pain to widespread occurs is not clear, although many studies suggest it to be an altered metabolism. In this study, systemic metabolic differences between women with chronic localised neck-shoulder pain (NP), women with chronic widespread pain (CWP) and women who were healthy (CON) were assessed. Blood samples were analysed taking a metabolomics approach using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and orthogonal partial least square discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). The metabolomics analysis showed a clear systematic difference in the metabolic profiles between the subjects with NP and the CON but only a weak systematic difference between the subjects with CWP and the CON. This most likely reflects a difference in the portion of the metabolome influenced by the two pain conditions. In the NP group, the overall metabolic profile suggests that processes related to energy utilisation and lipid metabolism could be central aspects of mechanisms maintaining disorder.

  • 140.
    Hadrévi, Jenny
    et al.
    Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports Medicine Unit, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Turkina, Maria
    Department of clinical and experimental medicine, Linköping University.
    Carlsson, Andreas
    Division of community medicine, Department of medical and health sciences, Linköping University; Pain and rehabilitation center, anesthetics, operations and specialty surgery center, Region Östergötland.
    Gerdle, Björn
    Division of community medicine, Department of medical and health sciences, Linköping University; Pain and rehabilitation center, anesthetics, operations and specialty surgery center, Region Östergötland.
    Larsson, Britt
    Division of community medicine, Department of medical and health sciences, Linköping University; Pain and rehabilitation center, anesthetics, operations and specialty surgery center, Region Östergötland.
    Hellström, Fredrik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Ghafouri, Bijar
    Division of community medicine, Department of medical and health sciences, Linköping University; Pain and rehabilitation center, anesthetics, operations and specialty surgery center, Region Östergötland.
    Myosin light chain and calcium regulating protein differences in chronic musculoskeletal neck and shoulder pain2016Ingår i: Journal of Integrated OMICS, ISSN 2182-0287, Vol. 6, nr 1, s. 1-8, artikel-id 191Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Proteomic screening analysis has detected myosin light chain (MLC) as a protein implied to be involved in chronic musculoskeletal neck and shoulder pain. Several analyses of MLC proteins have stated a difference in phosphorylation being the determining factor for protein activation hence altered contrability of the muscle in i.e. senescence. In continuation of a previous publication, this study is an attempt to analyze the different MLC isoforms by mass spectrometry and immune-analyses in myalgic and healthy trapezius muscle. In the present study no differences in phosphorylation level between the corresponding individual proteins were detected using LC-MSMS and immunoblotting; instead we assigned different isoforms of regulatory MLCs. To further elucidate the contrability: calcium (Ca2+) regulatory proteins, sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase 1 (SERCA-1) and calsequestrine (CSQ) were analyzed by western blot. The analysis revealed a significantly increased abundance of SERCA-1 protein in the myalgic muscle and a significantly increased abundance of CSQ in healthy muscle. Myalgic muscle contraction patterns have in previous studies shown to differ from healthy muscle which may be connected to the Ca2+ availability in the muscle. Here we present the proteomic characterization of differences in Ca2+ regulating proteins and particularly regulatory MLCs in trapezius muscle of women with chronic musculoskeletal neck and shoulder pain.

  • 141.
    Hagströmer, Maria
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Kwak, Lydia
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Hallman, David
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Grooten, Wim
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Bergman, Patrick
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    A holistic approach in measuring occupational physical activity: challenges and potentials2015Ingår i: / [ed] University of Limerick, 2015, s. 11-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Considering that adults spend a considerable proportion of their day at work, employment is a key determinant for daily PA. However, specifics of how and under what circumstances occupational PA (OPA) influences total PA, including other PA domains (e.g. leisure time PA, transport), are unclear. Little is also known about OPA patterns in different occupational groups and how OPA patterns can be changed, among for example those who have mostly sedentary occupations. One important issue concerns if working in a standing position and the use of dynamic chairs has any effect on OPA levels, for instance among office workers. This despite the fact that ergonomists advocate sedentary workers to work in a standing position or use an “active sitting” approach using “dynamic” chairs. To be able to give recommendations regarding PA to employees with different OPA, more insight is needed on how to optimally measure OPA. To move the field forward, knowledge should be combined from different disciplines involved in measuring OPA. Therefore, we want to initiate an interdisciplinary discussion on appropriate measurements of OPA. The aim of the symposium is to present a holistic approach to measuring OPA by combining our expertise in the field of PA and health, measurement of PA using objective measures and self-reported measures, ergonomics, occupational health and public health science.

  • 142.
    Halling, Bengt
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för Industriell utveckling, IT och Samhällsbyggnad, Industriell ekonomi. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för logistik och innovativ produktion. Ergonomi, KTH .
    Bergman, Mikael
    Fagersta Stainless.
    Wijk, Katarina
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Intervention för ökad produktivitet och minskad sjukskrivning vid ett svenskt stålföretag2018Ingår i: FALF KONFERENS 2018 Arbetet – problem eller potential för en hållbar livsmiljö?   10-12 juni 2018 Gävle: Program och abstracts / [ed] Lindberg, Per, Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2018, s. 49-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund

    Vid Fagersta stainless produktionsenhet för dragen tråd vidareförädlas rostfri valsad tråd till dragen tråd som sedan kan användas för tillverkning av olika produkter. Vid produk-tionsenhet för dragen tråd hade de under en längre tid haft lönsamhetsproblem och hög sjukfrånvaro och företagets ledning ansåg att något måste göras för att ändra detta. En ny produktionschef och tre produktionsledare anställdes med uppdraget att vända den negativa situationen. Beslut togs om en intervention som påbörjades år 2015.

    Interventionen

    Samtlig personal vid produktionsenheten (n=46, inkluderande en produktionschef, tre produktions-ledare samt operatörer) genomgick utbildning under våren 2015 vid Human Lean Center, Högskolan i Gävle. Utbildningen bestod av en teoretisk och en praktisk del. Utbildningens teoretiska del handlade om hälsa och hälsofrämjande samt Lean filosofi. Utbildningens praktiska del innebar att montera trampbilar vid taktad monteringslina med hjälp av Lean metoder och ett hälsofrämjande perspektiv utgående från att arbete skall vara meningsfullt, begripligt och hanterbart. Kunskapen från utbildningen omsattes sedan vid Fagersta stainless produktionsenhet för dragen tråd genom att fyra förändringar gen-omfördes. 1. Skapa möjlighet för arbetsledarna att tillbringa tid på produktionsgolvet för att stödja produktionspersonalen. 2. Introduktion av ”whiteboardmöten” för information vid början av alla skift. 3. Byggandet av gemensam lunchplats. 4. Standardiserat arbets-sätt vid avvikelser.

    Metod

    Resultatet av interventionen mättes av Fagersta stainless med företagets system för upp-följning av produktivitet mätt i producerat ton stål per arbetare och sjukskrivningar mätta i procent av förlorad arbetstid i förhållande till möjlig arbetstid. Mätningar gjordes för år 2014, året före interventionen och för åren 2015-2017.

    Resultat

    Resultatet efter interventionen visar att Produktivitet per arbetare ökade för åren 2015-2017. År 2014 som var året före interventionen var produktiviteten per arbetare 158,3 ton. År 2015 ökade den med 24,9%, 2016 ökade produktiviteten per arbetare med 3,6% och för 2017 var ökningen 11,4%. Under samma tid åren 2015-2017 som produktiviteten ökade så minskade sjukskrivningar. 2014 året före interventionen uppgick sjukskriv-ningarna till 15% av total möjlig tid för arbete (100%). År 2015 sjönk sjukskrivningarna till 7% och 2016 sjönk de till 3% för att 2017 sjunka ytterligare till 2,5%.

    Slutsats

    Genom att kombinera hälsofrämjande teorier och Lean filosofi som delar i en utbildning med teoretiska och praktiska moment kan en kunskapsgrund läggas för en kontext-anpassad intervention som kan resultera i ökad produktivitet per arbetare samtidigt som sjukskrivningar kan minska. Verksamheter som vill öka produktivitet och samtidigt minska sjukskrivningar bör överväga att kombinera Lean filosofi med hälsofrämjande teori som strategi.

  • 143.
    Hallman, David
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap.
    Autonomic nervous system regulation in chronic neck-shoulder pain: Relations to physical activity and perceived stress2013Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Neck-shoulder pain (NSP) is a highly prevalent musculoskeletal disorder with unclear causes, and effective prevention and treatment require a further understanding of the underlying mechanisms. Aberrant autonomic nervous system (ANS) regulation is a hypothesized causal element in the development and maintenance of chronic muscle pain.

    The overall aim of this thesis was to investigate possible differences in ANS regulation between chronic NSP and healthy control (CON) groups using both laboratory assessment and ambulatory monitoring in daily life.

    Four papers are included in this thesis, based on data from three groups with chronic NSP. Autonomic responses to laboratory stressors were assessed using heart rate variability (HRV), blood pressure, trapezius muscle activity and blood flow measurements (Study І) in NSP and CON. Long-term ambulatory monitoring of HRV, physical activity and perceived symptoms were assessed in Studies ІІ and IV to investigate group differences in real-life conditions. Finally, the effects of a ten-week intervention (using individually adjusted HRV biofeedback) to reinstating ANS balance in subjects with chronic NSP were evaluated using self-reported symptoms and health ratings, as well as autonomic regulation testing (i.e., evaluating HRV at rest and in response to stress) (Study ІІІ).

    The main findings from the four studies demonstrated aberrant ANS regulation in the NSP group compared to CON, which was predominantly characterized by diminished parasympathetic cardiac activity during rest and sleep, and altered sympathetic reactivity to laboratory stressors (Studies І, ІІ and IV). Different patterns in physical activity were observed between the NSP and CON groups, with reduced physical activity during leisure time in the NSP group (Studies ІІ and IV). Physical activity was found to be positively associated with HRV. Positive effects of HRV-biofeedback were found on perceived health, including social function, vitality and bodily pain, and improved HRV (Study ІІІ).

    In conclusion, imbalanced ANS regulation was demonstrated among persons with chronic NSP at both the systemic and local levels. Diminished parasympathetic activity in NSP was modulated by lower levels of physical activity in leisure time. Interventions targeting ANS functions might benefit persons with chronic NSP.

  • 144.
    Hallman, David
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Birk Jørgensen, Marie
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Contrasting effect of objectively measured physical activity during work and leisure on heart rate variability during sleep2017Ingår i: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, ISSN 2047-4873, E-ISSN 2047-4881, Vol. 24, nr 2S, s. 32-33Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) has a beneficial effect on cardiovascular health and longevity, while occupational physical activity (OPA) is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases and mortality. The physiological mechanism of this apparently contrasting relationship between LTPA and OPA on cardiovascular health remains unknown. A possible explanation is that OPA and LTPA exert different effects on the autonomic nervous system. Thus, we aimed to investigate whether objectively measured OPA and LTPA are differentially associated with cardiac autonomic regulation in an occupational sample.

    Methods: Cross-sectional data from the Danish cohort DPHACTO were analysed. The study comprised 514 bluecollar workers who took part in ambulatory monitoring of physical activity and heart rate variability (HRV). Physical activity (i.e. time spent in walking, climbing stairs, running and cycling) was assessed objectively using accelerometers (Actigraph) worn on the thigh, hip and trunk over 4–5 working days. Simultaneously, a heart rate monitor (Actiheart) was used to collect inter-beat intervals from the ECG signal. Heart rate and HRV indices were analysed during nocturnal sleep as markers of cardiac autonomic activity. Multiple regression analysis was used to determinethe main effects of OPA and LTPA and their interaction on heart rate and HRV indices, adjusting for multiple confounders (age, gender, body mass index, smoking and cardiovascular ailments).

    Results: Time spent in physical activity was on average (SD) 1.4 (0.6) hours/day for OPA and 0.9 (0.4) hours/day for LTPA. OPA showed generally negative associations with nocturnal HRV indices, while positive estimates were observed for LTPA. There was a statistically significant interaction effect between OPA and LTPA on heartrate (P < 0.0001) and HRV indices in time (root mean square of standard deviation, P = 0.004: standard deviation of normal to normal sinus beat, P = 0.019) and frequency domains (high frequency power, P = 0.022; low frequency power, P = 0.033). The favourable effect of LTPA on nocturnal HRV clearly diminished with higher levels of OPA, and high levels of both OPA and LTPA had a detrimental effect. The observed associations persisted after adjustment for possible confounders.

    Conclusion: Our findings suggest that time spent in OPA and LTPA have interactive effects on nocturnal autonomic regulation. Future longitudinal studies should examine whether autonomic regulation is a mediator for the effect of OPA and LTPA on cardiovascular disease and mortality.

  • 145.
    Hallman, David
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Birk Jørgensen, Marie
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    On the health paradox of occupational and leisure-time physical activity using objective measurements: effects on autonomic imbalance2017Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, nr 5, artikel-id e0177042Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    Leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) has considerable benefits for cardiovascular health and longevity, while occupational physical activity (OPA) is associated with an elevated cardiovascular risk. This “health paradox” may be explained by different effects on the autonomic nervous system from OPA and LTPA. Thus, we aimed to investigate whether objectively measured OPA and LTPA are differentially associated with autonomic regulation among workers.

    Methods

    The study comprised 514 blue-collar workers from the Danish cohort DPHACTO. Physical activity (i.e. walking, climbing stairs, running and cycling) was assessed objectively using accelerometers worn on the thigh, hip and trunk over multiple working days. During this period, a heart rate monitor was used to sample heart period intervals from the ECG signal. Heart rate and heart rate variability (HRV) indices were analyzed during nocturnal sleep as markers of autonomic regulation. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine the main effects of OPA and LTPA and their interaction on heart rate and HRV, adjusting for multiple confounders.

    Results

    Statistically significant interaction was found between OPA and LTPA on heart rate (adjusted p<0.0001) and HRV indices in time (rMSSD, adjusted p = 0.004) and frequency-domains (HF, adjusted p = 0.022; LF, adjusted p = 0.033). The beneficial effect of LTPA on nocturnal heart rate and HRV clearly diminished with higher levels of OPA, and high levels of both OPA and LTPA had a detrimental effect.

    Conclusion

    We found contrasting associations for objectively measured OPA and LTPA with heart rate and HRV during sleep. Differential effects of OPA and LTPA on autonomic regulation may contribute to the physical activity health paradox.

  • 146.
    Hallman, David
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Gupta, Nidhi
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Heiden, Marina
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Korshøj, Mette
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Birk Jørgensen, Marie
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Is prolonged sitting at work associated with the time course of neck-shoulder pain?: A prospective study in Danish blue-collar workers2016Ingår i: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 6, nr 11, artikel-id e012689Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives

    This study aimed to determine the extent to which objectively measured sitting time at work is associated with the course of neck-shoulder pain across one year in blue-collar workers.

    Methods

    Data was analyzed from 625 blue-collar workers in the Danish DPHACTO cohort study (2012-2013). Objective data on sitting time were collected at baseline using accelerometry. Self-reported pain intensity (numeric rating scale 0-10) in the neck-shoulder region was registered for one year using repeated text messages (14 in total). Linear Mixed Models were used to determine the relationship between percent time in sitting at work and trajectories of neck-shoulder pain, with and without adjustment for demographic, occupational and lifestyle factors, and baseline pain intensity.

    Results

    More sitting time at work was associated with a faster decline in pain intensity over 12-months, as indicated by a statistically significant effect of sitting on pain trajectories in the crude (p=0.020) and fully adjusted models (p=0.027).

    Conclusion                             

    In blue-collar workers, more sitting time at work was associated with a favorable development of pain intensity over time. The relationship between sitting at work and pain needs further investigation before explicit recommendations and guidelines on sedentary behavior among blue-collar workers can be developed.

  • 147.
    Hallman, David
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Gupta, Nidhi
    National Research Center for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Center for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Association between objectively measured sitting time and neck-shoulder pain among blue-collar workers2015Ingår i: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 88, nr 8, s. 1031-1042Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives Prolonged sitting has been suggested as a risk factor for neck-shoulder pain (NSP). Using a cross-sectional design, we investigated the extent to which objectively measured time sitting is associated with NSP among blue-collar workers.

    Methods Sitting time was measured during multiple working days on male (n=118) and female (n=84) blue-collar workers (n=202) using tri-axial accelerometers (Actigraph) placed on the thigh and trunk. Workers were categorized into having, on average, a low, moderate, or high sitting time, with mean values (SD between subjects) of 4.9 (1.0), 7.3 (0.5), and 9.6 (1.1) hours in total per day. Workers rated their largest NSP intensity during the previous month on a numerical scale (0-9), and were subsequently dichotomized into a low and high NSP intensity group (ratings 0-4 and >4, respectively). Logistic regression analyses adjusted for several individual and work-related factors were used to investigate the association between average sitting time per day (work, leisure and total) and NSP intensity.   

    Results For total sitting time, workers in the high sitting category were more likely (adjusted OR 2.97, CI 1.25-7.03) to report high NSP intensity than those who sat moderately (reference category). Low sitting during work was associated with a reduced NSP intensity, but only for males (adjusted OR 0.26 CI 0.07-0.96). No significant association was found between sitting during leisure and NSP intensity.

    Conclusion These findings suggest an association between sitting time, in total per day and specifically during work, and NSP intensity among blue-collar workers. We encourage studying the structure and explanation of this association further in prospective studies on larger populations.

  • 148.
    Hallman, David
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Gupta, Nidhi
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Is there an association between objectively measured occupational sitting and intense neck-shoulder pain among blue-collar workers?2015Ingår i: / [ed] University of Limerick, 2015, s. 74-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Prolonged occupational sitting has been suggested to be a risk factor for neck-shoulder pain (NSP). However, studies using valid and precise methods for assessing sitting are lacking. We investigated the extent to which objectively measured sitting time is associated with intense NSP among blue-collar workers.

    Methods

    In a cross-sectional study, sitting time was measured for two working days on male (n=118) and female (n=84) blue-collar workers using tri-axial accelerometers (Actigraph) placed on the thigh and trunk. Workers were categorized in tertiles having low, moderate, or high sitting time at work. Workers rated their NSP intensity during the previous month on a numerical scale (0-9), and were then dichotomized into a low (0-4) and high (>4) NSP intensity group. Binary logistic regression analyses, with multiple adjustments for individual and occupational risk factors besides sitting, were performed to investigate the association between occupational sitting time and intense NSP, separately for males and females.  

    Results

    We found that low occupational sitting was associated with a reduced NSP intensity compared to moderate sitting among males (OR 0.28, 95%CI 0.08-0.98). This association remained significant after adjustment for individual and occupational covariates (adjusted OR 0.26, 95%CI 0.07-0.96). We found no such relationship among females (OR 1.01, 95%CI 0.28-3.59), and high sitting was not associated with pain.

    Conclusion

    Our findings suggest a gender-specific association between occupational sitting time and intense NSP among blue-collar workers. We encourage further studies to investigate the nature of this association, using prospective designs in larger, gender-stratified populations.

  • 149.
    Hallman, David
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Gupta, Nidhi
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Korshøj, Mette
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Temporal patterns of physical activity during work and leisure: exposure variation analysis of accelerometer recordings processed by the ACTI4 software2015Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Previous studies have found substantial differences in the health effects of occupational (OPA) and leisure time physical activity (LTPA): LTPA is generally beneficial to health, while OPA may be detrimental. Why these differences occur is, however, so far not clear. Different time patterns of OPA and LTPA may be an explanation. Thus, we aimed to investigate the extent to which time patterns of OPA and LTPA differ in a population of blue-collar workers.

    Methods

    This study was conducted on a cross-sectional sample of 191 blue-collar workers from seven workplaces in Denmark. Physical activity and sedentary behavior were estimated using the Acti4 method on recordings from accelerometers (Actigraph GT3X+) worn on the thigh and trunk for four consecutive days. Time patterns of OPA and LTPA were retrieved separately for work and leisure using Exposure Variation Analysis (EVA), and expressed in terms of percentage time spent in uninterrupted periods of different durations (<1min, 1-5 min, 5-10 min, 10-30 min, 30-60 min and > 60 min) of sitting, standing, and walking. Differences between OPA and LTPA in selected EVA derivatives were tested using repeated measures ANOVA with adjustments for differences between work and leisure in total time for each activity.

    Results

    We found significant differences between work and leisure time for several EVA derivatives, with OPA showing a larger percentage time walking and standing in short periods (<5 min), and less percent time in prolonged sitting (>30 min) than LTPA. Apart from standing (p=.10), these differences remained significant even after adjusting for the difference between work and leisure in total time spent in each activity.

    Conclusion

    We found, among blue-collar workers, that the time patterns of OPA and LTPA were markedly different even after adjustment for total PA time. We suggest using EVA derivatives in future studies investigating potential associations of OPA and LTPA with health outcomes.

  • 150.
    Hallman, David
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Hed Ekman, Annika
    Manpower Hälsopartner, Sandviken, Sweden.
    Lyskov, Eugene
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Changes in physical activity and heart rate variability in chronic neck-shoulder pain: monitoring during work and leisure time2014Ingår i: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 87, nr 7, s. 735-744Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: Neck-shoulder pain (NSP) is a common work-related musculoskeletal disorder with unclear mechanisms. Changes in physical activity and autonomic nervous system regulation may be involved in the pathogenesis of chronic NSP. The aim of the current study was to investigate autonomic regulation in relation to physical activity and perceived symptoms during work and leisure time among workers with chronic NSP (n = 29) as compared to a healthy control group (CON, n = 27).

    METHODS: Physical activity was objectively monitored for 7 days using accelerometry. Beat-to-beat heart rate was collected continuously for 72 h, with simultaneous momentary ratings of pain, stress, and fatigue. Duration of sitting/lying, standing and walking, number of steps, and energy expenditure were used as measures of physical activity. Heart rate variability (HRV) indices were extracted in time and frequency domains as reflecting autonomic regulation. Data were divided into work hours, leisure time, and sleep.

    RESULTS: The NSP group rated higher levels of stress and fatigue at work and leisure, and reduced sleep quality as compared to CON. Elevated heart rate and reduced HRV were found in NSP compared with CON, especially during sleep. The NSP group demonstrated a different pattern of physical activity than CON, with a lower activity level in leisure time. Higher physical activity was associated with increased HRV in both groups.

    CONCLUSION: Changes in HRV reflected an autonomic imbalance in workers with chronic musculoskeletal pain. This can be explained by reduced physical activity in leisure time. Intervention studies aimed at increasing physical activity may shed further light on the association between autonomic regulation and physical activity in work-related NSP.

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