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  • 1251.
    Barbieri, Dechristian
    et al.
    Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of São Carlos, São Paulo, Brazil.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, USA.
    Oliveira, Ana Beatriz
    Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of São Carlos, São Paulo, Brazil.
    For sit-stand desks, semiautomated prompting may lead the way2017In: Industrial and Systems Engineering at Work, ISSN 2168-9210, Vol. 49, no 5, p. 51-52Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 1252.
    Barbieri, Dechristian
    et al.
    Universidade Federal de São Carlos.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Nogueira, Helen
    Universidade Federal de São Carlos.
    Oliveira, Ana Beatriz
    Universidade Federal de São Carlos.
    The ability of non-computer tasks to increase biomechanical exposure variability in computer-intensive office work2015In: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 58, no 1, p. 50-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Postures and muscle activity in the upper body were recorded from 50 academics office workers during 2 hours of normal work, categorised by observation into computer work (CW) and three non-computer (NC) tasks (NC seated work, NC standing/walking work and breaks). NC tasks differed significantly in exposures from CW, with standing/walking NC tasks representing the largest contrasts for most of the exposure variables. For the majority of workers, exposure variability was larger in their present job than in CW alone, as measured by the job variability ratio (JVR), i.e. the ratio between min–min variabilities in the job and in CW. Calculations of JVRs for simulated jobs containing different proportions of CW showed that variability could, indeed, be increased by redistributing available tasks, but that substantial increases could only be achieved by introducing more vigorous tasks in the job, in casu illustrated by cleaning.

  • 1253.
    Barbieri, Dechristian
    et al.
    Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of Sao Carlos.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Oliveira, Ana Beatriz
    Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of Sao Carlos.
    Neck, trunk, and upper arm posture variation during computer work at a sit-stand table in a real work setting2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Computer work is generally associated with constrained postures and sedentary behaviors. Sit-stand tables have been suggested as an effective intervention to promote changes in gross body posture, and thus reduce sitting. However, few studies have addressed to what extent sit-stand table usage affects posture variation in other body regions. The aim of this study was to examine neck, trunk and arm postures among office workers with access to sit-stand tables.

    Methods: Twenty-four office workers (16 females, 8 males; mean age 41 (SD9) years) participated. At entry, workers received sit-stand tables, which were then used for two months. Neck and trunk flexion, and right upper arm elevation (RUA) was recorded on three consecutive days, two hours/day, during the last week of table use. Minute-to-minute variability for the three postures during sitting (CWsit) and standing (CWstand) computer work was obtained for each participant. Job variance ratios (JVR) were calculated for the actual work, and for other combinations of CWsit and CWstand by simulation1.

    Results: CWsit and CWstand were performed for 72% and 28% of the time spent at the computer. Minute-to-minute variability was larger in CWsit than in CWstand for all three postures, and the difference CWsit-CWstand was largest for RUA [median 1.7 (IQR −0.2–1.7)º], followed by trunk [1.6 (0.9–3.0)º] and neck [0.9 (0.0–3.1)º]. During actual work, JVR was between 1 and 3 for most participants. Simulations suggested that maximum variability would occur at a combination of 40–80% CWsit and 20–60% CWstand.

    Conclusion: Neck, trunk and arm posture variation during computer work can be increased by manipulating proportions of time spent sitting and standing at a sit-stand table. The tentative “optimal” proportions reported here could be a benchmark for occupational health professionals.

  • 1254.
    Barbieri, Dechristian
    et al.
    Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of São Carlos, São Carlos, Brasil.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia, USA.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Oliveira, Ana Beatriz
    Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of São Carlos, São Carlos, Brasil.
    The effect of sit-stand workstations to decrease sedentariness in office work: tests of 2 systems with and without automatic reminders2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sedentary behaviors in office workers has become a major public health concern and several initiatives have been proposed to break up sedentary behavior patterns during the performance of computer-intensive office work. Among such initiatives, the use of sit-stand workstations has been suggested to be one of the most promising by recent reviews. However, there still is only limited scientific evidence showing how effective sit-stand workstations are, in reducing sedentary behaviors and also documentation of their sustainability of use in studies of regular office work (i.e. as the “newness” of the system wears off, with time since introduction). This study aimed to document user behaviors and compare the use of two sit-stand workstation based interventions among two groups of administrative office workers: an “autonomous” group in which these workstations were introduced following some general ergonomic guidelines, and another “feedback-system” group in which the sit-stand tables were furnished with a semi-automatic reminder system, programmed to raise the table to a high (i.e. standing) position for 10 minutes after every accumulated 50 minutes of the table being in a low (i.e. sitting) position, i.e. to result in about 83% sitting per day. In addition, the sustainability of the use of these two kinds of sit-stand workstation interventions over two continuous months since their introduction was also studied. The results averaged over two months of usage of the two interventions showed that the percentage (%) sitting time was 87.4 (84.9-89.2) on average in the autonomous group and 84.0 (83.5-85.4) on average in the feedback-system group (P=0.001), and the frequency of switches between sitting and standing was 0.3 (0.2-0.3) per hour in the autonomous group and 0.7 (0.6-0.7) per hour in the feedback-system group (P=0.001). Thus, the sit-stand table system integrated with the automatic reminder system led to more reduction in sitting time and more switches in posture between sitting and standing as compared to the traditional sit-stand table, and behaviors of both groups were seen to be sustained over the 2-month intervention period (no difference across time for any of the variables tested for any group).

  • 1255.
    Barbieri, Dechristian
    et al.
    Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of São Carlos.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Oliveira, Ana Beatriz
    Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of São Carlos.
    Variation in upper extremity, neck and trunk postures when performing computer work at a sit-stand station2019In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 75, p. 120-128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to determine the extent of upper arm, neck and trunk posture variation that can be obtained by combining seated and standing computer work, compared to performing only seated computer work. Posture data were recorded for two hours during each of three days of ordinary work from 24 office workers that had been using a sit-stand station for two months. Periods with sitting and standing computer work were identified using on-site observations, and posture means and minute-to-minute variance were determined for both. Expected minute-to-minute posture variability in different temporal combinations of sitting and standing computer work were determined by simulation, and expressed in terms of a Job Variance Ratio, i.e. the relative increase in variability compared to sitting-only work. For all three postures, mean values differed between sitting and standing computer work, and both showed a notable minute-to-minute variability. For most workers, posture variability was larger when combining sitting and standing than when sitting only, and simulations suggested to introduce more standing than what the worker currently practiced. The results indicate that introducing a sit-stand table could, for most office workers, have a positive effect on upper arm, neck and trunk posture variability.

  • 1256.
    Barbieri, Dechristian
    et al.
    Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of Sao Carlos.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Oliveira, Ana Beatriz
    Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of Sao Carlos.
    Variation in upper trapezius and wrist extensor EMG among office workers during sit-stand table use in a real work setting2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Computer work is generally associated with constrained postures and low muscular demands. Sit-stand tables have been suggested as an effective initiative to change working postures during computer work, but the effect of this intervention on muscle activation has rarely been studied. The aim of this study was to document variation in shoulder-arm muscle activation among office workers using sit-stand tables.

    Methods: Twenty-four office workers (16 females, 8 males; age 41±9 years) participated. At entry, workers received sit-stand tables and ergonomics information, and then used the table for two months. Muscle activity of right and left upper trapezius and wrist extensors (RUT, LUT, RWE and LWE, respectively) was recorded during three consecutive days (two hours each day) in the last week of sit-stand table usage. Periods of computer work in sitting and standing positions (CWsit and CWstand, respectively) were identified by on-site observation, and synchronized with the EMG recordings. Variability (min-min SD across 1-minute bins, %MVE) was calculated for each EMG recording in CWsit and CWstand.

    Results: During the 62 minutes of EMG recorded during computer work, CWsit was performed for 72% and CWstand for 28% of the time. The mean minute-to-minute variability of trapezius EMG was larger (P<0.05) during CWsit (RUT 3.9 (SD between workers 1.6) %MVE; LUT 3.9 (SD 2.3) %MVE) than CWstand (RUT 3.0 (SD 1.5) %MVE; LUT 3.2 (SD 1.9) %MVE). The mean minute-to minute variability in RWE was also larger during CWsit (3.3 (SD 1.4) %MVE) than CWstand (2.9 (SD 1.3) %MVE). For LWE, variability did not differ between CWsit and CWstand.

    Conclusion: Sitting and standing computer work was associated with different extents of variation in shoulder-arm muscle activity. Thus, sit-stand tables may introduce beneficial exposure variation into the work of office employees.

  • 1257.
    Barbro, Wallhäger
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences.
    Forslund, Johanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences.
    Samlärande i en additiv språkmiljö: En studie där barn, vårdnadshavare och pedagoger i samverkan stärker barns identiteter och språkutveckling, utifrån individernas erfarenheter, miljöer och kulturer2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning Syftet med föreliggande examensarbete var att undersöka hur barn med annat modersmål än svenska och deras vårdnadshavare, tillsammans med pedagoger och oss kan utveckla arbetssätt och metoder som stärker barns och vårdnadshavare identitet, samt utvecklar och stödjer språkutvecklingen. Syftet var också att utifrån dessa metoder och arbetssätt utarbeta ett metodhäfte. Detta examensarbete baseras på kvalitativ aktionsforskning ur ett interpretivistiskt perspektiv. Metoderna som använts är intervjuer, observationer, dokumentation och gruppstärkande övningar/lekar. Deltagarna har varit barn och vårdnadshavare från kurdiska, somaliska och arabisktalande språkgrupper samt pedagoger. Vårt examensarbete utgår från ett sociohistoriskt och -kulturellt perspektiv, vilket enligt Strandberg (2006) med utgångspunkt i Vygotskij (1978) innefattar detsociala (interaktionen med andra människor), det medierade (artefakter; verktyg och tecken), det situerade (i kulturella kontexter och speciella situationer) och detkreativa (baserat på barns fantasi och kreativitet). Vår studie är även baserad på didaktik och filosofier som Montessori och Reggio Emilia. Den tidigare forskning som ligger till grund för vår undersökning är forskning om identitet, flerspråkighet, vårdnadshavarens roll och betydelse samt språkutveckling hos yngre barn. Resultaten visar att barnets sociala samspel med vårdnadshavare, pedagoger och med andra barn har haft betydelse för barnets språkutveckling och stärkandet av identiteten. Resultaten visar även att samlärande i en stimulerande miljö med hjälp av skapandet av pedagogiska leksaker och spel utifrån barnets kontext, samt att barnen använt sin kreativitet har varit av vikt för studiens resultat. Slutligen har resultatet lett till skapande av ett metodhäfte som dels utgår från informanternas gemensamma aktiviteter, men även från det urval av metoder och perspektiv, som beskrivs i vår teoretiska bakgrund. Metodhäftet kan användas i hemmen, i förskolor och i kontakt mellan förskola och hemmen. 

  • 1258.
    Barbé, Kurt
    et al.
    Vrije Universiteit Brussel, ELEC.
    Van Moer, Wendy
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Lauwers, L
    Vrije Universiteit Brussel.
    Björsell, Niclas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    A Simple Nonparametric Preprocessing Technique to Correct for Nonstationary Effects in Measured Data2012In: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, ISSN 0018-9456, E-ISSN 1557-9662, Vol. 61, no 8, p. 2085-2094Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The general approach for modeling systems assumes that the measured signals are (weakly) stationary, i.e., the power spectrum is time invariant. However, the stationarity assumption is violated when: 1) transient effects due to experimental conditions are dominant; 2) data are missing due to, for instance, sensor failure; or 3) the amplitude of the excitation signals smoothly varies over time due to, for instance, actuator problems. Although different methods exist to deal with each of these nonstationary effects specifically, no unified approach is available. In this paper, a new and general technique is presented to handle nonstationary effects, based on processing overlapping subrecords of the measured data. The proposed method is a simple preprocessing step where the user does not need to specify which nonstationary effect is present, nor the time interval where the nonstationary effect appears. The merits of the proposed approach are demonstrated on an operational wireless system suffering from interrupted link effects.

  • 1259.
    Barbé, Kurt
    et al.
    Vrije Universiteit Brussel, ELEC.
    Van Moer, Wendy
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Nagels, G
    Natl Ctr Multiple Sclerosis, Melsbroek, Belgium .
    Fractional-Order Time Series Models for Extracting the Haemodynamic Response From Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Data2012In: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, ISSN 0018-9294, E-ISSN 1558-2531, Vol. 59, no 8, p. 2264-2272Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The postprocessing of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data to study the brain functions deals mainly with two objectives: signal detection and extraction of the haemodynamic response. Signal detection consists of exploring and detecting those areas of the brain that are triggered due to an external stimulus. Extraction of the haemodynamic response deals with describing and measuring the physiological process of activated regions in the brain due to stimulus. The haemodynamic response represents the change in oxygen levels since the brain functions require more glucose and oxygen upon stimulus that implies a change in blood flow. In the literature, different approaches to estimate and model the haemodynamic response have been proposed. These approaches can be discriminated in model structures that either provide a proper representation of the obtained measurements but provide no or a limited amount of physiological information, or provide physiological insight but lacks a proper fit to the data. In this paper, a novel model structure is studied for describing the haemodynamics in fMRI measurements: fractional models. We show that these models are flexible enough to describe the gathered data with the additional merit of providing physiological information.

  • 1260.
    Barcos, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment.
    Energy Survey: Energy Audit for ICA Maxi in Sandviken2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 1261.
    Bardh, Emma
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Panikångest - Individens upplevelse2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of this study was to study individuals experience of panic disorder. The underlying method in the study was of qualitative art, were theme based analysis were used and semi structured interviews were conducted. Six interviews were conducted with individuals that for themselves or with the help of primary care for filled the DSM-IV criteria for panic disorder. The results showed that the participants felt that their panic disorder was more or less prominent depended on the stability of the participants subsistence. The participants felt less of their panic disorder if they had a more stable subsistence and felt the panic-disorder were more prominent if the participants felt more stressed. The interviews led to four themes, The Individuals experience of panic disorder, life situation, sense of losing control and a sense of no one would understand.

  • 1262. Barerra, Tony
    et al.
    Hast, Anders
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för datavetenskap.
    Bengtsson, Ewert
    An Alternative Model for Real-Time Rendering of Diffuse Light for Rough Materials2005In: SCCG '05 Proceedings II, 2005, p. 27-28Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 1263.
    Barguilla Jiménez, Núria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    The effect of a thin foil on the heat losses behind a radiator2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

     

    This thesis work is the study of the effect of an aluminium foil on the losses that produced by a radiator, situated under a window, through the wall behind it. The reason behind this topic is due to the energy problem and the different goals that governments have set up to try to reduce the use of energy. For example, more specifically a Swedish national goal is to decrease the energy use of the built stock with 50% by 2050.

     

    For this purpose, an experimental set-up was built in the University of Gävle, Sweden. The arrangement was composed by a radiator and a window facing a climate chamber. A total of twenty-one temperatures and two heat fluxes in the exterior wall were measured in the set-up. Ten different measurement scenarios with different radiator temperature, 40°C, 50°C and 60°C; two different distance between the radiator and the wall, 5 and 9 centimetres and with and without the aluminium foil, were performed.

     

    With the experimental results, a CFD model was validated. Two different models were done, first a 2D model and afterwards a 3D model. For the turbulence, the chosen model was standard k-ε model. There were 54 cases simulated with the 2D model and the 3D model was used just for validation. The cases had different variables such as radiator temperature, outdoor temperature and wall insulation. With these cases, analysis of the effectiveness of the presence of an aluminium foil behind the radiator is performed to evaluate if there is a significant reduction of the losses.

     

    The results showed with both methods that the aluminium foil reduces the losses of the wall behind the radiator. The savings varied depending on the boundary conditions of the case and it were obtained a maximum of 4% and a minimum of 1,3%.

  • 1264.
    Barjakob, Michel
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Johansson, Mathias
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Har chefer slutat lyssna?: En studie om kommunikationstillfredsställelse och chefers aktiva lyssnande2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: Har chefer slutat lyssna? – en studie om kommunikationstillfredsställelse och

    chefers aktiva lyssnande.

    Level: Final assignment for Bachelor Degree in Business Administration.

    Author: Michel Barjakob, Mathias Johansson.

    Supervisor: Kristina Mickelsson, Pär Vilhelmson.

    Date: 2016 – january

    Aim: In this study we aim to create a deeper understanding in supervisors active listening and how it shapes employees communication satisfaction.

    Method: Due to the aim of the study, which is to create a deeper understanding in supervisors active listening, we have conducted a qualitative research. Data has been gathered through semi-structured interviews with ten employees from a leading electronic store and was conducted in Gävle. 

    Result & conclusions: The study show that supervisors must possess enough communication competence to know when active listening should be used. Supervisors communication competence shapes the employees communication satisfaction meanwhile most supervisors lack knowledge in active listening.

    Suggestions for future research: Our suggestions for future research are based on this study’s qualitative research. The participants have requested a follow-up of the active listening. A further recommendation for further research is to examine the impact active listening has on company results.

    Contribution of the thesis: The study contributes by filling the gap we found in our research area. A theoretical model was developed based on previous research, which helped find and localize communication and satisfaction and its components. The practical contribution is aimed towards supervisors hoping to receive knowledge in active listening to help them communicate with their co-workers.

    Key words: communication competence, active listening, communication satisfaction, job satisfaction, shape.

  • 1265.
    Bark, Jannicka
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Therapists working together with Horses: Equine Assisted Psychotherapy: Treating youths with addiction2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 1266.
    Barklund, Peter
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    Olsson, Fredrik
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics.
    Den kommunikativa och organisationskulturella utmaningen: Länsförsäkringar Gävleborg Bank och Försäkring2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to illustrate the subject areas of communication and organizational theories. And what is significant in the daily work within Länsförsäkringar Gävleborg regarding to our subject areas which have been chosen.

    This thesis establishes that a sense of participation is significant and fundamental for communication. This is something that the theories we investigated advocates and correspond with the reality presented in the thesis. Furthermore we have also discovered that the agencys have devoloped their own ways of working and so called subcultures, which the co-workers are comfortable with. We believe that more active knowledge dispersion between the agencys is necessary and further more when the organization is based on knowledge. 

  • 1267.
    Barkstedt, Vanda
    et al.
    Centrum för arbets- och miljömedicin, Stockholm.
    Målqvist, Ingela
    Centrum för arbets- och miljömedicin, Stockholm.
    Alderling, Magnus
    Centrum för arbets- och miljömedicin, Stockholm.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Forsman, Mikael
    Centrum för arbets- och miljömedicin, Stockholm.
    Sophämtares fysiska och psykosociala arbetsbelastning2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Arbetet som sophämtare inkluderar manuell hantering som hämtning och hantering av hushållsavfall i kärl och säckar. Det finns tidigare studier som visat att arbetet kan vara tungt med en hög helkroppsbelastning. Tungt arbete förknippas ofta med besvär i rörelseorganen. Psykologiska påfrestningar i arbetet kan också bidra till besvärsuppkomst.

    Biltrafikens arbetsgivarförbund och Svenska Transportarbetareförbundet tog gemensamt initiativ till det här projektet ”Sophämtarnas arbetsmiljö - allas ansvar”. Projektet har utförts av Transportfackens Yrkes- och Arbetsmiljönämnd (TYA) i samarbete med Karolinska Institutet (KI) och Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning (CBF) vid Högskolan i Gävle. I den här delen av projektet var syftet att kartlägga branschens förekomst av arbetsrelaterade besvär och undersöka den fysiska och psykosociala arbetsbelastningen hos sophämtare vid arbete med insamling av hushållsavfall.

    Samtliga Sveriges sophämtare som arbetar med insamling av hushållsavfall, knappt 2000, erbjöds att fylla i ett omfattande frågeformulär avseende arbete och hälsa. Sextiosex procent svarade. Inom projektetet genomfördes också heldagsmätningar av puls och arbetsställningar för rygg och armar på 56 sophämtare som arbetade med baklastande sopbil. På 12 sophämtare som arbetade med sidlastande sopbil genomfördes dessutom mätningar av muskelbelastning i skulder- och underarmsmuskulatur under en hel arbetsdag. I samband med heldagsmätningarna observerades sophämtarnas arbete av en observatör från en efterföljande bil, eller via en personburen videokamera. För att få fram ytterligare information om belastning på skuldror, rygg och knän genomfördes även biomekaniska fältexperiment där sophämtare fick utföra typiska arbetssituationer samtidigt som förekommande skjut- och drag-krafter registrerades.

    Enligt enkätundersökningen ansåg 17 procent av sophämtarna att deras fysiska arbetsförmåga var låg, vilket är samma procentandel som tidigare har registrerats hos flygplanslastare, men något bättre än vad man brukar se bland män med kort utbildningstid.

    Det var vanligare med kroppsliga besvär bland sophämtare än generellt i befolkningen. Andelen med besvär för olika kroppsdelar som skuldror (60 procent), ländrygg (62 procent), nacke (49 procent), händer/handleder (44 procent), motsvarade situationen för flygplanslastare; det fanns dock en skillnad för knän, där 52 procent av sophämtarna hade besvär mot 44 procent av flyglastarna.

    Sophämtarnas psykosociala arbetsbelastning liknade i stort den hos flygplanslastare, och motsvarar generellt förhållandena i den arbetande befolkningen. I genomsnitt rapporterar sophämtarna även samma upplevda stöd ifrån ledningen som andra yrkesgrupper, men sophämtare på arbetsställen med särskilt lågt stöd ifrån ledningen rapporterade fler olyckstillfällen, hade högre förekomst av kroppsliga besvär och lägre arbetsförmåga än sophämtare på arbetsställen med högt stöd. Mycket talande var att många fler, 27 procent skattade låg psykisk arbetsförmåga av dem på arbetsställen med generellt lågt upplevt stöd från ledningen jämfört med 8 procent av dem på arbetsställen med högt stöd.

    Det var vanligare med olycksfallstillbud bland de som angav ett ständigt högt arbetstempo, vilka återfanns både bland de som svarade att de, 64 procent av sophämtarna, som fick och bland de som inte fick gå hem tidigare om de var klara med dagens uppgifter.

    Fyrtiofyra procent av sophämtarna svarade att de en eller flera gånger hade råkat ut för olycksfall som lett till sjukskrivning. Halkolyckor var klart vanligast. Bland de som rapporterade ett ständigt högt arbetstempo var det vanligare med olyckor.

    De 41 kvinnor som ingick i enkätstudien rapporterade generellt högre upplevd fysisk och psykosocial belastning, samt sämre hälsa och arbetsförmåga än sina manliga kollegor.

    Heldagsmätningarna visade att baklastarnas genomsnittliga arbetstid utanför depån var drygt 6½ timma, varav 43 procent utgjordes av bilkörning. Pulsmätningarna visade, liksom enkäterna, att hämtning från flerbostadhus var mera belastande än hämtning i villaområden och på landsbygden. Pulsen var stundtals hög, men i genomsnitt var den för de flesta sophämtare acceptabel enligt internationella rekommendationer.

    De biomekaniska analyserna visade att krafterna vid dragning av sopkärl ibland var höga, speciellt på snöunderlag, men de föreföll inte att innebära några tydliga risker för ländryggen enligt amerikanska rekommendationer för acceptabla nivåer. Det finns dock forskning som indikerar att upprepad exponering för höga dragkrafter kan innebära risk för skulderbesvär. Att hoppa eller att gå framlänges ned från styrhytt var förknippat med knäbesvär, och kan enligt de biomekaniska analyserna även ge höga ländryggsbelastningar.

    Mot bakgrund av dessa resultat kan några rekommendationer/frågeställningar i syfte att förbättra arbetsmiljön vara följande:

    Kan man öka stödet från ledningen? Ledarskaps- och arbetsmiljöutbildning för första linjens chefer? Strategi vid chefsrekrytering?

    Kan man påverka sophämtarna att inte arbeta i ett ”onödigt” högt tempo, om det egentligen inte är bråttom?

    Kan man se till att det finns tid (eller om det redan finns tid, att få sophämtarna att använda denna tid) att arbeta i ett rimligt tempo, och kanske hjälpas åt vid hantering av mycket tunga kärl?

    Kan man få alla att ta sig ner från hytten på "rätt sätt"? Kan man i större utsträckning använda sopbilar med låga insteg?

  • 1268.
    Barlow, Hanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskors reflektioner om hur de uppnår ett gott bemötande av patienter: en intervjustudie2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to describe experienced registrered nurses (RNs) reflections regarding

    creating a good interaction with patients i.e how the RNs are/behave towards patients, how the RNs

    come across. The study had a descriptive design and was conducted as six semi structured

    interviews with experienced RNs, all working on different adult somatic wards. The results were

    analysed using qualitative content analysis. It highlighted the importance of creating an open

    atmosphere by being available and the key aspects of communication such as, actively listening and

    being perceptive to the unspoken word. Consciously mirroring their own spoken word with their

    body language and using body contact also conveyed positive communication to patients.

    Conveying open mindness and respect motivated patients to be involved in their own care. The RNs

    had to be aware of past patient hospital experiences and being self aware, in particular of their own

    limitations, benefitted both patients and RNs. Positive effects were shown when patients responded

    with signs of well-being and faith in the RNs. When RNs came across well generated this too

    personal satisfaction for the RNs.

  • 1269.
    Barnekow Bergkvist, Margareta
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Kan fysisk träning i anslutning till arbetet förbättra muskuloskeletal hälsa?: en kunskapsöversikt2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This literature review gives support for a positive health effect of regular physical exercise matching the physical demands at work and the anatomical origin of disorder:

    -specific trunk muscle exercises ca 1–2 times/week can have a positive effect on low back disorders among women/men with heavy vigorous or varied job tasks working in different health care or industrial settings

    -specific shoulder-arm and neck exercises ca 1–2 times/week can have a positive effect on neck-shoulder and neck disorders, respectively, among women with light repetitive or monotonous job tasks working in different office settings.

    Overall, associations between physical exercise and improvement in related physical performance and musculoskeletal health – disorders were found in those studies which met the criteria of randomized allocation, specified exercises, frequency and duration of the exercise session and documented effect from exercise on the corresponding physical capacity. Minor or major methodological deficiencies are, however, present in many of the intervention studies that impair the assessment as they can lead to an over- as well as an underestimation of the effect of training. Future studies should therefore focus on high methodological quality especially regarding 1) research design, inclusion criteria, allocation to intervention and control group; 2) exercise program, registration of compliance to training and changes of occupational load; 3) high accuracy of the effect measures

  • 1270.
    Barnekow-Bergkvist, Margareta
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Belastningsskadecentrum.
    Aasa, Ulrika
    University of Gävle, Belastningsskadecentrum.
    Ängquist, K-A
    Johansson, Håkan
    University of Gävle, Belastningsskadecentrum.
    Prediction of development of fatigue during a simulated ambulance work task from physical performance tests2004In: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 47, no 11, p. 1238-1250Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aims of this study were (1) to identify which physical performance tests could best explain the development of fatigue during a simulated ambulance work task, (2) to investigate the effect of height and weight and (3) to investigate in what respects these findings differ between female and male ambulance personnel. Forty-eight male and 17 female ambulance personnel completed a test battery assessing cardio-respiratory capacity, muscular strength and endurance, and co-ordination. The subjects also completed a simulated ambulance work task -- carrying a loaded stretcher. The work task was evaluated by development of fatigue. Univariate and multiple regression analyses were used to investigate to what extent the tests in the test battery were able to explain the variance of developed fatigue. The explained variance was higher for female than for male ambulance personnel (time > 70% of HRpeak: R2 = 0.75 vs 0.10, accumulated lactate: R2 = 0.62 vs 0.42, perceived exertion: R2 = 0.75 vs 0.10). Significant predictors in the models were VO2max, isometric back endurance, one-leg rising, isokinetic knee flexion and shoulder extension strength. Height, but not weight, could further explain the variance. The high physical strain during carrying the loaded stretcher implies the importance of investigating whether improved performance, matching the occupational demands, could decrease the development of fatigue during strenuous tasks.

  • 1271.
    Barnekow-Bergkvist, Margareta
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Hedberg, Gudrun
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Pettersson, Ulf
    Sports Medicine Unit, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, University of Umeå, Umeå, Sweden; Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, University of Umeå, Umeå, Sweden.
    Lorentzon, R.
    Sports Medicine Unit, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, University of Umeå, Umeå, Sweden.
    Relationships between physical activity and physical capacity in adolescent females and bone mass in adulthood2006In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 16, no 6, p. 447-455Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates whether physical activity and physical performance in adolescence are positively related to adult bone mineral density (BMD). In 1974, physical activity, endurance, and muscular strength were measured in 204 randomly selected female students, age 16.1 +/- 0.3 year (range 15-17 years). Twenty years later, 36 of the women volunteered to undergo a measurement of their BMD. Women who were members in a sports club in adolescence had significantly higher adult BMD (mean differences of 5% to 17% depending on site) compared with subjects who were not engaged in a sports club. Furthermore, women with persistent weight-bearing activity in adulthood had significantly higher BMD compared with women who had stopped being active or had never been active. The differences ranged between 5% and 19% with the highest difference found in trochanter BMD. Stepwise regression analyses showed that membership in a sports club at baseline was a significant independent predictor of BMD in the total body, lumbar spine, legs, trochanter, and femoral neck, explaining 17-26% of the variation in BMD. Change in body weight was a strong independent predictor of BMD of the total body and arms, explaining 8% of the variation in both sites. In addition, running performance at baseline was an independent predictor of total body BMD, whereas the two-hand lift performance significantly predicted BMD of the total body, legs and trochanter. The hanging leg-lift and handgrip were both significant predictors of arm BMD. In conclusion, membership in a sports club and site-specific physical performance in adolescence together with the change in body weight were significantly associated with adult BMD in premenopausal women

  • 1272.
    Barreby, Martin
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för datavetenskap.
    When is it Necessary to Use Muscle Systems to Enhance 3D Animation?2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

     

    To build muscles to enhance the animation of a 3D character takes more time and effort than the standard character rig. In some cases, the muscles will not be noticeable and therefore are unnecessary. This research tried to find the moments when the muscles did or did not make a difference. The new Maya Muscle System is also explored and the procedure to create muscles for a standard rig is explained. The test that was performed showed that the muscles are more noticeable in all cases.

     

  • 1273.
    Barrefjord, Madelene
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Delin, Hanne-Marie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Förrättningslantmätarens hantering av stiftelser utifrån Kammarkollegiets och tillsynsmyndigheternas prövningar2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Huvudsyftet med studien var att utreda och klargöra hur förrättningslantmätaren bör handla när en stiftelse blir sakägare i en lantmäteriförrättning och hur stiftelsen ska behandlas utifrån förrättningslantmätarens undersökningsplikt. Studien hade även två delsyften där det första skulle beskriva och analysera hur stiftelsers föreskrifter kan ändras, medan de andra skulle utreda hur tillsynsmyndigheternas registrering av stiftelser genomförs. Förrättningslantmätare är en yrkesroll inom lantmäterimyndigheten och har till uppgift att handlägga samt besluta i fastighetsbildnings-ärenden. Lantmäterimyndigheten är den myndighet som har till uppgift att ansvara för att en effektiv och rättssäker fastighetsindelning genomförs. En stiftelse är en typ av juridisk person som bildas av en eller flera personer för att verka för ett bestämt ändamål. Stiftelsen ska förvalta en ekonomisk förmögenhet som har avsatts för ett bestämt ändamål, där förvaltningen ska ske över en längre tid. Förmögenheten kan bestå av fast egendom i form av fastigheter.

    Metoder som använts för att besvara studiens syften och forskningsfrågor var en litteraturstudie, en intervjustudie och en fallstudie. Litteraturstudien granskade tidigare forskning inom ämnes-området, lagstiftningen och facklitteratur för att ge en vetenskaplig grund. Intervjustudien genom-fördes för att få en grundlig förståelse för hur tillsynsmyndigheternas och Kammarkollegiets prövningar går till vid ändring av stiftelsers föreskrifter. Fallstudien granskade och jämförde tillsynsmyndigheternas och Kammarkollegiets prövningar vid ändring av stiftelsers föreskrifter, men fallstudien jämförde även vilka dokument tillsynsmyndigheterna kräver in av en stiftelse när den ska registreras. Intervjuer gjordes i fallstudien med samtliga tillsynsmyndigheter för att samla information om hur deras prövningar går till när stiftelser ska registreras i stiftelseregistren.

    Resultatet av litteraturstudien bestod av beskrivningar av förrättningslantmätarens yrkesroll, fastighets-, ägande- och stiftelsebegreppet. Resultatet av intervjustudien visade att de intervjuade tillsynsmyndigheterna och Kammarkollegiet har olika grundliga prövningar vid ändring av stiftelsers föreskrifter. Detta visade även fallstudien samt att tillsynsmyndigheternas prövningar skiljer sig åt vid registrering av en stiftelse. Slutsatsen beskriver hur förrättningslantmätaren ska handla när en stiftelse blir sakägare i en lantmäteriförrättning och hur stiftelsen ska behandlas utifrån förrättningslantmätarens undersökningsplikt. Två mallar finns i slutsatsen som innehåller riktlinjer för hur en kontroll av stiftelsens föreskrifter kan göras för att vara säker på att fastighets-bildningen inte strider mot stiftelsens föreskrifter.

  • 1274.
    Barreiro-Gen, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Management. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production. University of A Coruna, A Coruna, Spain.
    Discussing Approaches to Standard of Living2019In: Decent Work and Economic Growth: Encyclopedia of the UN Sustainable Development Goals / [ed] Walter Leal Filho, Anabela Marisa Azul, Luciana Brandli, Pinar Gökcin Özuyar, Tony Wall, Cham: Springer, 2019Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 1275.
    Barreiro-Gen, Maria
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Management. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Carpenter, Angela
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Management. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production. School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK.
    von Haartman, Robin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Management. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Lozano, Rodrigo
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Management. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production. Organisational Sustainability Ltd., Cardiff, UK.
    Examining Relations Between Public Participation and Public Expenditure: Opinions from English and French Users on Environmental Issues in the English Channel2019In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 8, article id 2230Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Governments need to decide how to allocate their public expenditure, which is commonly misconstrued as simply targeting social issues. Most scientific literature highlights that the role of public spending is to enhance social welfare and fight poverty and inequality. Nonetheless, public expenditure also includes spending on environmental issues. This paper analyses relations between public participation, support for public expenditure, and pro-environmental behaviour (PEB) intentions in the English Channel region. An online public survey was developed to investigate public use of the English and French sides and the public's willingness to change their behaviour to better protect the Channel region. The survey was undertaken in the summer of 2014 and was answered by 2000 respondents. The Channel region public is willing to participate more in behaviour that involves direct changes or switches between buying/purchasing choices. In contrast, there is less willingness to engage in pro-environmental behaviour intentions that involve more active engagement activities. French respondents were slightly less inclined to change their consumer behaviour intentions, while women and older people were slightly more likely to do so. This research shows that pro-environmental behaviour could positively affect support for proposed public expenditure on environmental issues.

  • 1276.
    Barreiro-Gen, Maria
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Management. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production. University of Gävle.
    Lozano, Rodrigo
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Management. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Analysing the incorporation of Sustainable Development into European Higher Education Institutions’ curricula2019Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 1277.
    Barreiro-Gen, Maria
    et al.
    Economic Development and Social Sustainability Research Unit, Department of Economic Analysis and Business Administration, Faculty of Economics and Business, University of A Coruna, Elviña, A Coruña, Spain.
    Novo-Corti, Isabel
    Economic Development and Social Sustainability Research Unit, Department of Economic Analysis and Business Administration, Faculty of Economics and Business, University of A Coruna, Elviña, A Coruña, Spain.
    Collaborative learning in environments with restricted access to the internet: Policies to bridge the digital divide and exclusion in prisons through the development of the skills of inmates2015In: Computers in human behavior, ISSN 0747-5632, E-ISSN 1873-7692, Vol. 51, no B, p. 1172-1176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The deprivation of freedom for the prisoners, involves not only physical isolation, but also digital, which implies a strong isolation particularly painful in an “information society”. Spanish prison population is deprived of access Internet and all ICT that could contact inmates with outdoor life, this is mainly due to security issues. Not having enough ICT skills is a new cause of social exclusion. The objective of this research was to identify the key issues which should be focused by policy makers to avoid digital divide among prison population. A survey among inmate population in all the five penitentiary centers in Galicia, in the northwest of Spain, was undertaken to obtain a sample of 380 inmates. A Structural Equation Model (SEM) was carried out to explain prisoners’ ICT Skills, in bias to inmate’s social skills, general skills and attitude towards collaborative learning. For inmates, who are characterized by their low education level, results shown the relevance of having general and social skills to be able to have more ICT skills. Then, collaborative learning in prison it is shown as a way to bridge both walls: the physical (better reinsertion and no recidivism) and the digital one.

  • 1278. Barrera, T
    et al.
    Hast, Anders
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för datavetenskap.
    Bengtsson, E
    A Fast All-Integer Ellipse Discretization Algorithm2003In: Graphics Programming Methods / [ed] Jeff Lander, Hingham, Mass.: Charles River Media , 2003, p. 121-132Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 1279. Barrera, T
    et al.
    Hast, Anders
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för datavetenskap.
    Bengtsson, E
    A Fast and Simple All-Integer Parametric Line2003In: Graphics Programming Methods / [ed] Jeff Lander, Hingham, Mass.: Charles River Media , 2003Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 1280. Barrera, T
    et al.
    Hast, Anders
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för datavetenskap.
    Bengtsson, E
    Fast Near Phong-Quality Software Shading2006In: WSCG'06, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quadratic shading has been proposed as a technique giving better results than Gouraud shading, but which is substantially faster than Phong shading. Several techniques for fitting a second order surface to six points have been proposed. We show in this paper how an approximation of the mid-edge samples can be done in a very efficient way. An approximation of the mid-edge vectors are derived. Several advantages are apparent when these vectors are put into the original formulation. First of all it will only depend on the vertex vectors. Moreover, it will simplify the setup and no extra square roots are necessary for normalizing the mid-edge vectors. The setup will be about three times faster than previous approaches. This makes quadratic shading very fast for interpolation of both diffuse and specular light, which will make it suitable for near Phong quality software renderings.

  • 1281. Barrera, T
    et al.
    Hast, Anders
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för datavetenskap.
    Bengtsson, E
    Faster shading by equal angle interpolation of vectors2004In: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, ISSN 1077-2626, E-ISSN 1941-0506, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 217-223Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we show how spherical linear interpolation can be used to produce shading with a quality at least similar to Phong shading at a computational effort in the inner loop that is close to that of the Gouraud method. We show how to use the Chebyshev's recurrence relation in order to compute the shading very efficiently. Furthermore, it can also be used to interpolate vectors in such a way that normalization is not necessary, which will make the interpolation very fast. The somewhat larger setup effort required by this approach can be handled through table look up techniques.

  • 1282. Barrera, T
    et al.
    Hast, Anders
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för datavetenskap.
    Bengtsson, E
    Incremental Spherical Linear Interpolation2004In: Sigrad 2004, 2004, p. 7-10Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1283. Barrera, T
    et al.
    Hast, Anders
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för datavetenskap.
    Bengtsson, E
    Surface Construction with Near Least Square Acceleration based on Vertex Normals on Triangular Meshes2002In: Proceedings from Sigrad 2002, 2002, p. 43-48Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1284. Barrera, Tony
    et al.
    Hast, Anders
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för datavetenskap.
    Bengtsson, Ewert
    Connected Minimal Acceleration Trigonometric Curves2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a technique that can be used to obtain a series of connected minimal bending trigonometric splines that will intersect any number of predefined points in space. The minimal bending property is obtained by a least square minimization of the acceleration. Each curve segment between two consecutive points will be a trigonometric Hermite spline obtained from a Fourier series and its four first terms. The proposed method can be used for a number of points and predefined tangents. The tangent length will then be optimized to yield a minimal bending curve. We also show how both the tangent direction and length can be optimized to give as smooth curves as possible. It is also possible to obtain a closed loop of minimal bending curves. These types of curves can be useful tools for 3D modelling, etc.

  • 1285. Barrera, Tony
    et al.
    Hast, Anders
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för datavetenskap.
    Bengtsson, Ewert
    Minimal Acceleration Hermite Curves2005In: Game programming gems 5 / [ed] Kim Pallister, Hingham, Massachusetts: Charles River Media, inc. , 2005, p. 225-231Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 1286. Barrera, Tony
    et al.
    Hast, Anders
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för datavetenskap.
    Bengtsson, Ewert
    Trigonometric Splines2008In: Game Programming Gems 7, Boston: Charles River Media , 2008, p. 191-198Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 1287. Barrera, Tony
    et al.
    Spångberg, Daniel
    Hast, Anders
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för datavetenskap.
    Bengtsson, Ewert
    Vectorized table driven algorithms for double precision elementary functions using Taylor expansions2009In: APLIMAT 8th international conference, 2009, p. 231-246Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents fast implementations of the inverse square root and arcsine, both in double precision. In single precision it is often possible to use a small table and one ordinary Newton-Raphson iteration to compute elementary functions such as the square root. In double precision a substantially larger table is necessary to obtain the desired precision, or, if a smaller table is used, the additional Newton-Raphson iterations required to obtain the precision often requires the evaluation of other expensive elementary functions. Furthermore, large tables use a lot of the cash memory that should have been used for the application code.

    Obtaining the desired precision using a small table can instead be realised by using a higher order method than the second order Newton-Raphson method. A generalization of Newton's method to higher order is Householder's method, which unfortunately often results in very complicated expressions requiring many multiplications, additions, and even divisions.

    We show how a high-order method can be used, which only requires a few extra additions and multiplications for each degree of higher order. The method starts from the Taylor expansion of the difference of the value of the elementary function and a starting guess value for each iteration. If the Taylor series is truncated after the second term, ordinary Newton iterations are obtained. In several cases it is possible to algebraically simplify the difference between the true value and the starting guess value. In those cases we show that it is advantageous to use the Taylor series to higher order to obtain the fast convergent method. Moreover, we will show how the coefficients of a Chebyshev polynomial can be fitted to give as little error as possible for the functions close to zero and in the same time reduce the terms in the Taylor expansion.

    In the paper we benchmark two example implementations of the method on the x86_64 architecture. The first is the inverse square root, where the actual table (to 12 bit precision) is provided by the processor hardware. The inverse square root is important in many application programs, including computer graphics, and explicit particle simulation codes, for instance the Monte Carlo and Molecular Dynamics methods of statistical mechanics. The other example is the arcsine function, which has a slow converging Taylor expansion and where no tables are provided by the hardware. The vectorized versions of the implementations of the inverse square root are 3.5 times faster than compiled code on the Athlon64 and about 5 times faster on the Core 2. The scalar version of the arcsine function is, depending on order and table size, between 2 and 3 times faster than the compiled code, and the vectorized version is between 3 and 4 times faster on the Athlon64, while it is between 4 and 5 times faster than the compiled version on the Core 2.

  • 1288. Barrera, Tony
    et al.
    Spångberg, Daniel
    Hast, Anders
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för datavetenskap.
    Bengtsson, Ewert
    Vectorized table driven algorithms for double precision elementary functions using Taylor expansions2009In: Aplimat - Journal of Applied Mathematics, ISSN 1337-6365, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 171-188Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents fast implementations of the inverse square root and arcsine, both in double precision. In single precision it is often possible to use a small table and one ordinary Newton-Raphson iteration to compute elementary functions such as the square root. In double precision a substantially larger table is necessary to obtain the desired precision, or, if a smaller table is used, the additional Newton-Raphson iterations required to obtain the precision often requires the evaluation of other expensive elementary functions. Furthermore, large tables use a lot of the cash memory that should have been used for the application code.

    Obtaining the desired precision using a small table can instead be realised by using a higher order method than the second order Newton-Raphson method. A generalization of Newton's method to higher order is Householder's method, which unfortunately often results in very complicated expressions requiring many multiplications, additions, and even divisions.

    We show how a high-order method can be used, which only requires a few extra additions and multiplications for each degree of higher order. The method starts from the Taylor expansion of the difference of the value of the elementary function and a starting guess value for each iteration. If the Taylor series is truncated after the second term, ordinary Newton iterations are obtained. In several cases it is possible to algebraically simplify the difference between the true value and the starting guess value. In those cases we show that it is advantageous to use the Taylor series to higher order to obtain the fast convergent method. Moreover, we will show how the coefficients of a Chebyshev polynomial can be fitted to give as little error as possible for the functions close to zero and in the same time reduce the terms in the Taylor expansion.

    In the paper we benchmark two example implementations of the method on the x86_64 architecture. The first is the inverse square root, where the actual table (to 12 bit precision) is provided by the processor hardware. The inverse square root is important in many application programs, including computer graphics, and explicit particle simulation codes, for instance the Monte Carlo and Molecular Dynamics methods of statistical mechanics. The other example is the arcsine function, which has a slow converging Taylor expansion and where no tables are provided by the hardware. The vectorized versions of the implementations of the inverse square root are 3.5 times faster than compiled code on the Athlon64 and about 5 times faster on the Core 2. The scalar version of the arcsine function is, depending on order and table size, between 2 and 3 times faster than the compiled code, and the vectorized version is between 3 and 4 times faster on the Athlon64, while it is between 4 and 5 times faster than the compiled version on the Core 2.

  • 1289.
    Barrish, Jan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Green Digital Marketing in the Mobile Phone Industry: Recommendations for Sony Ericsson's GreenHeart™2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: This study is part of a digital activation plan that was done for Sony

    Ericsson’s GreenHeart™ team in the fall of 2009. The investigation presents and

    discusses what Sony Ericsson and its 4 main competitors (Nokia, LG, Samsung

    and Motorola) have done within green digital marketing and how the subject was

    communicated on their webpages. The aim of this study is to:

    • To present and analyze consumer insights on ecologically-driven technology

    • To present and analyze the eco-marketing digital practices and strategies used

    by 4 competitive mobile phone brands

    • To propose a digital green marketing strategy for GreenHeart™

    Method: This study consists of interviews with Sony Ericsson personnel,

    literature and web analysis that focus on the green initiatives of mobile phone

    manufacturers in the digital channel.

    Result & Conclusions: A main issue with green products is that consumers tend

    to find them not as good as non-green products. Consumer insight studies suggest

    that that the best way to communicate and promote green products is to focus on

    their direct benefits to consumers in comparison to non-green products, and

    communicate the green benefits only as a secondary message. This was also

    supported by theories such as Levit’s concept of “marketing myopia”, which

    describes a marketer’s tendency to focus on product features rather than consumer

    benefits.

    When analyzing the webpages of Sony Ericsson’s top 4 competitors, it was

    3

    evident that all 4 mobile phone manufacturers employed green digital marketing

    in quite a homogenous way. One striking similarity was that all brands have

    separated their green initiatives from the core of the website. It is a possibility that

    marketers have done this intentionally since consumers tend to associate green

    with lesser quality.

    In order for Sony Ericsson GreenHeart™ to stand out from the competitors, it was

    therefore suggested that green information should be integrated into the website

    and to communicate GreenHeart™ as a value-added product feature rather than a

    product in itself.

    Suggestions for future research: It is recommended to continue this research

    and to compare the findings from the mobile phone industry with other industries,

    such as the Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG), where Green and Organic

    branding at a glance seem to have been developed strongly. It would be

    interesting to gain a perspective on the similarities and differences in the green

    marketing practices of different industries, but also to gain knowledge and

    inspiration on how green consumer electronics could be marketed in a more

    effective and integrated fashion. In this perspective, analyzing any variations

    between on- and off-line marketing initiatives would be interesting to see if the

    green message changes in a typical marketing mix. Moreover, it would be good to

    counter analyze the psychological mechanisms why, for certain industries such as

    food, green products are regarded as high quality whilst in another industry like

    electronics, green products are regarded as having lesser quality and business

    value.

    Contribution of the thesis: The most important finding of this study is that all

    the analyzed mobile phone manufacturers have many green initiatives. However,

    they are communicated separately from all other marketing and communication

    initiatives in the main digital channel. They tend to be set aside that consumers

    need to search for them, thus the messages are not delivered seamlessly. This

    makes it appear that green initiatives are being regarded as something obligatory

    rather than something that has true business value. Using Theoretical arguments

    on communication strategy from Levit and ClearWorks show how this, in reality,

    can be changed and be integrated with product marketing where it can generate a

    more significant business value

  • 1290.
    Barroeta, Ander
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Design of a ventilation system for carbon dioxide reduction in two gym rooms2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This project is mainly focused on the improving and design of the ventilation system of two rooms at different levels of a gym (Friskis and Svettis in Gävle, Sweden) to reduce the  concentration to never be higher than 1000 ppm.

    For this purpose, several field measurements were performed in different locations and situations. Two main measurements were necessary. On one hand, the  level in different parts of the rooms during different activities. On the other hand, the air flow through the inlet and outlet ducts of the ventilation system. It was also important to take into account the indoor temperature and humidity. These measurements were enough to analyze the failures of the system and to recognize the worst points of each room.

    Comparing both rooms, the necessity of changing the ventilation system in one of these rooms was much higher, due to there were measured  values up to 3000 ppm during a typical day in the gym.

    With this information the consequences of high CO2 levels in human people were analyzed. Among various ventilation systems, displacement ventilation system was proposed as the new design. Theoretical calculations were made to reach to the value of 31.8  in the air change rate (ACH), which was the necessary value for the new design to keep the carbon dioxide level under 1000 ppm.

  • 1291.
    Barsch, Peder
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Analys av konsignationslager: inom tillverkande industri2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this composition, a study of consignment inventory on basis of the factors which are important for implementation and application of consignment inventory are made. Logistics chain from subcontractor to end customer is becoming more complex when the volume of items constantly increases to satisfy the needs of the market. From that perspective, companies had large inventories but today it is a lot of different solutions to streamline inventory management. One way that recently becomes increasingly common is to let the subcontractor fill up the customers stock using different approaches such as VMI (Vendor Managed Inventory). A further step in the evolution can be to make use of consignment inventory where the vendor owns the stock of the customer. Then the material will be the customer’s property when the need arises.

    In order to ascertain whether consignment stocks in general is a good solution, a study has been done to investigate which factors are relevant for the implementation and application of consignment inventory within the industry.

    To find out the importance of the application of consignment inventory have a literature study of relevant theory in the field been done and where also a case study as a research method has been developed. In the case study, a number of companies have been selected with a non probability sampling where a qualitative approach is used to collect data and information. The theory used is based on selected elements in several different areas of logistics. When the interface is many has the following main areas been affected: Supply Chain Management, Lean production, outsourcing, capital binding, Just In Time, synchronization, VMI and distribution. On the basis of these areas has created a model which is then used in the investigation of the various cases.

    In the study has three cases been examined of which only one case are working on consignment inventory, while a case using vendor managed inventory as well as to the third case has ambitious plans to implement a consignment inventory. Background to the choice of cases is to be able to discuss consignment inventory in general.

    The final result is based on a comparison between the theoretical and the empirical investigation. What is revealed by the survey is that combinations of several different factors determine if a consignment is applicable as the logistical goal mix points out. Relevant factors are that the agreements have a good reason, the information exchange works well, capital binding and possibilities to have inventory at the customers plant. Also physical factors such as distance, the products format and distribution is of importance.

  • 1292.
    Bartel, Kyle
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Allocating Optimal Grid-Connected Solar Photovoltaic Power Plant Sites: GIS-Based Multi-Criteria Modeling of Solar PV Site Selection in the Southern Thompson-Okanagan Region, British Columbia, Canada2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Fossil fuels and non-renewable resources are being replaced with, as modern day society has coined the term, green energy. This movement towards green energy creates a demand for renewable energy resources, such as solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. This study used Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in conjunction with Remote Sensing (RS) practices and two weighting systems the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Rank-Order methods for PV site selection. Six multi-criteria models were developed using spatial factors and constraining images to locate potential photovoltaic power plant sites for three settings of fixed axis PV arrays. This analysis was performed at a macro regional scale and further analysis is encouraged for micro site selection. 

  • 1293.
    Barth, Olivia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Bäckström, Evelina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Livskvaliteten hos barn och ungdomar som lever med övervikt eller fetma: En litteraturstudie2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Overweight and obesity among children and adolescents is an increasing societal problem all over the world and a serious risk factor of being affected by many of the welfare diseases that exists in present time. The main causes of being overweight or obese is a mix of living habits, genetic- social-, psychological- and cultural factors. Children who are overweight or suffer from obesity have a great risk of being in that condition for the rest of their lives. It is in the nurses tasks to promote health by a holistic viewpoint of the individual. An insight of each person’s perception of their quality of life is a fundamental starting point. 

    Aim: To describe children and adolescents quality of life when overweight or obese, estimated on personal and parent perspective. 

    Method: A literature study of descriptive design based on twelve articles wherein one article used a mixed-method and the remaining eleven used a quantitative approach. 

    Main result: Children and adolescents who were overweight or suffered from obesity often assessed a low quality of life. Prominently in the categories of physical- psychological- and social functioning where many declared a decrease in physical wellness and difficulties in participating in physical activities, experienced depression and a low self-esteem. Experiences of bullying and alienation were common in these children and adolescents. 

    Conclusion: A correlation between a low quality of life and an increase in weight were observed in the domains of physical-, psychological- and social functioning. Because of the global increase in overweight and obesity in children and adolescents, the nurse needs an understanding of the phenomenon in order to have a holistic approach to the individual and act as support system to strengthen these children and adolescents’ sense of coherence in order to promote health in the profession.

  • 1294.
    Barthel, Stephan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering. Stockholm resilience center; Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    A Social-Ecological Research Lens on Urban Resilience2016Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Social-Ecological Research has approached the city as a living ecosystem, an approach that really begun with the urban scholars of the early 1900s. But new developments in this line of research started during the 1990s to study various social-ecological relations in a web of life reaching far beyond the built environment of any city. Such research argues that it is in such social-ecological relations where the resilience of cities ultimately rests, for example in a food system consisting of the chain of activities connecting food producing ecosystems, processing, distribution, consump­tion, and waste management, as well as all the associated regulatory institutions and activities. Contrary to popular belief, it is in such social-ecological research traditions, where the most prolific authors on urban resilience are found.

  • 1295.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Framtidens Albano: forskning omsatt i  praktik2010In: Universitetsnytt, no 6 dec., p. 18-19Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 1296.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Stockholms universitet, Systemekologiska institutionen.
    Recalling Urban Nature: Linking City People to Ecosystem Services2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Societal development is dependent on the generation of ecosystem services (ES) to sustain it; however, many ES are degrading. This thesis investigates how social-ecological features behind practices of actor groups shape the generation of ES. The empirical basis is case studies in the urban landscape of Stockholm, Sweden, and the methodological approach is interdisciplinary. Paper I shows that the urban landscape owes it current flow of ES to co-evolutionary processes and that governance with the aim of sustaining ES must take into account historical property rights and the involvement of a diversity of actor groups, as well as ecological processes of the larger landscape. Paper II studies allotment gardens, cemeteries and city parks in relation to the generation of pollination, seed dispersal and pest regulation. Differences in social features behind practice are reflected primary as higher abundance of pollinators in the informally managed allotment gardens and as differences in the compositions of seed dispersers and insectivores’ birds. Thus, voluntary and often ignored actor groups, motivated by sense-of-place, support the generation of some ES here. Paper III shows how practice, linked to ES generation, is retained and stored among allotment gardeners, and modified and transmitted through time, by means of social-ecological memory (SE-memory). SE-memory is an emergent property of a dual process of participation and reification and it facilitates monitoring of local change and links practice, often in habits, to place specific processes that underlie provisioning ES. Paper IV explores how spatial scale mismatches between ecological process and processes of management can be bridged by a spatially explicit and flexible social network structure of governance. Urban ES are a product of human driven co-evolution, consequently sustaining ES in urban landscapes is not about conservation without people, but shaped by and dependent on management practice by people. Practice that links to generation of ES are facilitated by SE-memory of local actors that holds long term management rights. Consequently, local communities of ecosystem practice, which contribute to the production of ES should explicitly be taken into account in urban green governance.

  • 1297.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Resilience2014In: A Companion to Urban Anthropology / [ed] Donald M. Nonini, Oxford: Blackwell Publishing , 2014, p. 428-446Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter uses a resilience lens, where resilience is defined as the capacity to absorb shocks, utilize them, reorganize, and continue to develop without losing fundamental functions (Folke 2006). This resilience lens can be used to analyze the role of urban gardens as memory carriers of ways to build food securityin cities (see Chapters 20 and 23, “Memory and Narrative” and “Food and Farming”).

    Comparing Western urban histories in a global frame of reference suggests that a marked conceptual and physical separation between urban and rural sectors emerged largely as a consequence of high modernist time–space compression during the 1900s (Harvey 1990). However, it is estimated that in contemporary cities of the global South, approximately 800 million people are still engaged in urban agriculture, producing approximately 15–20 percent of the world’s food. These numbers are diminishing due to similar processes that drove food production from Western cities. Do such changes in the urban environment influence the capacity of urban people to respond to food shortages in the future?It has been suggested that modernist urbanization severs perceived and experienced relations between people and nature as urban lifestyles are adopted and resilience as access to green areas is reduced. This alienation process has been termedthe “extinction-of-experience” (Miller 2005), an ongoing generational amnesia among city peoples about their relationships to, and dependence upon, diverse ecosystems, including agro-ecosystems. Such social amnesia has been argued to produce food insecurity among growing urban populations, simply because it erodes options of self-sufficiency (Barthel, Parker, and Ernstson 2013). Food security is broadly defined here as having physical and economic access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food to meet dietary needs (FAO 1996). Following Pothukuchi and Kaufman (2000: 113), the food system is defined as “the chain of activities connecting food production, processing, distribution, consumption, and waste management, as well as all the associated regulatory institutions and activities” (see Chapters 23 and 24, “Food and Farming” and “Pollution”). The focus of this essay is on food production, which makes this whole circuit possible. I highlight collectively managed urban gardens as potential “memory workers” to combat the ongoing generational amnesia among city dwellers about the intimate links between local agro-ecosystems and food security (Barthel, Parker, and Ernstson 2013).

  • 1298.
    Barthel, Stephan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering. Stockholm Resilience Centre .
    Social-Ecological Urbanism and the Life of Baltic Cities2016In: The Nature of Cities, Vol. 2016Article, review/survey (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Jane Jacobs critiqued modernist city planning in the now classic book The Death and Life of Great American Cities(1961). This book is now inspiring an urban renaissance. Jacobs proposed that a city must be understood as a system of organized complexity—in other words, as an ecosystem—and that any intervention in the urban fabric with a lack of such understanding is bound to result in unexpected surprises. Trained in zoology, Jacobs viewed the city much like a coral reef, where co-evolutionary dynamics between the coral organisms (the people) and the coral reef (the built environment) result in the emergence of a socio-spatial logic that can support various kind of functions and opportunities for people.

    First line of urban scholarship based on ecological thought

    Blueprint planning based on ideals such as Le Corbusier’s “The Shining City,” or Sir Ebenezer Howard’s “The Garden City,” Jacobs argued, is likely to fail since it lacks the critical understanding of the city as a complex socio-spatial system. Spatial morphology thinking (Hillier and Hanson, 1984) provided a precision and an analytical depth to the insights of Jane Jacobs. Density, accessibility and diversity are outlined as the main features of spatial capital for people in cities (Marcus, 2010), which are akin to insights in ecosystem ecology, where species diversity, species abundance and ecological connectivity are critical features.

  • 1299.
    Barthel, Stephan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Viola has an Acorn in her Pocket2016Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 1300.
    Barthel, Stephan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering. Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Belton, Sophie
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Raymond, Christopher
    Department of Landscape Architecture, Planning and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, Sweden.
    Giusti, Matteo
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Fostering Children’s Connection to Nature Through Authentic Situations: The Case of Saving Salamanders at School2018In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, article id 928Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     The aim of this paper is to explore how children learn to form new relationships with nature. It draws on a longitudinal case study of children participating in a stewardship project involving the conservation of salamanders during the school day in Stockholm, Sweden. The qualitative method includes two waves of data collection: when a group of 10-year-old children participated in the project (2015) and 2 years after they participated (2017). We conducted 49 interviews with children as well as using participant observations and questionnaires. We found indications that children developed sympathy for salamanders and increased concern and care for nature, and that such relationships persisted 2 years after participation. Our rich qualitative data suggest that whole situations of sufficient unpredictability triggering free exploration of the area, direct sensory contact and significant experiences of interacting with a species were important for children’s development of affective relationships  with the salamander species and with nature in an open-ended sense. Saving the lives of trapped animals enabled direct sensory interaction, feedback, increased understanding, and development of new skills for dynamically exploring further ways of saving species in an interactive process experienced as deeply meaningful, enjoyable and connecting. The behavioral setting instilled a sense of pride and commitment, and the high degree of responsibility given to the children while exploring the habitat during authentic situations enriched children’s enjoyment. The study has implications for the design of education programs that aim to connect children with nature and for a child-sensitive urban policy that supports authentic nature situations in close spatial proximity to preschools and schools.

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