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  • 1201.
    Bcheri, Johanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    Kommunikation genom policys och visioner.: En fallstudie av kunskapsföretaget Centrum för flexibelt lärande (CFL).2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Abstrakt

    MKV C/VT 2013

    Handledare: Mats Hyvonen/ Examinator/Eva Ekstrand/ Författare: Johanna Bcheri

    Titel: Kommunikation genom policys och visioner. En fallstudie av kunskapsföretaget Centrum för flexibelt lärande (CFL).

    Nyckelord: organisationskultur, policys, information, Alvesson, identitet

    Vi lever i ett tjänstesamhälle, där organisationer och arbetsplatser har en annan karaktär än i industrisamhället. I den standardiserade industriproduktionen är själva produktionsprocessen bestämd på förhand. I tjänste- och kunskapsproducerande organisationer är produktionen i mycket högre grad kopplad till individerna och en mycket större del av deras personlighet, förmågor, kompetenser och kunskaper. Den för organisationen nödvändiga kontrollen, styrning och samordningen har med nödvändighet en annan karaktär i tjänste- och kunskapsproducerande organisationer. I dag vill man ha mer av individen, men man vill inte ha vad som helst och inte allt. Ett sätt att beskriva det är att kontrollen, styrningen och samordningen blivit mer indirekt. För att samordna handlandet formuleras ofta policys som berör hela arbetsstyrkan. En sorts identitets skapande sker då människor kopplar samman organisationens policy, symboler och värderingar till sin egna specifika sociala identitet, en sorts förtätning uppstår här menar Alvesson, hans teori konstaterar att människor som arbetar inom serviceorganisationer ofta framtonas som en produkt av varumärket. I denna C-uppsats genomförs en fallstudie på Centrum för flexibelt lärande (CFL). Syftet är att undersöka vilken information organisationen vill kommunicera via sin varumärkespolicy. Hur verksamt är dokumentet "CFLs varumärke" för organisationens målsättning, hjälper varumärkets retoriska innehåll till att få ett arbetsteam som jobbar mot samma vision och målbild? Hur ser medarbetarna på varumärkesplattformen, stämmer ledningsgruppens vision om vad varumärket ska åstadkomma med den övriga personalen? Finns inslag av budskap i informationen i varumärkespolicyn som kan komma att påverka personalens personliga integritet.

    Efter att ha analyserat dokumentet "CFLs varumärke" och genomfört intervjuer på människor inom organisationen, så kan det konstateras att Alvessons teorier stämmer bra överens om att ledarskapsideologin och organisationskulturen inte alltid är samstämmig. Arbetstagarna läste ofta av idéer och styrdokument med olika "glasögon". En majoritet av de intervjuade kände

    3

    en stark koppling till organisationen och sin egen identitet, de beskrev sig själva som en ambassadör för organisationen som även trängde in i det privata livet.

  • 1202.
    Beatrice, Bohlin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Ina, Thulin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Livskvalitet hos personer med ALS: En litteraturstudie2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund:

    Amyotrofisk lateral skleros (ALS) är en nervsjukdom som det idag inte

    finns något botemedel mot. Sjukdomen har ett hastigt förlopp där musklerna förtvinar

    och försvagas samtidigt som sinnet är opåverkat. Livskvalitet innefattar fysiska,

    psykiska och sociala faktorer. Att få stöd av familj, vänner och fritidsintressen är något

    som bidrar mycket till ökad livskvalitet.

  • 1203. Bechtereva, N P
    et al.
    Korotkov, A D
    University of Gävle, Belastningsskadecentrum.
    Pakhomov, S V
    Roudas, M S
    Starchenko, M G
    Medvedev, S V
    PET study of brain maintenance of verbal creative activity.2004In: International Journal of Psychophysiology, ISSN 0167-8760, E-ISSN 1872-7697, Vol. 53, no 1, p. 11-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with the investigation of the brain organization of verbal creativity. Psychological tasks were designed in accordance with two main strategies used by volunteers in solving creative tasks. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured with positron emission tomography (PET) when performing two types of creative tasks in two groups of subjects, each type of the task organizing the creativity process in its own way. Brain correlates of creativity were revealed in the left parieto-temporal regions (Brodmann areas 39 and 40).

  • 1204.
    Becirovic Emkic, Medina
    University of Gävle, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences.
    Folkhemmets husmoder i en strid för yrkesarbete och jämställdhet: Kvinnans förändrade roll i samhället under 1950- och 1960-talets första hälft i tidningen Damernas Värld2010Student paper other, 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 1205.
    Becirovic Emkic, Medina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies.
    Motivation - the driving force for our actions  :   A study of the importance of learning experiences, learner beliefs, self-determination and personal goals for motivation and attitudes in English language learning2010Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The pedagogical debates within language learning and language teaching have emphasized motivation as one of the key factors. Conversely, the broadness of motivation and its complexity has been acknowledged as a challenging concept which is difficult to grasp. This study aims at examining motivation as a concept determined by different internal and external factors which also shape individuals’ attitudes towards language learning. With the aim of understanding the existence of motivation and attitudes in a variety of contexts, individuals’ level of language knowledge is the point of departure in this study. Motivation and attitudes in language learning are examined in the light of individuals’ learning experiences, personal beliefs, self-determination and personal goals. 

  • 1206.
    Becirovic, Medina
    University of Gävle, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences.
    The Construction and Re-construction of Female Beauty in The Mill on the Floss 2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The essay investigates the construction and reconstruction of feminine beauty in Eliot’s The Mill on the Floss where the heroine Maggie functions as a way of illustrating both beauty and ugliness. Maggie’s “unrefined” appearance as well as her beauty is furthermore highlighted through a strong comparison with other characters, which also is a significant aspect in the essay. The analysis is based on a critical approach informed by previous studies regarding the various aspects of female beauty.  

  • 1207.
    Becker, Wulf
    et al.
    National Food Administration, Uppsala.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    Department of Medical Sciences, Nutrition, Uppsala University.
    Gustafsson, Inga Britt
    Department of Culinary Art.
    Haraldsdóttir, Johanna
    Research Department of Human Nutrition, Royal Veterinary/Agricultural University, Copenhagen.
    Nydahl, Margaretha C.
    Department of Domestic Sciences, Uppsala University.
    Vessby, Bengt O. H.
    Unit for Clinical Nutrition Research, Department of Public Health Sciences, Uppsala University.
    Ytterfors, Arne
    Unit for Clinical Nutrition Research, Department of Public Health Sciences, Uppsala University.
    Precoded food records compared with weighed food records for measuring dietary habits in a population of Swedish adults1998In: Scandinavian Journal of Nutrition/Næringsforskning, ISSN 1102-6480, E-ISSN 1651-2359, Vol. 42, no 4, p. 145-149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a cross-over design, 82 women and men recorded their food intake by a precoded 7-day record book (PR) including both standard portions in household measures and photographs, and a weighed 7-day record (WR), respectively. Single 24-h urine samples, for determination of nitrogen excretion, were collected for 39 subjects during the WR period. Comparing the PR to the WR method, the mean intake of some foods, as cheese, was higher, and bread and vegetables lower. For energy and nutrients, the fat energy percent (E%) was higher, and protein E%, dietary fibre, iron, thiamin, folate, carotene and α-tocopherol were all lower. Protein intake registered by the PR method was 20% lower compared to 24-h urine samples, and 11% lower for the WR method. The results indicate that some of the standard portion sizes, used by the PR method, contributed to the observed differences in food and nutrient intakes. The subjects found it easier and less time-consuming to record their food intake with the PR than with the WR method. The time spent on processing data was reduced by 50% when using the PR method. The results of the study will be used for improvements in the design of the PR for use in large-scale dietary surveys for monitoring dietary habits.

  • 1208.
    Becker, Wulf
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap.
    Gustafsson, Inga-Britt
    Haraldsdottir, Johanna
    Nydahl, Margareta
    Vessby, Bengt
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap.
    Ytterfors, A
    Precoded or weighed food records for measuring dietary habits in a population of Swedish adults: I Food intake1996Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 1209.
    Beckley, Amber L.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Kardell, Johan
    Stockholms universitet.
    Sarnecki, Jerzy
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Criminology. Stockholms universitet.
    Immigration and crime in Sweden2015In: Routledge handbook on crime and international migration / [ed] Sharon Pickering and Julie Ham, Abingdon: Routledge, 2015, p. 41-54Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 1210.
    Beckman, Claes
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Center for RF-Measurement Technology2008In: Radio Science and Communication, RVK08, 2008Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    In February 2006 the Centre for RF Measurement Technology was established at the University of Gävle (HIG). The long term objectives of the centre are to establish world leading research in the area of RF Measurement Technology, support education of radio engineers for local, national and international radio companies at HIG, become a natural collaboration partner for leading industry companies and universities and to support local and national small and middle sized companies in the radio business.

    Today the centre has collaboration with more than 15 national and international companies within 3 major projects in the field of RF measurement technology research spanning from power amplifiers and antennas to electromagnetic interference in industrial environments.

    The annual research budget is in the area of 10 MSEK. In addition to the research projects the centre also supports education and collaboration with local industry, high schools and community.

    The centre is located easy to find, well equipped laboratories in Gävle Technology Park, next to the University of Gävle campus.

  • 1211.
    Beckman, Claes
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Verifying 3G License Coverage Requirements2011In: Advances in Vehicular Networking Technologies / [ed] Miguel Almeida, InTech , 2011, p. 339-356Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the beginning of the 21’st century, the 3rd generation mobile phone systems, 3G, were introduced all around the world. In most countries, spectrum for this technology was allocated through some kind of licensing procedure. In Europe, the prevailing approach was to allocatespectrum through auctions, a process which led to a situation where the European operators found themselves committed to pay a staggering 130Bilion Euros for their 3G licenses.However, in most European countries, the fee was not the only obligation put on thelicensee: A coverage, “roll-out” requirement was in many cases also connected to the license(Northstream, 2002). Typically, these coverage requirements required that the licenseescover a certain area at a certain point in time after that the licenses had been awarded.In order for the regulators to verify that the licensees had met the coverage requirement and,hence, complied with the regulation, a method for coverage verification was needed. Suchmethods have therefore since then been developed by several European regulators (e.g. PTS2004; ECC 2007). In this book chapter we describe some general underlying consideration for the verification of radio coverage in UMTS systems and in particular we describe the Swedishmethodology developed by the Swedish Telecom regulator Post & Telestyrelsen (PTS).

  • 1212.
    Beckman, Claes
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Belkow, Elena
    Eklund, Lars
    Landmark, Urban
    Wirdemark, Per
    Verifying 3G License Requirements: some Preliminary Swedish Results2008In: The 68th IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference: VTC2008-Fall, 2008, p. 1-4Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the year 2000, the Swedish Telecom regulator “Post&Telestyrelsen” (PTS) granted in a “beauty contest” four licenses for operation of 3G mobile networks. Through this process, the licensees committed themselves to cover 8.860.000 inhabitants of the Swedish population. In order to verify the coverage and confirm compliance with the license requirements, PTS, developed a test procedure in close collaboration with the licensees.

    The present paper gives an overview of the considerations behind the design of the test method and presents some preliminary results. Today all Swedish 3G operators comply with the licence requirement and it is concluded that a method for verifying the requirement accepted by the licensees is an important tool for successful licensing of spectrum and fulfilment of licensing obligations.

  • 1213.
    Beckman, Claes
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Eklund, Lars
    Karlsson, Bo
    Lindmark, Björn
    Ribbenfjärd, David
    Wirdemark, Per
    Verifying 3G licence requirements when every dB is worth a billion2006In: First European Conference on Antennas & Propagation: EuCAP 2006 / [ed] H. Lacoste & L. Ouwehand, 2006, p. 1-4Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the year 2000, the Swedish Telecom regulator: “Post&Telestyrelsen”, PTS, granted in a “beauty contest” four licenses for operations of 3G systems. To verify the coverage and the license requirements, PTS, has developed a test procedure where the field strength of the primary Common Pilot Channel, CPICH, is measured in a drive test. Designing such a test constitutes a number of challenges mainly due to the fact that in 3G the accuracy in the measurement needs to be extremely high since even a small systematic error of ~1dB could in Sweden have the consequence that each operator would have to build an extra +1000 sites at a staggering cost of ~1billion SEK!

    The present paper gives an overview of the considerations behind the design of the test method used for verification of the 3G licence requirements in Sweden.

  • 1214.
    Beckman, Claes
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Klahr, Stefan
    Ett ödesval för regionen2009In: Gefle Dagblad, Vol. 6 februariArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 1215.
    Beckman, Claes
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Lindmark, Björn
    Base station antennas for mobile communications2007In: 2007 IEEE International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation: Short Courses & Workshops, 2007Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This course gives the participants a general overview of the application, implementation and design of current and future base station antennas for mobile communications. It is aimed at microwave, RF- and antenna engineers in the wireless area, but also useful for researchers looking for relevant research topics and system engineers needing a deeper understanding of the antenna component of their system. The course explains underlying theoretical and practical implementation aspects of base station antennas in mobile communication networks of today and the future.

    The course is divided into three main parts:

    (i) System Aspects,

    (ii) BTS Antenna Design,

    (iii) Diversity and MIMO

    In the first part the fundamental parameters of a base station antenna are discussed in the context of radio network design. In particular we discuss parameters such as gain, radiation patterns, frequency bands and power handling and put them in the context of cell planning, propagation and capacity.

    In the second part a general overview of base station antenna design is given. In particular the design aspects of radiators, feed networks and reflectors are discussed. Furthermore, a general discussion of array synthesis for base station antennas is given.

    In the final part of the course we give an overview of the underlying theory of diversity and MIMO systems. In particular we discuss the requirements that these systems put on the base station antennas in order to be able to deliver the data rates expected from WiMAX and the long term evolution of 3G systems.

  • 1216.
    Beckman, Claes
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Lindmark, Björn
    The evolution of base station antennas for mobile communications2007In: International Conference on Electromagnetics in Advanced Applications: ICEAA 07, 2007Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    During the last two decades, mobile telephony has virtually exploded around the world. Whereas fixed telephony has merely around 800 milion phone lines globally, cellular mobile telephony has today close to 4 bilion subscribers less than 20 years after the introduction of digital mobile telephony!

    In the centre of a mobile cell is the base station antenna whose vertical and horizontal beam pattern creates the borders. The first base station antennas deployed for cellular communications were omni-directional in the horizontal plane. These antennas are typically based on stacked circular dipole elements fed by a series feed network. However, as the need for capacity increased more radio channels were being used and the radio networks soon reconfigured to 3 sector systems. The base station antennas in these type of systems typically has half power beam widths in the horizontal plane of around 65 degrees and the elements are fed by corporate feed networks.

    Through the choice of antenna length and the selection of vertical element positions and excitations a broad range of antenna gains and vertical beam patterns can be achieved. We show that for a linear array the gain is mainly determined by the vertical and horizontal beam widths but reduced by losses in the feed network. The electrical down tilt is needed to provide good coverage within the desired cell and is preferred to mechanical down tilt as it is independent of horizontal angle. Remotely adjustable electrical down tilt is also available today and an important cost saver during the expansion part of a network. As we will see, system requirements on reduced channel interferencemlead to a simple expression for the necessary phase shift in such an array.

    Due to the rapid increase in subscribers it was soon realized by the regulators around the world that one frequency band for digital mobile communications was not enough to provide the capacity needed. Therefore, in the mid 90-ties second frequency bands were introduced in both North America and Europe. Since operators are not keen to put up bigger towers and more antennas, ´this development called for dual-band antennas. The introduction of the UMTS band in the beginning of this millennium of course then called for triple band functionality!

    Traditionally the diversity is achieved by using two receive antenna branches separated in space. In mobile phone networks, all base stations for macro cellular communications incorporate diversity on the up-link. Otherwise it would be virtually impossible to communicate with a low power mobile over the rapidly fading channel. Since space diversity uses two horizontally separate antennas positioned about 20 wavelengths apart it become soon of interest for the operators to incorporate polarization diversity. With polarization diversity only one dual polarized antenna is used for each sector at the base. In order to ensure good polarization diversity it is necessary and sufficient to have symmetrical patterns with equal power in horizontal and vertical polarization.

    In 3G it is of great interest to strengthen the up- and down-links in order to be able to increase the data rates from today’s 16kbit/s (voice) to a wireless broadband of around 10Mbits/s. However, in the Long Term Evolution of 3G, LTE, data rates of up to and around 100MBits/s are expected. In order accomplish this diversity at the base station will not be enough but complemented by multiple branch reception and transmission at both the base station and the mobile terminal (Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output, MIMO systems). For such arrays it is of interest to reduce the mutual coupling between elements. Although the mutual coupling could be compensated for by perfect channel estimation it is still of interest to reduce the coupling in practice in order to be able to handle the mismatch loss. In order to do so the use of e.g. corrugations, hard and soft surfaces as well as Electronic Band Gap, EBG materials for the inclusion into the antenna structure has been studied.

    In conclusion we find that the base station antenna has developed dramatically during the last two decades and base station antenna technology may become a key enabler for the Long Term Evolution of 3G.

  • 1217.
    Beckman, Claes
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Smith, Gregory
    Shared Networks: Making Wireless Communications Affordable2005In: IEEE wireless communications, ISSN 1536-1284, E-ISSN 1558-0687, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 78-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the wake of the substantial financial commitments incurred by European and other UMTS network operators in the form of licence fees, licensees have turned to network sharing as a means of reducing the capital requirements needed to bring 3G services to market. The reception from European regulators has been mixed, due to concerns that this inhibits competition, slow buildout, or otherwise result in reduced consumer benefits. The authors believe that the generic product life cycle model provides insights that indicate that network sharing, within an appropriately constructed regulatory framework, is not a threat to vigorous competition in the 3G industry, and in fact is one of the keys to stimulating the development of advanced, ubiquitous, affordable services.

  • 1218.
    Beckman, Claes
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Smith, Gregory
    Shared Networks: More than making wireless communication affordable2005In: Vehicular Technology Conference, 2005: VTC 2005-Spring., 2005, p. 2984-2988Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the wake of the substantial financial commitments incurred by European and other UMTS network operators in the form of license fees, licensees have turned to network sharing as a means of reducing the capital requirements needed to bring 3G services to market. The reception from European regulators has been mixed, due to concerns that this inhibits competition, slow build-out, or otherwise result in reduced consumer benefits. The authors believe that the generic product life-cycle model provides insights that indicate that network sharing, within an appropriately constructed regulatory framework, is not a threat to vigorous competition in the 3G industry, and in fact, is one of the keys to stimulating the development of advanced, ubiquitous, affordable services.

  • 1219.
    Beckman, Claes
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Smith, Gregory
    The Benefits of network Sharing2005In: Radiovetenskap och Kommunikation: RVK 2005, 2005, p. 147-151Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 1220.
    Beckmann, Linda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Chefsrekryteringens betydelse för arbetsmotivation och grupptänkande2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 1221.
    Bedikanli, Gülten
    University of Gävle, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för kultur- och religionsvetenskap.
    Två folk och ett land: judarnas invandring till Palestina och uppkomsten av Israel-Palestinakonflikten2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Mitt syfte med detta arbete är att undersöka judarnas invandring till Palestina och konflikten som har uppstått mellan Israel och Palestina. Det är en konflikt som har visat sig vara extremt svårlöst och komplex. Israel-Palestinakonflikten innebär att det är två folk och ett land. Båda vill ha marken och gör anspråk på den. Judarna hänvisar till Bibeln och tycker att de har rätt till landet för att Gud utlovat landet till dem, medan palestinierna hänvisar till att de har bott i detta land långt före judarna. Idag har judarna ett eget land, Israel. Israel skapades av de judar som invandrade till Palestina.

    Jag försökte ge svar på tre frågor och jag tycker att det är viktigt att ge läsaren en uppfattning om de viktiga bakgrundsfaktorer som orsakade den svårlösta konflikten mellan Israel och Palestina. I första frågan försökte jag ge svar på om den sionistiska rörelsens uppkomst på 1800-talet och de första idéerna att skapa ett judiskt nationellt hem. Sedan beskrev jag sionisternas desperata kamp för att få de dåvarande stormakternas stöd för att bilda det nationella hemmet i Palestina. Resultatet av sionisternas kamp om att övertyga stormakterna lyckades 1917 när britterna skriver under Balfourdeklarationen. Denna innehåller den brittiska regeringens stöd till judarna att etablera ett hem i Palestina och samtidigt ger britterna löfte till araberna om ett självständigt styre i Palestina (britterna höll aldrig sitt löfte till araberna och självständigheten blir en dröm för palestinier).

    I andra frågan beskrev jag de viktiga aktörernas roll i Israel-Palestinakonflikten och deras stöd till judarna när FN presenterade sin delningsplan och efter att staten Israel grundades 1948. FN:s delningsplan var en av de viktigaste orsakerna till konflikten mellan Israel och Palestina, eftersom judarna fick behålla mer än hälften av Palestina efter delningen. Araberna avvisade delningsplanen och tyckte att delningsplanen var orättvis. Trots FN:s orättvisa delningsplan och arabernas reaktion mot delningsplanen, utropade judarna staten Israels självständighet år 1948. Strax efter att Israel utropat sin självständighet, förklarade flera arabstater krig mot Israel medan USA, Sovjetunionen, Frankrike och Storbritannien erkände staten Israel.

    I den tredje frågan försökte jag beskriva några av de viktiga krig som uppstått mellan Israel och arabstaterna. Dessa krig orsakade också att denna konflikt blev ännu värre och mer svårlöst. Efter att Israel utropat sin självständighet, tills idag, har en rad olika krig ägt rum mellan arabstater och Israel. Sexdagarskriget, oktoberkriget, första och andra intifadan är bara några av dessa krig. Anledningen till alla dessa krig för araberna var att återfå sina förlorade områden från Israel. Under denna konflikt uppstod det många arabiska och judiska nationalistiska grupper.

    Idag ockuperar judarna den största delen av Palestina. Förutom Egypten och Jordanien erkänner inga arabländer staten Israel. Palestina kämpar fortfarande för att återfå sina ockuperade områden från Israel. Israel-Palestinakonflikten fortsätter och hittills har man inte hittat någon lösning på den välkända konflikten.

  • 1222.
    Begovic Jönsson, Nina
    Göteborgs universitet, Institutionen för svenska språket.
    "Ursäkta vad betyder fråga?": formbaserad sfi-undervisning för vuxna med kort eller ingen utbildningsbakgrund2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie har en kommunikationsetnografisk ansats med samtalsanalytiska inslag, med syftet att beskriva den interaktionspraxis som förekommer vid klassrumsinteraktion i undervisningen av vuxna andraspråksinlärare med ingen eller kort utbildningsbakgrund. Utifrån ett ekologiskt perspektiv på språk och lärande undersöker denna studie de lektionsaktiviteter som förekommer i undervisningen och den språkanvändning som dessa ger upphov till. I studien genomfördes klassrumsobservationer och ljudinspelningar av samtal. Observationerna analyserades med hjälp av ett COLT-schema vars syfte är att få syn på hur pass kommunikativt orienterad en andraspråksundervisning är. Studien visar att den undervisning som erbjuds vuxna andraspråksinlärare med ingen eller kort utbildningsbakgrund i det undersökta klassrummet, i hög utsträckning är lärarstyrd, präglas av formbaserad språkanvändning och utgår från ett begränsat temainnehåll som inte inkluderar deltagarnas erfarenheter. Dessutom visar studien att skriften används som ett krav för att kunna delta i muntliga lektionsaktivteter där läraren förväntar sig att eleverna ska använda de ledtrådar som skriften ger i sin språkanvändning. Studien visar också att lärare som undervisar denna målgrupp upplever frustration i och med att skriften inte kan användas som ett redskap för inlärning.

  • 1223.
    Begovic, Nina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies.
    A study of communicative strategies in upper-secondary school2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigates communicative strategies used by a group of four upper-secondary L2 learners of English. To be able to reach this goal, I have recorded and transcribed a conversation between these students in order to detect natural communication. The communicative strategies I have looked for were: pauses and hesitations, questions, code-switching and message abandonment.

    Previous research on communicative strategies is divided into two different fields. These two approaches define and classify communication strategies as either interactional or psycholinguistic.  The definition and classification of communicate strategies depends viz. on what kind of approach is used. 

  • 1224.
    Begovic, Nina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    Språkanvändning hos en grupp gymnasieelever: kodväxling som ett kommunikativt redskap2013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigates the use and appearance of code-switching as a communicative strategy used by a group of upper secondary students in Sweden. A total of six students participated in this study in which three of them have Swedish as a first language and three students have Swedish as a second language. All students were sound and video recorded while speaking English together (without my presence or interference). The recordings were analyzed using a revised conversational analysis (Norrby 2004) in order to detect the appearance of and function for code-switching. The present study shows that the occurrence of code-switching does not contribute to breakdown in communication. The reason for why the communication did not break down is based on the fact that the code-switched language is Swedish, which all the contestants comprehend to various degrees, and because the participants were not aiming at pointing out each other’s mistakes (Gröning 2004). Code-switching is used for various different functions which all contribute to keeping the conversation going in order to maintain the interactional goal. This study also indicates that there is a connection between where the code-switched element occurs in the utterance and function for code-switching.

  • 1225.
    Begovic, Nina
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    Hjelte, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    En studie om hur Sva-lärare upplever att deras resurser används - på högstadium och gymnasium2013Student paper second term, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta arbete belyser ämnet Svenska som andraspråk (Sva) genom fyra kvinnliga Sva-lärares upplevelser av hur deras kunskaper i Sva-ämnet beaktas av andra ämneslärare och rektorer. Studien genomfördes på ett högstadium och ett gymnasium i två olika kommuner. Förestående studie har en kvalitativ ansats innefattande inspelade intervjuer där intervjuaren utgick ifrån en intervjuguide. Resultaten pekar på likartade upplevelser hos alla fyra informanterna, nämligen att deras kunskaper i Sva inte utnyttjas av andra ämneslärare samt att det föreligger ett ointresse/okunskap hos såväl andra lärare och rektorer, som hos föräldrar och elever om Sva-ämnet. Samtidigt upplever informanterna att deras kunskaper behövs, men att det i nuläget inte förekommer något samarbete. De skolor som denna studie berör visar på en organisation som inte har en tydlig struktur kring hur flerspråkighetsundervisning bör bedrivas.

  • 1226.
    Begum, Afroza
    et al.
    Mid-Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Rahman, A. F.
    Center for Injury Prevention and Research, Dhaka, Bangladesh; Department of Epidemiology, Bangladesh University of Health Sciences, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Rahman, A.
    Center for Injury Prevention and Research, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Soares, Joaquim
    Mid-Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Reza Khankeh, H.
    Department of Clinical Science and Education, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Macassa, Gloria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Public health science. Department of Health Sciences, Section of Public Health Sciences, Mid-Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden; Department of Clinical Science and Education, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Prevalence of suicide ideation among adolescents and young adults in rural Bangladesh2017In: International Journal of Mental Health, ISSN 0020-7411, E-ISSN 1557-9328, Vol. 46, no 3, p. 177-187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Suicide is a leading cause of death world-wide. However, adolescent suicidal behavior is a neglected public health issue, especially in low-income countries such as Bangladesh. The study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of suicidal ideation among adolescents in a rural community and to examine factors associated with suicidal ideation. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in 2013 among 2,476 adolescents aged 14–19 years, selected randomly from a rural community of Bangladesh. An adapted version of the WHO/SUPRE-MISS questionnaire was used to collect data in the Raiganj sub-district. A two stage screening was performed to identify the suicidal ideation cases. It was found that the life-time prevalence for suicidal ideation was 5 percent among adolescents. The majority of the adolescents with suicidal ideation were females 66 (52.8%), unmarried 103 (82.4%), and students 92 (73%). Suicidal ideation was statistically significantly associated with age, education, occupation, living with parents or others, and house ownership. Respondents who were aged 18–19 years, had secondary school certificate (SSC) and secondary school certificate (HSC) or higher education, were day laborers, had own house, and do not lived with parents had odds ratios of 2.31 (CI 1.46–3.65), 2.38 (CI 1.51–3.77), 4.15 (CI 2.41–7.14), 0.28 (CI 0.13–0.60), 0.14(CI 0.05–0.35), and 1.80 (CI 1.07–3.03), respectively. Among adolescents, the prevalence of life-time suicidal ideation was moderately high. Age, education, occupation, house ownership, and living with parents were statistically significantly associated with suicidal ideation. It is important to design and implement effective community based suicide prevention programs for adolescents in Bangladesh.

  • 1227.
    Begum, Tiasha
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Nyström, Valeria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskans erfarenheter av barnmisshandel2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:  Reports of child abuse have increased recently and healthcare staff are obligated by law to report any possible suspicion of child maltreatment to the Social Services. There are a lot of risk factors involved concerning whether a child will be abused or not, factors related to the perpetrators but also factors related to the child itself. Statistically the majority of perpetrators are the child's own parents.

    Aim: To describe the registered nurses experiences of child abuse within healthcare and also to describe one methodological aspect of the articles that this study is based upon.  

    Method: A descriptive literature review based on nine qualitative and three quantitative articles, where the participating registered nurses have experience of children that have been abused. Results: It was found that the nurse’s own personal experiences, based upon their own feelings, the support they received and the actual environment affects how and indeed if child abuse will be reported. Although the registered nurses were aware that they are obliged to report all cases, some nurses failed to report child abuse to the Social Services. The nurses experienced a variety of emotions that arose when they were involved in child abuse cases. All nurses in this study experienced that they lacked knowledge concerning child abuse also a lot of nurses wished that they had had more support during child abuse cases.

    Conclusion: The experience of child abuse cases severely affected the nurses even to the extent that some ignored the signs and failed to report to the Social Services. The registered nurses experienced a need for more support from an experienced colleague and wanted to attain more knowledge and experience themselves. 

  • 1228.
    Begun, Afroza
    et al.
    Department of Health Sciences, Mid-Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Viitasara, Eija
    Department of Health Sciences, Mid-Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Soares, Joaquim
    Department of Health Sciences, Mid-Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Rahman, AKM Fazlur
    Department of Epidemiology, Bangladesh University of Health Sciences, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Macassa, Gloria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Public health science. Department of Health Sciences, Mid-Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Parental socio-economic position and suicidal ideation among adolescents in rural Bangladesh2018In: Journal of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, ISSN 2637-8027, Vol. 4, article id 1018Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Suicide is a leading cause of death world-wide and becoming a public health concern among adolescents. However, adolescent suicidal behaviour is a neglected public health issue, especially in low-income countries such as Bangladesh. Of great importance is the understanding of which factors might be related to this growing public problem.

    Objective: To examine the relationship between parental socio-economic position and suicide ideation among adolescents in rural Bangladesh

    Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2013 among 2,476 adolescents, aged 14-19 years, selected randomly from a rural community of Bangladesh. An adapted version of the WHO/SUPRE-MISS questionnaire was used to collect data in the Raiganj sub-district, which is a surveillance area of the Centre for Injury Prevention and Research, Bangladesh (CIPRB).

    Descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression analyses were used to analyze the data. Comparisons of proportions between groups were carried out using the χ2 test. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between parental co-variants and suicidal thoughts among adolescents. The significance level was set atp <0.05. All analyses were performed using SPSS 20.

    Results: The majority of parents had education only up to primary school (mothers 58.7% and fathers 49.5%). Most of them were farmers (53.3% of fathers) and housewives (96.5% of mothers). Monthly income and expenditure of the adolescent’s parents were mainly upto 10,000 taka only. Suicidal ideation is more common among adolescents of low income group parents 104 (5.5%) and who were not living with their parents 18 (8.2%). Adolescent’s suicidal ideation was found to be significantly associated with education, marital status and house ownership of their parents. Not being able to live with their parents was also a significant factor. Parents who received education up to SSC had odds ratio of 2.10 (1.21,3.64) and 1.92 (1.15, 3.23) for mothers and fathers respectively. Parent’s income or expenditure was not associated with adolescent’s suicidal ideation. Adolescent’s suicidal ideation of single parents had higher odds (OR 3.00, CI 1.75-5.19) in comparison to adolescents who had both parents. Adolescents whose parents owned a house and who weren’t living withtheir parents had odds ratios of 0.14 (0.05,0.35), and 1.80 (1.07,3.03) respectively. After adjusting for other covariates parents’ marital status and house ownership significantly associated with the adolescent suicide ideation.

    Conclusion: Parental socio-economic position was asso-ciated with suicidal ideation. Adolescent with single parents were more likely to report suicidal ideation. Low parental education and socio-economic status, marital status, house ownership, not living with parents at home as well as adolescent loneliness were the important factors for suicidal ideation.

  • 1229.
    Behr, Nina
    University of Gävle, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences.
    Love, Power and Respect: Marie's Empowerment in Erdrich's Love Medicine2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The essay studies the character Marie's search for empowerment in Louise Erdrich's Love Medicine. As a mixed-blood she has difficulty to find respect within the white community because she is considered Native American Indian. However, the Native American Indian community sees her as ´dirty and lowlife´due to her whiteness. She tries different strattegies to form an identity and to find love, power and respect. In the convent she wants to be the best Catholic and find respect within the white community whilst later in life she returns to her Native American Indian tribe where she searches for respect throught marriage and motherhood. The theory used is sociology of religion.

  • 1230.
    Beihao, Liu
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    Tingting, Chen
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    Elderly people’s adjustment of transition to nursing homes: A descriptive literature review2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 1231.
    Beijmo, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Not just a teenage phase: - functions of non-suicidal self-injury in adults2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate how adults 25 years old and over describe the functions of their non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and to explore whether they report any changes in their experience with NSSI as they become older. Qualitative e-mail interviews were used in order to capture the participants’ experiences. The results of the study were analysed based on coping theory and previous research. The results indicate that, consistent with previous literature, adults self-injure for mostly the same reasons as adolescents – however, as the previous research shows adolescents are more likely to hurt themselves in order to communicate with others. The adults in the present sample report using problem-solving coping strategies to the same extent as emotion-focused strategies; a slight deviation from previous research which has suggested that people who self-injure are more likely to employ emotion-focused strategies. The participants of the study generally experience a feeling of increased control and deliberation of their self-injury as they have gotten older; hurting themselves has become a purposeful coping strategy. The results of this study might have implications for treatment of self-injury in adults; focusing the treatment on strengthening the adults’ autonomy and encouraging further problem-solving coping strategies might be beneficial.

  • 1232.
    Beilina, Larisa
    et al.
    Department of Mathematical Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bondestam Malmberg, John
    Department of Mathematical Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Cristofol, Michel
    Institut de Mathematiques de Marseille, CNRS, UMR 7373, Ecole Centrale, Aix-Marseille University, Marseille, France.
    Shestopalov, Yury
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Mathematics.
    Preface for the session "recent Progress in Electromagnetic Field Theory and New Trends in Inverse Problems"2017In: AIP Conference Proceedings, ISSN 0094-243X, E-ISSN 1551-7616, Vol. 1863, article id 370001Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1233.
    Beji, Nadia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences.
    Possession in the Modern Age: a Jungian analysis of possession within the Anglican faith2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay uses interviews to gather information regarding the experience and belief which exists in regards to possession within the Anglican faith. It also uses Jungian psychology to analyse these experiences and beliefs; this is interesting because even in the modern day of science, possession continues to be a phenomenon. It still occurs closer to home than we may think; a modern western country such as England, where Anglicanism is the state religion, have special ministries assigned to deal with this in every diocese. The information was gathered through interviews and literature, to give both a qualitative and a quantitative perspective. This essay presents a possible psychological explanation for the cases of possession as experienced within the Anglican faith, which provides an alternative to the distress these individuals are experiencing rather than assuming it necessarily is of a spiritual nature. It does not, however, seek to prove or disprove the possibility of a spiritual cause behind this phenomenon.

  • 1234.
    Bekamp, Ulrika
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Mikaelsdotter, Alicia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Konsekvensen av att vara psykiskt och fysiskt stark: En studie om maskulinitetsnormens påverkan vid psykisk ohälsa och samtalsstöd2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Statistics show that the suicide rate amongst men is high and that men do not seek professional help in the same extent as women. Previous research suggests that the reason behind this may have to do with masculinity norms, expressing that men must be mentally and physically strong and have the ability to deal with problems on their own. The aim of this study is to investigate young men’s attitude to seek counselling for mental health problems and what impact they think masculinity norms has on the willingness to seek counselling.

    Interviews with six young men show that our results are consistent with previous research in terms of the negative impact masculinity norms have on men’s general approach towards counselling. The young men’s attitude is however positive towards counselling. They suggested that counselling could be normalized through more information and expanded outreach strategies. Our conclusion is that men are positive towards counselling despite masculinity norms.

  • 1235.
    Bekele, Yared
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    GIS Based Factor Identification for the Change in Occurrence of Genista pilosa: a Case Study in Southern Sweden2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study has the objective of identifying the possible environmental constraints that has role for the continuous loss of heathland plant Genista pilosa. The study has assessed different environmental settings where the plant occurs by way of overlaying analysis based on multiple spatial data sets. Thereafter empirical change detection analyses on the land use of the study area have been performed on the GIS environment by combining temporal based remotely sensed spatial data. The result was then analyzed using land use dynamicity model and the rates of change on each land use type are identified. Expansion of human activity, especially the spreading of agricultural land and urbanization, is found to be the most determinant factor for the dramatic loss of the plant. Finally serious attention for the protection of the plant is recommended by mentioning the possible problem that would occur due to a loss of biodiversity.

  • 1236.
    Bektasevic, Ajla
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Vallin, Tanja
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    CSR-prestation och kostnad för eget kapital: en kvantitativ studie på 548 europeiska företag2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: CSR-performance and cost of equity capital – a quantitative study of 548 European companies

    Aim: The subject of how corporate social responsibility affects the company’s financial performance has been discussed for a long time, which has contributed to conflicting results. This study has applied cost of equity capital in order to measure financial performance. By considering corporate social responsibility as a transparency effect, which increases firms’ transparency, this study wants to examine if corporate social responsibility can minimize the company’s perceived risk to decrease cost of equity capital.

    Method: The study has applied a positivist research philosophy and a deductive research approach with setting of hypotheses. We used a quantitative research method where the secondary data was collected from Thomson Reuters DataStream. The sample of the study includes 548 companies from eight European countries. The collected data has been processed and analyzed in the statistical program called SPSS and JASP.

    Result & Conclusions: Our results prove that a positive respective negative relationship between corporate social responsibility and cost of equity exists depending on nation.

    Suggestions for future research: One suggestion for further research is to investigate why the relationship between corporate social responsibility and cost of equity appears different in nations.

    Contribution of the thesis: This study contributes to an increased understanding for how corporate social responsibility can affect the company’s cost of equity capital in a European context. The study have contributed to a new research turn concerning how corporate social responsibility can work as a transparency effect too reduce the firms cost of equity capital. It provides further acknowledge on the relationship between corporate social responsibility and financial performance which in previous research shows conflicting results. 

  • 1237.
    Belin, Amanda
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Järvenpää, Heli
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Barnet som aktör eller objekt?: Socialsekreterarens syn på barnets delaktighet i utredningsprocessen inom socialtjänsten2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Results from earlier research referring to a child’s participation in investigations within social childcare shows that there is a coherent vision of making the child involved in the process of the investigation. However, that vision is not reflected in practical work.The purpose of this qualitative study was to study social workers’ vision of the child’s participation in investigations concerning themselves. The empirical data was consisted of six interviews with social workers, analyzed by childhood sociology, Hart´s participation ladder and Shier´s model of that ladder. The result showed that all informants consider the child’s involvement to be important. But they have different definitions of involvement or participation. What affects participation according to the informants is the age of the child, personal traits and the specific situation. Central to the study is that social workers need to be flexible and adapt to the situation. The informants also expressed the dilemma of trying to consider both the best of the child and the child’s right to be heard.

  • 1238.
    Bell, Hege Therese
    et al.
    Fakultet for sykepleie og helsevitenskap, Nord universitet, Bodø, Norge.
    Granås, Anne Gerd
    Universitetet i Oslo, Oslo, Norge.
    Omli, Ragnhild
    Institutt for sykepleievitenskap, Norges teknisk-naturvitenskapelige universitet, Trondheim, Norge.
    Enmarker, Ingela
    Fakultet for sykepleie og helsevitenskap, Nord universitet, Bodø, Norge.
    Steinsbekk, Aslak
    UiT: Universitetet i Tromsø – Norges arktiske universitet.
    Nurses' and pharmacists' learning experiences from participating in inter professional medication reviews in primary health care: a qualitative study.2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Objective: Traditionally, drug prescription and follow up have been the sole responsibility of physicians. However, interprofessional medication reviews (IMRs) have been developed to prevent drug discrepancies and patient harm. What participating nurses and pharmacists learn from each other during IMR is poorly studied. The aim of this study was to investigate nurses&#8217; and pharmacists&#8217; perceived learning experience after participating in IMRs in primary health care for up to two years. Setting and Method: A qualitative study with semi-structured focus group interviews and telephone interviews with nurses and pharmacists with experience from IMRs in nursing homes and home based services. The data was analysed thematically by using systematic text condensation. Main outcome measures: A qualitative method is useful when looking at objects from the perspective of how they are experienced. Results: Sixteen nurses and four pharmacists were interviewed. The nurses&#8217; perception of the pharmacist changed from being a controller of drug management routines towards being a source of pharmacotherapy knowledge and a discussant partner of appropriate drug therapy in the elderly. The pharmacists became more aware of the nurses&#8217; crucial role of providing clinical information about the patient to enable individual advice. Increasingly the nurses learned to link the patient&#8217;s symptoms of effect and side effect to the drugs prescribed. With time both professions jointly spoke of an increased awareness of the benefit of working as a team and the perception of contributing to better and more individual care. Conclusion: IMRs in primary health care meet some challenges especially concerning how to ensure participation of all three professions and how to get thorough information about the patient. Possible solutions might be to use shared communication tools like Internet based communication programs and to introduce the patient as a participant at the IMRs.

  • 1239.
    Bell, Hege-Therese
    et al.
    Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health Sciences, Nord University, Namsos, Norway; Department of Public Health and General Practice, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Granas, A-G
    School of Pharmacy, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Enmarker, Ingela
    Centre for Care research Mid-Norway, Steinkjer, Norway; Department of Nursing, Mid University, Østersund, Sweden.
    Omli, Ragnhild
    Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health Sciences, Nord University, Namsos, Norway; Centre for Care research Mid- Norway, Steinkjer, Norway.
    Steinsbekk, A.
    Department of Public Health and General Practice, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Nurses’ and pharmacists’ learning experiences from participating in interprofessional medication reviews for elderly in primary health care - a qualitative study2017In: BMC Family Practice, ISSN 1471-2296, E-ISSN 1471-2296, Vol. 18, article id 30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Traditionally, drug prescription and follow up have been the sole responsibility of physicians. However, interprofessional medication reviews (IMRs) have been developed to prevent drug discrepancies and patient harmespecially for elderly patients with polypharmacy and multimorbidity. What participating nurses and pharmacists learn from each other during IMR is poorly studied. The aim of this study was to investigate nurses’ and pharmacists’ perceived learning experience after participating in IMRs in primary health care for up to two years.

    Methods: A qualitative study with semi-structured focus group interviews and telephone interviews with nurses and pharmacists with experience from IMRs in nursing homes and home based services. The data was analysed thematically by using systematic text condensation.

    Results: Thirteen nurses and four pharmacists were interviewed. They described some challenges concerning how to ensure participation of all three professions and how to get thorough information about the patient. As expected, both professions talked of an increased awareness with time of the benefit of working as a team and the perception of contributing to better and more individual care. The nurses’ perception of the pharmacist changed from being a controller of drug management routines towards being a source of pharmacotherapy knowledge and a discussant partner of appropriate drug therapy in the elderly. The pharmacists became more aware of the nurses’ crucial role of providing clinical information about the patient to enable individual advice. Increasingly the nurses learned to link the patient’s symptoms of effect and side effect to the drugs prescribed.

    Conclusions: Although experiencing challenges in conducting IMRs, the nurses and pharmacists had learning experiences they said improved both their own practice and the quality of drug management. There are some challenges concerning how to ensure participation of all three professions and how to get thorough information about the patient.

  • 1240.
    Bell, Raoul
    et al.
    Department of Experimental Psychology, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, Germany.
    Röer, Jan P.
    Department of Experimental Psychology, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, Germany.
    Marsh, John E.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Storch, Dunja
    Department of Experimental Psychology, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, Germany.
    Buchner, Axel
    Department of Experimental Psychology, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, Germany.
    The Effect of Cognitive Control on Different Types of Auditory Distraction2017In: Experimental psychology (Göttingen), ISSN 1618-3169, E-ISSN 2190-5142, Vol. 64, no 5, p. 359-368Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Deviant as well as changing auditory distractors interfere with short-term memory. According to the duplex model of auditory distraction, the deviation effect is caused by a shift of attention while the changing-state effect is due to obligatory order processing. This theory predicts that foreknowledge should reduce the deviation effect, but should have no effect on the changing-state effect. We compared the effect of foreknowledge on the two phenomena directly within the same experiment. In a pilot study, specific foreknowledge was impotent in reducing either the changing-state effect or the deviation effect, but it reduced disruption by sentential speech, suggesting that the effects of foreknowledge on auditory distraction may increase with the complexity of the stimulus material. Given the unexpected nature of this finding, we tested whether the same finding would be obtained in (a) a direct preregistered replication in Germany and (b) an additional replication with translated stimulus materials in Sweden.

  • 1241.
    Bellander, Lisa
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology, Ämnesavdelningen för vårdvetenskap.
    Gunnarsson, Cajsa
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology, Ämnesavdelningen för vårdvetenskap.
    Vårdpersonals uppfattning av stöd gentemot syskon till svårt sjuka barn2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to describe how health professionals estimate the usefulness of support and in what frequency they use the support towards siblings of seriously ill children. The aim was also to examine differences between nurses and assistant nurses regarding the estimated usefulness and frequency of use of support for siblings of severely ill children.

    The study was descriptive and comparative. A convenience sample was used. The data collection was done using a questionnaire that was distributed to 94 people in three care units and open care units in a mid-swedish region. Fifty-five respondents answered the survey and 53 of those met the inclusion criteria and were included in the study. The study group consisted of nurses and assistant nurses, all women. The questionnaire was a, into Swedish translated version of the instrument Sibling Social Support Questionnaire. The participants assessed the "usefulness" and "frequency" of support within 30 claims. These areas touched emotional-, instrumental-, informational-, and appraisal support. The main results showed that the area "Appraisal support" was considered most useful and also used most frequently. The results also showed a statistically significant difference between professional categories (p = 0.03). The nurses used the support area "Appraisal support" more frequently (mean rank 29.88) than the assistant nurses (mean rank 20.63).

  • 1242.
    Bellander, Rickard
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Testing large samples of PCM in water calorimeter and PCM used in room applications by night-air cooling2005Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

     

    The latent-heat-storage capacity in Phase-Change Materials can be used for storing or releasing energy within a small temperature interval. Upon the phase transition taking place in a narrow temperature span, the material takes up or releases more energy compared to sensible heat storage. For an ideal phase-change material, the transition temperature is a single value, but for the most common phase-change materials on the market, used in building applications, the transition temperature is distributed within a temperature range of several degrees.

    Integration of phase-change materials in building applications can be effected in several ways, for example by impregnating phase-change materials into porous building materials like concrete, wallboards, bricks or complements of the building structure. Integrating storages filled with phase-change materials makes other implementations, for instance accumulating tanks or envelopes as presented in this thesis, in an air heat exchanger. An appropriate phasetransition temperature of the supposed application is critical to the functionality of the material. For example, in cooling applications, the transition temperature of the material should be a few degrees lower than the requested comfort temperature in the building, and the opposite for heating applications.

    In order to assess the thermal properties and the durability of the material, a watercalorimetric equipment was developed and employed in an accelerated testing programme. The heat capacity of the material and in particular possible change in the heat capacity over time, after thermal cycling of the material, were measured. In the thermal cycling of the material from solid to liquid phase, the temperature rise and required energy supply were recorded. The testing programme was undertaken according to control procedures and documents. In order to be able to utilize the heat-storage capacity in the best way, it is necessary to gain knowledge about thermal properties of the material, especially the long-term behaviour of the material and the deterioration rates of the thermal properties.

    A semi-full-scale air heat exchanger based on phase-change material was developed and tested under real temperature conditions during the summer of 2004. The test results were used to compare and verify computer simulations made on a similar plant. The air heat exchanger utilises the ambient diurnal temperature swing to charge and discharge the phasechange material. The material tested in the calorimeter and in the air heat exchanger has an estimated phase-change temperature of about 24 °C.

  • 1243.
    Bellander, Rickard
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Hallberg, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Durability of outdoor exposed wood: a comparative study on a noise barrier2003Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    In March 1996 nine test sections of a noise barrier were built along the Arlandaline in co-operation with Banverket, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Swedish National Testing Research Institute (SP), Beijer Bygg AB and different wood preservative manufactures.

    Each sections has an approximately length of 4 meters per section and a height of 3,1 meter. Three sections are made of non-treated pine, spruce and larch respectively. The rest of the sections are made of pine, treated with different wood preservations.

    The aim of this study is to find the most appropriate wood material for a specific construction, in this case a noise barrier, regard to durability and decomposition, and in the extension to find the most ecological and economic wood material. By comparing different wood species and preservations of wood regard to durability of outdoor exposed wood gives an indication of the most appropriate wood material to be chosen for this type of construction.

    The untreated spruce, pine and larch boards in contact with ground is in a bad condition, an assessed service life of about 5-15 years according to the results in this study, while the untreated wood above ground is hardly affected at all by biological attacks. No degradation is detected on the different preserved pine sections. More data is needed to assess the residual service life of the wood preserved sections.

  • 1244.
    Bellelind, Mia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Borvall, Chanda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Försvårande faktorer i grundskolan: – En kvalitativ studie om tidigare grundskoleelevers upplevelser 2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study has been to investigate the aggravating factors that pupils experienced during their time in Compulsory School and how the school responded to the students' difficulties. The empirical material is based on the stories of five students at the Introductory Programme (IM). Complementary to the students' experiences, an IM teacher, who previously worked in Compulsory School, was interviewed to get a more objective perspective. The study is qualitative and the material has been thematized and contextualized with the state of knowledge and then analyzed with the chosen theory, Sense of Coherence (SOC). In the results it appears that the students experienced discontinuity, lack of follow-up and insufficient demands, resulting in a lost sense of belonging to and feeling coherence in school.

     

    Title: “Aggravating Factors in Compulsory School” – A qualitative study of former Compulsory School students' experiences

  • 1245.
    Bellman, Lina
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för ekonomivetenskap och juridik. (CER).
    Gebert Persson, Sabine
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för ekonomivetenskap och juridik. (CER).
    Kulander, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Economics.
    Lind, Hans
    KTH, Bygg- och fastighetsekonomi.
    Boende för äldre: en studie av 10 kommuner2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Andelen äldre personer i det svenska samhället ökar. I Sverige finns boendeformer som på olika sätt är anpassade efter äldres behov. Hur utbudet av dessa för äldre individer anpassade boendeformer ser ut och vilken information kommuner ger till äldre kan ses som viktiga för att förstå om äldre väljer att bo kvar eller flytta.  I denna rapport kartläggs hur nuvarande utbud av de tre boendeformerna vård- och omsorgsboende, trygghetsbostäder och seniorbostäder ser ut på bostadsmarknaden vad gäller den äldre befolkningen i tio utvalda kommuner. I rapporten ligger tonvikten på kommunala företrädares uppfattningar och på kommunernas planer. För att få en större förståelse görs jämförelser med siffror från samtliga kommuner hämtade från Boverkets Bostadsmarknadsenkät (2014). Denna rapport är den första delen av en större studie som syftar till att undersöka push- och pullfaktorer som påverkar äldres val av boende. Av kartläggningen framgår att bostadsutbudet i de olika kommunerna skiljer sig åt, där vissa har bostadsöverskott medan andra har bostadsunderskott men där majoriteten av kommunerna erbjuder de tre olika boendeformerna. I storstadsregionen och i de större städerna finns ett utbud av samtliga tre boendeformer medan flera av glesbygdskommunerna saknar trygghetsbostäder. Rådgivning i de flesta kommuner är reaktiv snarare än proaktiv. I rapporten väcks frågan om hur vi ska se på boendet för de äldsta.                      

  • 1246.
    Benavides Ramirez, Rogelio-Antonio
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    "Jag skulle inte bry mig direkt om ingen gillar min bild, men har jag 300 följare och ingen skulle gilla det, så blir man förvånad": En kvalitativ studie om ungdomarnas förhållande till instagram2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Min studie beskriver hur ungdomar framställer sig själva genom Instagram och vad för påverkan det har till deras identitetsskapande. Med hjälp av 10 ungdomar vid 16 års ålder på har jag samlat ihop material som jag kopplat till teori.

    Dessa teoretiska perspektiv som jag använt mig av är: Identitet från Jostein Gripsrud ”Mediekultur- Mediesamhälle” 2008 samt dramaturgiska perspektivet av Erving Goffman ”Jaget och maskerna” 1974.

    Jag har tagit inspiration från Kenneth Ögren (2013) avhandling angående ”flickor och sociala medier” samt olika artiklar kring Instagrams påverkan på ungdomar och Berglez & Olaussons förklaring av medier och identitet som bakgrund till mitt ämne.

    Frågorna som jag besvarar i min studie är: Hur framställer ungdomar sin online identitet genom Instagram? Vad ger detta för resultat på ungdomarnas identitetsskapande?

    Min studie visar att Instagram har en påverkan på ungdomarnas livsstil och identitet. Det vill säga hur individer representerar sig själva skapar det normer, mönster, status och regler i samhället som fortskrider och vi blir ständigt omedvetna påverkade av varandra och hur vi ska vara och bete oss. Sociala medier har en påverkan på oss individer och genom Instagram kultur skapar det en omedvetenhet för dessa ungdomar där de alltid ska behaga sin publik med oärligheter. 

  • 1247.
    BenAïssa, Maria
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    Forsberg, Sebastian
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    Särskilda resurser för nyanlända?: En jämförelse mellan två skolor, årskurs 4–6 i ämnet svenska2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna undersökning är en jämförelse mellan två skolor, med fokus på ämnet svenska i årskurs 4–6 och vilka särskilda resurser som används i undervisningen av nyanlända elever. Syftet är att avgöra om de resurser som används kan anses vara väl fungerande redskap för lärande, enligt de kriterier som fastställs här.

    En kvalitativ undersökning har gjorts med hjälp av ostrukturerade, icke-deltagande observationer och semi-strukturerade intervjuer i årskurs 4–6 på de deltagande skolorna. En kvalitativ innehållsanalys har varit modell för hur analysen av resurserna gått till. Vilka särskilda resurser för nyanlända elever de två skolorna använder sig av, kvaliteten på de resurser som används samt medvetenheten i urvalet av resurserna är vad som framkommer i undersökningen.

    Tydliga brister blir synliga när det handlar om medvetenheten kring nyanlända elever och deras behov av särskilt anpassade resurser i ämnet svenska. Resultatet av denna undersökning visar att de resurser i form av böcker som används för nyanlända elever till stor del är inaktuella och anpassade för yngre åldrar. Det visade sig att fördelningen av de mänskliga resurserna, i förhållande till antalet nyanlända elever på respektive skola inte är proportionerlig. Måluppfyllelsen i ämnet svenska bland de nyanlända eleverna är låg och undersökningen visar att bristande kunskap i läsförståelse samt ord- och begreppskunskap är de största orsakerna till det. 

  • 1248.
    Bendrik, Oscar
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Industrial design.
    Airwasher: Luftrening med hjälp av växter2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det här examensarbetet omfattar en designprocess innehållande, litteraturstudier, intervjuer, observationer, marknadsundersökning, idégenerering, fokusgrupp, utvärdering och kommunikation. Syftet var att vidareutveckla en luftrenare/luftfuktare kallad Airwasher för företaget Växt och Miljödesign. Växt och Miljödesign är ett litet företag som grundar sin verksamhet på att hyra ut och underhålla växter till andra företag. De hyr även ut sin egen uppfinning Airwasher. Airwasher bygger på växters naturliga luftreningsegenskaper då den med hjälp av en fläkt suger in luft från rummet och med hjälp av ett rör för den ner till rötterna där en reningsprocess sker. Växt och Miljödesign hade inte några önskemål på hur Airwasher skulle vidareutvecklas utan det var upp till mig att hitta områden med utvecklingspotential. För att identifiera vilka problem som fanns med Airwasher gjordes intervjuer och observationer ute hos kunder. Det visade sig att det största problemet var att hitta lämpliga platser för Airwasher eftersom den endast kommer i en golvstående kruka med en diameter på 50 cm. Efter att problemen var identifierade började en idégenereringsprocess med målet att hitta lösningar. Alla lösningar som kom fram till en början skulle inte förbättra produkten nämnvärt men däremot göra den mer komplicerad. Det var inte önskvärt så jag tog ett steg tillbaka och funderade över det verkliga behovet, vilket var att förse kunderna med frisk luft. För att göra det på bästa sätt bestämde jag mig för att fokusera på att utveckla tjänsten Airwasher, inte produkten. Slutresultatet blev en serie med tre olika storlekar anpassade efter Växt och Miljödesigns sortiment av krukor. På så vis skulle man kunna utnyttja alla naturliga platser för blomkrukor och enkelt få frisk luft över hela kontoret. För att bestämma ett formspråk för nya Airwasher samlade jag en fokusgrupp där tre värdeord som Airwasher står för diskuterades fram. Orden som bestämdes var naturlig, diskret och pålitlig. Utifrån dessa följde ett skissarbete, först på papper sedan i 3-dimensionellt medium. De bästa idéerna togs ut för att sedan utvärderas mot samma fokusgrupp. När formen var bestämd valdes lämplig produktionsmetod utifrån Växt och Miljödesigns förutsättningar, vilket var 3D-skrivning. För att hålla sig till värdeorden valdes ett träfärgat filament av sågspån och PLA-plast, vilket passar bra in i krukans naturliga färgpalett.

  • 1249.
    Bendroth Karlsson, Marie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Art education and Educational drama.
    Konst för och med barn2014In: Bild, konst och medier för yngre barn: kulturella redskap och pedagogiska perspektiv / [ed] Marie Bendroth Karlsson, Tarja Karlsson Häikiö, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2014, p. 49-68Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 1250.
    Bendroth Karlsson, Marie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Art education and Educational drama.
    Om barn och bilder: en historisk tillbakablick2014In: Bild, konst och medier för yngre barn: kulturella perspektiv och pedagogiska redskap / [ed] Marie Bendroth Karlsson, Tarja Karlsson Häikiö, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2014, p. 11-21Chapter in book (Other academic)
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