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  • 1301.
    Barthel, Stephan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science. Stockholm University.
    Isendahl, Christian
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Vis, Ben
    University of Kent, UK.
    Drescher, Axel
    University of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Germany.
    Evans, Dan
    Lancaster University, UK.
    van Timmeren, Arjan
    TU Delft, The Netherlands.
    Global urbanization and food production in direct competition for land: Leverage places to mitigate impacts on SDG2 and on the Earth System2019In: The Anthropocene Review, ISSN 2053-0196, Vol. 6, no 1-2, p. 71-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Global urbanization and food production are in direct competition for land. This paper carries outa critical review of how displacing crop production from urban and peri-urban land to other areas– because of issues related to soil quality – will demand a substantially larger proportion of theEarth’s terrestrial land surface than the surface area lost to urban encroachment. Such relationshipsmay trigger further distancing effects and unfair social-ecological teleconnections. It risks also settingin motion amplifying effects within the Earth System. In combination, such multiple stressors set thescene for food riots in cities of the Global South. Our review identifies viable leverage points on whichto act in order to navigate urban expansion away from fertile croplands. We first elaborate on thepolitical complexities in declaring urban and peri-urban lands with fertile soils as one global commons.We find that the combination of an advisory global policy aligned with regional policies enablingrobust common properties rights for bottom-up actors and movements in urban and peri-urbanagriculture (UPA) as multi-level leverage places to intervene. To substantiate the ability of aligningglobal advisory policy with regional planning, we review both past and contemporary examples whereempowering local social-ecological UPA practices and circular economies have had a stimulatingeffect on urban resilience and helped preserve, restore, and maintain urban lands with healthy soils.

  • 1302.
    Barthel, Stephan
    et al.
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of History, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Parker, John
    National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis, University of Calilfornia, Santa Barbara, USA.
    Ernstson, Henrik
    Stockholm Resilience Center, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; African Centre for Cities, University of Cape Town, Rondesbosch, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Food and Green Space in Cities: A Resilience Lens on Gardens and Urban Environmental Movements2015In: Urban Studies, ISSN 0042-0980, E-ISSN 1360-063X, Vol. 52, no 7, p. 1321-1338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the role played by urban gardens during historical collapses in urban food supply lines and identifies the social processes required to protect two crit- ical elements of urban food production during times of crisis - open green spaces and the collective memory of how to grow food. Advanced communication and transport technologies allow food sequestration from the farthest reaches of the planet, but have markedly increasing urban dependence on global food systems over the past 50 years. Simultaneously, such advances have eroded collective memory of food production, while suitable spaces for urban gardening have been lost. These factors combine to heighten the potential for food shortages when - as occurred in the 20th century - major economic, political or environmental crises sever supply lines to urban areas. This paper considers how to govern urban areas sustainably in order to ensure food security in times of crisis by: evincing the effectiveness of urban gardening during crises; showing how allotment gardens serve as conduits for transmitting collective social-ecological memories of food production; and, discussing roles and strategies of urban environmental movements for protecting urban green space. Urban gardening and urban social movements can build local ecological and social response capacity against major collapses in urban food supplies. Hence, they should be incorporated as central elements of sustainable urban development. Urban governance for resilience should be historically informed about major food crises and allow for redundant food production solutions as a response to uncertain futures.

  • 1303.
    Barthel, Stephan
    et al.
    Department of History, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Resilience Center, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Parker, John
    National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis, University of California, Santa Barbara, USA; Barrett Honors College, Arizona State University, Tempe, USA.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm Resilience Center, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Colding, Johan
    Stockholm Resilience Center, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Urban gardens: pockets of social-ecological memory2014In: Greening in the Red Zone: Disaster, Resilience, and Community Greening Part II / [ed] Keith G. Tidball and Marianne E. Krasny, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands , 2014, p. 145-158Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well known that urban allotment gardens provide important ecosystem services. Their potential to act as sources of local resilience during times of crisis is less appreciated, despite the role they have played as areas of food security during times of crisis in history. Their ability to provide such relief, however, requires that the skills and knowledge needed for effective gardening can be transmitted over time and across social groups. In short, some portion of urban society must remember how to grow food. This chapter proposes that collectively managed gardens function as ‘pockets’ of social-ecological memory in urban landscapes by storing the knowledge and experience required to grow food. Allotment gardeners operate as ‘communities of practice’ with ecosystem stewardship reflecting long-term, dynamic interactions between community members and gardening sites. Social-ecological memories about food production and past crises are retained and transmitted through habits, traditions, informal institutions, artifacts and the physical structure of the gardens themselves. Allotment gardens thus serve as incubators of social-ecological knowledge with experiences that can be accessed and transferred to other land uses in times of crisis, contributing to urban resilience. Conversely, failure to protect these pockets of social-ecological memory could result in a collective ‘forgetting’ of important social-ecological knowledge and reduce social-ecological resilience.

  • 1304.
    Bartling, Tobias
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Sammalisto, San
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Effektivisering av materialflöden utifrån lean production och flaskhalsteori2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Companies today are becoming more and more resource-promoting. A way for companies to become more effective with their resources is Lean Production, which is a strategic method that involves eliminating waste. Value stream mapping is a tool that can be used to get a clearer picture of reality and visualize where the problem lies. When the analysis is done, it will often show a machine or station that is slowing down production. Stations like that are called ”bottlenecks”.

    The purpose with this study is to form a methodology for analysis and efficiency of material flows based on bottleneck theory and lean production. The methodology will be tested on Företag AB:s filial.

    The methodology was worked out from literature studies. It consists of two main steps, status report and analyzing discussion. These two steps is supported by different factors within lean production and bottleneck theory. The methodology is applied on our business case and showed to be a structured way to study the current state of production and to discuss improvements.

    Literature studies has been used to gather theoretical knowledge. Within the company interviews and observations were conducted with operators and executives who was involved with the product flow that was investigated, SK23DF.

    Företag AB:s filial works with 150 different types of steel with about 3000 different products. The production flow is also forecast-controlled and intersecting and it is a massive under-taking to streamline these in the best way possible. Conclusions reached is that the staff's current consensus for efficient production is an obstacle to this. The staff should be trained to get a bigger picture of the whole, thus giving them better prospects for change and improvement. All research points to the importance of fully understanding the current situation, by everyone within the organization. This is the key to succeed with change management at streamlining flows.

  • 1305.
    Barås, Madeleine
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics.
    Brunberg, Annika
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics.
    von Haartman, Robin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    A supply chain strategy for an innovative commodity producer: Testing the applicability of established theoretical models2014In: EurOMA 2014 Full Papers, 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The distinction between innovative and functional products have for more than a decade been central to our understanding of how to design appropriate supply chains. However, the distinction between the two types of products, and the associated "optimal" supply chain, are blurring, as high competition forces commodity producers to move up the value chain and increase the innovative content of their products. The purpose of this paper is to use a single case study to test whether established supply chain models can be applied to an innovative commodity producer. The paper finds that although some established model still have merits, a supply chain strategy cannot only be based on product characteristics. Factors such ease of transport and uncertainties in materials supply needs to be taken into account and an effective supply chain may involve utilising decoupling point to combine the benefits of both efficient and responsive supply chains.

  • 1306.
    Bashir, Babar
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Designing of High Reflectance Distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs),mirrors using AlGaInN material system in the UV wavelength range2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 1307.
    Bashiry, Shahram
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Vad kan ett traineeprogram bidra tii?: En fallstudie av Sandviks traineeprogram2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Titel: Vad kan ett traineeprogram bidra till? En fallstudie av Sandviks traineeprogramNivå: C -uppsats i ämnet företagsekonomi

    Författare: Shahram Bashiry

    Handledare: Maria Fregidou Malama

    Datum: 2012-september

    Syfte: Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka vad ett traineeprogram bidrar till. Jag undersöker vad Sandviks traineeprogram har bidragit till sedan programmet startades och huruvida programmet bidrar till kompetensutveckling hos deltagarna och inom Sandviks kärnområden.

    Följande frågor analyseras?

    • Vad kan ett      traineeprogram bidra till?
    • Bidrar programmet till      kompetensutveckling?

    Metod: För att ta reda på svaren har jag genomfört en fallstudie av kvalitativ metod. Preliminär data samlades in genom ostrukturerade intervjuer med fyra handledare som har handlett traineeanställda under utbildningen. Vidare intervjuades arton traineeanställda som gick ut programmet våren 2012 samt de som går programmet hösten 2012. De förra e-post intervjuades medan de senare intervjuades på plats.  Sedan analyserades intervjuerna var och en för sig och jämfördes med varandra. Studien bygger på en induktiv metod viket innebär att studien har empiri som utgångspunkt.

    Resultat & slutsats: Resultatet visar att företag behöver ett traineeprogram för att få in kompetent personal och föryngring i företaget. Traineeanställda är inte mer kompetenta än vanliga anställda men via programmets utformning får de möjligheten att skapa nätverk och få arbetslivserfarenhet.

     

    Förslag till fortsattforskning: Det kan vara tänkvärd att studera vidare Sandviks traineeprogram mot före detta traineeanställda för att undersöka hur mycket de har marknadsfört Sandvik samt om de har sökt sig tillbaka till företaget.

    Studiens bidrag: Studien bidrar till att ge företag en bättre inblick på traineeprogram som en rekryteringsbas. Studien ger även allmänheten en bättre uppfattning på traineeprogram som ger en unik start på karriären och alla förmågor att utvecklas till en nyckel person inom företag.

    Nyckel ord: Traineeprogram, Traineeanställda, Sandvik, Formell utbildning, Kompetensutveckling, Rekrytering, Informelt lärande.

     

  • 1308.
    Bashtay, Nenus
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Lindqvist, Mattias
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Why Buy a Structured Product from a Bank?: A combination of weighted products to outperform the market2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The purpose of the thesis is to give small private investors an insight the financial world of derivatives and to show that an investor does not need to consult with an advisor in order to make decisions about the investments. The aim was to show through a new product that a small investor can beat the market return.

    Method: The method used in the thesis is to collect data over a three year period for an option, a bull ETF and a treasury bill. The database DataStream was used to obtain statistics of the option and the Treasury bill and Nasdaq OMX Nordic was used for the Bull ETF. We calculated the expected return and variance of each in order to use in the portfolio. Having the information needed we then used a trial-and-error method to calculate the weight each component will be given, with the help of Excel and its Solver add-on.

    Result & Conclusion: The results were surprising in that over the three year period the product had a 100% increase, while the market only went up by 30%. The major reason for the products strong return was that the daily earnings were shifted everyday so that the weights remained constant throughout the life of the product. The issue with the product was that no transaction costs were included in the calculations, and as there would be at least one transaction per day the costs would be enormous for the given product.

    Suggestions for Further Research: As one of the limitations for the thesis was that no transactions cost were included, one idea for further research could be to calculate the transaction costs as well as seeing if there is a method to minimize them so that the product could be profitable.

    Contribution to the Field: To our knowledge we are the first to test theses three components in order to from a structured product. Through our method interested parties could do the same with other components or retest our product. We have showed through our method one way to create your own structured product.

  • 1309.
    Bashtay, Nenus
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Mahmoudi, Sabir
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Avskaffandet av Revisionsplikten i Introduktionsfasen VS Kreditgivning2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim/Objective: The purpose of this paper is to investigate and analyze the early effects that could arise between entrepreneurs and lenders in connection with the auditing requirement, which has now been abolished. Through, empirical data identify the impact from the credit provider’s perspective and small business perspective and then make an overall assessment.

    Method:The authors are to achieve the purpose for this thesis through the use of both primary and secondary data. Primary data gathered through interviews and secondary data in the form of earlier thesis as well as articles.

    Result and conclusion: Banks have not prepared for the change in connection with the abolition of the audit requirement. Lenders look at repayment ability as the most important aspect of giving credit. Lenders argue that small businesses will retain the auditor of the company, because it will help them when granting credit. Creditors reveal that alternative internal methods prevail over revised reports approved by an auditor. However, small businesses reevaluate the function of the revised financial information. Small businesses welcomed the abolition of the audit requirement in the introductory phase, because it provides more flexibility of their resources.

    Suggestions for future research: Our proposal for further research is to investigate the Swedish market's capacity to raise the levels of the requirements, and examine which companies will be effected. Also to clarify what level the limit should be and examine the impact on lending to small business with such a change.

    Contribution of the thesis: The thesis will give an idea of how small businesses perceive the abolition of the audit requirement and how it will affect the lenders' review and decision making in the case of loans to small businesses. The thesis is primarily aimed towards auditors, lenders and small businesses.

  • 1310.
    Basic, Emma
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Nordin, Albin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Hållbarhetsrapportering inom två branscher: En jämförande studie på börsnoterade företag i Skandinavien2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: Sustainability reporting in two industries - A comparative study of listed companies in Scandinavia.

     

    Level: Final assignment for Bachelor Degree in Business Administration

     

    Author: Emma Basic & Albin Nordin

     

    Supervisor: Fredrik Hartwig

     

    Date: 2018-January

     

    Aim: Previous research has shown that industry is an influencing factor to differences in sustainability reports for companies. Research has been conducted on different industries from various countries. Research has not been done on only two industries where one is polluted and the other is not for companies in Scandinavia. The aim of this study is therefore to investigate whether industry is a influencing factor to differences in the amount of sustainability information in sustainability reports between the industries durable goods and industrial services for companies in Scandinavia.

     

    Method: This study is based on the positivist research tradition and follows the deductive line of research. The study aims to be objective and uses the quantitative method in which a data-based content analysis is performed to measure sustainability reporting. The study is also based on a comparative design where the data collection is based from a cross sectional design. Statistical controls in form of a bivariate analysis and a multiple regression are made in the study using the statistical program SPSS.

     

    Result & Conclusions: The study shows that industry is an influencing factor to differences in the amount of sustainability information in sustainability reports for companies in Scandinavia. The study shows that companies in the industry durable goods sustainability reports more than companies in industrial services. This industry reports more in both environmental and social reporting. We believe this may be because durable goods affects the environment more and therefore also report more environment information. Why the industry also reports more social information can according to us be because the words in the content analysis may possibly be more targeted to product companies.

     

    Suggestions for future research: Something that would be interesting for further research is to do a similar study but focus on other industries. It would also be interesting to bring the country Finland in the study because the country is in the Nordic region and is similar to the Scandinavian countries. Further research could also investigate sustainability reports from two other years because this study examine 2014 and 2016 and also only target Small, Mid or Large cap since this study examines all of these.

     

    Contribution of the thesis: The study helps to determine that industry is a contributing factor to differences in sustainability reports between the industries durable goods and industrial services for companies in Scandinavia which has not been researched earlier. The study also uses a number of control variables and determines whether these have an impact on differences in sustainability reports. The study finds that size affects the differences while time do not. For the variable country, the study shows that companies from Denmark sustainability reports less than companies from Sweden and Norway.

  • 1311.
    Basic, Lejla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies.
    Hur har läroböckerna anpassats till det mångkulturella samhället?: en undersökning av kurslitteratur för religionskunskap2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med det här arbetet har varit att redogöra för hur religionsämnet har påverkats av förändringar på Sveriges demografiska karta, d.v.s. landets mångkulturalism. Ett annat fenomen som uppmärksammades i denna undersökning är sekulariseringen. Anledningen till detta är att den kulturella pluraliteten och sekulariseringen är två processer som är svåra att behandla som helt skilda från varandra. 

    Med tanke på att man införde religionskunskapsundervisning i svensk skola på 60-talet, perioden då även landets demografiska utseende började förändras valde jag att belysa undersökningsperioden från 1960-talet till 2000. Undersökningen visar att en anpassning har skett till det mångkulturella samhället. Denna anpassning började synas i slutet på 1970-talet då det i kursböckerna började ges allt mer utrymme till andra religioner och livsåskådningar än den protestantiska kristna. I dagens kursböcker är de olika religionerna jämnfördelade. Det är dock skillnad på hur dessa presenteras i de olika böckerna. Det är emellertid även viktigt att betona att denna slutsats bygger på de specifika böcker som jag har utgått ifrån i min undersökning.

  • 1312.
    Basic, Lejla
    University of Gävle, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences.
    Kriget i Bosnien och Hercegovina: religiös pluralitet, ett upphov till krig?2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med uppsatsen är att belysa de tre olika religionernas roll på Balkan ur ett historiskt perspektiv, för att vidare kunna besvara frågeställningen, på vilket sätt gav den religiösa pluraliteten upphov till kriget i Bosnien och Hercegovina?

  • 1313.
    Basic, Lejla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies.
    Speaking anxiety: An obstacle to second language learning?2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Language is a system for communication, for that reason it is evident that communication skills are a big part of learning a language. To practice speaking is therefore a central part of English lessons in schools today. However, to make students speak the target language is not always easy and there can be several different reasons why this is the case. The current study investigates one possible reason, namely speaking anxiety and its influence on second language acquisition. The study’s purpose was to examine how a teacher can encourage students to communicate orally but also to learn why the phenomenon is not dealt with more in schools. The study is mainly based on literature but also contains an interview with two upper secondary teachers. It is found that speaking anxiety inhibits students from speaking which has a negative effect on their oral skills. The study also shows that speaking anxiety is not a prioritized problem in schools, a reason can be that speaking anxiety is not seen as a problem concerning language teaching since it can be considered as a social difficulty. Nevertheless, since oral proficiency is a big part of the English course in the Swedish upper secondary school, speaking anxious students have a harder time mastering the goals for education than other students. In order to encourage speaking in a classroom it is important to strive for a pleasant atmosphere where every student can feel relaxed and motivated to communicate orally. 

  • 1314.
    Basner, Mathias
    et al.
    Department of Psychiatry, Division of Sleep and Chronobiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.
    Brink, Mark
    Federal Office for the Environment, Noise and NIR Division, Bern, Switzerland.
    Bristow, Abigail
    School of Civil and Building Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom.
    de Kluizenaar, Yvonne
    Department of Urban Environment and Safety, The Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research (TNO), Delft, Netherlands.
    Finegold, Lawrence
    Finegold & So, Consultants, 1167 Bournemouth Court, Centerville, Ohio 45459, USA.
    Hong, Jiyoung
    Eco-Transport Research Division, Korea Railroad Research Institute, Republic of Korea.
    Janssen, Sabine A.
    Department of Urban Environment and Safety, The Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research (TNO), Delft, Netherlands.
    Klaeboe, Ronny
    Department of Safety, Security and Environment, Institute of Transport Economics (TØI), Oslo, Norway.
    Leroux, Tony
    School of Speech Language and Audiology, University of Montreal, Montréal (Québec), Canada.
    Liebl, Andreas
    Department of Acoustics, Fraunhofer Institute for Building Physics IBP, Stuttgart, Germany.
    Matsui, Toshihito
    Department of Environmental Engineering, Hokkaido University, Japan.
    Schwela, Dieter
    University of York, Environment Department, Stockholm Environment Institute, York, United Kingdom.
    Sliwinska-Kowalska, Mariola
    Department of Audiology and Phoniatrics, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Poland.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, University of Linköping, Linköping, Sweden.
    ICBEN Review of Research on the Biological Effects of Noise 2011-20142015In: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, E-ISSN 1998-4030, Vol. 17, no 75, p. 57-82Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mandate of the International Commission on Biological Effects of Noise (ICBEN) is to promote a high level of scientific research concerning all aspects of noise-induced effects on human beings and animals. In this review, ICBEN team chairs and co-chairs summarize relevant findings, publications, developments, and policies related to the biological effects of noise, with a focus on the period 2011-2014 and for the following topics: Noise-induced hearing loss; nonauditory effects of noise; effects of noise on performance and behavior; effects of noise on sleep; community response to noise; and interactions with other agents and contextual factors. Occupational settings and transport have been identified as the most prominent sources of noise that affect health. These reviews demonstrate that noise is a prevalent and often underestimated threat for both auditory and nonauditory health and that strategies for the prevention of noise and its associated negative health consequences are needed to promote public health.

  • 1315.
    Bastbacken, Therese
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Hallgren, Rebecka
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    En meningsfull tillvaro: En studie om äldres känsla av meningsfullhet genom hemtjänstens verksamhet2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A meaningful existence

    The purpose of this study was to examine the degree to which a care recipient is experiencing a meaningful existence by established homecare services. The study was conducted through a structured, qualitative interview method with care recipients, carers and care managers, analysis of empirical data has been based on symbolic interaction and dramaturgical perspective. We have found that crucial for the individual to feel meaningfulness is social interaction with other people, that the living environment is satisfying and desirable, and that the individual also possesses a sense of security. Despite the fact that the home care services, to varying degrees, affect these aspects, the study's main conclusion is that individuals usually do not associate the granted proceedings with the sense of meaningfulness

  • 1316.
    Batista, Rúben
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering. University of gävle.
    The impact of shadowing in photovoltaic systems and how to minimize it: An analysis with the PVsyst Software2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 1317.
    Batti, Dejwar
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Azim, Zarif
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Utveckling av miljöredovisningspraxis i svenska börsbolag2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning Syfte-Syftet med denna studie är att kartlägga svenska börsbolagens praxisutveckling inom miljöredovisning. Studien har utgångspunkt i postulatet monetär enhet, postulatet redovisningsenhet och redovisningens kvalitativa egenskaperMetod-I denna studie har kvantitativ metod använts. Datahar samlats in genom att studera företagens miljöredovisningar som återfinns i årsredovisningen eller hållbarhetsredovisningen. Sedan harinsamladdata presenterats med hjälp av deskriptiv statistik. Resultat har sedan sammanställts i tabeller och diagram. Bedömningar som har gynnat i resultaten har bedömts som subjektiva, som i sin turpåverkat reliabiliteten och validiteten i studien.Resultat-Miljöredovisningen har det senaste decenniet varit av intresse för mångaforskare. Detta beror på flera aspekter,men två tydliga aspekter är attpå grund avintressenternas ökade intresse och andra aspekter berorpå den publicitet som miljöfrågor väcker hos allmänheten.Resultatav studienvisar att majoriteten av de studerade företagen hade någon form avmiljöredovisning i sin årsredovisning, dock var variationenstor på många punkter. Resultat av studienpåvisaräven att miljöredovisningen har utvecklats när det gäller redovisningens kvalitativa egenskaper. Detta beror till stor del på att många företag börjat använda sig av GRI:s ramverk samt tillämpar de standarden ISO14001 i större omfattning. Däremot påpekar resultat av studienatt miljöredovisning i monetära termer inte har utvecklats i något större omfattning, trots atttidigare forskning pekar på utveckling inom detta område. När det kommer tillredovisningens avgränsningsenhet i miljöredovisning visar studien att det har skett en viss utveckling inom detta område. Utvecklingen beror på att flera företag redovisar,enligt GRI:s riktlinjerintedock är lika utvecklatoch avanceratsom riktlinjernaär inom den finansiella redovisningen. Dennastudievisar att miljöredovisning ändå är på god väg mot att likställas den traditionella redovisningen genom ökad tillämpning avramverk som GRI och standarder som ISO 14001. Dessa ramverk och standarder bidrar till harmonisering och standardisering av miljöredovisningar och ökar intressenters förståelse och användning av informationen som framkommer.Begränsningar-Studien fokuserar på svenska börsnoterade företag som listas på kategorin Large Cap.Fokusläggspå hur förändring har ägt rum under åren 2006, 2009 och 2013.Nyckelord –Miljöredovisning, kvalitativa egenskaper, monetära termeroch legitimitet.

  • 1318.
    Batti, Erich
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment. University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för energi- och maskinteknik.
    Fjärrkyla till Gävletätort: temperaturberäkningar av distributionsledningar2008Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In recent year, the need of providing buildings with cooling has increased, especially in offices there the used electrical equipment in the form of computers, lighting and other electrical equipment. In order to chill away the heat that is given from these equipments used for current old chill machines that are owned by real-estate owners in Gävle. Instead in order to change or to fulfil these machines with environment dangerous cold mediums come the thought with providing Gävle with district chill which is a distinguished alternatives and concurrent is environmentally friendly.

     

    The most front aim with this work has been to do temperature calculations around distribution pipes that will be placed on bottom of Gavleån without bigger complications such as isolated pipes and digging for steam disposition, and to convert an assessment if this is possible. Another aim was to do pressure case calculations on these pipes. The work is provided of SWECO-THEORELLS in Gävle, the company had already done temperature calculations, and the work was allocated also in order to compare the results.

     

    The temperature calculations were resort to heat transfer's principles on swiftly-flowing fluid bodies, this in order that the pipes are surrounded by streaming water. The water temperature was assumed to 20ºC that is huge heavily assumption in order to last on a depth up to 6m. The conclusive temperature to the heat bills of exchange is 5.5ºC.

     

    The pressure case calculations were done in one MICROSOFT-EXCEL document, the starting points each one previous course during the education's time that was called energy resources which facilitated calculations.

     

    Arrived results hopefully will lie to shallow for a continued work and an execution of these planning's.

     

    The following results have been brought about:

    • A temperature on 5.8ºC is received to long away located subscriber at 20ºC hot water
    • 203 kPa pressure case on flow into, only distribution pipes

     

     

     

     

     

    The following conclusions could be extracted:

    • A certain difference was detected between earlier calculations, since considerations been taken to extreme relations so decreases this difference's importance
    • Reduction of water flow during the summer mean one risk while spirit that does the delivery of desired temperature uncertain, special during the hottest days

    That estimated available pressures will not cover the need in accordance with calculations performed in this work

  • 1319.
    Baudin Persson, Sandra
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, Swedish and Gender studies.
    Att skriva sig till läsning: Datoranvändning i den tidiga läs- och skrivutvecklingen för elever i årskurs F-3 som har svenska som andraspråk2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Att skriva sig till läsning (ASL) innebär att man vänder på läs- och skrivutvecklingen och istället ägnar sig åt skriv- och läsutveckling med hjälp av datorer. Syftet med den här intervjustudien har varit att titta på hur lärare arbetar med ASL med elever som har svenska som andraspråk samt vilka fördelar och nackdelar de ser med arbetssättet för elever som har svenska som andraspråk. Fyra lärare har intervjuats för att hitta svar på dessa frågor. Dessa intervjuer har jämförts med den knapphändiga forskningen som finns om ASL.

    Resultatet av studien visar att alla fyra lärare arbetar på olika sätt men ändå kallar sitt arbetssätt för ASL och att tre av dem kombinerar metoden med andra metoder vid skriv- och läsundervisning. Tre av fyra intervjuade lärare anser att metoden ASL hjälper deras elever med svenska som andraspråk med bland annat uttal, stavning och att sammankoppla bokstävers utseende med dess ljud medan den fjärde inte vill påstå att hennes elevers positiva läs- och skrivutveckling beror endast på ASL. En av lärarna ser inga nackdelar med ASL för elever med svenska som andraspråk medan de tre andra menar att det är svårt när tekniken inte är på deras sida. En av fyra lärare menar också att hon inte skulle kunna använda metoden med elever som inte kan någon svenska alls.

    ASL verkar vara en metod som fungerar för många elever med svenska som andraspråk, men eftersom alla elever är individer bör lärare vara öppna för att kombinera olika metoder för att nå så många elever som möjligt.

  • 1320.
    Baum, Saskia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Språkutveckling i Montessori- respektive Waldorfförskolan: En jämförelse av det pedagogiska arbetet med barns språkutveckling i Montessori- respektive Waldorfförskola2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Språkutvecklingen hos barn har fångat en nyfikenhet hos mig under min studietid och hur det vardagliga arbetet kan utveckla barnens språkutveckling. Ett intresse för olika pedagogiska inriktningar har vuxit fram och vilka strategier som används inom dessa för att stimuleras den verbala språkutvecklingen. Syftet med studien är därför att jämföra två pedagogiska arbetssätt, ett grundat i Montessoripedagogik systemet och ett grundat i Waldorfpedagogik systemet. Studiens frågeställning är vilka strategier som förskollärarna använder sig av och vilka likheter och skillnader som finns inbördes och mellan de två olika pedagogiska inriktningarna.

    Genom semistrukturerade intervjuer med fyra olika förskollärare, två inom respektive pedagogisk inriktning, där deltagarna svarar på frågor om vilka arbetssätt som respektive förskola använder sig av för att stimulera språkutvecklingen hos barn. Detta medför att resultatet nödvändigtvis inte behöver bero på respektive pedagogisk ideologi. Utan det kan även förekomma strategier utan specifik pedagogisk inriktning.

    Studien visar att barnens första språkutveckling är något som är en del av den vardagliga verksamheten på förskolan. Strategierna som används skiljer sig däremot emellan de pedagogiska inriktningarna. I Montessoriförskolan nyttjas pedagogiskt material för att lära barnen de mer specifika delarna av språkutvecklingen. Inom Waldorfförskolan nyttjas den fria leken och ett mer generellt lärande, där lärandet anpassas efter barnets egna förmågor.

  • 1321.
    Baumeister, Per
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology, Ämnesavdelningen för vårdvetenskap.
    Patienters upplevelse av att ha en PICC-line kateter: En intervjustudie2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to describe how persons with PICC-line catheter feel and how the patient's daily life is affected. The study had a descriptive design and ten persons from central Sweden participated in the study. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and analyzed according to qualitative content analysis. The findings that emerged from the study were reported according to categories; Management of PICC-line catheter, Positive experiences of PICC- line catheter, Experienced problems, Normal living and Restritions of the daily life. Categories emerged from fifteen sub-categories. What emerged in the study was that participants felt that they accepted their situation after a short time and that they mostly could live normally without being affected by the PICC line catheter. The participants felt the requirements for a PICC-line catheter as restrictive in their daily lives, were the opportunity of using the sauna and go swimming, because the PICC-line catheter could get wet. The participants experienced anxiety in relation to district nurses bandaging of PICC-line catheter when the district nurses did not apply the same bandaging routine. If district nurses were to seek common guidelines and behaved in a similar manner to the patient associated with rescheduling, patients would be able to feel a greater security with his PICC-line catheter.

  • 1322.
    Baumgarten, Erik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Söderström, Jonas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Framtagning av arbetsmodell för effektiv produktutveckling vid enstycksproduktion: Tillämpat på utveckling av visningsjigg för byte av knivstål i Andritz TK-IV QC2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To enable demonstration of knife changes in a wood chipper, a demonstration device for this purpose is needed. The demonstration device will only be made in one copy, therefore this work was focused on product development for one piece production. Growing competition among product development companies, along with the fact that the whole development cost will be carried by only one product leads to high demands for reduced development lead times. To meet these requirements a work model was developed to improve the efficiency at the design stage. The model was then applied in the process of developing the demonstration device. The design and content of the work model is based on relevant research literature and is defined in several steps as the feasibility study phase, design phase and finishing phase.

    Customer requirements were treated with the method house of quality, which produced measurable criteria to be used in the design phase. By maintaining a customer contact throughout the whole design process, for instance presentation of a concept model, a flexibility to handle previously unknown or vague demands and requirements was obtained. Based on the work model the concept was divided into a hierarchical structure with modules to create a better overview and to simplify the design process. Through the application of mechanical and strength theory in the design while designing the parts of the demonstration device, the prescribed requirements for stability and security was met. By performing finite element analysis the concept's structural elements was analyzed and the chipper disc was optimized with regard to weight and material stress.

    The work has resulted in a portable demonstration device which contains all the functions required to demonstrate knife changes. The deflection of the frame and chipper disc is well below the defined values for stability. The chipper disc weight was reduced by 29 percent compared to the original concept, which means less force is required to rotate the chipper disc between different positions. What could be observed regarding the work model is that the individual modules affected each other, this was not taken into account during the development of the model. An analysis of how the modules can affect each other should therefore be performed early in the modularization phase. The conclusion, in addition to this, is that the work model is proven to work well to deal with the implied uncertainties of one piece product development.

  • 1323.
    Bautista Gonzalez, Oscar
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Electronics.
    Integration of a Wireless Sensor Network and IoT in the HiG university2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The number of Internet of Things applications for Wireless Sensor Networks is increasing every year due to the emerging of new brands such as Big Data and Industry 4.0. With the rise of new technologies related to these fields, new opportunities have become possible with a reasonable cost, but the requirements of WSNs still being the same, where energy efficiency, robustness, scalability and others must be accomplished. The commercial hardware developed by companies can be configured through different programs to be compatible among them, taking into account multiple variables, protocols, mechanisms and options provided by new solutions. Therefore, the configuration of different devices and choosing the optimum configuration can become quite challenging due to the number of paths. In this thesis, the configuration of commercial devices provided is carried out to be able to apply this hardware in different Internet of Things applications for Wireless Sensor Networks. Transceivers, sensors of temperature, relative humidity and CO2, a gateway, and different development kits are provided on this work, where the selection of the software to set these devices is made. Repeaters are configured to be compatible with the sensors and perform under the TDMA protocol and the request-response pattern, which synchronize the communication on the network, and under the flooding mechanism, which allows to route packets through the nodes due to the short range of RF low power technologies. The connection between the WSN and the Internet is made through the GW, which is also connected to the WSN, under the TCP/IP protocol, which is configured to provide Message Queue Telemetry Transport and SecureSHell services to access the GW remotely through the Internet and send requests to the WSN automatically. Node-Red is the programming tool installed upon the GW to implement data processing, storage and visualization, via the JavaScript programming language, where the user can deploy the data, which is stored in a CSV file, to make an analysis and visualize the data and the status of the network through a live data dashboard. Finally, an experiment is carried out over the HiG university where sensors are placed to measure different halls of the university and integrate an Internet of Things application for a Wireless Sensor Network. Due to the followed process, we have been able to measure data of temperature, relative humidity and CO2 concentration levels, creating a WSN, where this data has been saved in a connected USB to the gateway. Having a performance of 90% of messages received by the GW, and we have also been able to connect the GW to the Internet, creating a system that can be accessed remotely via the MQTT broker and providing different services such as data visualization. 

  • 1324.
    Bayo, Oihane
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Economic and Environmental Analysis of PV Electricity Storage in Sweden2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Renewable energies, and among them solar photovoltaics, are becoming more important in the last years due to the lack of fossil fuels and the environmental impact of them. PV installed capacity is increasing over and over in some countries and the prices of the installation are decreasing while the prices of the electricity are predicted to increase. Electricity use in buildings account for an important part of all electricity use in the world. This two facts make the PV installation in the rooftops of buildings a good opportunity to reduce the purchase of electricity from the grid.

     

    The aim of the thesis is to analyze the profitability and the environmental impact (when using a hot water accumulator) of a PV system with different storage systems placed in the rooftop of two dwellings located in Gävle (Sweden). The storage systems can be either batteries or hot water accumulators. The purpose of the storage system is to increase the self-consumption rate of the PV system and to save the highest amount of money possible. It is also studied the difference of installing PbA and Li-ion batteries, and the reliability of the data used in the simulation of the alternative systems with the help of the software PVsyst.

     

    Results show that the profitability of the proposed three alternative PV systems with storage is not higher than the PV system without storage. The reason for this has been found in the low prices of electricity and DH nowadays. Moreover, the impact of decreasing the heating demand from DH network does not benefit the environment, because the electricity has to be produced in power plants that produce more pollutants. It can be said also that the data obtained in PVsyst has been determined reliable and that the difference between the two types of batteries is not conclusive.

     

    It can be concluded that if the cost of the PV systems or the batteries would decrease, the profitability will be higher. Furthermore, the increase in the price of electricity, DH or governmental subsidies would improve the results. 

  • 1325.
    Bcheri, Johanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    Kommunikation genom policys och visioner.: En fallstudie av kunskapsföretaget Centrum för flexibelt lärande (CFL).2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Abstrakt

    MKV C/VT 2013

    Handledare: Mats Hyvonen/ Examinator/Eva Ekstrand/ Författare: Johanna Bcheri

    Titel: Kommunikation genom policys och visioner. En fallstudie av kunskapsföretaget Centrum för flexibelt lärande (CFL).

    Nyckelord: organisationskultur, policys, information, Alvesson, identitet

    Vi lever i ett tjänstesamhälle, där organisationer och arbetsplatser har en annan karaktär än i industrisamhället. I den standardiserade industriproduktionen är själva produktionsprocessen bestämd på förhand. I tjänste- och kunskapsproducerande organisationer är produktionen i mycket högre grad kopplad till individerna och en mycket större del av deras personlighet, förmågor, kompetenser och kunskaper. Den för organisationen nödvändiga kontrollen, styrning och samordningen har med nödvändighet en annan karaktär i tjänste- och kunskapsproducerande organisationer. I dag vill man ha mer av individen, men man vill inte ha vad som helst och inte allt. Ett sätt att beskriva det är att kontrollen, styrningen och samordningen blivit mer indirekt. För att samordna handlandet formuleras ofta policys som berör hela arbetsstyrkan. En sorts identitets skapande sker då människor kopplar samman organisationens policy, symboler och värderingar till sin egna specifika sociala identitet, en sorts förtätning uppstår här menar Alvesson, hans teori konstaterar att människor som arbetar inom serviceorganisationer ofta framtonas som en produkt av varumärket. I denna C-uppsats genomförs en fallstudie på Centrum för flexibelt lärande (CFL). Syftet är att undersöka vilken information organisationen vill kommunicera via sin varumärkespolicy. Hur verksamt är dokumentet "CFLs varumärke" för organisationens målsättning, hjälper varumärkets retoriska innehåll till att få ett arbetsteam som jobbar mot samma vision och målbild? Hur ser medarbetarna på varumärkesplattformen, stämmer ledningsgruppens vision om vad varumärket ska åstadkomma med den övriga personalen? Finns inslag av budskap i informationen i varumärkespolicyn som kan komma att påverka personalens personliga integritet.

    Efter att ha analyserat dokumentet "CFLs varumärke" och genomfört intervjuer på människor inom organisationen, så kan det konstateras att Alvessons teorier stämmer bra överens om att ledarskapsideologin och organisationskulturen inte alltid är samstämmig. Arbetstagarna läste ofta av idéer och styrdokument med olika "glasögon". En majoritet av de intervjuade kände

    3

    en stark koppling till organisationen och sin egen identitet, de beskrev sig själva som en ambassadör för organisationen som även trängde in i det privata livet.

  • 1326.
    Beard, Julia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Psychology.
    Tedenlind, Caroline
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Psychology.
    Kompetensbrist och Generation Y’s förväntningar utmanar IT-företag i arbetet med employer branding: Vikten av att bemöta förväntningarna för att attrahera och behålla personal2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to examine, through qualitative method, how companies within the IT industry work with employer branding to respond to Generation Y's expectations. The study was conducted using eight semi-structured interviews with respondents from four different companies within the IT industry in Central Sweden. The collected data from the interviews was analyzed by means of inductive thematic analysis and four main themes emerged. The main themes were; A new generation with new expectations in the workplace, Importance of a strong organizational culture, Particularly regarding the IT industry and Continuously work with employer branding. The result showed that companies are aware of differences between different generations expectations and work actively with employer branding in order to fulfil the employees psychological contract. Furthermore, the result showed that companies faced many challenges in the dynamic IT industry and the fact that an employee's psychological contract and expectations change over time

  • 1327.
    Beatrice, Bohlin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Ina, Thulin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Livskvalitet hos personer med ALS: En litteraturstudie2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund:

    Amyotrofisk lateral skleros (ALS) är en nervsjukdom som det idag inte

    finns något botemedel mot. Sjukdomen har ett hastigt förlopp där musklerna förtvinar

    och försvagas samtidigt som sinnet är opåverkat. Livskvalitet innefattar fysiska,

    psykiska och sociala faktorer. Att få stöd av familj, vänner och fritidsintressen är något

    som bidrar mycket till ökad livskvalitet.

  • 1328. Bechtereva, N P
    et al.
    Korotkov, A D
    University of Gävle, Belastningsskadecentrum.
    Pakhomov, S V
    Roudas, M S
    Starchenko, M G
    Medvedev, S V
    PET study of brain maintenance of verbal creative activity.2004In: International Journal of Psychophysiology, ISSN 0167-8760, E-ISSN 1872-7697, Vol. 53, no 1, p. 11-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with the investigation of the brain organization of verbal creativity. Psychological tasks were designed in accordance with two main strategies used by volunteers in solving creative tasks. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured with positron emission tomography (PET) when performing two types of creative tasks in two groups of subjects, each type of the task organizing the creativity process in its own way. Brain correlates of creativity were revealed in the left parieto-temporal regions (Brodmann areas 39 and 40).

  • 1329.
    Becirovic Emkic, Medina
    University of Gävle, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences.
    Folkhemmets husmoder i en strid för yrkesarbete och jämställdhet: Kvinnans förändrade roll i samhället under 1950- och 1960-talets första hälft i tidningen Damernas Värld2010Student paper other, 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 1330.
    Becirovic Emkic, Medina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies.
    Motivation - the driving force for our actions  :   A study of the importance of learning experiences, learner beliefs, self-determination and personal goals for motivation and attitudes in English language learning2010Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The pedagogical debates within language learning and language teaching have emphasized motivation as one of the key factors. Conversely, the broadness of motivation and its complexity has been acknowledged as a challenging concept which is difficult to grasp. This study aims at examining motivation as a concept determined by different internal and external factors which also shape individuals’ attitudes towards language learning. With the aim of understanding the existence of motivation and attitudes in a variety of contexts, individuals’ level of language knowledge is the point of departure in this study. Motivation and attitudes in language learning are examined in the light of individuals’ learning experiences, personal beliefs, self-determination and personal goals. 

  • 1331.
    Becirovic, Medina
    University of Gävle, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences.
    The Construction and Re-construction of Female Beauty in The Mill on the Floss 2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The essay investigates the construction and reconstruction of feminine beauty in Eliot’s The Mill on the Floss where the heroine Maggie functions as a way of illustrating both beauty and ugliness. Maggie’s “unrefined” appearance as well as her beauty is furthermore highlighted through a strong comparison with other characters, which also is a significant aspect in the essay. The analysis is based on a critical approach informed by previous studies regarding the various aspects of female beauty.  

  • 1332.
    Becker, Wulf
    et al.
    National Food Administration, Uppsala.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    Department of Medical Sciences, Nutrition, Uppsala University.
    Gustafsson, Inga Britt
    Department of Culinary Art.
    Haraldsdóttir, Johanna
    Research Department of Human Nutrition, Royal Veterinary/Agricultural University, Copenhagen.
    Nydahl, Margaretha C.
    Department of Domestic Sciences, Uppsala University.
    Vessby, Bengt O. H.
    Unit for Clinical Nutrition Research, Department of Public Health Sciences, Uppsala University.
    Ytterfors, Arne
    Unit for Clinical Nutrition Research, Department of Public Health Sciences, Uppsala University.
    Precoded food records compared with weighed food records for measuring dietary habits in a population of Swedish adults1998In: Scandinavian Journal of Nutrition/Næringsforskning, ISSN 1102-6480, E-ISSN 1651-2359, Vol. 42, no 4, p. 145-149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a cross-over design, 82 women and men recorded their food intake by a precoded 7-day record book (PR) including both standard portions in household measures and photographs, and a weighed 7-day record (WR), respectively. Single 24-h urine samples, for determination of nitrogen excretion, were collected for 39 subjects during the WR period. Comparing the PR to the WR method, the mean intake of some foods, as cheese, was higher, and bread and vegetables lower. For energy and nutrients, the fat energy percent (E%) was higher, and protein E%, dietary fibre, iron, thiamin, folate, carotene and α-tocopherol were all lower. Protein intake registered by the PR method was 20% lower compared to 24-h urine samples, and 11% lower for the WR method. The results indicate that some of the standard portion sizes, used by the PR method, contributed to the observed differences in food and nutrient intakes. The subjects found it easier and less time-consuming to record their food intake with the PR than with the WR method. The time spent on processing data was reduced by 50% when using the PR method. The results of the study will be used for improvements in the design of the PR for use in large-scale dietary surveys for monitoring dietary habits.

  • 1333.
    Becker, Wulf
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap.
    Gustafsson, Inga-Britt
    Haraldsdottir, Johanna
    Nydahl, Margareta
    Vessby, Bengt
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap.
    Ytterfors, A
    Precoded or weighed food records for measuring dietary habits in a population of Swedish adults: I Food intake1996Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 1334.
    Beckley, Amber L.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Kardell, Johan
    Stockholms universitet.
    Sarnecki, Jerzy
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Criminology. Stockholms universitet.
    Immigration and crime in Sweden2015In: Routledge handbook on crime and international migration / [ed] Sharon Pickering and Julie Ham, Abingdon: Routledge, 2015, p. 41-54Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 1335.
    Beckman, Claes
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Center for RF-Measurement Technology2008In: Radio Science and Communication, RVK08, 2008Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    In February 2006 the Centre for RF Measurement Technology was established at the University of Gävle (HIG). The long term objectives of the centre are to establish world leading research in the area of RF Measurement Technology, support education of radio engineers for local, national and international radio companies at HIG, become a natural collaboration partner for leading industry companies and universities and to support local and national small and middle sized companies in the radio business.

    Today the centre has collaboration with more than 15 national and international companies within 3 major projects in the field of RF measurement technology research spanning from power amplifiers and antennas to electromagnetic interference in industrial environments.

    The annual research budget is in the area of 10 MSEK. In addition to the research projects the centre also supports education and collaboration with local industry, high schools and community.

    The centre is located easy to find, well equipped laboratories in Gävle Technology Park, next to the University of Gävle campus.

  • 1336.
    Beckman, Claes
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Verifying 3G License Coverage Requirements2011In: Advances in Vehicular Networking Technologies / [ed] Miguel Almeida, InTech , 2011, p. 339-356Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the beginning of the 21’st century, the 3rd generation mobile phone systems, 3G, were introduced all around the world. In most countries, spectrum for this technology was allocated through some kind of licensing procedure. In Europe, the prevailing approach was to allocatespectrum through auctions, a process which led to a situation where the European operators found themselves committed to pay a staggering 130Bilion Euros for their 3G licenses.However, in most European countries, the fee was not the only obligation put on thelicensee: A coverage, “roll-out” requirement was in many cases also connected to the license(Northstream, 2002). Typically, these coverage requirements required that the licenseescover a certain area at a certain point in time after that the licenses had been awarded.In order for the regulators to verify that the licensees had met the coverage requirement and,hence, complied with the regulation, a method for coverage verification was needed. Suchmethods have therefore since then been developed by several European regulators (e.g. PTS2004; ECC 2007). In this book chapter we describe some general underlying consideration for the verification of radio coverage in UMTS systems and in particular we describe the Swedishmethodology developed by the Swedish Telecom regulator Post & Telestyrelsen (PTS).

  • 1337.
    Beckman, Claes
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Belkow, Elena
    Eklund, Lars
    Landmark, Urban
    Wirdemark, Per
    Verifying 3G License Requirements: some Preliminary Swedish Results2008In: The 68th IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference: VTC2008-Fall, 2008, p. 1-4Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the year 2000, the Swedish Telecom regulator “Post&Telestyrelsen” (PTS) granted in a “beauty contest” four licenses for operation of 3G mobile networks. Through this process, the licensees committed themselves to cover 8.860.000 inhabitants of the Swedish population. In order to verify the coverage and confirm compliance with the license requirements, PTS, developed a test procedure in close collaboration with the licensees.

    The present paper gives an overview of the considerations behind the design of the test method and presents some preliminary results. Today all Swedish 3G operators comply with the licence requirement and it is concluded that a method for verifying the requirement accepted by the licensees is an important tool for successful licensing of spectrum and fulfilment of licensing obligations.

  • 1338.
    Beckman, Claes
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Eklund, Lars
    Karlsson, Bo
    Lindmark, Björn
    Ribbenfjärd, David
    Wirdemark, Per
    Verifying 3G licence requirements when every dB is worth a billion2006In: First European Conference on Antennas & Propagation: EuCAP 2006 / [ed] H. Lacoste & L. Ouwehand, 2006, p. 1-4Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the year 2000, the Swedish Telecom regulator: “Post&Telestyrelsen”, PTS, granted in a “beauty contest” four licenses for operations of 3G systems. To verify the coverage and the license requirements, PTS, has developed a test procedure where the field strength of the primary Common Pilot Channel, CPICH, is measured in a drive test. Designing such a test constitutes a number of challenges mainly due to the fact that in 3G the accuracy in the measurement needs to be extremely high since even a small systematic error of ~1dB could in Sweden have the consequence that each operator would have to build an extra +1000 sites at a staggering cost of ~1billion SEK!

    The present paper gives an overview of the considerations behind the design of the test method used for verification of the 3G licence requirements in Sweden.

  • 1339.
    Beckman, Claes
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Klahr, Stefan
    Ett ödesval för regionen2009In: Gefle Dagblad, Vol. 6 februariArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 1340.
    Beckman, Claes
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Lindmark, Björn
    Base station antennas for mobile communications2007In: 2007 IEEE International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation: Short Courses & Workshops, 2007Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This course gives the participants a general overview of the application, implementation and design of current and future base station antennas for mobile communications. It is aimed at microwave, RF- and antenna engineers in the wireless area, but also useful for researchers looking for relevant research topics and system engineers needing a deeper understanding of the antenna component of their system. The course explains underlying theoretical and practical implementation aspects of base station antennas in mobile communication networks of today and the future.

    The course is divided into three main parts:

    (i) System Aspects,

    (ii) BTS Antenna Design,

    (iii) Diversity and MIMO

    In the first part the fundamental parameters of a base station antenna are discussed in the context of radio network design. In particular we discuss parameters such as gain, radiation patterns, frequency bands and power handling and put them in the context of cell planning, propagation and capacity.

    In the second part a general overview of base station antenna design is given. In particular the design aspects of radiators, feed networks and reflectors are discussed. Furthermore, a general discussion of array synthesis for base station antennas is given.

    In the final part of the course we give an overview of the underlying theory of diversity and MIMO systems. In particular we discuss the requirements that these systems put on the base station antennas in order to be able to deliver the data rates expected from WiMAX and the long term evolution of 3G systems.

  • 1341.
    Beckman, Claes
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Lindmark, Björn
    The evolution of base station antennas for mobile communications2007In: International Conference on Electromagnetics in Advanced Applications: ICEAA 07, 2007Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    During the last two decades, mobile telephony has virtually exploded around the world. Whereas fixed telephony has merely around 800 milion phone lines globally, cellular mobile telephony has today close to 4 bilion subscribers less than 20 years after the introduction of digital mobile telephony!

    In the centre of a mobile cell is the base station antenna whose vertical and horizontal beam pattern creates the borders. The first base station antennas deployed for cellular communications were omni-directional in the horizontal plane. These antennas are typically based on stacked circular dipole elements fed by a series feed network. However, as the need for capacity increased more radio channels were being used and the radio networks soon reconfigured to 3 sector systems. The base station antennas in these type of systems typically has half power beam widths in the horizontal plane of around 65 degrees and the elements are fed by corporate feed networks.

    Through the choice of antenna length and the selection of vertical element positions and excitations a broad range of antenna gains and vertical beam patterns can be achieved. We show that for a linear array the gain is mainly determined by the vertical and horizontal beam widths but reduced by losses in the feed network. The electrical down tilt is needed to provide good coverage within the desired cell and is preferred to mechanical down tilt as it is independent of horizontal angle. Remotely adjustable electrical down tilt is also available today and an important cost saver during the expansion part of a network. As we will see, system requirements on reduced channel interferencemlead to a simple expression for the necessary phase shift in such an array.

    Due to the rapid increase in subscribers it was soon realized by the regulators around the world that one frequency band for digital mobile communications was not enough to provide the capacity needed. Therefore, in the mid 90-ties second frequency bands were introduced in both North America and Europe. Since operators are not keen to put up bigger towers and more antennas, ´this development called for dual-band antennas. The introduction of the UMTS band in the beginning of this millennium of course then called for triple band functionality!

    Traditionally the diversity is achieved by using two receive antenna branches separated in space. In mobile phone networks, all base stations for macro cellular communications incorporate diversity on the up-link. Otherwise it would be virtually impossible to communicate with a low power mobile over the rapidly fading channel. Since space diversity uses two horizontally separate antennas positioned about 20 wavelengths apart it become soon of interest for the operators to incorporate polarization diversity. With polarization diversity only one dual polarized antenna is used for each sector at the base. In order to ensure good polarization diversity it is necessary and sufficient to have symmetrical patterns with equal power in horizontal and vertical polarization.

    In 3G it is of great interest to strengthen the up- and down-links in order to be able to increase the data rates from today’s 16kbit/s (voice) to a wireless broadband of around 10Mbits/s. However, in the Long Term Evolution of 3G, LTE, data rates of up to and around 100MBits/s are expected. In order accomplish this diversity at the base station will not be enough but complemented by multiple branch reception and transmission at both the base station and the mobile terminal (Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output, MIMO systems). For such arrays it is of interest to reduce the mutual coupling between elements. Although the mutual coupling could be compensated for by perfect channel estimation it is still of interest to reduce the coupling in practice in order to be able to handle the mismatch loss. In order to do so the use of e.g. corrugations, hard and soft surfaces as well as Electronic Band Gap, EBG materials for the inclusion into the antenna structure has been studied.

    In conclusion we find that the base station antenna has developed dramatically during the last two decades and base station antenna technology may become a key enabler for the Long Term Evolution of 3G.

  • 1342.
    Beckman, Claes
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Smith, Gregory
    Shared Networks: Making Wireless Communications Affordable2005In: IEEE wireless communications, ISSN 1536-1284, E-ISSN 1558-0687, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 78-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the wake of the substantial financial commitments incurred by European and other UMTS network operators in the form of licence fees, licensees have turned to network sharing as a means of reducing the capital requirements needed to bring 3G services to market. The reception from European regulators has been mixed, due to concerns that this inhibits competition, slow buildout, or otherwise result in reduced consumer benefits. The authors believe that the generic product life cycle model provides insights that indicate that network sharing, within an appropriately constructed regulatory framework, is not a threat to vigorous competition in the 3G industry, and in fact is one of the keys to stimulating the development of advanced, ubiquitous, affordable services.

  • 1343.
    Beckman, Claes
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Smith, Gregory
    Shared Networks: More than making wireless communication affordable2005In: Vehicular Technology Conference, 2005: VTC 2005-Spring., 2005, p. 2984-2988Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the wake of the substantial financial commitments incurred by European and other UMTS network operators in the form of license fees, licensees have turned to network sharing as a means of reducing the capital requirements needed to bring 3G services to market. The reception from European regulators has been mixed, due to concerns that this inhibits competition, slow build-out, or otherwise result in reduced consumer benefits. The authors believe that the generic product life-cycle model provides insights that indicate that network sharing, within an appropriately constructed regulatory framework, is not a threat to vigorous competition in the 3G industry, and in fact, is one of the keys to stimulating the development of advanced, ubiquitous, affordable services.

  • 1344.
    Beckman, Claes
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Smith, Gregory
    The Benefits of network Sharing2005In: Radiovetenskap och Kommunikation: RVK 2005, 2005, p. 147-151Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 1345.
    Beckmann, Linda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Chefsrekryteringens betydelse för arbetsmotivation och grupptänkande2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 1346.
    Bedikanli, Gülten
    University of Gävle, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för kultur- och religionsvetenskap.
    Två folk och ett land: judarnas invandring till Palestina och uppkomsten av Israel-Palestinakonflikten2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Mitt syfte med detta arbete är att undersöka judarnas invandring till Palestina och konflikten som har uppstått mellan Israel och Palestina. Det är en konflikt som har visat sig vara extremt svårlöst och komplex. Israel-Palestinakonflikten innebär att det är två folk och ett land. Båda vill ha marken och gör anspråk på den. Judarna hänvisar till Bibeln och tycker att de har rätt till landet för att Gud utlovat landet till dem, medan palestinierna hänvisar till att de har bott i detta land långt före judarna. Idag har judarna ett eget land, Israel. Israel skapades av de judar som invandrade till Palestina.

    Jag försökte ge svar på tre frågor och jag tycker att det är viktigt att ge läsaren en uppfattning om de viktiga bakgrundsfaktorer som orsakade den svårlösta konflikten mellan Israel och Palestina. I första frågan försökte jag ge svar på om den sionistiska rörelsens uppkomst på 1800-talet och de första idéerna att skapa ett judiskt nationellt hem. Sedan beskrev jag sionisternas desperata kamp för att få de dåvarande stormakternas stöd för att bilda det nationella hemmet i Palestina. Resultatet av sionisternas kamp om att övertyga stormakterna lyckades 1917 när britterna skriver under Balfourdeklarationen. Denna innehåller den brittiska regeringens stöd till judarna att etablera ett hem i Palestina och samtidigt ger britterna löfte till araberna om ett självständigt styre i Palestina (britterna höll aldrig sitt löfte till araberna och självständigheten blir en dröm för palestinier).

    I andra frågan beskrev jag de viktiga aktörernas roll i Israel-Palestinakonflikten och deras stöd till judarna när FN presenterade sin delningsplan och efter att staten Israel grundades 1948. FN:s delningsplan var en av de viktigaste orsakerna till konflikten mellan Israel och Palestina, eftersom judarna fick behålla mer än hälften av Palestina efter delningen. Araberna avvisade delningsplanen och tyckte att delningsplanen var orättvis. Trots FN:s orättvisa delningsplan och arabernas reaktion mot delningsplanen, utropade judarna staten Israels självständighet år 1948. Strax efter att Israel utropat sin självständighet, förklarade flera arabstater krig mot Israel medan USA, Sovjetunionen, Frankrike och Storbritannien erkände staten Israel.

    I den tredje frågan försökte jag beskriva några av de viktiga krig som uppstått mellan Israel och arabstaterna. Dessa krig orsakade också att denna konflikt blev ännu värre och mer svårlöst. Efter att Israel utropat sin självständighet, tills idag, har en rad olika krig ägt rum mellan arabstater och Israel. Sexdagarskriget, oktoberkriget, första och andra intifadan är bara några av dessa krig. Anledningen till alla dessa krig för araberna var att återfå sina förlorade områden från Israel. Under denna konflikt uppstod det många arabiska och judiska nationalistiska grupper.

    Idag ockuperar judarna den största delen av Palestina. Förutom Egypten och Jordanien erkänner inga arabländer staten Israel. Palestina kämpar fortfarande för att återfå sina ockuperade områden från Israel. Israel-Palestinakonflikten fortsätter och hittills har man inte hittat någon lösning på den välkända konflikten.

  • 1347. Beernaert, Kim
    et al.
    Kreicbergs, Ulrika
    Furst, Carl Johan
    Nyberg, Tommy
    Steineck, Gunnar
    Bylund-Grenklo, Tove
    Karolinska institutet.
    Distrust in the End-of-Life Care Provided to a Parent and Long-Term Negative Outcomes Among Bereaved Adolescents: A Population-Based Survey Study2017In: Journal of Clinical Oncology, ISSN 0732-183X, E-ISSN 1527-7755, Vol. 35, no 27, p. 3136-3142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose Previous research shows that the death of a parent places children at risk for a number of negative outcomes. The role of trust in health care at the end of life has been acknowledged as crucial for patients and adult family members. However, the consequences of children's distrust in the care provided to their parents remain unknown. Therefore, we investigated the negative long-term outcomes of cancer-bereaved sons' and daughters' distrust in the care that was provided to a dying parent. Methods We used a population-based nationwide survey to investigate self-reported distrust in the care provided and possible negative outcomes in 622 (73%) participants who had lost a parent as a result of cancer 6 to 9 years earlier, at ages 13 to 16 years. All participants were 18 years or older at the time of the survey. Results In those who reported no or little trust (ie, distrust) in the health care provided to their dying parents, we found statistically significantly higher risks of various negative outcomes at the time of survey: bitterness toward health care professionals for not having done everything that was possible (crude risk ratio [RR], 3.5; 95% CI, 2.3 to 5.1) and for having stopped treatment (RR, 3.4; 95% CI, 2.1 to 6.0), self-destructiveness (eg, self-injury [RR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.2 to 2.4]), and psychological problems (eg, moderate to severe depression according to the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 [RR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.5 to 3.5]). Conclusion In cancer-bereaved former adolescents, distrust in the health care provided to the dying parent is associated with a higher risk of negative long-term outcomes. The health care professionals involved in this care might play an important role in safeguarding the trust of adolescents.

  • 1348.
    Begovic Jönsson, Nina
    Göteborgs universitet, Institutionen för svenska språket.
    "Ursäkta vad betyder fråga?": formbaserad sfi-undervisning för vuxna med kort eller ingen utbildningsbakgrund2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie har en kommunikationsetnografisk ansats med samtalsanalytiska inslag, med syftet att beskriva den interaktionspraxis som förekommer vid klassrumsinteraktion i undervisningen av vuxna andraspråksinlärare med ingen eller kort utbildningsbakgrund. Utifrån ett ekologiskt perspektiv på språk och lärande undersöker denna studie de lektionsaktiviteter som förekommer i undervisningen och den språkanvändning som dessa ger upphov till. I studien genomfördes klassrumsobservationer och ljudinspelningar av samtal. Observationerna analyserades med hjälp av ett COLT-schema vars syfte är att få syn på hur pass kommunikativt orienterad en andraspråksundervisning är. Studien visar att den undervisning som erbjuds vuxna andraspråksinlärare med ingen eller kort utbildningsbakgrund i det undersökta klassrummet, i hög utsträckning är lärarstyrd, präglas av formbaserad språkanvändning och utgår från ett begränsat temainnehåll som inte inkluderar deltagarnas erfarenheter. Dessutom visar studien att skriften används som ett krav för att kunna delta i muntliga lektionsaktivteter där läraren förväntar sig att eleverna ska använda de ledtrådar som skriften ger i sin språkanvändning. Studien visar också att lärare som undervisar denna målgrupp upplever frustration i och med att skriften inte kan användas som ett redskap för inlärning.

  • 1349.
    Begovic, Nina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies.
    A study of communicative strategies in upper-secondary school2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigates communicative strategies used by a group of four upper-secondary L2 learners of English. To be able to reach this goal, I have recorded and transcribed a conversation between these students in order to detect natural communication. The communicative strategies I have looked for were: pauses and hesitations, questions, code-switching and message abandonment.

    Previous research on communicative strategies is divided into two different fields. These two approaches define and classify communication strategies as either interactional or psycholinguistic.  The definition and classification of communicate strategies depends viz. on what kind of approach is used. 

  • 1350.
    Begovic, Nina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    Språkanvändning hos en grupp gymnasieelever: kodväxling som ett kommunikativt redskap2013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigates the use and appearance of code-switching as a communicative strategy used by a group of upper secondary students in Sweden. A total of six students participated in this study in which three of them have Swedish as a first language and three students have Swedish as a second language. All students were sound and video recorded while speaking English together (without my presence or interference). The recordings were analyzed using a revised conversational analysis (Norrby 2004) in order to detect the appearance of and function for code-switching. The present study shows that the occurrence of code-switching does not contribute to breakdown in communication. The reason for why the communication did not break down is based on the fact that the code-switched language is Swedish, which all the contestants comprehend to various degrees, and because the participants were not aiming at pointing out each other’s mistakes (Gröning 2004). Code-switching is used for various different functions which all contribute to keeping the conversation going in order to maintain the interactional goal. This study also indicates that there is a connection between where the code-switched element occurs in the utterance and function for code-switching.

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