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  • 1101.
    Badal, Ann-Christin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Freimuth, Kristina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Social Integration into Society of Female Re-offenders: From the Perspective of Professionals2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 1102.
    Badham, Richard
    et al.
    University of Wollongong.
    McLoughlin, Ian
    University of Wollongong.
    Niss, Camilla
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi.
    I´m Alright Jaques': Irony and Commitment in Changing Culture Change Programs2004In: 18th Annual Conference of the Australian and New Zealand Academy of Management (ANZAM), 2004Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 1103.
    Badikanli, Esmer
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies.
    Förberedelseklass; En trygg landning för nyanlända elever?: En kvalitativ intervju studie med fyra lärares uppfattning om sitt arbete med nyanlända elever i förberedelseklass2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

     

    Varje dag landar det fler och fler nyanlända barn till skolor i Sverige från olika delar av världen och med dessa barn medföljer olika upplevelser som därför behöver ett särskilt bemötande. Visa av de eleverna placeras i förberedelseklasser för att få en lugn start för livet i det nya landet.

     

    Syftet med detta arbete var att genom kvalitativa intervjuer med fyra förberedelseklaslärare ta reda på lärarnas uppfattning om sitt eget arbete med nyanlända elever i förberedelseklass och vad det är man ska ta hänsyn till när man arbetar i förberedelseklasser. Med hjälp av intervjuerna fick jag fram lärarnas uppfattning om sitt eget arbete med nyanlända elever i förberedelseklasser och sedan analyserades svaren med jämförelse med tidigare forskning inom ämnet.   

    Tidigare forskning och litteratur visar att elever som kommer till Sverige tar med sig olika svårigheter och går genom olika processer som bör bearbetas i det nya landet. Forskningen visar även att lärare som arbetar med nyanlända elever bör vara medvetna om elevers svårigheter och hur man bör möta och stödja de nyanlända elever.  Förberedelseklasser är en skolform som de flesta kommuner använder sig av och syftet är att ge de nyanlända elever en möjlighet för en lugn start samt förbereda eleverna för att så fort som möjligt börja i en ordinarieklass. Trots att det är många forskningar som ser på förberedelseklasser som en lämplig skolform för nyanlända elever finns det ändå olika nackdelar med förberedelseklasser enligt olika forskning.

     

    Resultatet visar att samtliga intervjuade lärare ser förberedelseklasser som en bra skolform för nyanlända elever där eleverna har gott om tid och trygghet i en liten grupp som de behöver.  Lärarna var även medvetna om de olika svårigheter som de nyanlända har, men när det gäller att samverka med olika aktörer så som klasslärare, modersmålslärare och föräldrar varierade svaret mellan olika lärare.    

     

    Nyckelord: nyanlända elever, förberedelseklass, modersmål, modersmålsundervisning.

     

  • 1104.
    Badilla , Cecilia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology.
    Rahm, Christina
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology.
    Barn i behov av särskilt stöd inom förskolan: Diagnosers betydelse och metoder2008Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med detta examensarbete var att undersöka hur förskollärare arbetar med barn i behov av särskilt stöd samt att ta reda på vilka svårigheter barn kan ha och vad som menas med barn i behov av särskilt stöd. Var går gränsen om ett barn är i behov av särskilt stöd? Vilken betydelse har en diagnos för en pedagog?

     

    I undersökningen framgick det att informanterna hade mött olika barn med olika behov som till exempel dövhet, funktionshinder, motoriska svårigheter, språksvårigheter, talsvårigheter, autism, koncentrationssvårigheter, sociala och emotionella svårigheter och ej diagnostiserade barn. Även att två av informanterna ansåg att det inte var nödvändigt med den specialiserade diagnostiseringen.

     

    Tidigare forskning visar på att förskolan i många fall ses som en barnpassnings institution för arbetande vårdnadshavare istället för en plats där barnen kan utveckla sig. Det tas vidare upp den kontroll som pedagogerna har. Andra studier visar att många av de aktiviteter som pågår på förskolan är startade och styrda av barnen och att aktiviteterna som pedagogerna har hand om ofta är dåligt styrda. Det får barnen att specialisera sig på vad de vill göra. Men det kan också segregera barn med särskilda stöd. Det finns ingen direkt lösning på detta problem men samtidigt är det alternativ som kan det mest uppenbara att införa striktare styrning skada formen på förskolan och det rekommenderas istället tydligare riktlinjer på hur förskolan ska arbeta.

     

    Studiens empiri hämtades i två olika kommuner i södra Skåne. Författarnas val för att få svar på sina frågor var genom en enkät studie. Informanterna som deltog i studien var fyra förskollärare och en specialpedagog och har arbetat med barn i behov av särskilt stöd mellan ett - fem år.

     

    En viktig slutsats av undersökningen är att det är alla barn som faller utanför den ”normala” ramen är vad som utmärker barn i behov av särskilt stöd. Att det är samhällets normer som bestämmer vad som menas med ”normalt” eller avvikande när normerna ändras så förändras synen på vad som är ”normalt” eller avvikande. Även att det är barnets behov som bör styra valet av metod och inte tvärtom och det krävs olika metoder för olika barn, alla åtgärdsprogram måste vara individuellt utformade och anpassade till det barnet som man hjälper just för tillfället. Slutligen att det inte är själva diagnosen i sig som är det viktigaste utan istället fokusera sig mer på att kunna hjälpa barnen som är i behov av särskilt stöd. Men om ett barn inte har fått en diagnostisering kan detta leda till det att barnet inte får det behov av särskilt stöd som barnet behöver.

     

  • 1105.
    Baehre, Nils
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Inverkar kön och etnicitet på bedömningen av lämplighet för en professorstjänst?: En experimentell studie.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was through manipulation of the name on a fictional applicant for a vacant professorship review if the assessments within the Academy of Sweden were shifting, depending on the applicant’s gender and ethnicity. Staff from Högskolan i Gävle read an expert opinion and then answered a series of questions about an applicant's suitability for a vacant professorship. The applicant’s gender and ethnicity were manipulated by changing the applicant’s name. No significant differences in the assessment of the applicant's suitability based on gender or ethnicity existed. Women estimated the applicant’s suitability for the professorship higher than men did. The participants made a difference by ethnicity if they themselves thought that the applicant would receive the professorship and if they thought that the applicant would receive the professorship. The lack of significant effects of gender and ethnicity of the assessed applicant can cautiously interpreted as the fact that the gender equality work within the academy has begun to profit results.

  • 1106.
    Baena Juan, Cristian
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Comparison of the performance of silicon and thin film solar cells at the laboratory of the University of Gävle2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The huge environmental awareness emerging last years by reason of global warming and greenhouse effect, on one hand, and the need of finding other sources of energy production and conversion due to the declining of fossil resources and the increasing cost of this kind of energy resource, on the other hand, both have led position renewable energies as a powerful alternative on the energy production and conversion.

    PV-systems have emerged at an exponential rate in recent year as the main candidate and a satisfactory possibility with respect to environmental and economic sustainability.

    Nowadays, the large volume on photovoltaic market is currently dominated by four types of solar cells, divided by the semiconductor material used to absorb light and convert the energy into electricity: (1) crystalline silicon (monocrystalline and polycrystalline), (2) amorphous silicon, (3) CIGS and (4) cadmium telluride; and among them, monocrystalline silicon and CIGS technologies are installed on the building 45 of the University of Gävle, at the south face of the laboratory.

    In this context and with the motivation to contribute knowledge on PV field, a comparison between single crystal solar technology and thin film CIGS technology has carried out through f ratio and performance ratio procedures in order to perform an assessment of the energy conversion of each one under field conditions.

    A logger monitors the power conversion from the PV modules since June 2014 while two pyranometers monitor global and diffuse solar radiation since March 2016. It must take into account that only clear sunny days have been considered during a period from 8:00 to 14:00 in order to avoid shadows effect on the PV systems.

    The results come to conclude that single crystal silicon modules present a better behavior with respect to energy conversion under no shadows effect conditions by two reason: (1) f ratio, relationship of PV conversion per kW (PV yield) between CIGS and single crystal silicon, is about 87.25% with some variations along a day due to ambient temperature, cell temperature and incidence angle; (2) PV module's performance ratio of monocrystalline silicon modules is higher than thin film CIGS ones during a sunny day about 87.56% and 76.38%, respectively; and they are consistent with usual performance ratio values between 80% and 90% since 2010 onwards.

    In light of the outcome and in order to confirm these conclusions, it intends to launch a project with the objective of evaluating the data collected and compare the performance of the module after a year of measurements outdoors by the PV module's performance ratio procedure.

    Along the same lines, the next step of the University of Gävle will be to launch a project with the objective of evaluating the potential to be self-sufficient.

  • 1107.
    Baer, Susanna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences.
    Kjerrulf, Catharina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences.
    Traditionsfirande i förskolan: En didaktisk studie om kulturell mångfald2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka förskollärarstudenters uppfattning om och tidigare erfarenheter av att arbeta med olika kulturella och religiösa traditioner i förskolan. Examensarbetet utgår från ett interkulturellt perspektiv och behandlar vilka traditioner som synliggörs i förskolan, hur firandet går till och informanternas uppfattning om tradition som fenomen och resurs för kulturellt lärande. I förhållande till den senast reviderade läroplanen (Skolverket, 2018) åskådliggörs förskolans uppdrag angående kultur och mångfald. För att informanterna skulle ges möjlighet till ett fritt berättande användes (sju) semistrukturerade intervjuer som datainsamlingsmetod. Analysen av de nedtecknade intervjuerna utgick från syftet och de centrala begreppen interkulturell sensibilitet, kultur och mångfald. Resultatet visar att informanterna har erfarenheter av ett traditionsfirande som anpassas till de kulturer som finns representerade i den aktuella barngruppen. Traditionsfirandet kännetecknas av frivillighet, formbarhet och nytänkande. Vilka traditioner som firas och hur detta sker i praktiken varierar, och styrs av pedagogernas erfarenheter, intresse och kunskap. Det religiösa och icke-religiösa traditionsfirandet bidrar till interkulturella möten och firandet kan följaktligen ha en sammanlänkande funktion mellan barn med olika kulturer. Det framkommer även att okunskap kring ämnen som religion och historia är en orsak till att pedagogerna undviker att samtala om bakgrunden till de traditioner som firas. Informanternas uppfattning om genomförandet av religiösa traditioner överensstämmer med hur begreppet interkulturell sensibilitet definieras i tidigare forskning, som tolerans mot andras och insikt om den egna kulturens plats bland alla övriga i en kulturell mångfald.  

    Studiens slutsats är att det saknas kunskap inom områden som berör kultur, traditioner och religion. Okunskapen kan vara en anledning till att pedagoger undviker att samtala om dessa ämnen med barn och föräldrar, eftersom området berör högst personliga frågor, vilka kan uppfattas som integritetskränkande. Det visar sig att pedagogernas kontakt med föräldrarna är oumbärlig för hur de ska kunna förverkliga sitt uppdrag angående synliggörandet av och lärandet om olika kulturer och traditioner i förskolan.  

  • 1108.
    Bagdadi, Jenny
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    Andraspråksinlärning hos somalier: inverkan av utbildningstradition2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 1109.
    Bagge, Ann-Charlotte
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences.
    Runstavar: Runstavar med finskt ursprung i de svenska finnmarkerna2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 1110.
    Bagge, Lotta
    University of Gävle, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för religionsvetenskap.
    Är Amish en sekt?2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna C-uppsats är (1) att finna en teoretisk modell kring begreppet sekt och (2) att utifrån denna modell undersöka vilka sektliknande drag Amish uppvisar i ett avgränsat material.

  • 1111.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    Combination of seismic and an isostatic crustal thickness models using Butterworth filter in a spectral approach2012In: Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, ISSN 1367-9120, E-ISSN 1878-5786, Vol. 59, p. 240-248Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1112.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS. Division of Geodesy and Satellite Positioning, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden .
    Deformation monitoring using different least squares adjustment methods: a simulated study2016In: KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering, ISSN 1226-7988, E-ISSN 1976-3808, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 855-862Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to investigate the ability of different least squares adjustment techniques for detecting deformation. A simulated geodetic netwo rk is used for this purpose. The observations are collected using the Total Station instrument in three epochs and different least squares adjustment methods are used to analyze the simulated network. The applied methods are adjustment-byelement, using variance-covariance components and Tikhonov regularization. For numerical computation, we utilized exist geodetic network around the simulated network and the deformation (changes in the simulated network) imposes to the object using a simulator in each epoch. The obtained results demonstrate that more accurate outcome for detection of small deformation is possible by estimating variance-covariance components. The difference of the estimated and the simulated deformations in the best scenario, i.e., applying variance-covariance components, is 0.2 and 0.1 mm in x and y directions. In comparison with adjustment by element and Tikhonov regularization methods the differences are 1.1 and 0.1 in x direction and 1.4 and 1.1 mm in y direction, respectively. In addition, it is also possible to model the deformation and therefore it can be seen that how the calculated displacement will affect the result of deformation modelling. It has been demonstrated that determining reasonable variance-covariance components is very important to estimate realistic deformation model and monitoring the geodetic networks. 

  • 1113.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    Global earth isostatic model using smoothed Airy-Heiskanenand Vening Meinesz hypotheses2012In: Earth Science Informatics, ISSN 1865-0473, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 93-104Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1114.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    Impact of compensating mass on the topographic mass: A study using isostatic and non-isostatic Earth crustal models2012In: Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica Hungarica, ISSN 1217-8977, E-ISSN 1587-1037, Vol. 47, no 1, p. 29-51Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1115.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bai, Yongliang
    School of Geosciences, China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao, China.
    Sjöberg, Lars
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tenzer, Robert
    NTIS - New Technologies for the Information Society, Faculty of Applied Sciences, University of West Bohemia, Plzeň, Czechia.
    Abrehdary, Majid
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Miranda, Silvia
    Departamento de Geofísica y Astronomía, FCEFN Universidad Nacional de San Juan, San Juan, Argentina.
    Sanchez, Juan M. Alcacer
    Departamento de Geofísica y Astronomía, FCEFN Universidad Nacional de San Juan, San Juan, Argentina.
    Effect of the lithospheric thermal state on the Moho interface: a case study in South America2017In: Journal of South American Earth Sciences, ISSN 0895-9811, E-ISSN 1873-0647, Vol. 76, p. 198-207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gravimetric methods applied for Moho recovery in areas with sparse and irregular distribution of seismic data often assume only a constant crustal density. Results of latest studies, however, indicate that corrections for crustal density heterogeneities could improve the gravimetric result, especially in regions with a complex geologic/tectonic structure. Moreover, the isostatic mass balance reflects also the density structure within the lithosphere. The gravimetric methods should therefore incorporate an additional correction for the lithospheric mantle as well as deeper mantle density heterogeneities. Following this principle, we solve the Vening Meinesz-Moritz (VMM) inverse problem of isostasy constrained by seismic data to determine the Moho depth of the South American tectonic plate including surrounding oceans, while taking into consideration the crustal and mantle density heterogeneities. Our numerical result confirms that contribution of sediments significantly modifies the estimation of the Moho geometry especially along the continental margins with large sediment deposits. To account for the mantle density heterogeneities we develop and apply a method in order to correct the Moho geometry for the contribution of the lithospheric thermal state (i.e., the lithospheric thermal-pressure correction). In addition, the misfit between the isostatic and seismic Moho models, attributed mainly to deep mantle density heterogeneities and other geophysical phenomena, is corrected for by applying the non-isostatic correction. The results reveal that the application of the lithospheric thermal-pressure correction improves the RMS fit of the VMM gravimetric Moho solution to the CRUST1.0 (improves ∼ 1.9 km) and GEMMA (∼1.1 km) models and the point-wise seismic data (∼0.7 km) in South America.

  • 1116.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Eshagh, Mehdi
    Avd för naturvetenskap, lantmäteri- och maskinteknik, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Högskolan i Väst.
    Combined Moho Estimators2014In: Geodynamics : Research International Bulletin, ISSN ISSN 2345-4997, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 1-11Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we develop three estimators to optimally combine seismic and gravimetric models of Moho surface. The first estimator combines them by their special harmonic coefficients; the second one uses the spherical harmonic coefficients of the seismic model and use integral formula for the gravimetric one. The kernel of the integral terms of this estimator shows that a cap size of 20◦ is required for the integration, but since this integral is presented to combine the low frequencies of the gravimetric model, a low resolution model is enough for the integration. The third estimator uses the gravity anomaly and converts its low frequencies to those of the gravimetric Moho model, meanwhile combining them with those of seismic one. This integral requires an integration domain of 30◦ for the gravity anomalies but since the maximum degree of this kernel is limited to a specific degree, the use of its spectral form is recommended. The kernel of the integral involving the gravity anomalies, developed for recovering high frequencies of Moho, is written in a closed-from formula and its singularity is investigated. This kernel is well-behaving and decreases fast, meaning that it is suitable for recovering the high frequencies of Moho surface.

  • 1117.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    Eshagh, Mehdi
    Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden, and K.N.Toosi University of Technology, Tehran, Iran .
    Crustal thickness recovery using an isostatic model and GOCE data2012In: Earth Planets and Space, ISSN 1343-8832, E-ISSN 1880-5981, Vol. 64, no 11, p. 1053-1057Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the GOCE satellite mission goals is to study the Earth's interior structure including its crustal thickness. A gravimetric-isostatic Moho model, based on the Vening Meinesz-Moritz (VMM) theory and GOCE gradiometric data, is determined beneath Iran's continental shelf and surrounding seas. The terrestrial gravimetric data of Iran are also used in a nonlinear inversion for a recovering-Moho model applying the VMM model. The newly-computed Moho models are compared with the Moho data taken from CRUST2.0. The root-mean-square (RMS) of differences between the CRUST2.0 Moho model and the recovered model from GOCE and that from the terrestrial gravimetric data are 3.8 km and 4.6 km, respectively.

  • 1118.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    Eshagh, Mehdi
    Islamic Azad Univ, Dept Surveying.
    Recovery of Moho’s undulations based on the Vening Meinesz–Moritz theory from satellite gravity gradiometry data: A simulation study2012In: Advances in Space Research, ISSN 0273-1177, E-ISSN 1879-1948, Vol. 49, no 6, p. 1097-1111Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1119.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute. Division of Geodesy and Geoinformatics, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sjöberg, Lars E.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    A synthetic Earth gravity model based on a topographic-isostatic model2012In: Studia Geophysica et Geodaetica, ISSN 0039-3169, E-ISSN 1573-1626, Vol. 56, no 4, p. 935-955Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Earth's gravity field is related to the topographic potential in medium and higher degrees, which is isostatically compensated. Hence, the topographic-isostatic (TI) data are indispensable for extending an available Earth Gravitational Model (EGM) to higher degrees. Here we use TI harmonic coefficients to construct a Synthetic Earth Gravitational Model (SEGM) to extend the EGMs to higher degrees. To achieve a high-quality SEGM, a global geopotential model (EGM96) is used to describe the low degrees, whereas the medium and high degrees are obtained from the TI or topographic potential. This study differes from others in that it uses a new gravimetric-isostatic model for determining the TI potential. We test different alternatives based on TI or only topographic data to determine the SEGM. Although the topography is isostatically compensated only to about degree 40-60, our study shows that using a compensation model improves the SEGM in comparison with using only topographic data for higher degree harmonics. This is because the TI data better adjust the applied Butterworth filter, which bridges the known EGM and the new high-degree potential field than the topographic data alone.

  • 1120.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    Sjöberg, Lars E.
    Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Improving gravimetric–isostatic models of crustal depth by correcting for non-isostatic effects and using CRUST2.02013In: Earth-Science Reviews, ISSN 0012-8252, E-ISSN 1872-6828, Vol. 117, p. 29-39Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The principle of isostasy is important in different fields of geosciences. Using an isostatic hypothesis for estimating the crustal thickness suffers from the more or less incomplete isostatic model and that the observed gravity anomaly is not only generated by the topographic/isostatic signal but also by non-isostatic effects (NIEs). In most applications of isostatic models the NIEs are disregarded. In this paper, we study how some isostatic models related with Vening Meinez's isostatic hypothesis can be improved by considering the NIE. The isostatic gravity anomaly needs a correction for the NIEs, which varies from as much as 494 mGal to − 308 mGal. The result shows that by adding this correction the global crustal thickness estimate improves about 50% with respect to the global model CRUST2.0, i.e. the root mean square differences of the crustal thickness of the best Vening Meinesz type and CRUST2.0 models are 6.9 and 3.2 km before and after improvement, respectively. As a result, a new global model of crustal thickness using Vening Meinesz and CRUST2.0 models is generated. A comparison with an independent African crustal depth model shows an improvement of the new model by 6.8 km vs. CRUST2.0 (i.e. rms differences of 3.0 and 9.8 km, respectively). A comparison between oceanic lithosphere age and the NIEs is discussed in this study, too. One application of this study can be to improve crustal depth in areas where CRUST2.0 data are sparse and bad and to densify the resolution vs. the CRUST2.0 model. Other applications can be used to infer the viscosity of the mantle from the NIEs signal to study various locations around the Earth for understanding complete, over- and under-compensations of the topography.

  • 1121.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    Sjöberg, Lars E
    Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Modelling the density contrast and depth of the Moho discontinuity by seismic and gravimetric–isostatic methods with an application to Africa2012In: Journal of African Earth Sciences, ISSN 0899-5362, Vol. 68, p. 111-120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The crustal thickness (Moho depth) is of interest in several geosciences applications, such as geography, geophysics and geodesy. Usually the crustal depth and density variations are estimated by seismic survey data. As such data collection is very time-consuming and expensive an attractive option could be to use a gravimetric/isostatic model. In this case, realistic estimates for the crustal density and Moho density contrast (MDC) are important. In this study, we first use the seismic crustal thickness of CRUST2.0 model as a known parameter in combination with gravimetric data in estimating the crust–mantle density contrast by the isostatic model of Vening Meinesz–Moritz. We present different models to estimate the MDC and its impact on the modelling of the gravimetric–isostatic Moho depth. The theory is applied to estimate the Moho depth of the African continental crust by using different models for the MDC: (a) constant value (0.6 g/cm3), (b) Pratt–Hayford’s model, (c) CRUST2.0 as input to three gravimetric/isostatic models based on Vening Meinesz–Moritz theory. The isostatic models agree by 5.8–7.1 km in the rms with the regional seismic model at a resolution of 2 x2, and the smallest rms difference at a resolution of 1x1is of

    7.2 km. For comparison, the rms differences of CRUST2.0 and the regional seismic model are 8.8 and 9.1 km at the resolutions of 2 deg (interpolated) and 1 deg respectively. The result suggests that the gravimetric/isostatic Moho model can be used in densification of the CRUST2.0 Moho geometry, and to improve it in areas with poor data.

  • 1122.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    Sjöberg, Lars E.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Division of Geodesy and Geoinformatics.
    Non-isostatic effects on crustal thickness: A study using CRUST2.0 in Fennoscandia2012In: Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, ISSN 0031-9201, E-ISSN 1872-7395, Vol. 200, p. 37-44Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1123.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS. KTH.
    Sjöberg, Lars E.
    KTH.
    Tenzer, Robert
    Wuhan University, China.
    Abrehdary, Majid
    KTH.
    A new Fennoscandian crustal thickness model based on CRUST1.0 and a gravimetric-isostatic approach2015In: Earth-Science Reviews, ISSN 0012-8252, E-ISSN 1872-6828, Vol. 145, p. 132-145Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper a new gravimetric-isostatic crustal thickness model (VMM14_FEN) is estimated for Fennoscandia. The main motivation is to investigate the relations between geological and geophysical properties, the Moho depth and crust-mantle density contrast at the crust-mantle discontinuity. For this purpose the Bouguer gravity disturbance data is corrected in two main ways namely for the gravitational contributions of mass density variation due to the different layers of the Earth's crust such as ice and sediments, as well as for the gravitational contribution from deeper masses below the crust. This second correction (for non-isostatic effects) is necessary because in general the crust is not in complete isostatic equilibrium and the observed gravity data are not only generated by the topographic/isostatic masses but also from those in the deep Earth interior. The correction for non-isostatic effects is mainly attributed to unmodeled mantle and core boundary density heterogeneities. These corrections are determined using the recent seismic crustal thickness model CRUST1.0. We compare our modeling results with previous studies in the area and test the fitness. The comparison with the external Moho model EuCRUST-07 shows a 3.3. km RMS agreement for the Moho depth in Fennoscandia. We also illustrate how the above corrections improve the Moho depth estimation. Finally, the signatures of geological structures and isostatic equilibrium are studied using VMM14_FEN, showing how main geological unit structures attribute in isostatic balance by affecting the Moho geometry. The main geological features are also discussed in the context of the complete and incomplete isostatic equilibrium. 

  • 1124.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    Tenzer, Robert
    Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics, School of Geodesy and Geomatics, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China .
    Comparative analysis of Vening-Meinesz Moritz isostatic models using the constant and variable crust-mantle density contrast – a case study of Zealandia2013In: Journal of Earth System Science, ISSN 0973-774X, Vol. 122, no 2, p. 339-348Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We compare three different numerical schemes of treating the Moho density contrast in gravimetric inverse problems for finding the Moho depths. The results are validated using the global crustal model CRUST2.0, which is determined based purely on seismic data. Firstly, the gravimetric recovery of the Moho depths is realized by solving Moritz’s generalization of the Vening-Meinesz inverse problem of isostasy while the constant Moho density contrast is adopted. The Pratt-Hayford isostatic model is then facilitated to estimate the variable Moho density contrast. This variable Moho density contrast is subsequently used to determine the Moho depths. Finally, the combined least-squares approach is applied to estimate jointly the Moho depths and density contract based on a priori error model. The EGM2008 global gravity model and the DTM2006.0 global topographic/bathymetric model are used to generate the isostatic gravity anomalies. The comparison of numerical results reveals that the optimal isostatic inverse scheme should take into consideration both the variable depth and density of compensation. This is achieved by applying the combined least-squares approach for a simultaneous estimation of both Moho parameters. We demonstrate that the result obtained using this method has the best agreement with the CRUST2.0 Moho depths. The numerical experiments are conducted at the regional study area of New Zealand’s continental shelf.

  • 1125.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Tenzer, Robert
    The Key Laboratory of Geospace Environment and Geodesy, School of Geodesy and Geomatics, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.
    Comparative study of the uniform and variable Moho density contrast in the Vening Meinesz-Moritz’s isostatic scheme for the gravimetric Moho recovery2016In: International Association of Geodesy Symposia: 3rd International Gravity Field Service, IGFS 2014; Shanghai; China; 30 June 2014 through 6 July 2014 / [ed] Jin, S.G., Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2016, Vol. 144, p. 199-207Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In gravimetric methods for a determination of the Moho geometry, the constant value of the Moho density contract is often adopted. Results of gravimetric and seismic studies, however, showed that the Moho density contrast varies significantly. The assumption of a uniform density contrast thus might yield large errors in the estimated Moho depths. In this study we investigate these errors by comparing the Moho depths determined globally for the uniform and variable models of the Moho density contrast. These two gravimetric results are obtained based on solving the Vening Meinesz-Moritz’s inverse problem of isostasy. The uniform model of the Moho density contrast is defined individually for the continental and oceanic lithosphere to better reproduce the reality. The global data of the lower crust and upper mantle retrieved from the CRUST1.0 seismic crustal model are used to define the variable Moho density contrast. This seismic model is also used to validate both gravimetric solutions. Results of our numerical experiment reveals that the consideration of the variable Moho density contrast improves the agreement between the gravimetric and seismic Moho models; the RMS of differences is 5.4 km (for the uniform density contrast) and 4.7 km (for the variable density contrast).

  • 1126.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute. KTH, Geodesy & Geoinformatics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tenzer, Robert
    School of Geodesy and Geomatics, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.
    Geoid-to-Quasigeoid Separation Computed Using the GRACE/GOCE Global Geopotential Model GOCO02S: A Case Study of Himalayas and Tibet2013In: Terrestrial, Atmospheric and Oceanic Science, ISSN 1017-0839, E-ISSN 2223-8964, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 59-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The geoid-to-quasigeoid correction has been traditionally computed approximately as a function of the planar Bouguer gravity anomaly and the topographic height. Recent numerical studies based on newly developed theoretical models, however, indicate that the computation of this correction using the approximate formula yields large errors especially in mountainous regions with computation points at high elevations. In this study we investigate these approximation errors at the study area which comprises Himalayas and Tibet where this correction reaches global maxima. Since the GPS-leveling and terrestrial gravity datasets in this part of the world are not (freely) available, global gravitational models (GGMs) are used to compute this correction utilizing the expressions for a spherical harmonic analysis of the gravity field. The computation of this correction can be done using the GGM coefficients taken from the Earth Gravitational Model 2008 (EGM08) complete to degree 2160 of spherical harmonics. The recent studies based on a regional accuracy assessment of GGMs have shown that the combined GRACE/GOCE solutions provide a substantial improvement of the Earth’s gravity field at medium wavelengths of spherical harmonics compared to EGM08. We address this aspect in numerical analysis by comparing the gravity field quantities computed using the satellite-only combined GRACE/GOCE model GOCO02S against the EGM08 results. The numerical results reveal that errors in the geoid-to-quasigeoid correction computed using the approximate formula can reach as much as ~1.5 m. We also demonstrate that the expected improvement of the GOCO02S gravity field quantities at medium wavelengths (within the frequency band approximately between 100 and 250) compared to EGM08 is as much as ±60 mGal and ±0.2 m in terms of gravity anomalies and geoid/quasigeoid heights respectively.

  • 1127.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS. Division of Geodesy and Geoinformatics, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tenzer, Robert
    School of Geodesy and Geomatics, Wuhan University, 129 Luoyu Road, Wuhan, China .
    Sjöberg, Lars E.
    Division of Geodesy and Geoinformatics, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Abrehdary, Majid
    Division of Geodesy and Geoinformatics, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    On the residual isostatic topography effect in the gravimetric Moho determination2015In: Journal of Geodynamics, ISSN 0264-3707, E-ISSN 1879-1670, Vol. 83, p. 28-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In classical isostatic models, a uniform crustal density is typically assumed, while disregarding the crustal density heterogeneities. This assumption, however, yields large errors in the Moho geometry determined from gravity data, because the actual topography is not fully isostatically compensated. Moreover, the sub-crustal density structures and additional geodynamic processes contribute to the overall isostatic balance. In this study we investigate the effects of unmodelled density structures and geodynamic processes on the gravity anomaly and the Moho geometry. For this purpose, we define the residual isostatic topography as the difference between actual topography and isostatic topography, which is computed based on utilizing the Vening Meinesz-Moritz isostatic theory. We show that the isostatic gravity bias due to disagreement between the actual and isostatically compensated topography varies between -382 and 596 mGal. This gravity bias corresponds to the Moho correction term of -16 to 25 km. Numerical results reveal that the application of this Moho correction to the gravimetrically determined Moho depths significantly improves the RMS fit of our result with some published global seismic and gravimetric Moho models. We also demonstrate that the isostatic equilibrium at long-to-medium wavelengths (up to degree of about 40) is mainly controlled by a variable Moho depth, while the topographic mass balance at a higher-frequency spectrum is mainly attained by a variable crustal density.

  • 1128.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    Tenzer, Robert
    Wuhan University, China.
    Sjöberg, Lars
    Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Novak, Pavel
    University of West Bohemia, Plzen, Czech Republic.
    Improved global crustal thickness modeling based on the VMM isostatic model and non-isostatic gravity correction2013In: Journal of Geodynamics, ISSN 0264-3707, E-ISSN 1879-1670, Vol. 66, p. 25-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In classical isostatic models for a gravimetric recovery of the Moho parameters (i.e., Moho depths and density contrast) the isostatic gravity anomalies are usually defined based on the assumption that the topographic mass surplus and the ocean mass deficiency are compensated within the Earth’s crust. As acquired in this study, this assumption yields large disagreements between isostatic and seismic Moho models. To assess the effects not accounted for in classical isostatic models, we conduct a number of numerical experiments using available global gravity and crustal structure models. First, we compute the gravitational contributions of mass density contrasts due to ice and sediments, and subsequently evaluate respective changes in the Moho geometry. Residual differences between the gravimetric and seismic Moho models are then used to predict a remaining non-isostatic gravity signal, which is mainly attributed to unmodeled density structures and other geophysical phenomena. We utilize three recently developed computational schemes in our numerical studies. The apparatus of spherical harmonic analysis and synthesis is applied in forward modeling of the isostatic gravity disturbances. The Moho depths are estimated globally on a 1 arc-deg equiangular grid by solving the Vening-Meinesz Moritz inverse problem of isostasy. The same estimation model is applied to evaluate the differences between the isostatic and seismic models. We demonstrate that the application of the ice and sediment density contrasts stripping gravity corrections is essential for a more accurate determination of the Moho geometry. We also show that the application of the additional non-isostatic correction further improves the agreement between the Moho models derived based on gravity and seismic data. Our conclusions are based on comparing the gravimetric results with the CRUST2.0 global crustal model compiled using results of seismic surveys.

  • 1129.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute. KTH.
    Tenzer, Robert
    Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden .
    Sjöberg, L.E.
    Wuhan University, Wuhan, China .
    Moho depth uncertainties in the Vening-Meinesz Moritz inverse problem of isostasy2014In: Studia Geophysica et Geodaetica, ISSN 0039-3169, E-ISSN 1573-1626, Vol. 58, no 2, p. 227-248Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We formulate an error propagation model based on solving the Vening Meinesz-Moritz (VMM) inverse problem of isostasy. The system ofobservation equations in the VMM model defines the relation between theisostatic gravity data and the Moho depth  by means of a second-order Fredholm integralequation of the first kind. The corresponding error model (derived in aspectral domain) functionally relates the Moho depth errors with the commissionerrors of used gravity and topographic/bathymetric models. The error model alsoincorporates the non-isostatic bias which describesthe disagreement, mainly of systematic nature, between the isostatic andseismic models. The error analysis is conducted at the study area of theTibetan Plateau and Himalayas with the world largest crustal thickness. TheMoho depth uncertainties due to errors of the currently available globalgravity and topographic models are estimated to be typically up to 1-2 km,provided that the GOCE gravity gradient observables improved themedium-wavelength gravity spectra. The errors due to disregarding sedimentarybasins can locally exceed ~2 km. The largest errors (which cause a systematic bias betweenisostatic and seismic models) are attributed to unmodeled mantleheterogeneities (including thecore-mantle boundary) and other geophysical processes. These errors aremostly less than 2 km under significant orogens (Himalayas, Ural), but canreach up to ~10 km under the oceanic crust.

  • 1130.
    Baglien, Elisabeth
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för pedagogik.
    Skolgården: - en studie ur ett elevperspektiv i årskurs 4-62009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studiens syfte var att belysa elevernas åsikter om sin skolgård. Oftast belyser tidigare forskning inom ämnet antingen pedagogernas eller förskolebarnens syn på skolgården. Genom att åskådliggöra eleverna som går i årskurs 4-6 bidrar denna studie till ny forskning.

     

    Litteraturgenomgången i bakgrunden visar att elevers synpunkter och åsikter bör lyftas fram. Utevistelse påverkar hela kroppen och eleverna kan få en ökad ansvarskänsla om de får möjligheten att känna sig delaktig i utformningen av skolgården.

     

    Metoden har bestått av en enkätundersökning av elever på en skola med en skolgård som har ett brett utbud av aktiviteter. För att öka förståelsen av elevernas svar kompletteras studien med en miljöbeskrivning av skolgården.

     

    Resultatet i undersökningen visar att majoriteten av eleverna är nöjd med sin skolgård, men att det finns en del saker de vill förändra. En del elever tycker att de flesta aktivteter som finns på skolgården endast gynnar de yngre barnen och vill gärna förändra det, genom att till exempel få en linjerad fotbollsplan. Fotbollsspelande och att umgås med vännerna genom att prata visade sig vara de populäraste aktiviteterna.

     

    Slutsatsen i undersökningen visar att barnperspektivet bör lyftas fram, inte bara när det gäller utformningen av en skolgård. Eftersom skolgården hela tiden bör vara under förändring.

  • 1131.
    Bahhi, Gusto
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Träningens effekter på testosteronnivån hos äldre överviktiga män: En litteraturstudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Minskade testosteronnivåer hos äldre överviktiga män är ett fenomen som varit omtalat i många år. Allvarliga sjukdomar som kan leda till för tidig bortgång kan förekomma vid för låga testosteronnivåer hos män. I många år har äldre överviktiga män använt sig av medicinska ingrepp för att öka sina hormonnivåer med syftet att återfå sin ungdomliga hälsa och undvika sjukdomar. Syftet med denna studie är att göra en sammanfattning av sökt och hittad litteratur om träningseffekter på testosteronnivåer hos äldre överviktiga män med 29+ i BMI. Metoden som författaren valt är en systematisk litteraturstudie. Resultat utgår från hittade studier från databaserna PubMed och Discovery. Med hjälp av sökord och andra begränsningar hittades relevanta vetenskapliga artiklar som analyserades, evidensvärderades och diskuterades av författaren. Resultaten framfördes från sju hittade artiklar där fyra av de visade att testosteronnivåerna kan ökas genom träning för äldre överviktiga män. Träningsformen som visade bäst resultat var aerob träning och denna träningsform användes i fem av samtliga artiklar. Testosteronnivåökning och andra förbättrade hälsotillstånd resulterades av aerob träning i olika former och tidsperioder. Slutsats: Vid utövandet av aerob träning av olika former under olika tidsperioder kan testosteronnivåer öka hos äldre överviktiga män med 29+ i BMI. Kostmodifiering i kombination med aerob träning visar sig öka chansen för att öka testosteronnivåerna hos drabbade.

  • 1132.
    Bahhi, Gusto
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Träningens effekter på testosteronnivån hos äldre överviktiga män: En litteraturstudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Minskade testosteronnivåer hos äldre överviktiga män är ett fenomen som varit omtalat i många år. Allvarliga sjukdomar som kan leda till för tidig bortgång kan förekomma vid för låga testosteronnivåer hos män. I många år har äldre överviktiga män använt sig av medicinska ingrepp för att öka sina hormonnivåer med syftet att återfå sin ungdomliga hälsa och undvika sjukdomar. Syftet med denna studie är att göra en sammanfattning av sökt och hittad litteratur om träningseffekter på testosteronnivåer hos äldre överviktiga män med 29+ i BMI. Metoden som författaren valt är en systematisk litteraturstudie. Resultat utgår från hittade studier från databaserna PubMed och Discovery. Med hjälp av sökord och andra begränsningar hittades relevanta vetenskapliga artiklar som analyserades, evidensvärderades och diskuterades av författaren. Resultaten framfördes från sju hittade artiklar där fyra av de visade att testosteronnivåerna kan ökas genom träning för äldre överviktiga män. Träningsformen som visade bäst resultat var aerob träning och denna träningsform användes i fem av samtliga artiklar. Testosteronnivåökning och andra förbättrade hälsotillstånd resulterades av aerob träning i olika former och tidsperioder. Slutsats: Vid utövandet av aerob träning av olika former under olika tidsperioder kan testosteronnivåer öka hos äldre överviktiga män med 29+ i BMI. Kostmodifiering i kombination med aerob träning visar sig öka chansen för att öka testosteronnivåerna hos drabbade.

  • 1133.
    Bahilo Rodríguez, Edgar
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Power Plant Operation Optimisation: Unit commitment of gas turbines using Machine Learning and MILP programming2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 1134.
    Bahilo Rodríguez, Edgar
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Swedish and Spanish electricity market: Comparison, improvements, price forecasting and a global future perspective2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report aims to make a comparison between the Swedish and Spanish electricity market, the design of new improvements that could achieve a better operation for both markets as well as the price forecasting for both spot markets. These enhancements are oriented to decrease electricity prices, energy use and the system CO2 emissions.

    Also, the main organizations of the market and their roles has been characterized, clarifying the functions of the Market Operator and the System Operator. In addition, the different markets, the trading products and the price formation have been explained and the picture of the market structure has been achieved with enough depth.

    Moreover, some of the most used methods in Time Series Analysis has been enumerated to understand which techniques are needed for forecast the electricity prices and the methodology used (Box-Jenkins Method) has been explained in detail. Later, all these methods have been implemented in an own code developed in Python 3.6 (TSAFTools .py) with the help of different statistics libraries mentioned during the method chapter.

    On the other hand, the description of the market situation has been carried out for both countries. Power installed capacity, electricity generation, average prices, main renewable technologies and policies to increase the renewable energy share has been analysed and corresponding described.

    Then, to estimate the market’s future spot electricity prices, ARIMA models have been selected to analyse the evolution of the day-ahead price using the TSAFTools.py. The final models show a proper performance in the two markets, especially in the Nordpool, achieving an RMSE: 37.68 and MAPE: 7.75 for the year in 2017 in Nordpool and a RMSE: 270.08 and MAPE: 20.24 in OMIE for 2017. Nordpool spot prices from 2015 to 2016 has been analysed too but obtaining a result not as good as the year 2017 with an RMSE: 49.01 and MAPE: 21.42.

    After this analysis, the strengths and weaknesses of both markets are presented and the main problems of the Spanish electricity system (power overcapacity, fuel dependency, non-cost-efficient renewable energies policies, lack of interconnexion capacity etc.) and the Swedish electricity system (dependency for nuclear power, uncertainty for solar electricity Generation) are presented.

    Finally, due to the quick development of the energy sector in the last years and the concern of the European Committee to reach a new design for the electricity market, different kinds of recommendations for the future have been considered.

  • 1135.
    Bahonjic, Sabina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Beslutsmodeller för val av insamlingssystem för matavfall till biogas- och biogödselproduktion: Avfallstaxan som styrmedel?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    By 2018 at least 50 % of the Swedish food waste will be biologically treated. Stockholm Vatten are planning to quadruple the collection of food waste for biological treatment between 2015 and 2020. There are three different food waste collecting systems in Stockholm City; food waste bins, half open food disposer and sealed food disposer. The factor that affects the choice of collecting system are costs throughout the process, for example waste fees. Waste fees are seen as a powerful policy instrument to reduce unsorted waste, and should be designed to reduce overall waste, increase the sorting and reduce the environmental load. The purpose of the thesis is to design two decision models for collecting systems of food waste for biogas and digestate production. One model will be simple and be of support when deciding which system the kitchen should invest in, the other model will be designed to give an overview for each systems costs and processes from collection to production of biogas/digestate.

    The methodology was composed of a mixture of a qualitative and quantitative method, and a case study. The data collection was made by a literature study, mail contact, study tour and a map of the processes.

    The pre-treatment cost is 500kr/ton for food waste collected from bins, a cost that food waste does not accrue from disposers. The waste tariff is 57% lower for waste disposals, and they require 72% less transport when collected. The costs Stockholm Vatten have for transporting food waste is 75 % lower for waste disposals compared to food waste bins. If the waste tariff would reflect the costs more kitchens would choose waste disposals over food waste bins. Beside the differences in food waste bins and waste disposals, there are differences between types of waste disposals. Sealed food waste disposals require half of the transports compared to half open food waste disposals for the same biogas potential. When designing tariffs this should be taken in consideration. 

  • 1136.
    Bai, S.
    et al.
    Department of Materials and Production, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Christensen, S.
    Department of Materials and Production, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Islam, M.
    Department of Materials and Production, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Rafique, Sajid
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Masud, Nauman
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Mattsson, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    O’Sullivan, L.
    University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland.
    Power, V.
    University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland.
    Development and testing of full-body exoskeleton AXO-SUIT for physical assistance of the elderly2019In: Wearable Robotics: Challenges and Trends: Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Wearable Robotics, WeRob2018, October 16-20, 2018, Pisa, Italy / [ed] Maria Chiara Carrozza, Silvestro Micera, José L. Pons, Cham: Springer, 2019, Vol. 22, p. 180-184Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the design and preliminary testing of a full-body assistive exoskeleton AXO-SUIT for older adults. AXO-SUIT is a system of modular exoskeletons consisting of lower-body and upper-body modules, and their combination as full body as well to provide flexible physical assistance as needed. The full-body exoskeleton comprises 27 degrees of freedom, of which 17 are passive and 10 active, which is able to assist people in walking, standing, carrying and handling tasks. In the paper, design of the AXO-SUIT is described. End-user testing results are presented to show the effectiveness of the exoskeleton in providing flexible physical assistance.

  • 1137.
    Bakac, Sükran
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Ensamkommande barn: En kvalitativ studie om ensamkommande barns upplevelser av hem för vård eller boendestöd2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 1138.
    Bakir, Seylan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences.
    Identitetsskapande för ensamkommande barn2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 1139.
    Bakken, Emely
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi. University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics.
    Fastighetsmäklarens marknadsföring av objektet: Objektannonsens utveckling2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the differences how gets on advertisements in the real estate industry and see how they have developed during the last 19 years when it comes to design an advertisement (layout) and media channel selection.

    The purpose is also to try to understand if the real estate agents own think that they market the house in the best way in order to get the prospective buyer to buy.

    Method: To collect the primary data I will do a comparison between advertisements in 1990 and 2009. I have done qualitative interviews with real estate agents but also collect expert opinions from marketers which are well informed in advertising matters. I have collect secondary data from books, Internet and also from old and new newspapers.

    Result & conclusion: This study shows that the real estate agent two decades ago did not have enough knowledge of how to market a house. However, there has been a considerable progress since than. Today real estate agents have the necessary knowledge for marketing a house. The conclusions are based on the comparison of advertisements. Marketing experts and real estate agents confirm this conclusion. 

    Suggestion for future research: It would be interesting to investigate how real estate agents use newspaper advertising to market themselves and their offices. Furthermore, it would be interesting to make an comparison between advertising in two different countries, e.g. the US and Sweden.

    Contribution of the thesis: This study shows that the development of advertisement have advanced during the last 19 years. This can establish.

  • 1140.
    Bakkenberg, Mikael
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies.
    "Crossing the River": the complexity of colonialism and slavery2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Caryl Phillips’s novel Crossing the River deals with European colonialism and the consequences of it. Crossing the River is a novel which embraces characters from colonized cultures as well as characters from colonizing cultures. Following a timeline that begins in 1752 and ends in 1963, the novel shows slavery in progress as well as what transpires in the aftermath of slavery

           In this essay I will argue that Caryl Phillips demonstrates the complexity of colonialism and slavery in his novel Crossing the River; he approaches the two concepts from different perspectives and shows us that colonialism and slavery are complicated concepts. Caryl Phillips uses narrative to demonstrate the negative sides of colonialism and slavery, to show that the negative aspects of the two concepts can affect not only the colonized people but also the colonizing people.

           Colonialism, in its traditional sense, is present in some of the novel’s episodes but slavery, in different forms, appears in all episodes. Nevertheless, all episodes in Crossing the River have a common origin; which Phillips reminds us about by using the relationship between plot and story. Diversity is an important theme in the novel. From a narrative perspective, Crossing the River has a diversity of narrators who tell their stories as well as other persons’ stories. There are female narrators as well as male ones; some narrators are known while other narrators are unknown. The ways the episodes are told are diversified. Some of the episodes follow a chronological line (“The Pagan Coast” and “Crossing the River”) while other episodes jump back and forth in time (“West” and “Somewhere in England”). The forms of narration are diversified, not only between the individual episodes but also within some of the episodes. Crossing the River plays with diversity in several layers. The structure of the novel is as diversified as the number of narrators, a diversity of ways of dealing with the main themes results in a diversity of fates for Phillips’s characters. Caryl Phillips combines structure with content to demonstrate that colonialism and slavery are problematic concepts: the negative consequences of the two concepts can, in different ways and in different degrees, affect colonized people as well as those responsible for colonialism. 

  • 1141.
    Bakkenberg, Mikael
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies.
    Scarlett Johansson: en studie i förhållandet mellan filmskådespelare och åskådare2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Filmen är ett medium som knyter samman filmskapare, filmskådespelare, medier och åskådare med varandra i intrikata relationer. Filmbolag producerar och auteurer skapar filmer, skådespelare medverkar i filmerna, medierna marknadsför såväl filmerna som filmskådespelarna och åskådare ser filmerna. Filmskaparen behöver åskådare för att kunna tjäna pengar eller bli omtalad, och behöver filmskådespelare för att få åskådare till sin film. Filmskådespelaren i sin tur behöver åskådare för att bli berömd men det kräver att det finns en film som åskådarna kan se. Skådespelaren är således beroende av det finns filmskapare.

    Åskådaren behöver filmskapare för att kunna se film men frågan är vad åskådaren behöver filmskådespelare till? Det är idag fullt möjligt att göra filmer utan skådespelare som fysiska aktörer på filmduken. Åskådaren behöver alltså inte filmskådespelare för att kunna se filmen, likväl är skådespelare beundrade av åskådare.

           Syftet med denna uppsats är att undersöka förhållandet mellan filmskådespelare och åskådare genom att ta reda på hur en filmskådespelare konstrueras i två filmer och se hur man har uppfattat denna konstruktion. Vad är det för bild man målar upp av filmskådespelaren och hur har folk reagerat på den? Den valda filmstjärnan är Scarlett Johansson och de två filmer som kommer att studeras är Den svarta dahlian samt Lost in Translation. Min frågeställning är:       Hur konstrueras Scarlett Johanssons persona i filmerna? Hur har åskådare reagerat på Scarlett Johanssons karaktärer och skådespeleri?

           Scarlett Johanssons persona i såväl Lost in Translation som Den svarta dahlian är två unga kvinnor som använder andra för sina egna syften. I det förstnämnda fallet använder Scarletts karaktär Charlotte Bill Murrays Bob som en läromästare och som en vän. I det andra fallet är Scarlett Johanssons Kay Lake mer att likna vid en femme fatale som använder Josh Hartnetts Bleichert för sexuella syften. Scarlett Johanssons filmiska persona framställs på ett tvåsidigt sätt: dels Charlotte och Kay Lake som prydliga unga damer när de uppträder som offentliga personer, dels Charlotte och Kay Lake som utmanande, ohämmade unga kvinnor när de uppträder som privatpersoner.   

           Responsen på Scarlett Johansson uppvisar en del variationer i hur man har talat om Scarlett och hur man har använt henne. När det gäller åsikter har man varit mestadels positiv till Scarlett Johansson i Lost in Translation medan man har varit mestadels negativ när det gäller hennes insats i Den svarta dahlian. Såväl recensenter som amatörtyckare har uttalat sig om Scarlett Johanssons utseende och hennes skådespeleri. Att jämföra Scarlett Johansson med antingen en motspelare eller hennes insats med tidigare roller har varit vanligt bland responsen.

  • 1142.
    Baky, Andras
    et al.
    Swedish Institute of Agricultural Environmental Engineering (JTI), Uppsala, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Ola
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Systems Analysis of Organic Waste Management in Denmark: Environmental Project No. 822 2003 Miljøprojekt2003Report (Other academic)
  • 1143.
    Balazsi, Krister
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Karlstedt, Josefin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Faktorer som är av betydelse för långsiktigt viktminskningsresultat efter gastric bypass: En litteraturstudie2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med denna litteraturstudie var att sammanställa och beskriva faktorer som är av betydelse för långsiktigt viktminskningsresultat, mer än tre år efter gastric bypass.

    Metod: För att besvara studiens syfte gjordes en litteraturstudie med deskriptiv design. Studien har baserats på fjorton vetenskapliga artiklar som har sökts fram via Medline samt genom manuell sökning.

    Resultat: Studien visade att faktorer som var av betydelse för långsiktigt viktminskningsresultat var kost, fysisk aktivitet, beteende, uppföljning, preoperativ viktnedgång samt medicinska faktorer såsom utvidgning av magsäck och gastrojejunal stomi. God kostkvalitet och utövande av fysisk aktivitet visade sig ha ett signifikant samband med långsiktig viktminskning. Beteenden såsom kontroll över matbegär och ätvanor var av stor betydelse. Hetsätning visade sig påverka viktresultatet negativt. Patienter som gick på uppföljning visade större viktminskning på lång sikt liksom patienter som lyckades minska i vikt före operationen.

    Slutsats: Långsiktigt viktresultat efter gastric bypass kan förbättras genom rätt kost, fysisk aktivitet, långsiktig uppföljning samt genom att tidigt upptäcka ohälsosamma ätbeteenden. Mer forskning krävs angående faktorer som påverkar viktresultatet på lång sikt och vad sjukvården kan göra för att påverka dessa.

  • 1144.
    Baldgrim, Jessica
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Wahlberg, Malin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Påverkas företagens prestanda av ett socialt ansvarstagande?2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is a widely known global concept and Swedish enterprises are considered to be cutting edge when it comes to taking responsibility. The main objective is to analyze if a large involvement in CSR gives Swedish companies a change in company value, and if it affects their profitability. An approximate Tobin’s Q is used to measure firm value and Return On Assets (ROA) is used to measure profitability.

     

    Method: A quantitative deductive method where investigation of secondary data will lead to an examination whether it is possible to demonstrate a relationship between CSR and firm value and/or profitability. Our secondary data is retrieved from Folksam Index for corporate responsibility 2009 and the corporate annual reports from 2011. Historical stock prices were collected from Nasdaq OMX Nordic webpage. After examination of the data a suitable analysis method will be chosen, which in this case resulted in multiple regression analysis.

     

    Result and Conclusions: The study shows that there is a statistically significant correlation between a high CSR and the approximate Tobin’s Q where increased CSR returns a reduced value of the firm. The study also shows a statistically significant positive correlation between CSR and ROA, where the model, however, have shortcomings. A general explanation for this is that there is no global concept for CSR and thus it is difficult to measure. In addition, difficulties were discovered regarding determining market value of Swedish firms as companies generally do not have all of their shares on the stock market and that there are different classes of shares.

     

    Suggestions for future research: One suggestion is a cross-sectional regression, similar to this study that compares different ways to define ROA and size. It would also be interesting to through a time series analysis be able to examine when, time wise, CSR activities makes an impact on Tobin’s Q and ROA.

     

    Contribution of the thesis: Identify influencing factors to contribute for a future benchmark of econometric models when measuring CSR.

  • 1145.
    Balkemo, Johanna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology.
    Höglund, Madeleine
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology.
    På vilket sätt kan idrott och hälsa, kost och motorisk träning påverka elevers lärande?2007Student paper second term, 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Antalet timmar inom ämnet idrott och hälsa i skolan dras ner allt mer, vilket framför allt kan påverka de elever som är fysiskt inaktiva på fritiden. Som effekt av detta har den svenska regeringen offentliggjort att eleverna bör rör på sig mer och de har därför infört 30 minuters obligatorisk daglig fysisk aktivitet på grundskolorna. Kommunerna väljer idag också att stänga allt fler lekparker vilket i längden kan leda till att den spontana leken hos elever på fritiden kan minskas. Detta kan leda till att den naturliga motoriken inte utvecklas som den ska. Eleverna får då inte utlopp för att röra sig tillräckligt mycket vilket kan leda till att deras motorik hämmas, vilket i sin tur kan leda till att deras läs- och skrivsvårigheter också påverkas negativt. Klyftan mellan fysiskt aktiva barn och fysiskt inaktiva barn ökar allt mer och som följd av detta kan det leda till en ond cirkel. Denna cirkel bör brytas i tid för att inte elever med motoriska svårigheter ska komma allt längre bort från sina jämnåriga klasskamrater. Kosten kan ha en stor betydelse för elevers lärande och koncentration. Om elever inte äter tillräckligt kan det vara många faktorer som påverkas negativt t ex, de får mindre ork, svårare att koncentrera sig och att den allmänna hälsan försämras.

    Studiens syfte har varit att studera faktorer som idrott och hälsa, kost och motorisk träning och om dessa faktorer kan påverkar elevers lärande eller inte. Studien har genomförts genom intervjuer på fem lärare på tre olika grundskolor.

    De intervjuade lärarna tycker att idrott och hälsa, kost och motorisk träning tillsammans är viktiga faktorer för elevers lärande, men de tycker också att valmöjlighet, elevvård och familjeförhållanden är faktorer som påverkar. Att eleverna får vara fysiskt aktiva leder till att de har lättare att koncentrera sig under skoltid. De intervjuade lärarna anser att kosten också har en stor betydelse för att eleverna ska kunna orka hela dagen i skolan. Den motoriska träningen bör tränas redan i tidig ålder, eftersom den kan hjälpa till att utveckla skriften och språket. Det som framkom framförallt i vår studie var att de intervjuade lärarna anser att dessa tre faktorer tillsammans blir en ”höjdare” för elevers lärande.

  • 1146.
    Ball, Linden J.
    et al.
    University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Threadgold, Emma
    University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Marsh, John E.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Christensen, Bo T.
    Copenhagen Business School, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    The effects of stimulus complexity and conceptual fluency on aesthetic judgments of abstract art: Evidence for a default–interventionist account2018In: Metaphor and Symbol, ISSN 1092-6488, E-ISSN 1532-7868, Vol. 33, no 3, p. 235-252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report an experiment investigating how stimulus complexity and conceptual fluency (i.e., the ease of deriving meaning) influence aesthetic liking judgments for abstract artworks. We presented participants with paintings at two levels of complexity (high vs. low) and five levels of conceptual fluency (determined from a prior norming study) and requested separate ratings of beauty and creativity. Our predictions were derived from the PIA Model (Pleasure-Interest Model of Aesthetic Liking), which views aesthetic preferences as being formed by two, distinct fluency-based processes: an initial, automatic, stimulus-driven, default process and a subsequent, perceiver-driven deliberative process. A key trigger for deliberative processing is assumed to be disfluency at the default stage, as caused by factors such as visual complexity. We predicted that complexity and conceptual fluency would interact in determining aesthetic liking, with people preferring complex stimuli, but only when these are relatively easy to process conceptually. Our results supported this prediction for beauty judgments, although creativity judgments showed a curiously uniform profile. Nevertheless, the predictive capacity of the PIA Model in relation to beauty judgments attests to the explanatory strength of this default?interventionist theory of aesthetic liking. We conclude by noting important parallels between the PIA Model and the Revised Optimal Innovation Hypothesis, which likewise has broad reach in explaining how defaultness and non-defaultness affect pleasure across a range of linguistic and pictorial stimuli.

  • 1147.
    Balogun, Kazeem Ayinde
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Energy audit in Fridhemsskolan: A preschool in Gävle municipality2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is about the energy audit in Fridhemsskolan which is an educational facility. Fridhemsskolan is a preschool for children in Gävle municipality for children up to the age of six years and comprise of nine buildings in total. The project begins with an energy survey on the school facilities which ranges from checking the ventilation system, lightning system, number of occupants, equipment’s types and so on. The next step was to use a simulation program software called indoor climate and energy (IDA ICE) to create the base model for the building and input the data collected during the energy survey directly into the software and simulate it for a period of one year. After creating the base model, the total electricity use of the building was around 89 MWh/year while the district heating was 157 MWh/year.The energy conservation opportunities in Fridhemsskolan for the building was divide into two categories and these are referred to as non-retrofitting (no or minimal cost) and retrofitting (with cost) recommendations. The non-retrofitting involves reducing the indoor temperature and with this approach; the district heating consumption was reduced to 147.6 MWh/year which amount to 9.34 MWh/year in savings for the district heating while the electricity consumption was reduced to 86.4 MWh/year which amount to 2.6 MWh/year in savings for the electricity.Retrofitting (with cost) recommendations involves looking at the base model and see where some improvements can be carried out. In this research, the roof of the building has more energy losses and retrofitting with cost analysis was performed on that part of the building envelope.After retrofit, the district heating consumption was reduced to 142 MWh/year which is about 15 MWh/year in saving for the district heating while the electricity consumption was reduced to 26 MWh/year which also amount to 63 MWh/year saving in electricity consumption. The reason for this sharp decrease in the electrical consumption was because, the electrical radiators in the base model of the building was replaced with ideal heaters that uses district heating as the energy carrier and 170 mm of mineral wool was also added to the roof.Finally the research further looks at the thermal comfort and the indoor air quality of the occupants in the building by analysing the data on both thermal comfort and the indoor air quality to see if the value obtained are within the acceptable range. In most cases the value is within the acceptable range like in the case of carbon dioxide (CO₂) concentration in theiiioccupied zone, the value obtained after reducing the indoor temperature was less than 1000 parts-per-million (ppm) and that shows that the carbon dioxide (CO₂) concentration is within an acceptable level in the room. The thermal comfort of the occupants in the occupied zone was within the acceptable limit. However, lowering indoor temperature increases the PPD for both buildings. The percentage of the total occupant hours with thermal dissatisfaction increases to 13% from 14 % for Hus 9 and from 13% to 15% for Hus (4-8).

  • 1148.
    Baltscheffsky, Susanna
    Svenska dagbladet.
    Bygget som förstärker naturen2010In: Svenska dagbladetArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett gammalt industriområde vid Stockholms universitet kan bli ett föredöme för hur byggprojekt kan ge mer till naturen än vad det förstör. Men om området byggs för tätt förstörs viktiga värden i Nationalstadsparken, varnar kritiker.

  • 1149.
    Bandoophanit, Thianthip
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Ye, Lupeng
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    University of Gävle Environmental Performance After ISO 14001 CertificationReflected by Students’ Environmental Awareness2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental problems are seen as the first priority that all countries try to find as a solution to be more sustainable. These issues arise due to the lack of our responsibility to the world. Researchers agree on that the starting point in changing our society to be green is to increase environmental awareness (Jiang et al., 1999). Several sectors accept this idea like UNESCO which focuses on education as a tool to promote sustainable development (UNESCO, 2002).

     

    Following UNESCO, our study investigates university students’ environmental awareness. The Authors hope that the outcome not only reflects university performance, but also helps to develop the environment in the future.  Hence, the authors selected the University of Gävle or HiG, as a case study because it is a best practice in Environmental Management System (EMS). Moreover, HiG received the ISO 14001 certificate and it has a continuous improvement program (Sammalisto, 2007, p.69). 

     

    The study was started by reviewing research literatures concerning Environmental Management System (EMS), Sustainable Development (SD), Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) and Environmental Awareness. The authors found that there are few studies talking about students’ awareness in universities after being awarded ISO 14001. Notice that the research was seen only from environmental perspective (Flint, 2004).

     

    To answer research questions, two surveys were adopted. The first part focused on teachers and officers (or staffs) who work on environmental issues. While, the second part focused on the students which were divided into Swedish and international.

     

    The research outcomes indicate that HiG has a good EMS performance supported by annual environmental audits, regular policy revision and the attempts to minimize non-conformities. Conversely, when the authors pointed at student awareness, it shows that students have insufficient environmental knowledge. Moreover, some students have lower environmental awareness and act in a less ecological friendly way. Nevertheless, a knowledge problem was also found among several university staffs. This is because of the lack of communication about environmental issues inside the staffs community and lack of environmental education for students.

     

    Whatever the university situation is, there are some groups of staff and students eager to develop themselves and their university. This point of strength could be the best driving force. It can push the university forward until the university reaches sustainable development and it brings the aware graduates into society.

  • 1150.
    Bane, Birgitta
    University of Gävle, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för religionsvetenskap.
    Det onda och den onde: kontrasterande uppfattningar om det onda inom katolska kyrkan2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The nature of evil is clearly defined in catholic dogma and tradition but, though very rarely addressed, what is actually preached and transmitted in pastoral context often differs significantly from this line of thought. Based on the experience that the topic is often evaded or treated poorly, as well as on information concerning a recent increase in reports of demonic possession in western society, this study explored the schism within the church concerning evil. It was noted that embarrassment - as in the face of 21st century-enlightened-thought the Church still officially states the existence of the Devil and associated malevolent spirits - seems to have promoted an intellectual cover-up. While not desiring to inhibit freedom of thought or opinion, this work aimed at establishing clarity, coherence and truthfulness concerning teachings of the Church, and implications. It was argued that left in the dark as to the Church’s concept of spiritual reality, and ensuing controversy, the laity is not given fair opportunity to make existential choices, reach own conclusions or put forth important questions and issues for debate. The study was grounded in a systematic presentation of catholic dogma on evil, followed by a phenomenologically inspired method of analysis. Recent theological arguments put forth by the New Theology were related to extracts of an extensive interview with a catholic exorcist in Sweden (included in full). It was shown how the traditional Christian idea of Jesus Christ is inseparably bound up with, and based on, the concept of spiritual forces of light/good and darkness/evil, mutually repelling each other. It was concluded therefore that annihilation of the devil in one way or another, inevitably ends up by making the incarnation pointless, deconstructing not only traditional concepts of evil but the whole Christian idea in itself. The need for open discussion was stressed, including uncomfortable implications of belief in the existence of a spiritual evil.

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