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  • 1201.
    Barreiro-Gen, Maria
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Management. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Carpenter, Angela
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Management. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production. School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK.
    von Haartman, Robin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Management. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Lozano, Rodrigo
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Management. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production. Organisational Sustainability Ltd., Cardiff, UK.
    Examining Relations Between Public Participationand Public Expenditure: Opinions from English and French Users on Environmental Issues in the English Channel2019In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 8, article id 2230Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Governments need to decide how to allocate their public expenditure, which is commonly misconstrued as simply targeting social issues. Most scientific literature highlights that the role of public spending is to enhance social welfare and fight poverty and inequality. Nonetheless, public expenditure also includes spending on environmental issues. This paper analyses relations between public participation, support for public expenditure, and pro-environmental behaviour (PEB) intentions in the English Channel region. An online public survey was developed to investigate public use of the English and French sides and the public's willingness to change their behaviour to better protect the Channel region. The survey was undertaken in the summer of 2014 and was answered by 2000 respondents. The Channel region public is willing to participate more in behaviour that involves direct changes or switches between buying/purchasing choices. In contrast, there is less willingness to engage in pro-environmental behaviour intentions that involve more active engagement activities. French respondents were slightly less inclined to change their consumer behaviour intentions, while women and older people were slightly more likely to do so. This research shows that pro-environmental behaviour could positively affect support for proposed public expenditure on environmental issues.

  • 1202.
    Barreiro-Gen, Maria
    et al.
    Economic Development and Social Sustainability Research Unit, Department of Economic Analysis and Business Administration, Faculty of Economics and Business, University of A Coruna, Elviña, A Coruña, Spain.
    Novo-Corti, Isabel
    Economic Development and Social Sustainability Research Unit, Department of Economic Analysis and Business Administration, Faculty of Economics and Business, University of A Coruna, Elviña, A Coruña, Spain.
    Collaborative learning in environments with restricted access to the internet: Policies to bridge the digital divide and exclusion in prisons through the development of the skills of inmates2015In: Computers in human behavior, ISSN 0747-5632, E-ISSN 1873-7692, Vol. 51, no B, p. 1172-1176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The deprivation of freedom for the prisoners, involves not only physical isolation, but also digital, which implies a strong isolation particularly painful in an “information society”. Spanish prison population is deprived of access Internet and all ICT that could contact inmates with outdoor life, this is mainly due to security issues. Not having enough ICT skills is a new cause of social exclusion. The objective of this research was to identify the key issues which should be focused by policy makers to avoid digital divide among prison population. A survey among inmate population in all the five penitentiary centers in Galicia, in the northwest of Spain, was undertaken to obtain a sample of 380 inmates. A Structural Equation Model (SEM) was carried out to explain prisoners’ ICT Skills, in bias to inmate’s social skills, general skills and attitude towards collaborative learning. For inmates, who are characterized by their low education level, results shown the relevance of having general and social skills to be able to have more ICT skills. Then, collaborative learning in prison it is shown as a way to bridge both walls: the physical (better reinsertion and no recidivism) and the digital one.

  • 1203. Barrera, T
    et al.
    Hast, Anders
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för datavetenskap.
    Bengtsson, E
    A Fast All-Integer Ellipse Discretization Algorithm2003In: Graphics Programming Methods / [ed] Jeff Lander, Hingham, Mass.: Charles River Media , 2003, p. 121-132Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 1204. Barrera, T
    et al.
    Hast, Anders
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för datavetenskap.
    Bengtsson, E
    A Fast and Simple All-Integer Parametric Line2003In: Graphics Programming Methods / [ed] Jeff Lander, Hingham, Mass.: Charles River Media , 2003Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 1205. Barrera, T
    et al.
    Hast, Anders
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för datavetenskap.
    Bengtsson, E
    Fast Near Phong-Quality Software Shading2006In: WSCG'06, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quadratic shading has been proposed as a technique giving better results than Gouraud shading, but which is substantially faster than Phong shading. Several techniques for fitting a second order surface to six points have been proposed. We show in this paper how an approximation of the mid-edge samples can be done in a very efficient way. An approximation of the mid-edge vectors are derived. Several advantages are apparent when these vectors are put into the original formulation. First of all it will only depend on the vertex vectors. Moreover, it will simplify the setup and no extra square roots are necessary for normalizing the mid-edge vectors. The setup will be about three times faster than previous approaches. This makes quadratic shading very fast for interpolation of both diffuse and specular light, which will make it suitable for near Phong quality software renderings.

  • 1206. Barrera, T
    et al.
    Hast, Anders
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för datavetenskap.
    Bengtsson, E
    Faster shading by equal angle interpolation of vectors2004In: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, ISSN 1077-2626, E-ISSN 1941-0506, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 217-223Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we show how spherical linear interpolation can be used to produce shading with a quality at least similar to Phong shading at a computational effort in the inner loop that is close to that of the Gouraud method. We show how to use the Chebyshev's recurrence relation in order to compute the shading very efficiently. Furthermore, it can also be used to interpolate vectors in such a way that normalization is not necessary, which will make the interpolation very fast. The somewhat larger setup effort required by this approach can be handled through table look up techniques.

  • 1207. Barrera, T
    et al.
    Hast, Anders
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för datavetenskap.
    Bengtsson, E
    Incremental Spherical Linear Interpolation2004In: Sigrad 2004, 2004, p. 7-10Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1208. Barrera, T
    et al.
    Hast, Anders
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för datavetenskap.
    Bengtsson, E
    Surface Construction with Near Least Square Acceleration based on Vertex Normals on Triangular Meshes2002In: Proceedings from Sigrad 2002, 2002, p. 43-48Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1209. Barrera, Tony
    et al.
    Hast, Anders
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för datavetenskap.
    Bengtsson, Ewert
    Connected Minimal Acceleration Trigonometric Curves2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a technique that can be used to obtain a series of connected minimal bending trigonometric splines that will intersect any number of predefined points in space. The minimal bending property is obtained by a least square minimization of the acceleration. Each curve segment between two consecutive points will be a trigonometric Hermite spline obtained from a Fourier series and its four first terms. The proposed method can be used for a number of points and predefined tangents. The tangent length will then be optimized to yield a minimal bending curve. We also show how both the tangent direction and length can be optimized to give as smooth curves as possible. It is also possible to obtain a closed loop of minimal bending curves. These types of curves can be useful tools for 3D modelling, etc.

  • 1210. Barrera, Tony
    et al.
    Hast, Anders
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för datavetenskap.
    Bengtsson, Ewert
    Minimal Acceleration Hermite Curves2005In: Game programming gems 5 / [ed] Kim Pallister, Hingham, Massachusetts: Charles River Media, inc. , 2005, p. 225-231Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 1211. Barrera, Tony
    et al.
    Hast, Anders
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för datavetenskap.
    Bengtsson, Ewert
    Trigonometric Splines2008In: Game Programming Gems 7, Boston: Charles River Media , 2008, p. 191-198Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 1212. Barrera, Tony
    et al.
    Spångberg, Daniel
    Hast, Anders
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för datavetenskap.
    Bengtsson, Ewert
    Vectorized table driven algorithms for double precision elementary functions using Taylor expansions2009In: APLIMAT 8th international conference, 2009, p. 231-246Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents fast implementations of the inverse square root and arcsine, both in double precision. In single precision it is often possible to use a small table and one ordinary Newton-Raphson iteration to compute elementary functions such as the square root. In double precision a substantially larger table is necessary to obtain the desired precision, or, if a smaller table is used, the additional Newton-Raphson iterations required to obtain the precision often requires the evaluation of other expensive elementary functions. Furthermore, large tables use a lot of the cash memory that should have been used for the application code.

    Obtaining the desired precision using a small table can instead be realised by using a higher order method than the second order Newton-Raphson method. A generalization of Newton's method to higher order is Householder's method, which unfortunately often results in very complicated expressions requiring many multiplications, additions, and even divisions.

    We show how a high-order method can be used, which only requires a few extra additions and multiplications for each degree of higher order. The method starts from the Taylor expansion of the difference of the value of the elementary function and a starting guess value for each iteration. If the Taylor series is truncated after the second term, ordinary Newton iterations are obtained. In several cases it is possible to algebraically simplify the difference between the true value and the starting guess value. In those cases we show that it is advantageous to use the Taylor series to higher order to obtain the fast convergent method. Moreover, we will show how the coefficients of a Chebyshev polynomial can be fitted to give as little error as possible for the functions close to zero and in the same time reduce the terms in the Taylor expansion.

    In the paper we benchmark two example implementations of the method on the x86_64 architecture. The first is the inverse square root, where the actual table (to 12 bit precision) is provided by the processor hardware. The inverse square root is important in many application programs, including computer graphics, and explicit particle simulation codes, for instance the Monte Carlo and Molecular Dynamics methods of statistical mechanics. The other example is the arcsine function, which has a slow converging Taylor expansion and where no tables are provided by the hardware. The vectorized versions of the implementations of the inverse square root are 3.5 times faster than compiled code on the Athlon64 and about 5 times faster on the Core 2. The scalar version of the arcsine function is, depending on order and table size, between 2 and 3 times faster than the compiled code, and the vectorized version is between 3 and 4 times faster on the Athlon64, while it is between 4 and 5 times faster than the compiled version on the Core 2.

  • 1213. Barrera, Tony
    et al.
    Spångberg, Daniel
    Hast, Anders
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för datavetenskap.
    Bengtsson, Ewert
    Vectorized table driven algorithms for double precision elementary functions using Taylor expansions2009In: Aplimat - Journal of Applied Mathematics, ISSN 1337-6365, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 171-188Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents fast implementations of the inverse square root and arcsine, both in double precision. In single precision it is often possible to use a small table and one ordinary Newton-Raphson iteration to compute elementary functions such as the square root. In double precision a substantially larger table is necessary to obtain the desired precision, or, if a smaller table is used, the additional Newton-Raphson iterations required to obtain the precision often requires the evaluation of other expensive elementary functions. Furthermore, large tables use a lot of the cash memory that should have been used for the application code.

    Obtaining the desired precision using a small table can instead be realised by using a higher order method than the second order Newton-Raphson method. A generalization of Newton's method to higher order is Householder's method, which unfortunately often results in very complicated expressions requiring many multiplications, additions, and even divisions.

    We show how a high-order method can be used, which only requires a few extra additions and multiplications for each degree of higher order. The method starts from the Taylor expansion of the difference of the value of the elementary function and a starting guess value for each iteration. If the Taylor series is truncated after the second term, ordinary Newton iterations are obtained. In several cases it is possible to algebraically simplify the difference between the true value and the starting guess value. In those cases we show that it is advantageous to use the Taylor series to higher order to obtain the fast convergent method. Moreover, we will show how the coefficients of a Chebyshev polynomial can be fitted to give as little error as possible for the functions close to zero and in the same time reduce the terms in the Taylor expansion.

    In the paper we benchmark two example implementations of the method on the x86_64 architecture. The first is the inverse square root, where the actual table (to 12 bit precision) is provided by the processor hardware. The inverse square root is important in many application programs, including computer graphics, and explicit particle simulation codes, for instance the Monte Carlo and Molecular Dynamics methods of statistical mechanics. The other example is the arcsine function, which has a slow converging Taylor expansion and where no tables are provided by the hardware. The vectorized versions of the implementations of the inverse square root are 3.5 times faster than compiled code on the Athlon64 and about 5 times faster on the Core 2. The scalar version of the arcsine function is, depending on order and table size, between 2 and 3 times faster than the compiled code, and the vectorized version is between 3 and 4 times faster on the Athlon64, while it is between 4 and 5 times faster than the compiled version on the Core 2.

  • 1214.
    Barrish, Jan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Green Digital Marketing in the Mobile Phone Industry: Recommendations for Sony Ericsson's GreenHeart™2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: This study is part of a digital activation plan that was done for Sony

    Ericsson’s GreenHeart™ team in the fall of 2009. The investigation presents and

    discusses what Sony Ericsson and its 4 main competitors (Nokia, LG, Samsung

    and Motorola) have done within green digital marketing and how the subject was

    communicated on their webpages. The aim of this study is to:

    • To present and analyze consumer insights on ecologically-driven technology

    • To present and analyze the eco-marketing digital practices and strategies used

    by 4 competitive mobile phone brands

    • To propose a digital green marketing strategy for GreenHeart™

    Method: This study consists of interviews with Sony Ericsson personnel,

    literature and web analysis that focus on the green initiatives of mobile phone

    manufacturers in the digital channel.

    Result & Conclusions: A main issue with green products is that consumers tend

    to find them not as good as non-green products. Consumer insight studies suggest

    that that the best way to communicate and promote green products is to focus on

    their direct benefits to consumers in comparison to non-green products, and

    communicate the green benefits only as a secondary message. This was also

    supported by theories such as Levit’s concept of “marketing myopia”, which

    describes a marketer’s tendency to focus on product features rather than consumer

    benefits.

    When analyzing the webpages of Sony Ericsson’s top 4 competitors, it was

    3

    evident that all 4 mobile phone manufacturers employed green digital marketing

    in quite a homogenous way. One striking similarity was that all brands have

    separated their green initiatives from the core of the website. It is a possibility that

    marketers have done this intentionally since consumers tend to associate green

    with lesser quality.

    In order for Sony Ericsson GreenHeart™ to stand out from the competitors, it was

    therefore suggested that green information should be integrated into the website

    and to communicate GreenHeart™ as a value-added product feature rather than a

    product in itself.

    Suggestions for future research: It is recommended to continue this research

    and to compare the findings from the mobile phone industry with other industries,

    such as the Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG), where Green and Organic

    branding at a glance seem to have been developed strongly. It would be

    interesting to gain a perspective on the similarities and differences in the green

    marketing practices of different industries, but also to gain knowledge and

    inspiration on how green consumer electronics could be marketed in a more

    effective and integrated fashion. In this perspective, analyzing any variations

    between on- and off-line marketing initiatives would be interesting to see if the

    green message changes in a typical marketing mix. Moreover, it would be good to

    counter analyze the psychological mechanisms why, for certain industries such as

    food, green products are regarded as high quality whilst in another industry like

    electronics, green products are regarded as having lesser quality and business

    value.

    Contribution of the thesis: The most important finding of this study is that all

    the analyzed mobile phone manufacturers have many green initiatives. However,

    they are communicated separately from all other marketing and communication

    initiatives in the main digital channel. They tend to be set aside that consumers

    need to search for them, thus the messages are not delivered seamlessly. This

    makes it appear that green initiatives are being regarded as something obligatory

    rather than something that has true business value. Using Theoretical arguments

    on communication strategy from Levit and ClearWorks show how this, in reality,

    can be changed and be integrated with product marketing where it can generate a

    more significant business value

  • 1215.
    Barroeta, Ander
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Design of a ventilation system for carbon dioxide reduction in two gym rooms2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This project is mainly focused on the improving and design of the ventilation system of two rooms at different levels of a gym (Friskis and Svettis in Gävle, Sweden) to reduce the  concentration to never be higher than 1000 ppm.

    For this purpose, several field measurements were performed in different locations and situations. Two main measurements were necessary. On one hand, the  level in different parts of the rooms during different activities. On the other hand, the air flow through the inlet and outlet ducts of the ventilation system. It was also important to take into account the indoor temperature and humidity. These measurements were enough to analyze the failures of the system and to recognize the worst points of each room.

    Comparing both rooms, the necessity of changing the ventilation system in one of these rooms was much higher, due to there were measured  values up to 3000 ppm during a typical day in the gym.

    With this information the consequences of high CO2 levels in human people were analyzed. Among various ventilation systems, displacement ventilation system was proposed as the new design. Theoretical calculations were made to reach to the value of 31.8  in the air change rate (ACH), which was the necessary value for the new design to keep the carbon dioxide level under 1000 ppm.

  • 1216.
    Barsch, Peder
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Analys av konsignationslager: inom tillverkande industri2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this composition, a study of consignment inventory on basis of the factors which are important for implementation and application of consignment inventory are made. Logistics chain from subcontractor to end customer is becoming more complex when the volume of items constantly increases to satisfy the needs of the market. From that perspective, companies had large inventories but today it is a lot of different solutions to streamline inventory management. One way that recently becomes increasingly common is to let the subcontractor fill up the customers stock using different approaches such as VMI (Vendor Managed Inventory). A further step in the evolution can be to make use of consignment inventory where the vendor owns the stock of the customer. Then the material will be the customer’s property when the need arises.

    In order to ascertain whether consignment stocks in general is a good solution, a study has been done to investigate which factors are relevant for the implementation and application of consignment inventory within the industry.

    To find out the importance of the application of consignment inventory have a literature study of relevant theory in the field been done and where also a case study as a research method has been developed. In the case study, a number of companies have been selected with a non probability sampling where a qualitative approach is used to collect data and information. The theory used is based on selected elements in several different areas of logistics. When the interface is many has the following main areas been affected: Supply Chain Management, Lean production, outsourcing, capital binding, Just In Time, synchronization, VMI and distribution. On the basis of these areas has created a model which is then used in the investigation of the various cases.

    In the study has three cases been examined of which only one case are working on consignment inventory, while a case using vendor managed inventory as well as to the third case has ambitious plans to implement a consignment inventory. Background to the choice of cases is to be able to discuss consignment inventory in general.

    The final result is based on a comparison between the theoretical and the empirical investigation. What is revealed by the survey is that combinations of several different factors determine if a consignment is applicable as the logistical goal mix points out. Relevant factors are that the agreements have a good reason, the information exchange works well, capital binding and possibilities to have inventory at the customers plant. Also physical factors such as distance, the products format and distribution is of importance.

  • 1217.
    Bartel, Kyle
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Allocating Optimal Grid-Connected Solar Photovoltaic Power Plant Sites: GIS-Based Multi-Criteria Modeling of Solar PV Site Selection in the Southern Thompson-Okanagan Region, British Columbia, Canada2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Fossil fuels and non-renewable resources are being replaced with, as modern day society has coined the term, green energy. This movement towards green energy creates a demand for renewable energy resources, such as solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. This study used Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in conjunction with Remote Sensing (RS) practices and two weighting systems the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Rank-Order methods for PV site selection. Six multi-criteria models were developed using spatial factors and constraining images to locate potential photovoltaic power plant sites for three settings of fixed axis PV arrays. This analysis was performed at a macro regional scale and further analysis is encouraged for micro site selection. 

  • 1218.
    Barth, Olivia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Bäckström, Evelina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Livskvaliteten hos barn och ungdomar som lever med övervikt eller fetma: En litteraturstudie2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Overweight and obesity among children and adolescents is an increasing societal problem all over the world and a serious risk factor of being affected by many of the welfare diseases that exists in present time. The main causes of being overweight or obese is a mix of living habits, genetic- social-, psychological- and cultural factors. Children who are overweight or suffer from obesity have a great risk of being in that condition for the rest of their lives. It is in the nurses tasks to promote health by a holistic viewpoint of the individual. An insight of each person’s perception of their quality of life is a fundamental starting point. 

    Aim: To describe children and adolescents quality of life when overweight or obese, estimated on personal and parent perspective. 

    Method: A literature study of descriptive design based on twelve articles wherein one article used a mixed-method and the remaining eleven used a quantitative approach. 

    Main result: Children and adolescents who were overweight or suffered from obesity often assessed a low quality of life. Prominently in the categories of physical- psychological- and social functioning where many declared a decrease in physical wellness and difficulties in participating in physical activities, experienced depression and a low self-esteem. Experiences of bullying and alienation were common in these children and adolescents. 

    Conclusion: A correlation between a low quality of life and an increase in weight were observed in the domains of physical-, psychological- and social functioning. Because of the global increase in overweight and obesity in children and adolescents, the nurse needs an understanding of the phenomenon in order to have a holistic approach to the individual and act as support system to strengthen these children and adolescents’ sense of coherence in order to promote health in the profession.

  • 1219.
    Barthel, Stephan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering. Stockholm resilience center; Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    A Social-Ecological Research Lens on Urban Resilience2016Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Social-Ecological Research has approached the city as a living ecosystem, an approach that really begun with the urban scholars of the early 1900s. But new developments in this line of research started during the 1990s to study various social-ecological relations in a web of life reaching far beyond the built environment of any city. Such research argues that it is in such social-ecological relations where the resilience of cities ultimately rests, for example in a food system consisting of the chain of activities connecting food producing ecosystems, processing, distribution, consump­tion, and waste management, as well as all the associated regulatory institutions and activities. Contrary to popular belief, it is in such social-ecological research traditions, where the most prolific authors on urban resilience are found.

  • 1220.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Framtidens Albano: forskning omsatt i  praktik2010In: Universitetsnytt, no 6 dec., p. 18-19Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 1221.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Stockholms universitet, Systemekologiska institutionen.
    Recalling Urban Nature: Linking City People to Ecosystem Services2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Societal development is dependent on the generation of ecosystem services (ES) to sustain it; however, many ES are degrading. This thesis investigates how social-ecological features behind practices of actor groups shape the generation of ES. The empirical basis is case studies in the urban landscape of Stockholm, Sweden, and the methodological approach is interdisciplinary. Paper I shows that the urban landscape owes it current flow of ES to co-evolutionary processes and that governance with the aim of sustaining ES must take into account historical property rights and the involvement of a diversity of actor groups, as well as ecological processes of the larger landscape. Paper II studies allotment gardens, cemeteries and city parks in relation to the generation of pollination, seed dispersal and pest regulation. Differences in social features behind practice are reflected primary as higher abundance of pollinators in the informally managed allotment gardens and as differences in the compositions of seed dispersers and insectivores’ birds. Thus, voluntary and often ignored actor groups, motivated by sense-of-place, support the generation of some ES here. Paper III shows how practice, linked to ES generation, is retained and stored among allotment gardeners, and modified and transmitted through time, by means of social-ecological memory (SE-memory). SE-memory is an emergent property of a dual process of participation and reification and it facilitates monitoring of local change and links practice, often in habits, to place specific processes that underlie provisioning ES. Paper IV explores how spatial scale mismatches between ecological process and processes of management can be bridged by a spatially explicit and flexible social network structure of governance. Urban ES are a product of human driven co-evolution, consequently sustaining ES in urban landscapes is not about conservation without people, but shaped by and dependent on management practice by people. Practice that links to generation of ES are facilitated by SE-memory of local actors that holds long term management rights. Consequently, local communities of ecosystem practice, which contribute to the production of ES should explicitly be taken into account in urban green governance.

  • 1222.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Resilience2014In: A Companion to Urban Anthropology / [ed] Donald M. Nonini, Oxford: Blackwell Publishing , 2014, p. 428-446Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter uses a resilience lens, where resilience is defined as the capacity to absorb shocks, utilize them, reorganize, and continue to develop without losing fundamental functions (Folke 2006). This resilience lens can be used to analyze the role of urban gardens as memory carriers of ways to build food securityin cities (see Chapters 20 and 23, “Memory and Narrative” and “Food and Farming”).

    Comparing Western urban histories in a global frame of reference suggests that a marked conceptual and physical separation between urban and rural sectors emerged largely as a consequence of high modernist time–space compression during the 1900s (Harvey 1990). However, it is estimated that in contemporary cities of the global South, approximately 800 million people are still engaged in urban agriculture, producing approximately 15–20 percent of the world’s food. These numbers are diminishing due to similar processes that drove food production from Western cities. Do such changes in the urban environment influence the capacity of urban people to respond to food shortages in the future?It has been suggested that modernist urbanization severs perceived and experienced relations between people and nature as urban lifestyles are adopted and resilience as access to green areas is reduced. This alienation process has been termedthe “extinction-of-experience” (Miller 2005), an ongoing generational amnesia among city peoples about their relationships to, and dependence upon, diverse ecosystems, including agro-ecosystems. Such social amnesia has been argued to produce food insecurity among growing urban populations, simply because it erodes options of self-sufficiency (Barthel, Parker, and Ernstson 2013). Food security is broadly defined here as having physical and economic access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food to meet dietary needs (FAO 1996). Following Pothukuchi and Kaufman (2000: 113), the food system is defined as “the chain of activities connecting food production, processing, distribution, consumption, and waste management, as well as all the associated regulatory institutions and activities” (see Chapters 23 and 24, “Food and Farming” and “Pollution”). The focus of this essay is on food production, which makes this whole circuit possible. I highlight collectively managed urban gardens as potential “memory workers” to combat the ongoing generational amnesia among city dwellers about the intimate links between local agro-ecosystems and food security (Barthel, Parker, and Ernstson 2013).

  • 1223.
    Barthel, Stephan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering. Stockholm Resilience Centre .
    Social-Ecological Urbanism and the Life of Baltic Cities2016In: The Nature of Cities, Vol. 2016Article, review/survey (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Jane Jacobs critiqued modernist city planning in the now classic book The Death and Life of Great American Cities(1961). This book is now inspiring an urban renaissance. Jacobs proposed that a city must be understood as a system of organized complexity—in other words, as an ecosystem—and that any intervention in the urban fabric with a lack of such understanding is bound to result in unexpected surprises. Trained in zoology, Jacobs viewed the city much like a coral reef, where co-evolutionary dynamics between the coral organisms (the people) and the coral reef (the built environment) result in the emergence of a socio-spatial logic that can support various kind of functions and opportunities for people.

    First line of urban scholarship based on ecological thought

    Blueprint planning based on ideals such as Le Corbusier’s “The Shining City,” or Sir Ebenezer Howard’s “The Garden City,” Jacobs argued, is likely to fail since it lacks the critical understanding of the city as a complex socio-spatial system. Spatial morphology thinking (Hillier and Hanson, 1984) provided a precision and an analytical depth to the insights of Jane Jacobs. Density, accessibility and diversity are outlined as the main features of spatial capital for people in cities (Marcus, 2010), which are akin to insights in ecosystem ecology, where species diversity, species abundance and ecological connectivity are critical features.

  • 1224.
    Barthel, Stephan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Viola has an Acorn in her Pocket2016Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 1225.
    Barthel, Stephan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering. Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Belton, Sophie
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Raymond, Christopher
    Department of Landscape Architecture, Planning and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, Sweden.
    Giusti, Matteo
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering. Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Fostering Children’s Connection to Nature Through Authentic Situations: The Case of Saving Salamanders at School2018In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, article id 928Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     The aim of this paper is to explore how children learn to form new relationships with nature. It draws on a longitudinal case study of children participating in a stewardship project involving the conservation of salamanders during the school day in Stockholm, Sweden. The qualitative method includes two waves of data collection: when a group of 10-year-old children participated in the project (2015) and 2 years after they participated (2017). We conducted 49 interviews with children as well as using participant observations and questionnaires. We found indications that children developed sympathy for salamanders and increased concern and care for nature, and that such relationships persisted 2 years after participation. Our rich qualitative data suggest that whole situations of sufficient unpredictability triggering free exploration of the area, direct sensory contact and significant experiences of interacting with a species were important for children’s development of affective relationships  with the salamander species and with nature in an open-ended sense. Saving the lives of trapped animals enabled direct sensory interaction, feedback, increased understanding, and development of new skills for dynamically exploring further ways of saving species in an interactive process experienced as deeply meaningful, enjoyable and connecting. The behavioral setting instilled a sense of pride and commitment, and the high degree of responsibility given to the children while exploring the habitat during authentic situations enriched children’s enjoyment. The study has implications for the design of education programs that aim to connect children with nature and for a child-sensitive urban policy that supports authentic nature situations in close spatial proximity to preschools and schools.

  • 1226.
    Barthel, Stephan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering. Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Belton, Sophie
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Raymond, Christopher M.
    Department of Landscape Architecture, Planning and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, Sweden.
    Giusti, Matteo
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Fostering children's connection to nature through authentic situations: the case of saving salamanders at school2018In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, no JUN, article id 928Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to explore how children learn to form new relationships with nature. It draws on a longitudinal case study of children participating in a stewardship project involving the conservation of salamanders during the school day in Stockholm, Sweden. The qualitative method includes two waves of data collection: when a group of 10-year-old children participated in the project (2015) and 2 years after they participated (2017). We conducted 49 interviews with children as well as using participant observations and questionnaires. We found indications that children developed sympathy for salamanders and increased concern and care for nature, and that such relationships persisted 2 years after participation. Our rich qualitative data suggest that whole situations of sufficient unpredictability triggering free exploration of the area, direct sensory contact and significant experiences of interacting with a species were important for children's development of affective relationships with the salamander species and with nature in an open-ended sense. Saving the lives of trapped animals enabled direct sensory interaction, feedback, increased understanding, and development of new skills for dynamically exploring further ways of saving species in an interactive process experienced as deeply meaningful, enjoyable and connecting. The behavioral setting instilled a sense of pride and commitment, and the high degree of responsibility given to the children while exploring the habitat during authentic situations enriched children's enjoyment. The study has implications for the design of education programs that aim to connect children with nature and for a child-sensitive urban policy that supports authentic nature situations in close spatial proximity to preschools and schools. 

  • 1227. Barthel, Stephan
    et al.
    Berghauser Pont, M.
    Colding, Johan
    Gren, Å.
    Legeby, A.
    Marcus, L.
    DN Debatt: ”Nytt miljonprogram – unik chans att lösa flera frågor”2016In: Dagens nyheterArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 1228. Barthel, Stephan
    et al.
    Berghauser-Pont, Meta
    Chalmers.
    Colding, Johan
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Gren, Åsa
    Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics.
    Legeby, Ann
    KTH.
    Marcus, Lars
    Chalmers.
    Miljonprogram - unik chans att lösa flera frågor2016In: Dagens Nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Dolt värde av enorma mått. Ett nytt miljonprogram kan förskräcka, men kan vara just vad Sverige behöver. Men vi ska inte upprepa misstagen från förra gången. I stället måste politikerna nu ta fasta på denna unika chans att ta itu med vår tids stora utmaningar som integration, tillväxt och hållbarhet, skriver sex forskare.

  • 1229.
    Barthel, Stephan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Colding, Johan
    Stockholms Universitet.
    A Critical Perspective on the “Smart City” Model2017Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    As urban ecologists we support developing smoother traffic systems, providing citizens with more easily accessible information, and of course promoting citizen-participation and local democracy in political decision-making. However, and as is normally the common destiny when new models for sustainable development are appearing, investments in these “smarter” models run the risk of making people blind to problems that need more immediate concern. In short, governance is a matter of prioritizing among different goals. Governance is also about making sure that strong and powerful enterprises and business interests do not hijack the public debate

  • 1230.
    Barthel, Stephan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Colding, Johan
    Stockholms Universitet.
    The Smart (Cyborg) City Needs Smarter Ecological Resilience Thinking2017Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Employing a sort of a cyborg worldview—meaning a living system of intertwined human and machine parts—the Smart City system is seen as contributing to urban sustainability with the basic assumption that ‘the Internet of Things’ serves social and public ends. These ends include economic benefits, improving efficiency and quality of life for people by optimizing control of infrastructures. In this view, urban residents are at the center of a city’s sustainability transformation, while at the same time serving as “data sources”, providing urban planners (central controllers of the cyborg) various sources of information about human behavior that may or may not be exploited. While various efficiency measures often are beneficial for society, at least in the short term, the discussions of resilience of such a cyborg is mostly entirely avoided.

  • 1231.
    Barthel, Stephan
    et al.
    Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Colding, Johan
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Andersson, Erik
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Schewenius, Maria
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Campus Albano, Stockholm - Creating a social-ecological ‘best practices’ campus area in the Baltic region for supporting learning, innovation, and sense of community: In Live Baltic Campus: Inventory Reports2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Campus Albano is the newest addition to the Stockholm University campus, Stockholm, Sweden. Production commenced on Nov. 30, 2015, after a five-year planning and design process. The student- and researcher accommodations, and the university buildings are expected to be ready by 2018 and 2019, respectively. The project is significant both for its participatory planning process, and for the strong focus on supporting ecosystem services, for example wetlands and allotment gardens, in the final campus design.

  • 1232.
    Barthel, Stephan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Colding, Johan
    Beijer International Institute of Ecological Economics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Elmqvist, Tomas
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    History and local management of a biodiversity-rich, urban cultural landscape2005In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 10, no 2, article id 10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban green spaces provide socially valuable ecosystem services. Through an historical analysis of the development of the National Urban Park (NUP) of Stockholm, we illustrate how the coevolutionary process of humans and nature has resulted in the high level of biological diversity and associated recreational services found in the park. The ecological values of the area are generated in the cultural landscape. External pressures resulting in urban sprawl in the Stockholm metropolitan region increasingly challenge the capacity of the NUP to continue to generate valuable ecosystem services. Setting aside protected areas, without accounting for the role of human stewardship of the cultural landscape, will most likely fail. In a social inventory of the area, we identify 69 local user and interest groups currently involved in the NUP area. Of these, 25 are local stewardship associations that have a direct role in managing habitats within the park that sustain such services as recreational landscapes, seed dispersal, and pollination. We propose that incentives should be created to widen the current biodiversity management paradigm, and actively engage local stewardship associations in adaptive co-management processes of the park and surrounding green spaces. Copyright © 2005 by the author(s). Published here under license by the Resilience Alliance.

  • 1233. Barthel, Stephan
    et al.
    Colding, Johan
    Erixon, Hanna
    Ernstson, Henrik
    KTH, Historiska studier av teknik, vetenskap och miljö.
    Grahn, Sara
    Kärsten, Carl
    Marcus, Lars
    Torsvall, Jonas
    Principles of Social Ecological Design: Case study Albano Campus, Stockholm2013Book (Other academic)
  • 1234.
    Barthel, Stephan
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Colding, Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Ernstson, Henrik
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    QBook4-Hållbarhet: Albano Resilient Campus2010Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 1235. Barthel, Stephan
    et al.
    Colding, Johan
    Ernstson, Henrik
    KTH, Historiska studier av teknik, vetenskap och miljö.
    Grahn, Sara
    KTH, Arkitektur.
    Erixon, Hanna
    KTH, Arkitektur.
    Marcus, Lars
    KTH, Stadsbyggnad.
    Kärsten, Carl
    Torsvall, Jonas
    Chans sätta Stockholm på kartan2011In: Svenska dagbladetArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 1236.
    Barthel, Stephan
    et al.
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Sweden; Department of History, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Crumley, Carole L.
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Sweden; Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Swedish Biodiversity Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Uppsala, Sweden.
    Svedin, Uno
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Biocultural Refugia: Combating the Erosion of Diversity in Landscapes of Food Production2013In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 18, no 4, article id 71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is urgent need to both reduce the rate of biodiversity loss caused by industrialized agriculture and feed more people. The aim of this paper is to highlight the role of places that harbor traditional ecological knowledge, artifacts, and methods when preserving biodiversity and ecosystem services in landscapes of food production. We use three examples in Europe of biocultural refugia, defined as the physical places that not only shelter farm biodiversity, but also carry knowledge and experiences about practical management of how to produce food while stewarding biodiversity and ecosystem services. Memory carriers include genotypes, landscape features, oral, and artistic traditions and self-organized systems of rules, and as such reflect a diverse portfolio of practices on how to deal with unpredictable change. We find that the rich biodiversity of many regionally distinct cultural landscapes has been maintained through different smallholder practices developed in relation to local environmental fluctuations and carried within biocultural refugia for as long as millennia. Places that transmit traditional ecological knowledge and practices hold important lessons for policy makers since they may provide genetic and cultural reservoirs - refugia - for the wide array of species that have co-evolved with humans in Europe for more than 6000 thousand yrs. Biodiversity restoration projects in domesticated landscapes can employ the biophysical elements and cultural practices embedded in biocultural refugia to create locally adapted small-scale mosaics of habitats that allow species to flourish and adapt to change. We conclude that such insights must be included in discussions of land-sparing vs. land-sharing when producing more food while combating loss of biodiversity. We found the latter strategy rational in domesticated landscapes with a long history of agriculture.

  • 1237.
    Barthel, Stephan
    et al.
    Natural Resource Management, Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Resilience Center, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Folke, Carl
    Natural Resource Management, Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Resilience Center, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Colding, Johan
    Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Resilience Center, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Social-ecological memory in urban gardens-Retaining the capacity for management of ecosystem services2010In: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 255-265Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many ecosystem services are in decline. Local ecological knowledge and associated practice are essential to sustain and enhance ecosystem services on the ground. Here, we focus on social or collective memory in relation to management practice that sustains ecosystem services, and investigate where and how ecological practices, knowledge and experience are retained and transmitted. We analyze such social-ecological memory of allotment gardens in the Stockholm urban area, Sweden. Allotment gardens support ecosystem services such as pollination, seed dispersal and pest regulation in the broader urban landscape. Surveys and interviews were preformed over a four-year period with several hundreds of gardeners. We found that the allotment gardens function as communities-of-practice, where participation and reification interact and social-ecological memory is a shared source of resilience of the community by being both emergent and persistent. Ecological practices and knowledge in allotment gardens are retained and transmitted by imitation of practices, oral communication and collective rituals and habits, as well as by the physical gardens, artifacts, metaphors and rules-in-use (institutions). Finally, a wider social context provides external support through various forms of media, markets, social networks, collaborative organizations, and legal structures. We exemplify the role of urban gardens in generating ecosystem services in times of crisis and change and conclude that stewards of urban green areas and the social memory that they carry may help counteract further decline of critical ecosystem services. .

  • 1238.
    Barthel, Stephan
    et al.
    Department of History, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Resilience Center, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; The Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Isendahl, Christian
    Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Urban gardens, agriculture, and water management: Sources of resilience forlong-term food security in cities2013In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 86, p. 224-234Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Food security has always been a key resilience facet for people living in cities. This paper discusses lessons for food security fromhistoric and prehistoric cities. The Chicago school of urban sociology established amodernist understanding of urbanism as an essentialist reality separate from its larger life-support system. However, different urban histories have given rise to a remarkable spatial diversity and temporal variation viewed at the global and long-term scales that are often overlooked in urban scholarship.Drawing on two case studies fromwidely different historical and cultural contexts – the Classic Maya civilization of the late first millennium AD and Byzantine Constantinople – this paper demonstrates urban farming as a pertinent feature of urban support systems over the long-term and global scales. We show how urban gardens, agriculture, and water management as well as the linked social–ecological memories of how to uphold such practices over time have contributed to long-term food security during eras of energy scarcity. We exemplify with the function of such local blue–green infrastructures during chocks to urban supply lines. We conclude that agricultural production is not “the antithesis of the city," but often an integrated urban activity that contribute to the resilience of cities.

  • 1239.
    Barthel, Stephan
    et al.
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of History, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Parker, John
    National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis, University of Calilfornia, Santa Barbara, USA.
    Ernstson, Henrik
    Stockholm Resilience Center, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; African Centre for Cities, University of Cape Town, Rondesbosch, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Food and Green Space in Cities: A Resilience Lens on Gardens and Urban Environmental Movements2015In: Urban Studies, ISSN 0042-0980, E-ISSN 1360-063X, Vol. 52, no 7, p. 1321-1338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the role played by urban gardens during historical collapses in urban food supply lines and identifies the social processes required to protect two crit- ical elements of urban food production during times of crisis - open green spaces and the collective memory of how to grow food. Advanced communication and transport technologies allow food sequestration from the farthest reaches of the planet, but have markedly increasing urban dependence on global food systems over the past 50 years. Simultaneously, such advances have eroded collective memory of food production, while suitable spaces for urban gardening have been lost. These factors combine to heighten the potential for food shortages when - as occurred in the 20th century - major economic, political or environmental crises sever supply lines to urban areas. This paper considers how to govern urban areas sustainably in order to ensure food security in times of crisis by: evincing the effectiveness of urban gardening during crises; showing how allotment gardens serve as conduits for transmitting collective social-ecological memories of food production; and, discussing roles and strategies of urban environmental movements for protecting urban green space. Urban gardening and urban social movements can build local ecological and social response capacity against major collapses in urban food supplies. Hence, they should be incorporated as central elements of sustainable urban development. Urban governance for resilience should be historically informed about major food crises and allow for redundant food production solutions as a response to uncertain futures.

  • 1240.
    Barthel, Stephan
    et al.
    Department of History, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Resilience Center, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Parker, John
    National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis, University of California, Santa Barbara, USA; Barrett Honors College, Arizona State University, Tempe, USA.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm Resilience Center, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Colding, Johan
    Stockholm Resilience Center, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Urban gardens: pockets of social-ecological memory2014In: Greening in the Red Zone: Disaster, Resilience, and Community Greening Part II / [ed] Keith G. Tidball and Marianne E. Krasny, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands , 2014, p. 145-158Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well known that urban allotment gardens provide important ecosystem services. Their potential to act as sources of local resilience during times of crisis is less appreciated, despite the role they have played as areas of food security during times of crisis in history. Their ability to provide such relief, however, requires that the skills and knowledge needed for effective gardening can be transmitted over time and across social groups. In short, some portion of urban society must remember how to grow food. This chapter proposes that collectively managed gardens function as ‘pockets’ of social-ecological memory in urban landscapes by storing the knowledge and experience required to grow food. Allotment gardeners operate as ‘communities of practice’ with ecosystem stewardship reflecting long-term, dynamic interactions between community members and gardening sites. Social-ecological memories about food production and past crises are retained and transmitted through habits, traditions, informal institutions, artifacts and the physical structure of the gardens themselves. Allotment gardens thus serve as incubators of social-ecological knowledge with experiences that can be accessed and transferred to other land uses in times of crisis, contributing to urban resilience. Conversely, failure to protect these pockets of social-ecological memory could result in a collective ‘forgetting’ of important social-ecological knowledge and reduce social-ecological resilience.

  • 1241.
    Bartling, Tobias
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Sammalisto, San
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Effektivisering av materialflöden utifrån lean production och flaskhalsteori2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Companies today are becoming more and more resource-promoting. A way for companies to become more effective with their resources is Lean Production, which is a strategic method that involves eliminating waste. Value stream mapping is a tool that can be used to get a clearer picture of reality and visualize where the problem lies. When the analysis is done, it will often show a machine or station that is slowing down production. Stations like that are called ”bottlenecks”.

    The purpose with this study is to form a methodology for analysis and efficiency of material flows based on bottleneck theory and lean production. The methodology will be tested on Företag AB:s filial.

    The methodology was worked out from literature studies. It consists of two main steps, status report and analyzing discussion. These two steps is supported by different factors within lean production and bottleneck theory. The methodology is applied on our business case and showed to be a structured way to study the current state of production and to discuss improvements.

    Literature studies has been used to gather theoretical knowledge. Within the company interviews and observations were conducted with operators and executives who was involved with the product flow that was investigated, SK23DF.

    Företag AB:s filial works with 150 different types of steel with about 3000 different products. The production flow is also forecast-controlled and intersecting and it is a massive under-taking to streamline these in the best way possible. Conclusions reached is that the staff's current consensus for efficient production is an obstacle to this. The staff should be trained to get a bigger picture of the whole, thus giving them better prospects for change and improvement. All research points to the importance of fully understanding the current situation, by everyone within the organization. This is the key to succeed with change management at streamlining flows.

  • 1242.
    Barås, Madeleine
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics.
    Brunberg, Annika
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics.
    von Haartman, Robin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    A supply chain strategy for an innovative commodity producer: Testing the applicability of established theoretical models2014In: EurOMA 2014 Full Papers, 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The distinction between innovative and functional products have for more than a decade been central to our understanding of how to design appropriate supply chains. However, the distinction between the two types of products, and the associated "optimal" supply chain, are blurring, as high competition forces commodity producers to move up the value chain and increase the innovative content of their products. The purpose of this paper is to use a single case study to test whether established supply chain models can be applied to an innovative commodity producer. The paper finds that although some established model still have merits, a supply chain strategy cannot only be based on product characteristics. Factors such ease of transport and uncertainties in materials supply needs to be taken into account and an effective supply chain may involve utilising decoupling point to combine the benefits of both efficient and responsive supply chains.

  • 1243.
    Bashir, Babar
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Designing of High Reflectance Distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs),mirrors using AlGaInN material system in the UV wavelength range2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 1244.
    Bashiry, Shahram
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Vad kan ett traineeprogram bidra tii?: En fallstudie av Sandviks traineeprogram2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Titel: Vad kan ett traineeprogram bidra till? En fallstudie av Sandviks traineeprogramNivå: C -uppsats i ämnet företagsekonomi

    Författare: Shahram Bashiry

    Handledare: Maria Fregidou Malama

    Datum: 2012-september

    Syfte: Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka vad ett traineeprogram bidrar till. Jag undersöker vad Sandviks traineeprogram har bidragit till sedan programmet startades och huruvida programmet bidrar till kompetensutveckling hos deltagarna och inom Sandviks kärnområden.

    Följande frågor analyseras?

    • Vad kan ett      traineeprogram bidra till?
    • Bidrar programmet till      kompetensutveckling?

    Metod: För att ta reda på svaren har jag genomfört en fallstudie av kvalitativ metod. Preliminär data samlades in genom ostrukturerade intervjuer med fyra handledare som har handlett traineeanställda under utbildningen. Vidare intervjuades arton traineeanställda som gick ut programmet våren 2012 samt de som går programmet hösten 2012. De förra e-post intervjuades medan de senare intervjuades på plats.  Sedan analyserades intervjuerna var och en för sig och jämfördes med varandra. Studien bygger på en induktiv metod viket innebär att studien har empiri som utgångspunkt.

    Resultat & slutsats: Resultatet visar att företag behöver ett traineeprogram för att få in kompetent personal och föryngring i företaget. Traineeanställda är inte mer kompetenta än vanliga anställda men via programmets utformning får de möjligheten att skapa nätverk och få arbetslivserfarenhet.

     

    Förslag till fortsattforskning: Det kan vara tänkvärd att studera vidare Sandviks traineeprogram mot före detta traineeanställda för att undersöka hur mycket de har marknadsfört Sandvik samt om de har sökt sig tillbaka till företaget.

    Studiens bidrag: Studien bidrar till att ge företag en bättre inblick på traineeprogram som en rekryteringsbas. Studien ger även allmänheten en bättre uppfattning på traineeprogram som ger en unik start på karriären och alla förmågor att utvecklas till en nyckel person inom företag.

    Nyckel ord: Traineeprogram, Traineeanställda, Sandvik, Formell utbildning, Kompetensutveckling, Rekrytering, Informelt lärande.

     

  • 1245.
    Bashtay, Nenus
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Lindqvist, Mattias
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Why Buy a Structured Product from a Bank?: A combination of weighted products to outperform the market2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The purpose of the thesis is to give small private investors an insight the financial world of derivatives and to show that an investor does not need to consult with an advisor in order to make decisions about the investments. The aim was to show through a new product that a small investor can beat the market return.

    Method: The method used in the thesis is to collect data over a three year period for an option, a bull ETF and a treasury bill. The database DataStream was used to obtain statistics of the option and the Treasury bill and Nasdaq OMX Nordic was used for the Bull ETF. We calculated the expected return and variance of each in order to use in the portfolio. Having the information needed we then used a trial-and-error method to calculate the weight each component will be given, with the help of Excel and its Solver add-on.

    Result & Conclusion: The results were surprising in that over the three year period the product had a 100% increase, while the market only went up by 30%. The major reason for the products strong return was that the daily earnings were shifted everyday so that the weights remained constant throughout the life of the product. The issue with the product was that no transaction costs were included in the calculations, and as there would be at least one transaction per day the costs would be enormous for the given product.

    Suggestions for Further Research: As one of the limitations for the thesis was that no transactions cost were included, one idea for further research could be to calculate the transaction costs as well as seeing if there is a method to minimize them so that the product could be profitable.

    Contribution to the Field: To our knowledge we are the first to test theses three components in order to from a structured product. Through our method interested parties could do the same with other components or retest our product. We have showed through our method one way to create your own structured product.

  • 1246.
    Bashtay, Nenus
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Mahmoudi, Sabir
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Avskaffandet av Revisionsplikten i Introduktionsfasen VS Kreditgivning2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim/Objective: The purpose of this paper is to investigate and analyze the early effects that could arise between entrepreneurs and lenders in connection with the auditing requirement, which has now been abolished. Through, empirical data identify the impact from the credit provider’s perspective and small business perspective and then make an overall assessment.

    Method:The authors are to achieve the purpose for this thesis through the use of both primary and secondary data. Primary data gathered through interviews and secondary data in the form of earlier thesis as well as articles.

    Result and conclusion: Banks have not prepared for the change in connection with the abolition of the audit requirement. Lenders look at repayment ability as the most important aspect of giving credit. Lenders argue that small businesses will retain the auditor of the company, because it will help them when granting credit. Creditors reveal that alternative internal methods prevail over revised reports approved by an auditor. However, small businesses reevaluate the function of the revised financial information. Small businesses welcomed the abolition of the audit requirement in the introductory phase, because it provides more flexibility of their resources.

    Suggestions for future research: Our proposal for further research is to investigate the Swedish market's capacity to raise the levels of the requirements, and examine which companies will be effected. Also to clarify what level the limit should be and examine the impact on lending to small business with such a change.

    Contribution of the thesis: The thesis will give an idea of how small businesses perceive the abolition of the audit requirement and how it will affect the lenders' review and decision making in the case of loans to small businesses. The thesis is primarily aimed towards auditors, lenders and small businesses.

  • 1247.
    Basic, Emma
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Nordin, Albin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Hållbarhetsrapportering inom två branscher: En jämförande studie på börsnoterade företag i Skandinavien2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: Sustainability reporting in two industries - A comparative study of listed companies in Scandinavia.

     

    Level: Final assignment for Bachelor Degree in Business Administration

     

    Author: Emma Basic & Albin Nordin

     

    Supervisor: Fredrik Hartwig

     

    Date: 2018-January

     

    Aim: Previous research has shown that industry is an influencing factor to differences in sustainability reports for companies. Research has been conducted on different industries from various countries. Research has not been done on only two industries where one is polluted and the other is not for companies in Scandinavia. The aim of this study is therefore to investigate whether industry is a influencing factor to differences in the amount of sustainability information in sustainability reports between the industries durable goods and industrial services for companies in Scandinavia.

     

    Method: This study is based on the positivist research tradition and follows the deductive line of research. The study aims to be objective and uses the quantitative method in which a data-based content analysis is performed to measure sustainability reporting. The study is also based on a comparative design where the data collection is based from a cross sectional design. Statistical controls in form of a bivariate analysis and a multiple regression are made in the study using the statistical program SPSS.

     

    Result & Conclusions: The study shows that industry is an influencing factor to differences in the amount of sustainability information in sustainability reports for companies in Scandinavia. The study shows that companies in the industry durable goods sustainability reports more than companies in industrial services. This industry reports more in both environmental and social reporting. We believe this may be because durable goods affects the environment more and therefore also report more environment information. Why the industry also reports more social information can according to us be because the words in the content analysis may possibly be more targeted to product companies.

     

    Suggestions for future research: Something that would be interesting for further research is to do a similar study but focus on other industries. It would also be interesting to bring the country Finland in the study because the country is in the Nordic region and is similar to the Scandinavian countries. Further research could also investigate sustainability reports from two other years because this study examine 2014 and 2016 and also only target Small, Mid or Large cap since this study examines all of these.

     

    Contribution of the thesis: The study helps to determine that industry is a contributing factor to differences in sustainability reports between the industries durable goods and industrial services for companies in Scandinavia which has not been researched earlier. The study also uses a number of control variables and determines whether these have an impact on differences in sustainability reports. The study finds that size affects the differences while time do not. For the variable country, the study shows that companies from Denmark sustainability reports less than companies from Sweden and Norway.

  • 1248.
    Basic, Lejla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies.
    Hur har läroböckerna anpassats till det mångkulturella samhället?: en undersökning av kurslitteratur för religionskunskap2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med det här arbetet har varit att redogöra för hur religionsämnet har påverkats av förändringar på Sveriges demografiska karta, d.v.s. landets mångkulturalism. Ett annat fenomen som uppmärksammades i denna undersökning är sekulariseringen. Anledningen till detta är att den kulturella pluraliteten och sekulariseringen är två processer som är svåra att behandla som helt skilda från varandra. 

    Med tanke på att man införde religionskunskapsundervisning i svensk skola på 60-talet, perioden då även landets demografiska utseende började förändras valde jag att belysa undersökningsperioden från 1960-talet till 2000. Undersökningen visar att en anpassning har skett till det mångkulturella samhället. Denna anpassning började synas i slutet på 1970-talet då det i kursböckerna började ges allt mer utrymme till andra religioner och livsåskådningar än den protestantiska kristna. I dagens kursböcker är de olika religionerna jämnfördelade. Det är dock skillnad på hur dessa presenteras i de olika böckerna. Det är emellertid även viktigt att betona att denna slutsats bygger på de specifika böcker som jag har utgått ifrån i min undersökning.

  • 1249.
    Basic, Lejla
    University of Gävle, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences.
    Kriget i Bosnien och Hercegovina: religiös pluralitet, ett upphov till krig?2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med uppsatsen är att belysa de tre olika religionernas roll på Balkan ur ett historiskt perspektiv, för att vidare kunna besvara frågeställningen, på vilket sätt gav den religiösa pluraliteten upphov till kriget i Bosnien och Hercegovina?

  • 1250.
    Basic, Lejla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies.
    Speaking anxiety: An obstacle to second language learning?2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Language is a system for communication, for that reason it is evident that communication skills are a big part of learning a language. To practice speaking is therefore a central part of English lessons in schools today. However, to make students speak the target language is not always easy and there can be several different reasons why this is the case. The current study investigates one possible reason, namely speaking anxiety and its influence on second language acquisition. The study’s purpose was to examine how a teacher can encourage students to communicate orally but also to learn why the phenomenon is not dealt with more in schools. The study is mainly based on literature but also contains an interview with two upper secondary teachers. It is found that speaking anxiety inhibits students from speaking which has a negative effect on their oral skills. The study also shows that speaking anxiety is not a prioritized problem in schools, a reason can be that speaking anxiety is not seen as a problem concerning language teaching since it can be considered as a social difficulty. Nevertheless, since oral proficiency is a big part of the English course in the Swedish upper secondary school, speaking anxious students have a harder time mastering the goals for education than other students. In order to encourage speaking in a classroom it is important to strive for a pleasant atmosphere where every student can feel relaxed and motivated to communicate orally. 

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