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  • 1301.
    Åhrlin, Sofie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Ekqvist, Anna-Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    HIV/AIDS: Kunskap och attityder hos sjuksköterskor2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To describe nurses knowledge and attitudes towards patients who are living with HIV or AIDS and to describe potential differences in knowledge and attitudes between younger and older nurses. Method: The present empirical study had a quantitative approach with a descriptive comparative design. The sampling method was a convenience sample in which a total of 63 nurses participated and questionnaires were sent to nine divisions in three different hospitals. Results: The majority of the nurses had good knowledge of HIV and AIDS, positive attitudes and a willingness to care for this group of patients. Some of the nurses, however, expressed a fear of contracting HIV, a need for more education and negative attitudes towards specific groups with the disease. There was a significant difference in attitudes between age groups, the younger nurses had a more positive attitude than the older nurses. Conclusion: Although the nurses had good knowledge, positive attitudes and a willingness to care for this group of patients, there was a fear of contracting HIV and therefore more education about HIV and AIDS is needed for nurses. Younger nurses had more positive attitudes than older nurses. Further research is also needed since just a few studies illustrate this in Sweden.

  • 1302.
    Ångström, Marie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Lööf Lindqvist, Emanuel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Omvårdnadsåtgärder sjuksköterskan kan vidta i arbetet för att förebygga trycksår: en beskrivande litteraturstudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Pressure sores occur as a complication of care, treatment and disease where these can occur already after 60 minutes. The incidence of pressure ulcers in 2016 at 13.4% averaged over the whole of Sweden, as compared to 2015 is a reduction of only 0.2%.

    Aim: To describe the nursing care nurse can take in their work to prevent pressure sores and to report the selection method used in the selected articles.

    Method: Literature study with descriptive design that was based on thirteen articles from the databases CINAHL and Pubmed.

    Findings: The result of the above literature led four different themes: 1) Risk Assessment: By making a risk assessment of patients within 24 hours of hospitalization the risk of pressure sores was reduced. 2) Location Changes: Location Changes to the patients every two hours showed that the incidence of pressure ulcers decreased. Further, it has been shown that positions lying at 30 degrees is the method that provides the best output. 3) Pressure relief: Use of different pressure relieving agents have shown to reduce pressure sores in patients. The best method seen from differences in the control and intervention groups for pressure relief in this study is the use of a silicon border. 4) Collection of preventive care measures: The use of different protocols with several different care methods to reduce the occurrence of pressure sores have shown the best effect. Methodological aspect: 11 of the articles had a clear description of the sampling method, with the remaining two items missing description of how the selection had been made.

    Conclusion: The present literature review has shown that the above themes can be used by nurses in their daily work to reduce the risk of pressure ulcers in patients.

  • 1303.
    Åsblom, Lena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Distriktssköterskors och sjuksköterskors reflektioner av arbete med telefonrådgivning i primärvården: En intervjustudie2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of the study was to describe the district nurse's and nurse's reflections on work in telephonenursing in primary care. Background: Telephonenursing today represents a major part of nurses' work in primary care. The classical patient visit has in part been replaced by telephonenursing, where nurses are expected to have broad medical and social skills, as well as educational skills. Working in telephonenursing can be complicated, challenging and stimulating. Method: The study used a qualitative approach with descriptive design. Nine telephone nurses from primary care participated in the study and were interviewed January-May 2017. Result: The results in this study showed that telephonenursing was experienced as stressful, demanding and complex with limited control capabilities. Timepressure at work, resource shortage in health care and disturbed work environment felt as strenuous circumstances that could lead to stress. Telephonenursing was also described as fun, varied, satisfying, evolving and problem solving was a prominent feature. Good conversations with patients, as well as support at work were described as important factors. Conclusion: The nurses in this study experienced that work in telephonenursing was complexed with high demands and strains. However, it was also a fun, varied and satisfying work. Continuous education and slightly reduced demands can lead to an improved work situation, where the risk of impaired health for nurses can be reduced and patient safety can be strengthened.

  • 1304.
    Åslund, Sofie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Vallin Isaksen, Linda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    En litteraturstudie om patienters erfarenheter av vården i samband med ECT2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 1305.
    Åström, Ida
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Wiklund, Elin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Orsaker och preventiva åtgärder gällande fallolyckor hos äldre personer boende på vårdhem: En litteraturstudie2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med föreliggande litteraturstudie var att beskriva vad som orsakar fallolyckor hos äldre inom vårdhem, beskriva preventionsåtgärder samt att granska de urvalsmetoder som de granskade artiklarna använde sig av.Metod: Artiklar söktes i databaserna PubMed, Medline samt Cinahl med publiceringsbegränsning mellan år 2008-2013. Totalt 16 artiklar inkluderades.                 Resultat: Föreliggande litteraturstudies resultat delades upp i två huvudkategorier med sex underrubriker varav fyra berörde orsaker till fallolyckor och två behandlade preventionsåtgärder. 1) Individuella faktorer; flera individuella faktorer såsom ålder, ostabil gång samt medicinsk bakgrund visade sig orsaka fallolyckor hos äldre boende på vårdhem. 2) Fysisk vårdmiljö; många aspekter av vårdhemmets miljö orsakade fallolyckor hos äldre boende på vårdhem, exempel på dessa aspekter var rummens utformning samt inredning. 3) Hjälpmedel; ett samband påvisades mellan fallolyckor och hjälpmedlet rullstol där antalet fallolyckor ökade vid användandet av rullstolar. Användandet av fysiska begränsningsåtgärder visade sig ha olika effekt på antalet fallolyckor. 4) Läkemedel; medicinering med centralverkande läkemedel orsakade en ökad risk att drabbas av fallolyckor medan icke-centralverkande läkemedel inte visades orsaka fallolyckor. 5) Fysiska preventionsåtgärder; interventionsprogram med fysiska preventionsåtgärder visade sig ha olika effekt på antalet fallolyckor. Det visade sig att olika undergrupper påverkades olika av preventionsåtgärder. 6) Preventionsåtgärder genom vårdpersonal; preventionsåtgärder genom vårdpersonal visade sig inte ha någon effekt på antalet fallolyckor. Metodologisk aspekt gällande urvalsmetod; av de granskade artiklarna framgick en tydlig beskrivning av urvalsmetod i åtta artiklar, i två artiklar beskrevs urvalsmetoden men ej utförligt och sex artiklar saknade helt beskrivning av urvalsmetod.Slutsats: Fallolyckor är ett världsomspännande folkhälsoproblem och förekomsten är stor hos äldre boende på vårdhem. Föreliggande litteraturstudie visade att ett flertal orsaker till fallolyckor hos äldre boende på vårdhem och fallolyckspreventionsåtgärder var belagt i vetenskapliga studier men att mer forskning krävs för att stärka bevisvärdet samt att förbättra preventionsarbetet. För att minska antalet fallolyckor hos äldre boende på vårdhem krävs det att sjuksköterskan ser till individen och arbetar förebyggande samt utvärderar de handlingar som utförs.  

  • 1306.
    Ödlund, Cecilia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Berg, Lotta
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Omvårdnad vid höftfraktur2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund:

    Patienter med höftfraktur blir allt fler i takt med att medelåldern ökar. Det är en stor och resurskrävande patientgrupp. De har under en längre tid varit underprioriterade vilket har resulterat i långa väntetider till operation.

    Syfte:

    Syftet var att beskriva om det fanns några fördelar att arbeta med höftspår vid höftfrakturer samt att beskriva urvalet av de använda vetenskapliga artiklarna.

    Metod:

    Deskriptiv litteraturstudie med tretton vetenskapliga artiklar med kvalitativ och kvantitativ ansats. Likheter och olikheter i artiklarnas resultat har kategoriserats och sammanställts till fem olika teman.

    Huvudresultat:

    Resultatet visade att det fanns fördelar med att arbeta med omhändertagande via höftspår, detta resulterade i kortare väntetid till operation samt färre komplikationer. Dessa patienter som omhändertogs via höftspår hade även en kortare vårdtid. Risken för mortalitet påverkades inte nämnvärt vid höftspår kontra konventionell vård vid höftfraktur.

    Slutsats:

    I kategorien förkortad tid till operation samt kortare vårdtid kan man se stora positiva skillnader efter införandet av höftspår, i minskade postoperativa komplikationer en viss förbättring. I kategorin minskad risk för dödlighet ses ingen statistisktsignifikant skillnad. Riktlinjerna kring detta höftspår har påverkat omvårdnaden i en positiv riktning. Dessa patienter omhändertas nu med en snabbare och bättre rutin. Det har inte upptäckts några nackdelar med att arbeta med höftspår.

  • 1307.
    Öhman, Louisa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Hur sjuksköterskor kan bidra till följsamhet av basala hygienrutiner inom kommunal vård och omsorg2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Basic hygiene is an important measure to prevent healthcare associated infections, save patients’ lives, and reduce economic costs for health care. Healthcare associated infections are a threat to patient safety. In community care persons who are the care takers are a risk group and nurses must make sure that basic hygiene procedures are followed.

    Method: Literature studies with descriptive design, article search in databases Cinahl and PubMed. The results found are based on twelve chosen articles.

    Aim: To describe factors related to adherence to basic hygiene and how nurses in community care can help to improve compliance with these procedures.

    Results: In the nursing staff and leadership in health care interest in and the understanding of basic hygiene is described as being of most importance. Lack of knowledge of the meaning of patient care cleanliness, negative attitudes and non-existing availability of necessary tools and heavy workload had a negative impact. Intensified education and making sure that equipment is available as well as the application of standardized methods, were found to be prerequisite for adherence to basic hygiene routines.

    Conclusion: Nurses can contribute to improved adherence to basic hygiene routines by promoting education, positive attitudes, a positive adaption of the physical environment, strategic structuring of the workload, and standardized methods, applying basic hygiene routines, being part of and promoting increased interaction in nursing care. Suggestions for future studies is to implement web-based courses, updating courses and training in basic hygiene routines in the workplace. That may increase knowledge, understanding and awareness of the application of basic hygiene routines hence leading to improved nursing care and enhancing patient safety.

  • 1308.
    Öhman, Michaela
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Östergrens, Lisa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Sjuksköterskors upplevelser av att möta patienter med psykossjukdom inom den somatiska vården: En beskrivande litteraturstudie2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Every year approximately 2000 people in Sweden fall ill to some kind of psychotic disorder. Psychotic disorders are often associated with prejudice and stigma. Research has shown a connection between the expected external stigma, internal stigma and the recovery of patients with a psychotic disorder. It has also been described that patients with a psychotic disorder has received insufficient care due to their psychiatric illness.    

    Aim: The aim of this study was to describe how nurses experience the encounter with patients that are suffering from a psychotic disorder within the somatic inpatient and outpatient care.

    Method: A descriptive literature study based on 5 qualitative and 5 quantitative scientific articles. The databases that was used to obtain articles was PubMed and Cinahl.   

    Main result: It appeared that there is a substantial lack of knowledge regarding psychotic disorders within the somatic care. Nurses often experienced feelings of fear, tension and insecurity, which made the encounter with these patients problematic. Limitations such as time constraints contributed to unfavourable conditions in the care of patients with a psychotic disorder.   

    Conclusion: Stigma, lack of knowledge and deficiencies in the care environment could make the care that patients with a psychotic disorder receive inadequate. Therefore, it is important that nurses in the somatic inpatient and outpatient care become aware of their own preconceptions and attitudes towards these patients, and that nurses get access to additional knowledge on this topic. The somatic units should also try to make improvements in the care environment.

  • 1309.
    Öholm-Lundahl, Helen
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Mählqvist, Evalena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Patienters upplevelser av intravenös jämfört med nasal smärtlindring inom ambulanssjukvården i Stockholm: En empirisk studie2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A common symptom of ambulance care is pain, which can often exacerbate the pain already experienced by the patient, as the necessary movements are carried out by the crew to the stern and ambulance. It is the nurses in the ambulance crew who assess whether pain relief is required urgently or not during transport to hospitals.   Objective: The purpose of this study was to study patient´s experiences of intranasal (i.n) pain relief compared to intravenous (i.v) pain relief within the ambulance service in Stockholm area.    Method: The study is an empirical study with a descriptive design.   Main results: The study showed that the only significant difference in the area where the experience of anxiety and/or fear was measured in connection with i. n versus i. v. pain relief method. It was more that experienced a negative aspect in the form of anxiety and or fear in the group that received in n pain relief. No other significant differences in the experience of pain relief, satisfaction of neither the ring's power, the way to obtain the medicine or experience side effects was demonstrated. A comparison of the reported showed that the most common side effect was nausea, and it was most common in the group that received in n pain relief.   Conclusion: Based on this result, one can question whether the mode of administration is crucial for the effect and experience of positive or negative aspects of pain management. 

  • 1310.
    Öman-Olsson, Linn
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Gunnarsson, Anneli
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskans stöd till en hälsosam förändring för överviktiga barn och deras familjer2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this literature review was to describe how the nurse can support overweight children and their families and to describe what support these children and their families request from the nurse in order to make a healthy change. Furthermore the intent is to review the included articles quality regarding the data collection method.

    Method: A systematic research in the databases Cinahl and Academic Search Elite was used to find the articles. The systematic research lead to 11 articles that was included in this study.

    Result: Children suffering from overweight and their parents wish to get an increased support from the health care through in example individual programs for the entire family. The nurse can use a neutral language and the growth chart in order to make the families observe the overweight of the children. Another good method for the nurse to use is motivational interviewing. Different intervention programs have been produced to support overweight children and their parents and are a good way to highlight the living habits and to make an individual plan for the families. The data collection method is explicitly described in all of the 11 included articles.

    Conclusion: The present literature review shows that overweight children and their families want more support from nurses and healthcare. Nurses need more education to be able to pay attention to the kids and parents on the issue. By developing and strengthening the procedures and tools that have been developed, the nurse may be strengthened in their professional role in efforts to support overweight children and their parents.

  • 1311.
    Österberg, Jenny
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Söderström, Hanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Att vara anhörig till en demenssjuk person: en litteraturstudie som belyser livssituationen ur ett anhörigperspektiv2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: to examine the effects on the lives of people who are related to someone with dementia.

    Method: A literature review with descriptive design. The study was based on 13 articles collected in the databases PubMed and Cinahl.

    Result: The results showed a marked change in the lives of those related to a person diagnosed with dementia, and the life situation was affected in multiple ways. The type of relationship the relative and the ill person had before the disease could in some instances affect how the relative experienced the situation. The results demonstrated emotions like isolation, anger, powerlessness, as well as loss and guilt. In dealing with the role as caregiver factors like having a positive attitude and a good support system was mentioned. Very often the relatives would maintain their roles as caregivers as long as possible, but when the situation became untenable, the move to assisted living was inevitable.

    Conclusion: The results of the study showed that the overall impact on the lives of relatives of people diagnosed with dementia was negative. There is some research on how the lives of relatives of people with dementia are affected, but in order for nurses to give the best support possible, there is a need for even more research and publications on this topic.

  • 1312.
    Österberg, John
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Rahim, Namir
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    En beskrivning av hur personer med diabetes typ 2 upplever att genomgå livsstilsförändringar till följd av sjukdomen2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Diabetes är en av de sjukdomar som är mest växande globalt. I Sverige är det över 400 000 människor som lever med diabetes. Diabetessjukdomen finns i olika former och de vanligaste formerna är diabetes typ 1 och diabetes typ 2. Risken att bli drabbad av den sjukdomen ökar vid fetma, tobaks- och alkoholkonsumtion. Därför kan det bli nödvändigt att genomföra livsstilsförändring för att förbättra den mentala och fysiska hälsan hos personer som lever med diabetes typ 2.

     

    Syfte: Syftet med denna studie var att beskriva hur personer med diabetes typ 2 upplever att genomgå livsstilsförändringar till följd av sjukdomen. Syftet var också att beskriva datainsamlingsmetoderna i de inkluderade artiklarna i resultatet.

     

    Metod: En litteraturstudie med en deskriptiv design som baserades på 14 kvalitativa vetenskapliga artiklar.

     

    Huvudresultat: Resultatet för denna litteraturstudie baserades på möjligheter och svårigheter som påverkade upplevelsen av att genomgå livsstilsförändringar hos personer med diabetes typ 2. Utifrån möjligheter har fyra subteman identifierat: Kost och motion som motivationsfaktorer, erhållen kunskap, betydelsen av stöd från omgivningen och att ta personligt ansvar. I huvudteman svårigheter presenterades dessa subteman: Kost- och motions påverkan på det sociala och vardagliga livet, brist på kunskap samt krav och inre kamp.

     

    Slutsats: Flera personer fick blandade känslor utifrån upplevda möjligheter och svårigheter som de har stött på under livsstilsförändringen. Det blir viktigt att sjukvårdspersonal får en bättre helhetsförståelse kring patienters olika upplevelser av att genomgå en livsstilsförändring för att kunna optimera en personcentrerad vård, egenvårdsinsatser och tillgodose patienters egenvårdsbehov.

  • 1313.
    Östergårds, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Aburweileh, Hossam
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Vuxna patienters upplevelser av den palliativa vården i hemmet2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Every year, about 90 000 people in Sweden die and most of them are in need of palliative care. The individual should as far as possible be able to decide if he or she wants to die at home or in hospice care. Historically, palliative care was meant to treat people with cancer but has gradually evolved to treat several types of disorders.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe how adults perceive palliative care in their home, as well as to study the selected articles data collection method.

    Method: The present study has a descriptive design. The study results are based on eleven scientific articles, ten with qualitative approach, and one with a mixed approach. All articles were reviewed by both authors and color marked depending on the content. The articles were identified through databases CINAHL and Pubmed.

    Main Results: The palliative care at home was perceived largely as positive among patients. It was highly valued having their relatives close and to reside in their familiar home environment at the end of life. It also emerged that the palliative patients were concerned about being a burden to their families. By having paramedics in their home as well as support from relatives they were given the opportunity to be able to handle everyday activities on their own, which turned out to generate quality of life. Dignity of the palliative patients was described by the concepts of integrity, well-being and self-determination. Good communication and continuity was seen as important factors for the patients.

    Conclusion: Palliative patients who received care at home looked largely positive about the care they received. They felt that the cooperation between health care and their families was essential for safe care in their home. These patients' desire to be cared for and die at home should be a priority as it will lead to increased quality of life. Results of this study gives a clear indication of development areas in palliative care.

  • 1314.
    Östgård, Kristina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Vårdpersonalens upplevelser av att vårda personer med Beteendemässiga och Psykiska Symtom vid Demens (BPSD)2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    More and more people suffer from dementia and a large part of these is affected by some point of one or several behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). BPSD creates great suffering for the affected but can also be difficult for the people around them to manage, relatives and health professionals, and is a big reason that a person moves in to a nursing facility. The aim of this study was to describe health professional’s experience of caring for persons with behavioral and psychological symptoms in dementia, BPSD. The study had a descriptive design with qualitative approach. Data were collected through six individual semi-structured interviews. By convenience sampling, nursing assistant working at a nursing facility for people with dementia in Sweden were recruited. Data were analyzed by qualitative content analysis. A theme emerged, “Difficulties to find a balance between need and resource”. The informants experienced their work in caring for people with BPSD as a great challenge but also as very awarding. The feeling of being inadequate, lacking knowledge or ability to handle certain situations or symptoms and lack of resources perceived as stressful by the informants. Aggressiveness and anxiety in individuals with BPSD were experienced as the most difficult to handle. The results also showed that the informants experienced working with persons with BPSD as exiting, interesting and fun and that they felt satisfaction in being there for the person with BPSD and to be able to contribute to their well-being. The conclusion in this study shows that informants experienced great challenges in their work to create wellbeing for people with BPSD. Support and education could increase the job satisfaction for the health personnel but also increase the quality of life for people with BPSD.

  • 1315.
    Östlin, Kajsa
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Jansson, Sara
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Vuxna personers erfarenheter av att leva med diabetes mellitus typ 2: En litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Antal fall av diabetes mellitus typ 2 ökar i Sverige samt över hela världen. Okunskap om hur sjukdomen utvecklas och hanteras kan leda till komplikationer och andra sjukdomar.

    Syfte: Syftet med litteraturstudien var att beskriva vuxna personers erfarenheter av att leva med diabetes mellitus typ 2, samt att beskriva de inkluderade artiklarnas datainsamlingsmetod.

    Metod: Litteraturstudien har deskriptiv design. Studien inkluderar 12 kvalitativa artiklar funna i databaserna PubMed och Cinahl.

    Huvudresultat: I analysen av artiklarna framkom kategorier som besvarade vuxna personers erfarenheter av att leva med diabetes mellitus typ 2. Kategorierna var: Erfarenheter av att ha diagnostiseras med diabetes typ 2, Vuxna personers erfarenheter av kontroll och behandling av diabetes typ 2, Erfarenheter av kostförändringar i samband med diabetes typ 2 hos vuxna personer, Erfarenheter av sociala sammanhang hos vuxna personer med diabetes typ 2 och Erfarenheter och hanteringssätt att leva med sin diabetes typ 2. Resultatet reflekterar positiva och negativa erfarenheter i det vardagliga livet i hos personer med diabetes mellitus typ 2.

    Slutsater: Att få diabetes mellitus typ 2 medförde många olika känslor hos flera informanter. Diabetes påverkade vardagliga livet och krävde förändringar i den drabbades liv. Flera informanter erfor frustation över vården och många erfor stöd från familj och vänner. Rädsla för att drabbas av komplikationer till följd av sin sjukdom och inte få se sina barn växa upp gav motivation till att ta hand om sin sjukdom. 

  • 1316.
    Östlin, Nurtena
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Rasoulzadeh, Arezou
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Livskvalitet och copingstrategier hos ungdomar med cancer: : En litteraturstudie2011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 1317.
    Östlund, Ann-Sofi
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Uppsala universitet.
    Motivational Interviewing in Primary Care: Nurses' experiences and actual use of the method2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The overall aim of the present thesis was to describe and examine primary care nurses´ self-reports on training, use and performance as well as experiences and actual performance of MI.

    Method: One qualitative and three quantitative studies were conducted among primary care nurses. A study-specific questionnaire was sent to 980 primary care nurses and 673 (69%) responded (Study I). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 MI trained primary care nurses (Study II). MI sessions between 12 (Study III) respective 23 (Study IV) primary care nurses and patients (total 32 respective 50 sessions) were audio-recorded. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis, Motivational Interviewing Integrity Code, Motivational Interviewing Sequential Code for Observing Process Exchanges and statistical analysis.

    Results: The findings showed that primary care nurses reported and experienced lack of training in MI and lack of prerequisites for using MI (Study I-II), while training, knowledge, prerequisites and time were associated with use of MI. They also reported and experienced that MI facilitated their work with patients (Study I-II) as well as elicited their own ability to motivate and be empathetic (Study II). About half of the primary care nurses reported that they used MI (Study I), and none of the nurses (Study III) achieved the approved skill levels in MI in their recorded sessions. They overestimated their performance on six of eight aspects of MI (Study III). The most frequently used nurse talk in the recorded sessions was neutral, which is not consistent with MI. Questions and reflections directed toward change were most likely to be followed by change talk among patients (Study IV).

    Conclusions: Self-reported knowledge about MI and personal as well as workplace prerequisites for using it were associated with self-reported use of MI. Participating nurses´ experienced that MI requires openness, practice, support, feedback and willingness. The participating primary care nurses did not achieve approved levels of MI skills in their recorded MI sessions. Patients´ change talk is more likely to occur after open questions, complex reflections as well as after questions and reflections directed toward change.

  • 1318.
    Östlund, Ann-Sofi
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala universitet.
    Kristofferzon, Marja-Leena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala universitet.
    Häggström, Elisabeth
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala universitet.
    Wadensten, Barbro
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala universitet.
    Primary care nurses' performance in motivational interviewing: a quantitative descriptive study2015In: BMC Family Practice, ISSN 1471-2296, E-ISSN 1471-2296, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 89-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Motivational interviewing is a collaborative conversational style intended to strengthen motivation to change. It has been shown to be effective in addressing many different lifestyle problems as well as in chronic disease management, and many disease prevention guidelines promote use of motivational interviewing. The aim of the present study was twofold: to assess to what extent the primary care nurses in the study perform motivational interviewing according to the Motivational Interviewing Treatment Integrity Code and to investigate how the participating primary care nurses rated their own performance in motivational interviewing.

    Method: The study was based on twelve primary care nurses’ audio-recorded motivational interviewing sessions with patients (total 32 sessions). After each session, the nurses completed a questionnaire regarding their experience of their own performance in motivational interviewing. The audio-recorded sessions were analyzed using Motivational Interviewing Integrity Code 3.1.1.

    Results: None of the nurses achieved beginning proficiency in all parts of any motivational interviewing sessions and two nurses did not achieve beginning proficiency in any parts or sessions. Making more complex than simple reflections was the specific verbal behavior/summary score that most nurses achieved. Beginning proficiency/competency in “percent open questions” was the summary score that fewest achieved.

    Conclusion: Primary care nurses did not achieve beginning proficiency/competency in all aspects of motivational interviewing in their recorded sessions with patients, where lifestyle change was discussed. This indicates a need for improvement and thus additional training, feedback and supervision in clinical practice with motivational interviewing.

  • 1319.
    Östlund, Ann-Sofi
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala universitet.
    Wadensten, Barbro
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala universitet.
    Häggström, Elisabeth
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Kristofferzon, Marja-Leena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    District nurses' and registered nurses' training in and use of motivational interviewing in primary care settings2014In: Journal of Clinical Nursing, ISSN 0962-1067, E-ISSN 1365-2702, Vol. 23, no 15-16, p. 2284-2294Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims and objectives

    To examine to what extent district nurses and registered nurses have training in motivational interviewing, to what extent they use it and what prerequisites they have for using it; to compare district nurses and registered nurses, as well as to compare users and nonusers of motivational interviewing; and to examine possible relationships between use of motivational interviewing and the variables training, supervision and feedback in motivational interviewing and prerequisites for use.

    Background

    Motivational interviewing is an effective method for motivating patients to change their lifestyle, used increasingly in primary care.

    Design

    A cross-sectional survey study.

    Methods

    A study-specific questionnaire was sent to all district nurses and registered nurses (n = 980) in primary care in three counties in Sweden, from September 2011–January 2012; 673 (69%) responded. Differences between groups as well as relationships between study variables were tested.

    Results

    According to self-reports, 59% of the respondents had training in motivational interviewing and 57% used it. Approximately 15% of those who reported using it had no specific training in the method. More district nurses than registered nurses had training in motivational interviewing and used it. The following factors were independently associated with the use of motivational interviewing: training in and knowledge of motivational interviewing, conditions for using it, time and absence of ‘other’ obstacles.

    Conclusions

    Having knowledge in motivational interviewing and personal as well as workplace prerequisites for using it may promote increased use of motivational interviewing.

    Relevance to clinical practice

    Having the prerequisites for using motivational interviewing at the workplace is of significance to the use of motivational interviewing. In the context of primary care, district nurses seem to have better prerequisites than registered nurses for using motivational interviewing.

  • 1320.
    Östlund, Ann-Sofi
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Wadensten, Barbro
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Häggström, Elisabeth
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Lindqvist, Helena
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, MIC Lab, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kristofferzon, Marja-Leena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Primary care nurses' communication and its influence on patient talk during motivational interviewing2016In: Journal of Advanced Nursing, ISSN 0309-2402, E-ISSN 1365-2648, Vol. 72, no 11, p. 2844-2856Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    To describe what verbal behaviors/kinds of talk occur during recorded motivational interviewing sessions between nurses in primary care and their patients. The aim was also to examine what kinds of nurse talk predict patient change talk, neutral talk and/or sustain talk.

    Background

    Motivational interviewing is a collaborative conversational style. It has been shown to be effective, in addressing health behaviors such as diet, exercise, weight loss and chronic disease management. In Sweden, it is one of the approaches to disease prevention conversations with patients recommended in the National Guidelines for Disease Prevention. Research on the mechanisms underlying motivational interviewing is growing, but research on motivational interviewing and disease prevention has also been called for.

    Design

    A descriptive and predictive design was used.

    Methods

    Data were collected during 2011-2014. Fifty audio-recorded motivational interviewing sessions between 23 primary care nurses and 50 patients were analyzed using Motivational Interviewing Sequential Code for Observing Process Exchanges. The frequency of specific kinds of talk and sequential analysis (to predict patient talk from nurse talk) were computed using the software Generalized Sequential Querier 5.

    Findings

    The primary care nurses and patients used neutral talk most frequently. Open and negative questions, complex and positive reflections were significantly more likely to be followed by change talk and motivational interviewing-inconsistent talk, positive questions and negative reflections by sustain talk.

    Conclusions

    To increase patients’ change talk, primary care nurses need to use more open questions, complex reflections as well as questions and reflections directed toward change.

  • 1321.
    Östlund, Ann-Sofi
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap.
    Wadensten, Barbro
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap.
    Kristofferzon, Marja-Leena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap.
    Häggström, Elisabeth
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap.
    Motivational interviewing: Experiences of primary care nurses trained in the method2015In: Nurse Education in Practice, ISSN 1471-5953, E-ISSN 1873-5223, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 111-118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Motivational interviewing is a person-centered counseling style used to promote behavioral change regarding a wide variety of lifestyle problems. Use of motivational interview is growing worldwide and among many different healthcare professions, including primary care nursing. The study aim was to describe motivational interview trained nurses' experiences of motivational interviewing in primary care settings. The study had a qualitative descriptive design. It was carried out in Swedish primary care settings in two county council districts, with 20 primary care nurses trained in motivational interviewing. Half of them used the method in their work, half did not. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were used. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The nurses experienced that openness to the approach and an encouraging working climate are required to overcome internal resistance and to increase use of motivational interviewing. They also experienced mutual benefit: motivational interviewing elicits and develops abilities in both nurses and patients. For the nurses using it, motivational interviewing is perceived to facilitate work with patients in need of lifestyle change. Lack of training/education, support, interest and appropriate work tasks/patients are reasons for not using motivational interviewing.

  • 1322.
    Östlund, Frida
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Mossberg, Marianne
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Nyutexaminerade sjuksköterskor och stress: En litteraturstudie2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka nyutexaminerade sjuksköterskornas upplevelse av stress i yrket. Metoden som användes var en litteraturstudie som baserade sig på 17 artiklar. Resultatet blev tydligt att stressen var en nedbrytande faktor för de nyutexaminerade sjuksköterskorna. Upplevelsen att det förväntades av dem att vara en självständig sjuksköterska och kunna allt från början skapade stress. Den kliniska kunskapen och ledarskapsrollen har den nyutexaminerade sjuksköterskan för lite träning på och detta anses vara en brist i utbildningen. Stressen kan bli och var en början till utmattningssyndrom för många nyutexaminerade. Det var ett stort antal nyutexaminerade som hade tankar om att sluta redan tidigt i sjuksköterskeyrket. De sjuksköterskor som upplevde arbetsglädje och fick sina behov tillfredsställda kände inte av stressen på samma vis. Faktorerna som oftast kom upp som orsak att till öka stressen var när arbetsmiljö, ledning, bemanning och kontakten med kollegor inte fungerade. Slutsats Det är viktigt att vara medveten om stressen som nyutexaminerad sjuksköterska och ta ansvar för sin egen hälsa. Ledningen inom hälso- och sjukvården bör öka sin medvetenhet om sjuksköterskeyrkets risker.

  • 1323.
    Östlund, Hanna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Blad, Linda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Fysisk aktivitets inverkan på individers mentala hälsa som depression och nedstämdhet vid ischemisk hjärtsjukdom2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: One in five individuals with ischemic heart disease suffer from depressive disorders. Depression in individuals with ischemic heart disease leads to increased mortality. Previous research has shown that physical activity has an effect on people`s mental health in depression. Mortality in ischemic heart disease decreases and the need for cardiac rehabilitation increases.

    Aim: The purpose was to investigate the impact physical activity had on the mental health of individuals with ischemic heart disease, as well as describe the study groups of the included studies.

    Method: A descriptive literature study of 11 quantitative scientific articles. The articles were searched in the databases PubMed and Cinahl.

    Main results: Physical activity had a positive effect on depression and sedation in patients with ischemic heart disease. Only the physical exercise`s effect on depression was difficult to measure and prove, but research showed that improved fitness in many cases led to a reduction of depressive disorders. The effects of physical activity tended to differ between men and women. The number of participants in the studies was between 62-522 and more men than women participated. The majority of the studies had an average age of participants between 61-67.5 years.

    Conclusion: Physical activity improved the mental health of individuals with ischemic heart disease. It was difficult to prove that physical activity alone, was what affected mental health, because many aspects apart from physical activity, are part of a rehabilitation program. However, highlighting the importance of physical activity from more than one aspect should increase the conditions to motivate more people to participate in exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation. It will not only be a benefit to the patient but also a profit for the society.

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