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  • 1251.
    Bastbacken, Therese
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Hallgren, Rebecka
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    En meningsfull tillvaro: En studie om äldres känsla av meningsfullhet genom hemtjänstens verksamhet2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A meaningful existence

    The purpose of this study was to examine the degree to which a care recipient is experiencing a meaningful existence by established homecare services. The study was conducted through a structured, qualitative interview method with care recipients, carers and care managers, analysis of empirical data has been based on symbolic interaction and dramaturgical perspective. We have found that crucial for the individual to feel meaningfulness is social interaction with other people, that the living environment is satisfying and desirable, and that the individual also possesses a sense of security. Despite the fact that the home care services, to varying degrees, affect these aspects, the study's main conclusion is that individuals usually do not associate the granted proceedings with the sense of meaningfulness

  • 1252.
    Batista, Rúben
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering. University of gävle.
    The impact of shadowing in photovoltaic systems and how to minimize it: An analysis with the PVsyst Software2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 1253.
    Batti, Dejwar
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Azim, Zarif
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Utveckling av miljöredovisningspraxis i svenska börsbolag2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning Syfte-Syftet med denna studie är att kartlägga svenska börsbolagens praxisutveckling inom miljöredovisning. Studien har utgångspunkt i postulatet monetär enhet, postulatet redovisningsenhet och redovisningens kvalitativa egenskaperMetod-I denna studie har kvantitativ metod använts. Datahar samlats in genom att studera företagens miljöredovisningar som återfinns i årsredovisningen eller hållbarhetsredovisningen. Sedan harinsamladdata presenterats med hjälp av deskriptiv statistik. Resultat har sedan sammanställts i tabeller och diagram. Bedömningar som har gynnat i resultaten har bedömts som subjektiva, som i sin turpåverkat reliabiliteten och validiteten i studien.Resultat-Miljöredovisningen har det senaste decenniet varit av intresse för mångaforskare. Detta beror på flera aspekter,men två tydliga aspekter är attpå grund avintressenternas ökade intresse och andra aspekter berorpå den publicitet som miljöfrågor väcker hos allmänheten.Resultatav studienvisar att majoriteten av de studerade företagen hade någon form avmiljöredovisning i sin årsredovisning, dock var variationenstor på många punkter. Resultat av studienpåvisaräven att miljöredovisningen har utvecklats när det gäller redovisningens kvalitativa egenskaper. Detta beror till stor del på att många företag börjat använda sig av GRI:s ramverk samt tillämpar de standarden ISO14001 i större omfattning. Däremot påpekar resultat av studienatt miljöredovisning i monetära termer inte har utvecklats i något större omfattning, trots atttidigare forskning pekar på utveckling inom detta område. När det kommer tillredovisningens avgränsningsenhet i miljöredovisning visar studien att det har skett en viss utveckling inom detta område. Utvecklingen beror på att flera företag redovisar,enligt GRI:s riktlinjerintedock är lika utvecklatoch avanceratsom riktlinjernaär inom den finansiella redovisningen. Dennastudievisar att miljöredovisning ändå är på god väg mot att likställas den traditionella redovisningen genom ökad tillämpning avramverk som GRI och standarder som ISO 14001. Dessa ramverk och standarder bidrar till harmonisering och standardisering av miljöredovisningar och ökar intressenters förståelse och användning av informationen som framkommer.Begränsningar-Studien fokuserar på svenska börsnoterade företag som listas på kategorin Large Cap.Fokusläggspå hur förändring har ägt rum under åren 2006, 2009 och 2013.Nyckelord –Miljöredovisning, kvalitativa egenskaper, monetära termeroch legitimitet.

  • 1254.
    Batti, Erich
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment. University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för energi- och maskinteknik.
    Fjärrkyla till Gävletätort: temperaturberäkningar av distributionsledningar2008Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In recent year, the need of providing buildings with cooling has increased, especially in offices there the used electrical equipment in the form of computers, lighting and other electrical equipment. In order to chill away the heat that is given from these equipments used for current old chill machines that are owned by real-estate owners in Gävle. Instead in order to change or to fulfil these machines with environment dangerous cold mediums come the thought with providing Gävle with district chill which is a distinguished alternatives and concurrent is environmentally friendly.

     

    The most front aim with this work has been to do temperature calculations around distribution pipes that will be placed on bottom of Gavleån without bigger complications such as isolated pipes and digging for steam disposition, and to convert an assessment if this is possible. Another aim was to do pressure case calculations on these pipes. The work is provided of SWECO-THEORELLS in Gävle, the company had already done temperature calculations, and the work was allocated also in order to compare the results.

     

    The temperature calculations were resort to heat transfer's principles on swiftly-flowing fluid bodies, this in order that the pipes are surrounded by streaming water. The water temperature was assumed to 20ºC that is huge heavily assumption in order to last on a depth up to 6m. The conclusive temperature to the heat bills of exchange is 5.5ºC.

     

    The pressure case calculations were done in one MICROSOFT-EXCEL document, the starting points each one previous course during the education's time that was called energy resources which facilitated calculations.

     

    Arrived results hopefully will lie to shallow for a continued work and an execution of these planning's.

     

    The following results have been brought about:

    • A temperature on 5.8ºC is received to long away located subscriber at 20ºC hot water
    • 203 kPa pressure case on flow into, only distribution pipes

     

     

     

     

     

    The following conclusions could be extracted:

    • A certain difference was detected between earlier calculations, since considerations been taken to extreme relations so decreases this difference's importance
    • Reduction of water flow during the summer mean one risk while spirit that does the delivery of desired temperature uncertain, special during the hottest days

    That estimated available pressures will not cover the need in accordance with calculations performed in this work

  • 1255.
    Baudin Persson, Sandra
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, Swedish and Gender studies.
    Att skriva sig till läsning: Datoranvändning i den tidiga läs- och skrivutvecklingen för elever i årskurs F-3 som har svenska som andraspråk2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Att skriva sig till läsning (ASL) innebär att man vänder på läs- och skrivutvecklingen och istället ägnar sig åt skriv- och läsutveckling med hjälp av datorer. Syftet med den här intervjustudien har varit att titta på hur lärare arbetar med ASL med elever som har svenska som andraspråk samt vilka fördelar och nackdelar de ser med arbetssättet för elever som har svenska som andraspråk. Fyra lärare har intervjuats för att hitta svar på dessa frågor. Dessa intervjuer har jämförts med den knapphändiga forskningen som finns om ASL.

    Resultatet av studien visar att alla fyra lärare arbetar på olika sätt men ändå kallar sitt arbetssätt för ASL och att tre av dem kombinerar metoden med andra metoder vid skriv- och läsundervisning. Tre av fyra intervjuade lärare anser att metoden ASL hjälper deras elever med svenska som andraspråk med bland annat uttal, stavning och att sammankoppla bokstävers utseende med dess ljud medan den fjärde inte vill påstå att hennes elevers positiva läs- och skrivutveckling beror endast på ASL. En av lärarna ser inga nackdelar med ASL för elever med svenska som andraspråk medan de tre andra menar att det är svårt när tekniken inte är på deras sida. En av fyra lärare menar också att hon inte skulle kunna använda metoden med elever som inte kan någon svenska alls.

    ASL verkar vara en metod som fungerar för många elever med svenska som andraspråk, men eftersom alla elever är individer bör lärare vara öppna för att kombinera olika metoder för att nå så många elever som möjligt.

  • 1256.
    Baum, Saskia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Språkutveckling i Montessori- respektive Waldorfförskolan: En jämförelse av det pedagogiska arbetet med barns språkutveckling i Montessori- respektive Waldorfförskola2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Språkutvecklingen hos barn har fångat en nyfikenhet hos mig under min studietid och hur det vardagliga arbetet kan utveckla barnens språkutveckling. Ett intresse för olika pedagogiska inriktningar har vuxit fram och vilka strategier som används inom dessa för att stimuleras den verbala språkutvecklingen. Syftet med studien är därför att jämföra två pedagogiska arbetssätt, ett grundat i Montessoripedagogik systemet och ett grundat i Waldorfpedagogik systemet. Studiens frågeställning är vilka strategier som förskollärarna använder sig av och vilka likheter och skillnader som finns inbördes och mellan de två olika pedagogiska inriktningarna.

    Genom semistrukturerade intervjuer med fyra olika förskollärare, två inom respektive pedagogisk inriktning, där deltagarna svarar på frågor om vilka arbetssätt som respektive förskola använder sig av för att stimulera språkutvecklingen hos barn. Detta medför att resultatet nödvändigtvis inte behöver bero på respektive pedagogisk ideologi. Utan det kan även förekomma strategier utan specifik pedagogisk inriktning.

    Studien visar att barnens första språkutveckling är något som är en del av den vardagliga verksamheten på förskolan. Strategierna som används skiljer sig däremot emellan de pedagogiska inriktningarna. I Montessoriförskolan nyttjas pedagogiskt material för att lära barnen de mer specifika delarna av språkutvecklingen. Inom Waldorfförskolan nyttjas den fria leken och ett mer generellt lärande, där lärandet anpassas efter barnets egna förmågor.

  • 1257.
    Baumeister, Per
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology, Ämnesavdelningen för vårdvetenskap.
    Patienters upplevelse av att ha en PICC-line kateter: En intervjustudie2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to describe how persons with PICC-line catheter feel and how the patient's daily life is affected. The study had a descriptive design and ten persons from central Sweden participated in the study. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and analyzed according to qualitative content analysis. The findings that emerged from the study were reported according to categories; Management of PICC-line catheter, Positive experiences of PICC- line catheter, Experienced problems, Normal living and Restritions of the daily life. Categories emerged from fifteen sub-categories. What emerged in the study was that participants felt that they accepted their situation after a short time and that they mostly could live normally without being affected by the PICC line catheter. The participants felt the requirements for a PICC-line catheter as restrictive in their daily lives, were the opportunity of using the sauna and go swimming, because the PICC-line catheter could get wet. The participants experienced anxiety in relation to district nurses bandaging of PICC-line catheter when the district nurses did not apply the same bandaging routine. If district nurses were to seek common guidelines and behaved in a similar manner to the patient associated with rescheduling, patients would be able to feel a greater security with his PICC-line catheter.

  • 1258.
    Baumgarten, Erik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Söderström, Jonas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Framtagning av arbetsmodell för effektiv produktutveckling vid enstycksproduktion: Tillämpat på utveckling av visningsjigg för byte av knivstål i Andritz TK-IV QC2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To enable demonstration of knife changes in a wood chipper, a demonstration device for this purpose is needed. The demonstration device will only be made in one copy, therefore this work was focused on product development for one piece production. Growing competition among product development companies, along with the fact that the whole development cost will be carried by only one product leads to high demands for reduced development lead times. To meet these requirements a work model was developed to improve the efficiency at the design stage. The model was then applied in the process of developing the demonstration device. The design and content of the work model is based on relevant research literature and is defined in several steps as the feasibility study phase, design phase and finishing phase.

    Customer requirements were treated with the method house of quality, which produced measurable criteria to be used in the design phase. By maintaining a customer contact throughout the whole design process, for instance presentation of a concept model, a flexibility to handle previously unknown or vague demands and requirements was obtained. Based on the work model the concept was divided into a hierarchical structure with modules to create a better overview and to simplify the design process. Through the application of mechanical and strength theory in the design while designing the parts of the demonstration device, the prescribed requirements for stability and security was met. By performing finite element analysis the concept's structural elements was analyzed and the chipper disc was optimized with regard to weight and material stress.

    The work has resulted in a portable demonstration device which contains all the functions required to demonstrate knife changes. The deflection of the frame and chipper disc is well below the defined values for stability. The chipper disc weight was reduced by 29 percent compared to the original concept, which means less force is required to rotate the chipper disc between different positions. What could be observed regarding the work model is that the individual modules affected each other, this was not taken into account during the development of the model. An analysis of how the modules can affect each other should therefore be performed early in the modularization phase. The conclusion, in addition to this, is that the work model is proven to work well to deal with the implied uncertainties of one piece product development.

  • 1259.
    Bautista Gonzalez, Oscar
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Electronics.
    Integration of a Wireless Sensor Network and IoT in the HiG university2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The number of Internet of Things applications for Wireless Sensor Networks is increasing every year due to the emerging of new brands such as Big Data and Industry 4.0. With the rise of new technologies related to these fields, new opportunities have become possible with a reasonable cost, but the requirements of WSNs still being the same, where energy efficiency, robustness, scalability and others must be accomplished. The commercial hardware developed by companies can be configured through different programs to be compatible among them, taking into account multiple variables, protocols, mechanisms and options provided by new solutions. Therefore, the configuration of different devices and choosing the optimum configuration can become quite challenging due to the number of paths. In this thesis, the configuration of commercial devices provided is carried out to be able to apply this hardware in different Internet of Things applications for Wireless Sensor Networks. Transceivers, sensors of temperature, relative humidity and CO2, a gateway, and different development kits are provided on this work, where the selection of the software to set these devices is made. Repeaters are configured to be compatible with the sensors and perform under the TDMA protocol and the request-response pattern, which synchronize the communication on the network, and under the flooding mechanism, which allows to route packets through the nodes due to the short range of RF low power technologies. The connection between the WSN and the Internet is made through the GW, which is also connected to the WSN, under the TCP/IP protocol, which is configured to provide Message Queue Telemetry Transport and SecureSHell services to access the GW remotely through the Internet and send requests to the WSN automatically. Node-Red is the programming tool installed upon the GW to implement data processing, storage and visualization, via the JavaScript programming language, where the user can deploy the data, which is stored in a CSV file, to make an analysis and visualize the data and the status of the network through a live data dashboard. Finally, an experiment is carried out over the HiG university where sensors are placed to measure different halls of the university and integrate an Internet of Things application for a Wireless Sensor Network. Due to the followed process, we have been able to measure data of temperature, relative humidity and CO2 concentration levels, creating a WSN, where this data has been saved in a connected USB to the gateway. Having a performance of 90% of messages received by the GW, and we have also been able to connect the GW to the Internet, creating a system that can be accessed remotely via the MQTT broker and providing different services such as data visualization. 

  • 1260.
    Bayo, Oihane
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Economic and Environmental Analysis of PV Electricity Storage in Sweden2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Renewable energies, and among them solar photovoltaics, are becoming more important in the last years due to the lack of fossil fuels and the environmental impact of them. PV installed capacity is increasing over and over in some countries and the prices of the installation are decreasing while the prices of the electricity are predicted to increase. Electricity use in buildings account for an important part of all electricity use in the world. This two facts make the PV installation in the rooftops of buildings a good opportunity to reduce the purchase of electricity from the grid.

     

    The aim of the thesis is to analyze the profitability and the environmental impact (when using a hot water accumulator) of a PV system with different storage systems placed in the rooftop of two dwellings located in Gävle (Sweden). The storage systems can be either batteries or hot water accumulators. The purpose of the storage system is to increase the self-consumption rate of the PV system and to save the highest amount of money possible. It is also studied the difference of installing PbA and Li-ion batteries, and the reliability of the data used in the simulation of the alternative systems with the help of the software PVsyst.

     

    Results show that the profitability of the proposed three alternative PV systems with storage is not higher than the PV system without storage. The reason for this has been found in the low prices of electricity and DH nowadays. Moreover, the impact of decreasing the heating demand from DH network does not benefit the environment, because the electricity has to be produced in power plants that produce more pollutants. It can be said also that the data obtained in PVsyst has been determined reliable and that the difference between the two types of batteries is not conclusive.

     

    It can be concluded that if the cost of the PV systems or the batteries would decrease, the profitability will be higher. Furthermore, the increase in the price of electricity, DH or governmental subsidies would improve the results. 

  • 1261.
    Bcheri, Johanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    Kommunikation genom policys och visioner.: En fallstudie av kunskapsföretaget Centrum för flexibelt lärande (CFL).2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Abstrakt

    MKV C/VT 2013

    Handledare: Mats Hyvonen/ Examinator/Eva Ekstrand/ Författare: Johanna Bcheri

    Titel: Kommunikation genom policys och visioner. En fallstudie av kunskapsföretaget Centrum för flexibelt lärande (CFL).

    Nyckelord: organisationskultur, policys, information, Alvesson, identitet

    Vi lever i ett tjänstesamhälle, där organisationer och arbetsplatser har en annan karaktär än i industrisamhället. I den standardiserade industriproduktionen är själva produktionsprocessen bestämd på förhand. I tjänste- och kunskapsproducerande organisationer är produktionen i mycket högre grad kopplad till individerna och en mycket större del av deras personlighet, förmågor, kompetenser och kunskaper. Den för organisationen nödvändiga kontrollen, styrning och samordningen har med nödvändighet en annan karaktär i tjänste- och kunskapsproducerande organisationer. I dag vill man ha mer av individen, men man vill inte ha vad som helst och inte allt. Ett sätt att beskriva det är att kontrollen, styrningen och samordningen blivit mer indirekt. För att samordna handlandet formuleras ofta policys som berör hela arbetsstyrkan. En sorts identitets skapande sker då människor kopplar samman organisationens policy, symboler och värderingar till sin egna specifika sociala identitet, en sorts förtätning uppstår här menar Alvesson, hans teori konstaterar att människor som arbetar inom serviceorganisationer ofta framtonas som en produkt av varumärket. I denna C-uppsats genomförs en fallstudie på Centrum för flexibelt lärande (CFL). Syftet är att undersöka vilken information organisationen vill kommunicera via sin varumärkespolicy. Hur verksamt är dokumentet "CFLs varumärke" för organisationens målsättning, hjälper varumärkets retoriska innehåll till att få ett arbetsteam som jobbar mot samma vision och målbild? Hur ser medarbetarna på varumärkesplattformen, stämmer ledningsgruppens vision om vad varumärket ska åstadkomma med den övriga personalen? Finns inslag av budskap i informationen i varumärkespolicyn som kan komma att påverka personalens personliga integritet.

    Efter att ha analyserat dokumentet "CFLs varumärke" och genomfört intervjuer på människor inom organisationen, så kan det konstateras att Alvessons teorier stämmer bra överens om att ledarskapsideologin och organisationskulturen inte alltid är samstämmig. Arbetstagarna läste ofta av idéer och styrdokument med olika "glasögon". En majoritet av de intervjuade kände

    3

    en stark koppling till organisationen och sin egen identitet, de beskrev sig själva som en ambassadör för organisationen som även trängde in i det privata livet.

  • 1262.
    Beard, Julia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Psychology.
    Tedenlind, Caroline
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Psychology.
    Kompetensbrist och Generation Y’s förväntningar utmanar IT-företag i arbetet med employer branding: Vikten av att bemöta förväntningarna för att attrahera och behålla personal2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to examine, through qualitative method, how companies within the IT industry work with employer branding to respond to Generation Y's expectations. The study was conducted using eight semi-structured interviews with respondents from four different companies within the IT industry in Central Sweden. The collected data from the interviews was analyzed by means of inductive thematic analysis and four main themes emerged. The main themes were; A new generation with new expectations in the workplace, Importance of a strong organizational culture, Particularly regarding the IT industry and Continuously work with employer branding. The result showed that companies are aware of differences between different generations expectations and work actively with employer branding in order to fulfil the employees psychological contract. Furthermore, the result showed that companies faced many challenges in the dynamic IT industry and the fact that an employee's psychological contract and expectations change over time

  • 1263.
    Beatrice, Bohlin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Ina, Thulin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Livskvalitet hos personer med ALS: En litteraturstudie2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund:

    Amyotrofisk lateral skleros (ALS) är en nervsjukdom som det idag inte

    finns något botemedel mot. Sjukdomen har ett hastigt förlopp där musklerna förtvinar

    och försvagas samtidigt som sinnet är opåverkat. Livskvalitet innefattar fysiska,

    psykiska och sociala faktorer. Att få stöd av familj, vänner och fritidsintressen är något

    som bidrar mycket till ökad livskvalitet.

  • 1264. Bechtereva, N P
    et al.
    Korotkov, A D
    University of Gävle, Belastningsskadecentrum.
    Pakhomov, S V
    Roudas, M S
    Starchenko, M G
    Medvedev, S V
    PET study of brain maintenance of verbal creative activity.2004In: International Journal of Psychophysiology, ISSN 0167-8760, E-ISSN 1872-7697, Vol. 53, no 1, p. 11-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with the investigation of the brain organization of verbal creativity. Psychological tasks were designed in accordance with two main strategies used by volunteers in solving creative tasks. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured with positron emission tomography (PET) when performing two types of creative tasks in two groups of subjects, each type of the task organizing the creativity process in its own way. Brain correlates of creativity were revealed in the left parieto-temporal regions (Brodmann areas 39 and 40).

  • 1265.
    Becirovic Emkic, Medina
    University of Gävle, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences.
    Folkhemmets husmoder i en strid för yrkesarbete och jämställdhet: Kvinnans förändrade roll i samhället under 1950- och 1960-talets första hälft i tidningen Damernas Värld2010Student paper other, 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 1266.
    Becirovic Emkic, Medina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies.
    Motivation - the driving force for our actions  :   A study of the importance of learning experiences, learner beliefs, self-determination and personal goals for motivation and attitudes in English language learning2010Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The pedagogical debates within language learning and language teaching have emphasized motivation as one of the key factors. Conversely, the broadness of motivation and its complexity has been acknowledged as a challenging concept which is difficult to grasp. This study aims at examining motivation as a concept determined by different internal and external factors which also shape individuals’ attitudes towards language learning. With the aim of understanding the existence of motivation and attitudes in a variety of contexts, individuals’ level of language knowledge is the point of departure in this study. Motivation and attitudes in language learning are examined in the light of individuals’ learning experiences, personal beliefs, self-determination and personal goals. 

  • 1267.
    Becirovic, Medina
    University of Gävle, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences.
    The Construction and Re-construction of Female Beauty in The Mill on the Floss 2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The essay investigates the construction and reconstruction of feminine beauty in Eliot’s The Mill on the Floss where the heroine Maggie functions as a way of illustrating both beauty and ugliness. Maggie’s “unrefined” appearance as well as her beauty is furthermore highlighted through a strong comparison with other characters, which also is a significant aspect in the essay. The analysis is based on a critical approach informed by previous studies regarding the various aspects of female beauty.  

  • 1268.
    Becker, Wulf
    et al.
    National Food Administration, Uppsala.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    Department of Medical Sciences, Nutrition, Uppsala University.
    Gustafsson, Inga Britt
    Department of Culinary Art.
    Haraldsdóttir, Johanna
    Research Department of Human Nutrition, Royal Veterinary/Agricultural University, Copenhagen.
    Nydahl, Margaretha C.
    Department of Domestic Sciences, Uppsala University.
    Vessby, Bengt O. H.
    Unit for Clinical Nutrition Research, Department of Public Health Sciences, Uppsala University.
    Ytterfors, Arne
    Unit for Clinical Nutrition Research, Department of Public Health Sciences, Uppsala University.
    Precoded food records compared with weighed food records for measuring dietary habits in a population of Swedish adults1998In: Scandinavian Journal of Nutrition/Næringsforskning, ISSN 1102-6480, E-ISSN 1651-2359, Vol. 42, no 4, p. 145-149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a cross-over design, 82 women and men recorded their food intake by a precoded 7-day record book (PR) including both standard portions in household measures and photographs, and a weighed 7-day record (WR), respectively. Single 24-h urine samples, for determination of nitrogen excretion, were collected for 39 subjects during the WR period. Comparing the PR to the WR method, the mean intake of some foods, as cheese, was higher, and bread and vegetables lower. For energy and nutrients, the fat energy percent (E%) was higher, and protein E%, dietary fibre, iron, thiamin, folate, carotene and α-tocopherol were all lower. Protein intake registered by the PR method was 20% lower compared to 24-h urine samples, and 11% lower for the WR method. The results indicate that some of the standard portion sizes, used by the PR method, contributed to the observed differences in food and nutrient intakes. The subjects found it easier and less time-consuming to record their food intake with the PR than with the WR method. The time spent on processing data was reduced by 50% when using the PR method. The results of the study will be used for improvements in the design of the PR for use in large-scale dietary surveys for monitoring dietary habits.

  • 1269.
    Becker, Wulf
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap.
    Gustafsson, Inga-Britt
    Haraldsdottir, Johanna
    Nydahl, Margareta
    Vessby, Bengt
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap.
    Ytterfors, A
    Precoded or weighed food records for measuring dietary habits in a population of Swedish adults: I Food intake1996Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 1270.
    Beckley, Amber L.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Kardell, Johan
    Stockholms universitet.
    Sarnecki, Jerzy
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Criminology. Stockholms universitet.
    Immigration and crime in Sweden2015In: Routledge handbook on crime and international migration / [ed] Sharon Pickering and Julie Ham, Abingdon: Routledge, 2015, p. 41-54Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 1271.
    Beckman, Claes
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Center for RF-Measurement Technology2008In: Radio Science and Communication, RVK08, 2008Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    In February 2006 the Centre for RF Measurement Technology was established at the University of Gävle (HIG). The long term objectives of the centre are to establish world leading research in the area of RF Measurement Technology, support education of radio engineers for local, national and international radio companies at HIG, become a natural collaboration partner for leading industry companies and universities and to support local and national small and middle sized companies in the radio business.

    Today the centre has collaboration with more than 15 national and international companies within 3 major projects in the field of RF measurement technology research spanning from power amplifiers and antennas to electromagnetic interference in industrial environments.

    The annual research budget is in the area of 10 MSEK. In addition to the research projects the centre also supports education and collaboration with local industry, high schools and community.

    The centre is located easy to find, well equipped laboratories in Gävle Technology Park, next to the University of Gävle campus.

  • 1272.
    Beckman, Claes
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Verifying 3G License Coverage Requirements2011In: Advances in Vehicular Networking Technologies / [ed] Miguel Almeida, InTech , 2011, p. 339-356Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the beginning of the 21’st century, the 3rd generation mobile phone systems, 3G, were introduced all around the world. In most countries, spectrum for this technology was allocated through some kind of licensing procedure. In Europe, the prevailing approach was to allocatespectrum through auctions, a process which led to a situation where the European operators found themselves committed to pay a staggering 130Bilion Euros for their 3G licenses.However, in most European countries, the fee was not the only obligation put on thelicensee: A coverage, “roll-out” requirement was in many cases also connected to the license(Northstream, 2002). Typically, these coverage requirements required that the licenseescover a certain area at a certain point in time after that the licenses had been awarded.In order for the regulators to verify that the licensees had met the coverage requirement and,hence, complied with the regulation, a method for coverage verification was needed. Suchmethods have therefore since then been developed by several European regulators (e.g. PTS2004; ECC 2007). In this book chapter we describe some general underlying consideration for the verification of radio coverage in UMTS systems and in particular we describe the Swedishmethodology developed by the Swedish Telecom regulator Post & Telestyrelsen (PTS).

  • 1273.
    Beckman, Claes
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Belkow, Elena
    Eklund, Lars
    Landmark, Urban
    Wirdemark, Per
    Verifying 3G License Requirements: some Preliminary Swedish Results2008In: The 68th IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference: VTC2008-Fall, 2008, p. 1-4Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the year 2000, the Swedish Telecom regulator “Post&Telestyrelsen” (PTS) granted in a “beauty contest” four licenses for operation of 3G mobile networks. Through this process, the licensees committed themselves to cover 8.860.000 inhabitants of the Swedish population. In order to verify the coverage and confirm compliance with the license requirements, PTS, developed a test procedure in close collaboration with the licensees.

    The present paper gives an overview of the considerations behind the design of the test method and presents some preliminary results. Today all Swedish 3G operators comply with the licence requirement and it is concluded that a method for verifying the requirement accepted by the licensees is an important tool for successful licensing of spectrum and fulfilment of licensing obligations.

  • 1274.
    Beckman, Claes
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Eklund, Lars
    Karlsson, Bo
    Lindmark, Björn
    Ribbenfjärd, David
    Wirdemark, Per
    Verifying 3G licence requirements when every dB is worth a billion2006In: First European Conference on Antennas & Propagation: EuCAP 2006 / [ed] H. Lacoste & L. Ouwehand, 2006, p. 1-4Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the year 2000, the Swedish Telecom regulator: “Post&Telestyrelsen”, PTS, granted in a “beauty contest” four licenses for operations of 3G systems. To verify the coverage and the license requirements, PTS, has developed a test procedure where the field strength of the primary Common Pilot Channel, CPICH, is measured in a drive test. Designing such a test constitutes a number of challenges mainly due to the fact that in 3G the accuracy in the measurement needs to be extremely high since even a small systematic error of ~1dB could in Sweden have the consequence that each operator would have to build an extra +1000 sites at a staggering cost of ~1billion SEK!

    The present paper gives an overview of the considerations behind the design of the test method used for verification of the 3G licence requirements in Sweden.

  • 1275.
    Beckman, Claes
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Klahr, Stefan
    Ett ödesval för regionen2009In: Gefle Dagblad, Vol. 6 februariArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 1276.
    Beckman, Claes
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Lindmark, Björn
    Base station antennas for mobile communications2007In: 2007 IEEE International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation: Short Courses & Workshops, 2007Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This course gives the participants a general overview of the application, implementation and design of current and future base station antennas for mobile communications. It is aimed at microwave, RF- and antenna engineers in the wireless area, but also useful for researchers looking for relevant research topics and system engineers needing a deeper understanding of the antenna component of their system. The course explains underlying theoretical and practical implementation aspects of base station antennas in mobile communication networks of today and the future.

    The course is divided into three main parts:

    (i) System Aspects,

    (ii) BTS Antenna Design,

    (iii) Diversity and MIMO

    In the first part the fundamental parameters of a base station antenna are discussed in the context of radio network design. In particular we discuss parameters such as gain, radiation patterns, frequency bands and power handling and put them in the context of cell planning, propagation and capacity.

    In the second part a general overview of base station antenna design is given. In particular the design aspects of radiators, feed networks and reflectors are discussed. Furthermore, a general discussion of array synthesis for base station antennas is given.

    In the final part of the course we give an overview of the underlying theory of diversity and MIMO systems. In particular we discuss the requirements that these systems put on the base station antennas in order to be able to deliver the data rates expected from WiMAX and the long term evolution of 3G systems.

  • 1277.
    Beckman, Claes
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Lindmark, Björn
    The evolution of base station antennas for mobile communications2007In: International Conference on Electromagnetics in Advanced Applications: ICEAA 07, 2007Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    During the last two decades, mobile telephony has virtually exploded around the world. Whereas fixed telephony has merely around 800 milion phone lines globally, cellular mobile telephony has today close to 4 bilion subscribers less than 20 years after the introduction of digital mobile telephony!

    In the centre of a mobile cell is the base station antenna whose vertical and horizontal beam pattern creates the borders. The first base station antennas deployed for cellular communications were omni-directional in the horizontal plane. These antennas are typically based on stacked circular dipole elements fed by a series feed network. However, as the need for capacity increased more radio channels were being used and the radio networks soon reconfigured to 3 sector systems. The base station antennas in these type of systems typically has half power beam widths in the horizontal plane of around 65 degrees and the elements are fed by corporate feed networks.

    Through the choice of antenna length and the selection of vertical element positions and excitations a broad range of antenna gains and vertical beam patterns can be achieved. We show that for a linear array the gain is mainly determined by the vertical and horizontal beam widths but reduced by losses in the feed network. The electrical down tilt is needed to provide good coverage within the desired cell and is preferred to mechanical down tilt as it is independent of horizontal angle. Remotely adjustable electrical down tilt is also available today and an important cost saver during the expansion part of a network. As we will see, system requirements on reduced channel interferencemlead to a simple expression for the necessary phase shift in such an array.

    Due to the rapid increase in subscribers it was soon realized by the regulators around the world that one frequency band for digital mobile communications was not enough to provide the capacity needed. Therefore, in the mid 90-ties second frequency bands were introduced in both North America and Europe. Since operators are not keen to put up bigger towers and more antennas, ´this development called for dual-band antennas. The introduction of the UMTS band in the beginning of this millennium of course then called for triple band functionality!

    Traditionally the diversity is achieved by using two receive antenna branches separated in space. In mobile phone networks, all base stations for macro cellular communications incorporate diversity on the up-link. Otherwise it would be virtually impossible to communicate with a low power mobile over the rapidly fading channel. Since space diversity uses two horizontally separate antennas positioned about 20 wavelengths apart it become soon of interest for the operators to incorporate polarization diversity. With polarization diversity only one dual polarized antenna is used for each sector at the base. In order to ensure good polarization diversity it is necessary and sufficient to have symmetrical patterns with equal power in horizontal and vertical polarization.

    In 3G it is of great interest to strengthen the up- and down-links in order to be able to increase the data rates from today’s 16kbit/s (voice) to a wireless broadband of around 10Mbits/s. However, in the Long Term Evolution of 3G, LTE, data rates of up to and around 100MBits/s are expected. In order accomplish this diversity at the base station will not be enough but complemented by multiple branch reception and transmission at both the base station and the mobile terminal (Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output, MIMO systems). For such arrays it is of interest to reduce the mutual coupling between elements. Although the mutual coupling could be compensated for by perfect channel estimation it is still of interest to reduce the coupling in practice in order to be able to handle the mismatch loss. In order to do so the use of e.g. corrugations, hard and soft surfaces as well as Electronic Band Gap, EBG materials for the inclusion into the antenna structure has been studied.

    In conclusion we find that the base station antenna has developed dramatically during the last two decades and base station antenna technology may become a key enabler for the Long Term Evolution of 3G.

  • 1278.
    Beckman, Claes
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Smith, Gregory
    Shared Networks: Making Wireless Communications Affordable2005In: IEEE wireless communications, ISSN 1536-1284, E-ISSN 1558-0687, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 78-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the wake of the substantial financial commitments incurred by European and other UMTS network operators in the form of licence fees, licensees have turned to network sharing as a means of reducing the capital requirements needed to bring 3G services to market. The reception from European regulators has been mixed, due to concerns that this inhibits competition, slow buildout, or otherwise result in reduced consumer benefits. The authors believe that the generic product life cycle model provides insights that indicate that network sharing, within an appropriately constructed regulatory framework, is not a threat to vigorous competition in the 3G industry, and in fact is one of the keys to stimulating the development of advanced, ubiquitous, affordable services.

  • 1279.
    Beckman, Claes
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Smith, Gregory
    Shared Networks: More than making wireless communication affordable2005In: Vehicular Technology Conference, 2005: VTC 2005-Spring., 2005, p. 2984-2988Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the wake of the substantial financial commitments incurred by European and other UMTS network operators in the form of license fees, licensees have turned to network sharing as a means of reducing the capital requirements needed to bring 3G services to market. The reception from European regulators has been mixed, due to concerns that this inhibits competition, slow build-out, or otherwise result in reduced consumer benefits. The authors believe that the generic product life-cycle model provides insights that indicate that network sharing, within an appropriately constructed regulatory framework, is not a threat to vigorous competition in the 3G industry, and in fact, is one of the keys to stimulating the development of advanced, ubiquitous, affordable services.

  • 1280.
    Beckman, Claes
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Smith, Gregory
    The Benefits of network Sharing2005In: Radiovetenskap och Kommunikation: RVK 2005, 2005, p. 147-151Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 1281.
    Beckmann, Linda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Chefsrekryteringens betydelse för arbetsmotivation och grupptänkande2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 1282.
    Bedikanli, Gülten
    University of Gävle, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för kultur- och religionsvetenskap.
    Två folk och ett land: judarnas invandring till Palestina och uppkomsten av Israel-Palestinakonflikten2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Mitt syfte med detta arbete är att undersöka judarnas invandring till Palestina och konflikten som har uppstått mellan Israel och Palestina. Det är en konflikt som har visat sig vara extremt svårlöst och komplex. Israel-Palestinakonflikten innebär att det är två folk och ett land. Båda vill ha marken och gör anspråk på den. Judarna hänvisar till Bibeln och tycker att de har rätt till landet för att Gud utlovat landet till dem, medan palestinierna hänvisar till att de har bott i detta land långt före judarna. Idag har judarna ett eget land, Israel. Israel skapades av de judar som invandrade till Palestina.

    Jag försökte ge svar på tre frågor och jag tycker att det är viktigt att ge läsaren en uppfattning om de viktiga bakgrundsfaktorer som orsakade den svårlösta konflikten mellan Israel och Palestina. I första frågan försökte jag ge svar på om den sionistiska rörelsens uppkomst på 1800-talet och de första idéerna att skapa ett judiskt nationellt hem. Sedan beskrev jag sionisternas desperata kamp för att få de dåvarande stormakternas stöd för att bilda det nationella hemmet i Palestina. Resultatet av sionisternas kamp om att övertyga stormakterna lyckades 1917 när britterna skriver under Balfourdeklarationen. Denna innehåller den brittiska regeringens stöd till judarna att etablera ett hem i Palestina och samtidigt ger britterna löfte till araberna om ett självständigt styre i Palestina (britterna höll aldrig sitt löfte till araberna och självständigheten blir en dröm för palestinier).

    I andra frågan beskrev jag de viktiga aktörernas roll i Israel-Palestinakonflikten och deras stöd till judarna när FN presenterade sin delningsplan och efter att staten Israel grundades 1948. FN:s delningsplan var en av de viktigaste orsakerna till konflikten mellan Israel och Palestina, eftersom judarna fick behålla mer än hälften av Palestina efter delningen. Araberna avvisade delningsplanen och tyckte att delningsplanen var orättvis. Trots FN:s orättvisa delningsplan och arabernas reaktion mot delningsplanen, utropade judarna staten Israels självständighet år 1948. Strax efter att Israel utropat sin självständighet, förklarade flera arabstater krig mot Israel medan USA, Sovjetunionen, Frankrike och Storbritannien erkände staten Israel.

    I den tredje frågan försökte jag beskriva några av de viktiga krig som uppstått mellan Israel och arabstaterna. Dessa krig orsakade också att denna konflikt blev ännu värre och mer svårlöst. Efter att Israel utropat sin självständighet, tills idag, har en rad olika krig ägt rum mellan arabstater och Israel. Sexdagarskriget, oktoberkriget, första och andra intifadan är bara några av dessa krig. Anledningen till alla dessa krig för araberna var att återfå sina förlorade områden från Israel. Under denna konflikt uppstod det många arabiska och judiska nationalistiska grupper.

    Idag ockuperar judarna den största delen av Palestina. Förutom Egypten och Jordanien erkänner inga arabländer staten Israel. Palestina kämpar fortfarande för att återfå sina ockuperade områden från Israel. Israel-Palestinakonflikten fortsätter och hittills har man inte hittat någon lösning på den välkända konflikten.

  • 1283.
    Begovic Jönsson, Nina
    Göteborgs universitet, Institutionen för svenska språket.
    "Ursäkta vad betyder fråga?": formbaserad sfi-undervisning för vuxna med kort eller ingen utbildningsbakgrund2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie har en kommunikationsetnografisk ansats med samtalsanalytiska inslag, med syftet att beskriva den interaktionspraxis som förekommer vid klassrumsinteraktion i undervisningen av vuxna andraspråksinlärare med ingen eller kort utbildningsbakgrund. Utifrån ett ekologiskt perspektiv på språk och lärande undersöker denna studie de lektionsaktiviteter som förekommer i undervisningen och den språkanvändning som dessa ger upphov till. I studien genomfördes klassrumsobservationer och ljudinspelningar av samtal. Observationerna analyserades med hjälp av ett COLT-schema vars syfte är att få syn på hur pass kommunikativt orienterad en andraspråksundervisning är. Studien visar att den undervisning som erbjuds vuxna andraspråksinlärare med ingen eller kort utbildningsbakgrund i det undersökta klassrummet, i hög utsträckning är lärarstyrd, präglas av formbaserad språkanvändning och utgår från ett begränsat temainnehåll som inte inkluderar deltagarnas erfarenheter. Dessutom visar studien att skriften används som ett krav för att kunna delta i muntliga lektionsaktivteter där läraren förväntar sig att eleverna ska använda de ledtrådar som skriften ger i sin språkanvändning. Studien visar också att lärare som undervisar denna målgrupp upplever frustration i och med att skriften inte kan användas som ett redskap för inlärning.

  • 1284.
    Begovic, Nina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies.
    A study of communicative strategies in upper-secondary school2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigates communicative strategies used by a group of four upper-secondary L2 learners of English. To be able to reach this goal, I have recorded and transcribed a conversation between these students in order to detect natural communication. The communicative strategies I have looked for were: pauses and hesitations, questions, code-switching and message abandonment.

    Previous research on communicative strategies is divided into two different fields. These two approaches define and classify communication strategies as either interactional or psycholinguistic.  The definition and classification of communicate strategies depends viz. on what kind of approach is used. 

  • 1285.
    Begovic, Nina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    Språkanvändning hos en grupp gymnasieelever: kodväxling som ett kommunikativt redskap2013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigates the use and appearance of code-switching as a communicative strategy used by a group of upper secondary students in Sweden. A total of six students participated in this study in which three of them have Swedish as a first language and three students have Swedish as a second language. All students were sound and video recorded while speaking English together (without my presence or interference). The recordings were analyzed using a revised conversational analysis (Norrby 2004) in order to detect the appearance of and function for code-switching. The present study shows that the occurrence of code-switching does not contribute to breakdown in communication. The reason for why the communication did not break down is based on the fact that the code-switched language is Swedish, which all the contestants comprehend to various degrees, and because the participants were not aiming at pointing out each other’s mistakes (Gröning 2004). Code-switching is used for various different functions which all contribute to keeping the conversation going in order to maintain the interactional goal. This study also indicates that there is a connection between where the code-switched element occurs in the utterance and function for code-switching.

  • 1286.
    Begovic, Nina
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    Hjelte, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    En studie om hur Sva-lärare upplever att deras resurser används - på högstadium och gymnasium2013Student paper second term, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta arbete belyser ämnet Svenska som andraspråk (Sva) genom fyra kvinnliga Sva-lärares upplevelser av hur deras kunskaper i Sva-ämnet beaktas av andra ämneslärare och rektorer. Studien genomfördes på ett högstadium och ett gymnasium i två olika kommuner. Förestående studie har en kvalitativ ansats innefattande inspelade intervjuer där intervjuaren utgick ifrån en intervjuguide. Resultaten pekar på likartade upplevelser hos alla fyra informanterna, nämligen att deras kunskaper i Sva inte utnyttjas av andra ämneslärare samt att det föreligger ett ointresse/okunskap hos såväl andra lärare och rektorer, som hos föräldrar och elever om Sva-ämnet. Samtidigt upplever informanterna att deras kunskaper behövs, men att det i nuläget inte förekommer något samarbete. De skolor som denna studie berör visar på en organisation som inte har en tydlig struktur kring hur flerspråkighetsundervisning bör bedrivas.

  • 1287.
    Begum, Afroza
    et al.
    Mid-Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Rahman, A. F.
    Center for Injury Prevention and Research, Dhaka, Bangladesh; Department of Epidemiology, Bangladesh University of Health Sciences, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Rahman, A.
    Center for Injury Prevention and Research, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Soares, Joaquim
    Mid-Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Reza Khankeh, H.
    Department of Clinical Science and Education, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Macassa, Gloria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Public health science. Department of Health Sciences, Section of Public Health Sciences, Mid-Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden; Department of Clinical Science and Education, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Prevalence of suicide ideation among adolescents and young adults in rural Bangladesh2017In: International Journal of Mental Health, ISSN 0020-7411, E-ISSN 1557-9328, Vol. 46, no 3, p. 177-187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Suicide is a leading cause of death world-wide. However, adolescent suicidal behavior is a neglected public health issue, especially in low-income countries such as Bangladesh. The study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of suicidal ideation among adolescents in a rural community and to examine factors associated with suicidal ideation. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in 2013 among 2,476 adolescents aged 14–19 years, selected randomly from a rural community of Bangladesh. An adapted version of the WHO/SUPRE-MISS questionnaire was used to collect data in the Raiganj sub-district. A two stage screening was performed to identify the suicidal ideation cases. It was found that the life-time prevalence for suicidal ideation was 5 percent among adolescents. The majority of the adolescents with suicidal ideation were females 66 (52.8%), unmarried 103 (82.4%), and students 92 (73%). Suicidal ideation was statistically significantly associated with age, education, occupation, living with parents or others, and house ownership. Respondents who were aged 18–19 years, had secondary school certificate (SSC) and secondary school certificate (HSC) or higher education, were day laborers, had own house, and do not lived with parents had odds ratios of 2.31 (CI 1.46–3.65), 2.38 (CI 1.51–3.77), 4.15 (CI 2.41–7.14), 0.28 (CI 0.13–0.60), 0.14(CI 0.05–0.35), and 1.80 (CI 1.07–3.03), respectively. Among adolescents, the prevalence of life-time suicidal ideation was moderately high. Age, education, occupation, house ownership, and living with parents were statistically significantly associated with suicidal ideation. It is important to design and implement effective community based suicide prevention programs for adolescents in Bangladesh.

  • 1288.
    Begum, Tiasha
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Nyström, Valeria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskans erfarenheter av barnmisshandel2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:  Reports of child abuse have increased recently and healthcare staff are obligated by law to report any possible suspicion of child maltreatment to the Social Services. There are a lot of risk factors involved concerning whether a child will be abused or not, factors related to the perpetrators but also factors related to the child itself. Statistically the majority of perpetrators are the child's own parents.

    Aim: To describe the registered nurses experiences of child abuse within healthcare and also to describe one methodological aspect of the articles that this study is based upon.  

    Method: A descriptive literature review based on nine qualitative and three quantitative articles, where the participating registered nurses have experience of children that have been abused. Results: It was found that the nurse’s own personal experiences, based upon their own feelings, the support they received and the actual environment affects how and indeed if child abuse will be reported. Although the registered nurses were aware that they are obliged to report all cases, some nurses failed to report child abuse to the Social Services. The nurses experienced a variety of emotions that arose when they were involved in child abuse cases. All nurses in this study experienced that they lacked knowledge concerning child abuse also a lot of nurses wished that they had had more support during child abuse cases.

    Conclusion: The experience of child abuse cases severely affected the nurses even to the extent that some ignored the signs and failed to report to the Social Services. The registered nurses experienced a need for more support from an experienced colleague and wanted to attain more knowledge and experience themselves. 

  • 1289.
    Begun, Afroza
    et al.
    Department of Health Sciences, Mid-Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Viitasara, Eija
    Department of Health Sciences, Mid-Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Soares, Joaquim
    Department of Health Sciences, Mid-Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Rahman, AKM Fazlur
    Department of Epidemiology, Bangladesh University of Health Sciences, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Macassa, Gloria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Public health science. Department of Health Sciences, Mid-Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Parental socio-economic position and suicidal ideation among adolescents in rural Bangladesh2018In: Journal of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, ISSN 2637-8027, Vol. 4, article id 1018Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Suicide is a leading cause of death world-wide and becoming a public health concern among adolescents. However, adolescent suicidal behaviour is a neglected public health issue, especially in low-income countries such as Bangladesh. Of great importance is the understanding of which factors might be related to this growing public problem.

    Objective: To examine the relationship between parental socio-economic position and suicide ideation among adolescents in rural Bangladesh

    Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2013 among 2,476 adolescents, aged 14-19 years, selected randomly from a rural community of Bangladesh. An adapted version of the WHO/SUPRE-MISS questionnaire was used to collect data in the Raiganj sub-district, which is a surveillance area of the Centre for Injury Prevention and Research, Bangladesh (CIPRB).

    Descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression analyses were used to analyze the data. Comparisons of proportions between groups were carried out using the χ2 test. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between parental co-variants and suicidal thoughts among adolescents. The significance level was set atp <0.05. All analyses were performed using SPSS 20.

    Results: The majority of parents had education only up to primary school (mothers 58.7% and fathers 49.5%). Most of them were farmers (53.3% of fathers) and housewives (96.5% of mothers). Monthly income and expenditure of the adolescent’s parents were mainly upto 10,000 taka only. Suicidal ideation is more common among adolescents of low income group parents 104 (5.5%) and who were not living with their parents 18 (8.2%). Adolescent’s suicidal ideation was found to be significantly associated with education, marital status and house ownership of their parents. Not being able to live with their parents was also a significant factor. Parents who received education up to SSC had odds ratio of 2.10 (1.21,3.64) and 1.92 (1.15, 3.23) for mothers and fathers respectively. Parent’s income or expenditure was not associated with adolescent’s suicidal ideation. Adolescent’s suicidal ideation of single parents had higher odds (OR 3.00, CI 1.75-5.19) in comparison to adolescents who had both parents. Adolescents whose parents owned a house and who weren’t living withtheir parents had odds ratios of 0.14 (0.05,0.35), and 1.80 (1.07,3.03) respectively. After adjusting for other covariates parents’ marital status and house ownership significantly associated with the adolescent suicide ideation.

    Conclusion: Parental socio-economic position was asso-ciated with suicidal ideation. Adolescent with single parents were more likely to report suicidal ideation. Low parental education and socio-economic status, marital status, house ownership, not living with parents at home as well as adolescent loneliness were the important factors for suicidal ideation.

  • 1290.
    Behnisch, Martin
    et al.
    Leibniz Institute of Ecological Urban and Regional Development, Dresden, Germany.
    Hecht, Robert
    Leibniz Institute of Ecological Urban and Regional Development, Dresden, Germany.
    Herold, Hendrik
    Leibniz Institute of Ecological Urban and Regional Development, Dresden, Germany.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Urban big data analytics and morphology2019In: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, ISSN 2399-8083, Vol. 46, no 7 (SI), p. 1203-1205Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1291.
    Behr, Nina
    University of Gävle, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences.
    Love, Power and Respect: Marie's Empowerment in Erdrich's Love Medicine2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The essay studies the character Marie's search for empowerment in Louise Erdrich's Love Medicine. As a mixed-blood she has difficulty to find respect within the white community because she is considered Native American Indian. However, the Native American Indian community sees her as ´dirty and lowlife´due to her whiteness. She tries different strattegies to form an identity and to find love, power and respect. In the convent she wants to be the best Catholic and find respect within the white community whilst later in life she returns to her Native American Indian tribe where she searches for respect throught marriage and motherhood. The theory used is sociology of religion.

  • 1292.
    Beihao, Liu
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    Tingting, Chen
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    Elderly people’s adjustment of transition to nursing homes: A descriptive literature review2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 1293.
    Beijmo, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Not just a teenage phase: - functions of non-suicidal self-injury in adults2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate how adults 25 years old and over describe the functions of their non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and to explore whether they report any changes in their experience with NSSI as they become older. Qualitative e-mail interviews were used in order to capture the participants’ experiences. The results of the study were analysed based on coping theory and previous research. The results indicate that, consistent with previous literature, adults self-injure for mostly the same reasons as adolescents – however, as the previous research shows adolescents are more likely to hurt themselves in order to communicate with others. The adults in the present sample report using problem-solving coping strategies to the same extent as emotion-focused strategies; a slight deviation from previous research which has suggested that people who self-injure are more likely to employ emotion-focused strategies. The participants of the study generally experience a feeling of increased control and deliberation of their self-injury as they have gotten older; hurting themselves has become a purposeful coping strategy. The results of this study might have implications for treatment of self-injury in adults; focusing the treatment on strengthening the adults’ autonomy and encouraging further problem-solving coping strategies might be beneficial.

  • 1294.
    Beilina, Larisa
    et al.
    Department of Mathematical Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bondestam Malmberg, John
    Department of Mathematical Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Cristofol, Michel
    Institut de Mathematiques de Marseille, CNRS, UMR 7373, Ecole Centrale, Aix-Marseille University, Marseille, France.
    Shestopalov, Yury
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Mathematics.
    Preface for the session "recent Progress in Electromagnetic Field Theory and New Trends in Inverse Problems"2017In: AIP Conference Proceedings, ISSN 0094-243X, E-ISSN 1551-7616, Vol. 1863, article id 370001Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1295.
    Beji, Nadia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences.
    Possession in the Modern Age: a Jungian analysis of possession within the Anglican faith2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay uses interviews to gather information regarding the experience and belief which exists in regards to possession within the Anglican faith. It also uses Jungian psychology to analyse these experiences and beliefs; this is interesting because even in the modern day of science, possession continues to be a phenomenon. It still occurs closer to home than we may think; a modern western country such as England, where Anglicanism is the state religion, have special ministries assigned to deal with this in every diocese. The information was gathered through interviews and literature, to give both a qualitative and a quantitative perspective. This essay presents a possible psychological explanation for the cases of possession as experienced within the Anglican faith, which provides an alternative to the distress these individuals are experiencing rather than assuming it necessarily is of a spiritual nature. It does not, however, seek to prove or disprove the possibility of a spiritual cause behind this phenomenon.

  • 1296.
    Bekamp, Ulrika
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Mikaelsdotter, Alicia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Konsekvensen av att vara psykiskt och fysiskt stark: En studie om maskulinitetsnormens påverkan vid psykisk ohälsa och samtalsstöd2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Statistics show that the suicide rate amongst men is high and that men do not seek professional help in the same extent as women. Previous research suggests that the reason behind this may have to do with masculinity norms, expressing that men must be mentally and physically strong and have the ability to deal with problems on their own. The aim of this study is to investigate young men’s attitude to seek counselling for mental health problems and what impact they think masculinity norms has on the willingness to seek counselling.

    Interviews with six young men show that our results are consistent with previous research in terms of the negative impact masculinity norms have on men’s general approach towards counselling. The young men’s attitude is however positive towards counselling. They suggested that counselling could be normalized through more information and expanded outreach strategies. Our conclusion is that men are positive towards counselling despite masculinity norms.

  • 1297.
    Bekele, Yared
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    GIS Based Factor Identification for the Change in Occurrence of Genista pilosa: a Case Study in Southern Sweden2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study has the objective of identifying the possible environmental constraints that has role for the continuous loss of heathland plant Genista pilosa. The study has assessed different environmental settings where the plant occurs by way of overlaying analysis based on multiple spatial data sets. Thereafter empirical change detection analyses on the land use of the study area have been performed on the GIS environment by combining temporal based remotely sensed spatial data. The result was then analyzed using land use dynamicity model and the rates of change on each land use type are identified. Expansion of human activity, especially the spreading of agricultural land and urbanization, is found to be the most determinant factor for the dramatic loss of the plant. Finally serious attention for the protection of the plant is recommended by mentioning the possible problem that would occur due to a loss of biodiversity.

  • 1298.
    Bektasevic, Ajla
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Vallin, Tanja
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    CSR-prestation och kostnad för eget kapital: en kvantitativ studie på 548 europeiska företag2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: CSR-performance and cost of equity capital – a quantitative study of 548 European companies

    Aim: The subject of how corporate social responsibility affects the company’s financial performance has been discussed for a long time, which has contributed to conflicting results. This study has applied cost of equity capital in order to measure financial performance. By considering corporate social responsibility as a transparency effect, which increases firms’ transparency, this study wants to examine if corporate social responsibility can minimize the company’s perceived risk to decrease cost of equity capital.

    Method: The study has applied a positivist research philosophy and a deductive research approach with setting of hypotheses. We used a quantitative research method where the secondary data was collected from Thomson Reuters DataStream. The sample of the study includes 548 companies from eight European countries. The collected data has been processed and analyzed in the statistical program called SPSS and JASP.

    Result & Conclusions: Our results prove that a positive respective negative relationship between corporate social responsibility and cost of equity exists depending on nation.

    Suggestions for future research: One suggestion for further research is to investigate why the relationship between corporate social responsibility and cost of equity appears different in nations.

    Contribution of the thesis: This study contributes to an increased understanding for how corporate social responsibility can affect the company’s cost of equity capital in a European context. The study have contributed to a new research turn concerning how corporate social responsibility can work as a transparency effect too reduce the firms cost of equity capital. It provides further acknowledge on the relationship between corporate social responsibility and financial performance which in previous research shows conflicting results. 

  • 1299.
    Belin, Amanda
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Järvenpää, Heli
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Barnet som aktör eller objekt?: Socialsekreterarens syn på barnets delaktighet i utredningsprocessen inom socialtjänsten2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Results from earlier research referring to a child’s participation in investigations within social childcare shows that there is a coherent vision of making the child involved in the process of the investigation. However, that vision is not reflected in practical work.The purpose of this qualitative study was to study social workers’ vision of the child’s participation in investigations concerning themselves. The empirical data was consisted of six interviews with social workers, analyzed by childhood sociology, Hart´s participation ladder and Shier´s model of that ladder. The result showed that all informants consider the child’s involvement to be important. But they have different definitions of involvement or participation. What affects participation according to the informants is the age of the child, personal traits and the specific situation. Central to the study is that social workers need to be flexible and adapt to the situation. The informants also expressed the dilemma of trying to consider both the best of the child and the child’s right to be heard.

  • 1300.
    Bell, Hege Therese
    et al.
    Fakultet for sykepleie og helsevitenskap, Nord universitet, Bodø, Norge.
    Granås, Anne Gerd
    Universitetet i Oslo, Oslo, Norge.
    Omli, Ragnhild
    Institutt for sykepleievitenskap, Norges teknisk-naturvitenskapelige universitet, Trondheim, Norge.
    Enmarker, Ingela
    Fakultet for sykepleie og helsevitenskap, Nord universitet, Bodø, Norge.
    Steinsbekk, Aslak
    UiT: Universitetet i Tromsø – Norges arktiske universitet.
    Nurses' and pharmacists' learning experiences from participating in inter professional medication reviews in primary health care: a qualitative study.2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Objective: Traditionally, drug prescription and follow up have been the sole responsibility of physicians. However, interprofessional medication reviews (IMRs) have been developed to prevent drug discrepancies and patient harm. What participating nurses and pharmacists learn from each other during IMR is poorly studied. The aim of this study was to investigate nurses&#8217; and pharmacists&#8217; perceived learning experience after participating in IMRs in primary health care for up to two years. Setting and Method: A qualitative study with semi-structured focus group interviews and telephone interviews with nurses and pharmacists with experience from IMRs in nursing homes and home based services. The data was analysed thematically by using systematic text condensation. Main outcome measures: A qualitative method is useful when looking at objects from the perspective of how they are experienced. Results: Sixteen nurses and four pharmacists were interviewed. The nurses&#8217; perception of the pharmacist changed from being a controller of drug management routines towards being a source of pharmacotherapy knowledge and a discussant partner of appropriate drug therapy in the elderly. The pharmacists became more aware of the nurses&#8217; crucial role of providing clinical information about the patient to enable individual advice. Increasingly the nurses learned to link the patient&#8217;s symptoms of effect and side effect to the drugs prescribed. With time both professions jointly spoke of an increased awareness of the benefit of working as a team and the perception of contributing to better and more individual care. Conclusion: IMRs in primary health care meet some challenges especially concerning how to ensure participation of all three professions and how to get thorough information about the patient. Possible solutions might be to use shared communication tools like Internet based communication programs and to introduce the patient as a participant at the IMRs.

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