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  • 1301.
    Söderman, Patrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Nordin, John
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Country of Origin Effect: Attityder till produkter beroende på en produkts ursprungsland2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Does a product's origin matter, in how the customer perceives and values the intended product? A most relevant question with regards to our now globalized and interconnected market. In this essay we intend to analyze the (co)variation between customer’s attitudes depending on the referent object’s origin. With regards to this we seek to carry out a comparative analysis between men and women to study whether the effects of Country of Origin (namely that the customer’s approach in purchases is affected by the origin of the product) matter.

    In today’s research there seems to be a lack of legitimate and comprehensive explanations regarding this correlation. Therefore, with this study we strive to find answers to contribute to the research gap.

  • 1302.
    Söderström, Mattias
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Naenfeldt, Adam
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    "Lurad" av ett erbjudande: - En empirisk studie om prissättning och kundens beteendemönster2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Titel: ”Lurad” av ett erbjudande – en empirisk studie om prissättning och kundens beteendemönster

    Nivå: Kandidatuppsats i ämnet företagsekonomi: Marknadsföring

    Författare: Adam Naenfeldt & Mattias Söderström

    Handledare: Jonas Kågström

    Datum: Juni 2013

    Syfte: Syftet med examensarbetet var att analysera konsumenters beteende. Hjälpverktyget vid genomförandet var att använda oss av teorin, Option Framing. Delsyftet var att undersöka nuvarande prissättningsmodell inom revisions- och redovisningsbranschen.

    Metod: Studien innehåller två delar, en kvantitativ del och en kvalitativ del. I den kvantitativa delen var utgångspunkten tidigare forskning och med hjälp av den tidigare forskningen utformades två enkäter. Den delades ut till småföretagare i Gävleområdet. Resultatet analyserades i programmet Minitab16 och sammanställdes bland annat med en bivariat analys. Den kvalitativa delen bestod av intervjuer och sammanställdes bland annat med hjälp av NVivo10.

    Resultat och slutsats: Resultatet som erhölls i den kvantitativa delen av studien var likartad med tidigare forskning inom området. Utifrån Option Framing och Bivariat analysen påvisades olika samband som firmorna kan dra nytta av i arbetet att paketera tjänster. I den kvalitativa delen framkom att revisions- och redovisningsfirmorna börjat frångå den gamla konservativa timprissättningen.

    Förslag till fortsatt forskning: Studien behandlar Option Framing på komplexa tjänster (redovisningstjänster) och vidare forskning kan göras på extremt komplexa samt icke komplexa tjänster.

    Uppsatsens bidrag: Utifrån teori och empiri rekommenderar studien att se till de samband vi funnit vid paketering av tjänster. Marknadsförare inom branschen kan därmed dra nytta av resultaten i studien.

    Nyckelord: Prissättning, Option Framing, beteendeekonomi, revision, redovisning 

  • 1303.
    Söderström, Robert
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Car, Emma
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Att återuppstå i rådande upplevelseekonomi: En studie av Grand Hotel i Gävle2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: This paper aims to increase the understanding of how a new company can initiate their marketing in social media and to spread the innovation. Social media is something that lately has grown rapidly and the potential for marketing is great.

    Method: The paper uses an abductive qualitative method. Empirical data were collected through unstructured interviews, which were then analyzed. The theory is divided according to the marketing mix with the seven p´s and classical marketing theories.

    Result and Conclusions: The hotel-industry in Gävle is currently experiencing though competition. Several hotels are competing for the same customers. This demands that the hotels create a unique experience that makes the customer return. Because Elite Grand Hotel just recently opened in Gävle makes it difficult to see a concrete result of their efforts in differentiating themself.

    Suggestions for future research: Because Elite Grand Hotel is newly established, there are great opportunities for further research. We believe that an examination of the impact of various social media depending on the segment may be worth further study. This is to see how an optimization for the selected target group could work.

    Furthermore, we believe that a study of corporate relationship building through its marketing is interesting. This is because our study shows that relationships are important in experience economy, and that relationships have a big impact on how we as individuals react to positive and negative information regarding the company we are loyal to.

    Contribution of the thesis: Give businesses an opportunity to discover new marketing channels and motivate business that feel uncertain about social media and spreading the innovation around the concepts.

  • 1304.
    Söderström, Sabina
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Indal, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Sociala identitetsperspektiv på revisorers oberoende2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The debate about the auditor independence has been going on for a long time. Today is the issue of auditor independence one of the most important in accounting which depends on several corporate scandals that have occurred in recent years. Previous studies shows that close relationships explicate social identifications which can have a positive and a negative impact on auditor independence. We have added personal identification in our study at the individual level to expand previous studies. We have also added the charismatic leadership as a factor to investigate whether this affect identifications. The study aims to investigate whether the client identification, personal and professional identification is affected by a charismatic leadership and whether these identifications has an impact on auditor independence.

    Method: In our study we have used surveys as a method to collect primary data. Data were collected from Swedish authorized and approved auditors. The collected data where then processed and analyzed by the statistical program SPSS statistics. The results of the statistical analyzes are then presented in different tables.

    Result and conclusions: The results of the study showed that charismatic leadership has an impact on all identifications, however, this effect is relatively weak, which means that there are many other factors that increase these identifications. Furthermore, the result also showed that personal identification can be a greater threat to auditor independence than client identification.

    Suggestions for future research: To obtain the respondents' own thoughts and opinions, a qualitative focused study with interviews as a data collection method could be implemented. Further implications could be to examine other factors that may affect different identifications.

    Contribution of the thesis: The study contributes for further research about the auditors' non-financial dependence, in which we examine the problem from a social identity perspective. Furthermore, the study can provide knowledge of the factors that affecting social identities.

  • 1305.
    Sörensen, Mikaela
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Krogius, Gabriel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Lönsamma erbjudanden: Hur tjänsteerbjudanden och dess kunder formas av Optional Framing2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT

    Title:                         Lucrative deals

    How service offers and its clients is forms by Optional Framing                

    Level:                       Bachelor, Business Administration

    Author:                     Gabriel Krogius, Mikaela Sörensen

    Supervisor:              Jonas Kågström, department of economics

    Date:                         2013, August

    Introduction:           That the human mind may be directed by how an offer is designed is not news. However, what is new in the following thesis is whether a person is affected in the case of a service rather than, as previously research, a physical product. Does a person find it harder to separate with something rather than to add an option?

    Aim:                          The aim for this thesis is to examine how Optional Framing has affection on service offerings/companies, and in this case on real estate brokerage services. Is it, as earlier, when the human can form her own offer, the final price ends up higher when she is about to add options than removing them?

    Method:                    The thesis emanates to achieve earlier results where the difference in this case is that our thesis is targeting service offerings. It applies through a positivistic deductive method. The empirical data is collected from a quantitative sample of survey answers, where one part of the groups is faced to remove options from a deluxe-offer and the other part of the group is about to add options to a standard-offer. The survey was created with episodic support from a sample of interviews with active real estate agents.

    Discussion:               The thesis shows that earlier results approve within service companies and its offers, in this case real estate brokerage. We can interpret that the human mind is directed through Optional Framing and that the deluxe-offer ends with a higher price and more options to it than the standard-offer. The correlation analysis shows us connection between some of the offers services that can benefit real estate brokerage in the future.

    Future research:     We hope that foundations have been created for future research that can lead on to further understanding about the customers view on real estate brokerage services and how to make them more attractive.

    Contribution:           Real estate brokerage can benefit from the results in this thesis where they further can implement the work from comparison of theory and empirical. 

    Key words:              Loss Aversion, The Endowment Effect, Status Quo Bias and also Framing/Optional Framing.   

  • 1306.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Hedblom, Daniel
    The University of Chicago.
    Holmgren, Mattias
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Haga, Andreas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Langeborg, Linda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Nöstl, Anatole
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Kågström, Jonas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Who needs cream and sugar when there is eco-labeling?: Taste and willingness to pay for 'eco-friendly' coffee2013In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 12, p. e80719-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1307.
    Taheri, Maryam
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Oben Agborsangaya, Etchu
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Cultural influence on decision making in project teams : The case of telecommunication industry2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title :

    Cultural influence on decision making in project team : The case of telecommunication industry

    Level :

    Master Thesis of Business Administration: Business Management

    Authors :

    Etchu Oben Agborsangaya and Maryam Taheri

    Supervisor

    : Professor Akmal Hyder

    Date:

    2013 June

    Purpose

    : In the last few decades, the effects of globalisation has changed the way many companies carry out their activities. Greater emphasis are now placed on project management in a dynamic and effective atmosphere. As a result of this, companies try to understand how culture influences decision making in project teams in different countries. The purpose of this research is to investigate how culture influence decision making in project teams through an empirical study of telecommunication industry in Nigeria and Sweden by using Hofstede's framework on cultural dimensions.

    Research Questions

    : (1) How does culture influence decision making in project teams?

    (2) what are the similarities and differences in decision making in project teams between Nigeria and Sweden?

    Approach

    : The research design for this study includes literature review and qualitative method. The primary data was collected using semi-structured interviews with project managers and workers in project teams. The secondary data was collected through articles, journals and books. Data from the findings were analysed using coding.

    Results & Conclusions

    : It was found that culture influence decision making in project teams. In Nigeria, decision making in teams is more relax type because people try to avoid conflict by not hurting another person’s feelings while in Sweden decision making is more of a participating type in which each member in team has to be consulted and a consensus is arrived at before making the decision. Nigerian team values respect for senior colleagues and prefer hierarchy where codes of conduct exist, formality and inflexibility at work when compared to Sweden. 3

    Contribution of the study

    : We recommend that prospective project managers of the mixed Swedish-Nigerian project team should encourage a participative involvement of all the members of teams in decision making and high degree of flexibility at work. This will lead to an efficient and effective project teams. The fact that this study was based on an important field of studies - project management, we could recommend that the impact of culture on project management could be explored in future research.

    Key words: Culture, project management cultural influence, decision making, project team, Telecommunication industry, Sweden and Nigeria.

  • 1308.
    Talebi-Taher, Hamidreza
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Oracle Strategy in Business Development: MBA-thesis in marketing2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this research has been to answer the question of how and based on what combination of grand strategies, Oracle as a high-tech company, developed and improved its business and affected its competitors and other industries.

    Method: Analytical study of published literature and Oracle internal annual reports combined with personal experience of working with Oracle products and observing its strategies for more than a decade have been the essential part of this study. The main method of data collection was gathering information from those websites which include information and news around Oracle strategic movements. This research has applied that information to deliver an analysis of not only the Oracle current strategy, but its strategy for the future and tendency to expand its market and direct the information industry, moving forward.

    Result & Conclusion: Being around for three decades, Oracle has had a great history of successful strategies with introducing innovation, leading software industry, and directing the future of information technology. It has been survived from many uncertainties as the nature of its business. Knowing its competitors, spending billions of dollars on research and development, filling the gaps of having the best products through acquisition, and creating valuable products and services for many industries, has brought Oracle on the top in its area. Its vision of sharing information and giving the world wide access to a comprehensive knowledge of using its products and services has increased loyalty in its customers and business partners. Oracle is a crucial company in this information age, and its products and solutions have been critically useful for a wide range of businesses. These are the facts which have been concluded in this study.

    Contribution of the study: Understanding of Oracle strategy is important for millions of managers, developers, and users of database systems and enterprise applications throughout the world. Being successful in their career and professional positions, they have to know where the information technology is moving and they have no choice of using those software products which a major part of it, is created or at least directed by Oracle. It can guarantee the future of information management in a company.

  • 1309.
    Tangen, Josefin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Wiberg, Pauline
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Kompetens, autonomi och samhörighetens betydelse för arbetsmotivation: En studie om medarbetares motivation inom upplevelseindustrin2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: The importance of competence, autonomy and relatedness for employee motivation - a study about employee motivation within the experience economy

     

    Level: Final assignment for Bachelor Degree in Business Administration

     

    Author: Josefin Tangen, Pauline Wiberg

     

    Supervisor: Monica Wallmon, Maria Fregidou-Malama

     

    Date: 2018 – January

     

    Aim: The aim of this study is to increase the understanding of how the individual's basic needs for competence, autonomy and relatedness affect employee motivation within the experience economy.

     

    Method: The study is based on a qualitative approach. A total of 10 interviews were conducted with employees in the experience economy. We analyzed our material using a thematic analysis.

     

    Result & Conclusions: The result of this study shows that all three basic needs affect employee motivation within the experience economy. This study also shows that management is working to promote these three basic needs. Respondents believe that their need of relatedness is promoted in a satisfactory manner, but that efforts to meet the need for competence and autonomy can be improved.

     

    Suggestions for future research: Since the majority of respondents emphasized that positive feedback from customers is of great importance, we suggest that further studies investigate if customer feedback is possibly more important than the leader’s feedback for employees in the experience economy. Since this study is confined to only ten interviews another proposal for future research is to do a more extensive study in order to create deeper understanding. As the study is based solely on an employee perspective, we suggest that further studies can investigate need satisfaction and employee motivation from a management perspective to contribute to deeper understanding within the matter.

    Contribution of the thesis: Through this study, we have increased the understanding of how the individual's three basic needs affect employee motivation in the experience economy, which is an unexplored area. Therefore, this study adds a theoretical contribution to existing research in employee motivation in terms of a new field, the experience economy. We also believe that this study contributes to the practice as we have noted and studied the central role of employees in the experience economy. This study can therefore contribute to leaders in the experience economy in their efforts to motivate employees, which in the long run leads to a positive experience for the customer as well as a profitable business.

    Key words: Experience economy, employee motivation, competence, autonomy, relatedness, Self-Determination Theory, Servant Leadership.

  • 1310.
    Tapper, Matilda
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Tufvesson, Linda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Finns det ett samband mellan CSR och lånens löptid?: En kvantitativ studie på 300 publika europeiska bolag mellan 2008 - 20162018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: Is there a relationship between CSR and debt maturity? - A quantitative study of 300 public European companies between 2008 - 2016

    Level: Student thesis, final assignment for Bachelor Degree in Business Administration

    Author: Matilda Tapper and Linda Tufvesson

    Supervisor: Jan Svanberg

    Date: 2018 – May

    Aim: Corporate social responsibility becomes an increasingly important issue, not least for stakeholders and lenders in assessing corporate risk and credit risk. Many researchers have studied how CSR affects the capital structure of a company and we know that CSR affects companies' ability use short-term debt because socially responsible companies have a lower financial risk. The aim of this study is therefore to investigate whether CSR affects a company's choice between long-term and short-term debt.

    Method: The study assumes a positivistic research philosophy and has a hypothetical- deductible approach. The study has a quantitative strategy and the time perspective consists of a longitudinal design, implemented with secondary data from Thomson Reuters database Datastream with data from the years 2008 - 2016.The sample consists of 300 public European companies for which data were analyzed by multiple regression analyzes in the IBM SPSS statistics program.

    Result & Conclusion: The results indicates that there is no correlation between total CSR and debt maturity, which is probably driven by the environmental dimension assuming a negative relationship that is as strong as the positive relationship with the corporate governance dimension. The result of the study also shows no correlation between the social dimension and debt maturity. The conclusion is therefore that there is no correlation between total CSR and debt maturity. CSR-activities within the environmental dimension are considered to be the main interests of stakeholders.

    Suggestions for future research: As the study showed that the relationships differ between the different dimensions, future research should address each individual dimension and look more at the categories and indications that support these dimensions. We also suggest that a similar study may be conducted, with a debt maturity of three years instead of one year as the definition of long-term debts, to provide basis for comparisons between Europe and the United States.

    Contribution of the thesis: The study contributes to filling the gap of research that exists for European companies regarding the relationship between CSR and debt maturity, as well as investigating the relationship between each individual dimension and debt maturity. The study also contributes to the theory that the use of equity is not only influenced by social activities but also by total CSR. Also, a practical contribution in the form of evidence that companies can influence the cost of equity through CSR and thus a company´s economy as a whole.

  • 1311.
    Tegnér, Mi
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Importance of estimation of market potential: a case of Sandvik Tooling2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

     

    Title: Importance of estimation of market potential- a case of Sandvik Tooling

     

    Level: Bachelor Degree in BusinessAdministration, 15 ECTS-Credits in Marketing

     

    Author: Mi Tegnér

     

    Supervisor: Akmal Hyder

     

    Date: 2011-05

     

    Aim: The aim of this thesis is to study in which waySandvik Tooling and certain other international companies’ measure and estimatethe market potential

     

    Method: I have used a qualitative method. This meansthat I have focused on the big picture rather than solely on parts from thecollected material. The qualitative method was based on interviews with 12respondents, both within Sandvik AB and with employees from other internationalcompanies. Furthermore, I have made an interconnection between my empirical andtheoretical part in order to draw conclusions on the findings.

     

    Result & Conclusions: The study shows some importantfactors, which may affect a company´s effort to measure and estimate the marketpotential. They are; gaps may easily appear when customers and companies havedifferent views on quality, price and productivity, too large amounts ofinformation, the importance of new ideas and perspectives. A company canminimize their problems and any errors within the collected material if theywork after similar framework, consisting of clear structures and methodologies.

     

    Suggestions for future research: Future research could be to do asimilar study, to identify methods to measure and estimate market potential forSandvik Tooling but within an international setting. Then compare this resultwith my result to see in which way the perception of market potential differsin the different countries.

     

    Contribution of the thesis: From my research, I have got an understandingthat the process of measuring and estimating companies market potential is notan easy mission. Especially among the companies, which consist of differentbusiness areas, product areas and segment areas. I hope the study will beinteresting for the employee´s working with market potential and businessdevelopment, to see that people within the same company may have differentviews about this subject. I also believe that managers in general would benefitfrom this study, to understand that their employees would like to see a moresimilar framework within the company, when it comes to measure and estimatemarket potential. During this thesis, I found a deficiency of scientificarticles about the subject, measuring a company´s market potential. It had beeninteresting to see if my results corresponded to previous results in the samesubject.

     

    Key words: business areas, benchmarking, estimation,market potential, market shares, measuring

     

  • 1312.
    Tenglund, Felicia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Åberg, Stina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Sitter det i väggarna?: En kvalitativ studie om offentlig sektors arbete för främjandet av innovativt beteende2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Titel: Sitter det i väggarna? En kvalitativ studie om offentlig sektors arbete för främjandet av innovativt beteende

    Nivå: C-uppsats i ämnet företagsekonomi

    Författare: Felicia Tenglund och Stina Åberg

    Handledare: Agneta Sundström och Kristina Mickelsson

    Datum: 2019 - Januari

    Syfte: Syftet med studien är att öka förståelsen för hur ledare inom offentlig sektor arbetar för att utveckla bra arbetsklimat och hur det främjar ett innovativt beteende. 

    Metod: Studien tillämpar en kvalitativ metod, där utgångspunkten är den hermeneutiska vetenskapstraditionen. Totalt har tio semistrukturerade intervjuer genomförts med chefer på olika nivåer inom en offentlig verksamhet. Det empiriska materialet har med hjälp av en tematisk analysmetod tolkats och analyserats.

    Slutsats: Studien visar att det finns både skillnader och likheter med tidigare forskning och hur våra respondenter inom offentlig sektor ser på arbetet med ett innovativt beteende. Enligt våra respondenter behövs inte ett ökat arbete gällande innovativt beteende vilket tidigare forskning antydde.

    Studiens bidrag: Vår studie bidrar med att öka förståelsen för hur ledare inom denna offentliga verksamhet ser på innovativt beteende, samt hur de som ledare arbetar för att främja ett innovativ beteende och ett bra arbetsklimat. Genom att ta del av denna studie kan ledare och medarbetare inom offentlig sektor få en ökad förståelse för hur de bör arbeta med att skapa ett bra arbetsklimat på sin arbetsplats, vilket i sin tur kommer bidra till ett ökat innovativt beteende.

    Förslag till fortsatt forskning: Vi anser att vidare forskning genom en liknande studie kan fokusera på ledare och studera om inställningen till och främjandet av det innovativa beteendet ser olika ut beroende på vilken position ledaren har inom organisationen. Det skulle även vara intressant att göra en liknande studie på en annan organisation inom offentlig sektor då denna studie inte kan spegla hela den offentliga sektorns syn på innovativt beteende.

  • 1313.
    Tham, Charlotte
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    How to find a great international leader: The case of Swedish Managers working in Singapore2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: How to find a great international leader – The case of Swedish Managers working in Singapore

    Level: Second Cycle: 15 Credit: Master Thesis in Business Administration

    Author: Charlotte Tham

    Supervisor: Maria Malama

     Examiner: Akmal Hyder

    Date: June 2011

    Aim: I’m interested in finding a way to make successful international recruitments. To do so I have worked with three research questions:

    • What distinguish an international leader from a domestic leader?
    • How do you recruit a successful international leader?
    • Which personal qualities make an international leader successful?

     Method:

    • I have used a personal test (Hogan Personality Inventory) to find which personal qualities the manager has.
    • Approx. 10 subordinates to each of the managers have answered a survey, in order to find how successful they find the managers to be.
    • The five managers have also been interviewed twice. The first time to hear their opinion of the international leadership. The second time to follow up the result from the personal test and the survey.   

    Result & Conclusions: The four main results of the study are:

    • Handling cultural differences makes the international leader special.
    • Following a structured procedure is essential when recruiting a successful international leader.
    • Qualities to look for are high interpersonal skills, strong sense of self, high flexibility, and strong interest in learning new things.
    • Leaders with strong task-orientation and love for details de-motivate their subordinates. 

     Suggestions for future research: The study could be done on a larger sample, to get a better statistical material. It could also be done on other nationalities, or on women to see how these factors affect the result.

     Contribution of the thesis: The study shows that criteria like, high interpersonal skills and flexibility have to be searched for and a structured procedure has to be followed, when recruiting international leaders. The study can help multi-national companies make better recruitments and therefore save money and time.

  • 1314.
    Thorell, Alexander
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Mindzak, Norbert
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Male vs. Female Leadership and their Influence on Employee Motivation: The Case of Sandvik in Sweden2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore and compare male vs. female leadership styles characteristics and how those leadership styles influence employee motivation. 

    Design, Method & Approach: This study is a combination of exploratory and descriptive research since the purpose was to explore and describe the characteristics of Gender Leadership determining how it influences employee motivation in a working environment.   Data have been collected by conducting interviews, which was analyzed by analytic generalization and qualitative content analysis. When it comes to validity & reliability, the data have been collected from a real life case study of Sandvik where the gathered information from interviewees has been analyzed with correspondence to the purpose of the study. 

    Findings: Transformational Leadership practiced by both male and female managers characterizes the leadership style of Sandvik R&D Mining Department. Transformational Leadership is proven an effective leadership style in order to create employee motivation by visible opinions, goals, team collaboration and personal development. These motivational factors are supported by the employees influencing their motivation regardless of gender. 

    Implication: This study provides understanding of how Gender Leadership influences employee motivation on a theoretical, managerial and societal level based on the results of this study. 

    Suggestions for Future Research: Our work suggests future studies in other departments within the same business sector in order to get a deeper understanding of how Gender Leadership influences employee motivation. Providing the need of gender studies regarding women in management positions is also recommended. Lastly, studies comparing Transformational and Transactional Leadership from a gender perspective is recommended.

  • 1315.
    Tjäder, Emma
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Isacsson, Amanda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Revisorns oberoende i förhandlingen med klienten: Vilken betydelse har relationen?2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Earlier studies have investigated what impact the relationship between the auditor and their clients have on the auditor’s objectivity. There are different opinions about whether a close relationship harms or promote the auditors work. Furthermore there are studies that show what strategies the auditor (and client) tends to use in the negotiation between the two of them. On this basis we have chosen to study if there are any correlation between the nature of the auditor client relationship, the auditor’s negotiation strategy against the client and the auditor’s objectivity.

    Method: Because of our purpose to study if there is any correlation between the relationship, the negotiation strategies and the auditor´s objectivity we have chosen to implement a quantitative survey. The survey has been edited by earlier studies from Gibbins, McCracken and Salterio (2010), Fontaine (2011) and Bamber and Iyer (2007). The survey has been sent to approved and authorized auditors in Sweden and the collected data has been compiled and analyzed by statistic methods.

    Result & Conclusions: This study shows that there are a significant correlation between a close relationship, the auditor’s negotiation strategies and the auditor’s objectivity. With a close relationship the auditor tends to use integrative strategies, which also shows to have a negative impact on auditor objectivity.

    Suggestions for future research: This study shows that the relationship has impact on the auditor to use integrative strategies. On this basis it would be interesting to do a deeper study with focus on integrative strategies and auditor´s objectivity.

    Contribution of the thesis: This study can be useful for auditors if they want to study the relationship with their clients and the potential impact on objectivity.

    Key words: Auditor, objectivity, relational, transactional, integrative, distributive

  • 1316.
    To, Yen-Leng
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Bergqvist, Mathilda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Motivation - en ledares möjlighet och utmaning: faktorer att beakta för att öka motivationen hos professionella medarbetare2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet är att genom litteraturstudier samt med utgångspunkt i ett antal intervjuer med respondenter, skapa en förståelse för vad som motiverar professionella medarbetare på deras arbetsplats.

    Metod: Vi har använt oss av ett hermeneutiskt perspektiv, vilket har motiverat till att göra en abduktiv studie samt att använda oss av kvalitativ metod i våra intervjuer. Totalt genomfördes fyra intervjuer, alla med respondenter som vi ansåg passa in i vår definition av professionella medarbetare. Resultaten från dessa intervjuer har vi sedan tolkat utifrån ett hermeneutiskt synsätt. För att skapa ett trovärdigt resultat har vi valt att redovisa stor del av vårt empiriska material med hjälp av citat från respondenterna. Vi har även utvecklat samt skrivit slutsatser utifrån dessa citat.

    Resultat och slutsats: Utifrån vårt empiriska material kan vi se att en motiverande miljö för medarbetarna, bland annat kan skapas genom att arbetsuppgifterna upplevs som meningsfulla och utmanande. För att förstärka och höja motivationen ytterligare bland de anställda ser vi att vidareutveckling är något som efterfrågas från medarbetarna. Detta kan ses som en angelägen motivationspunkt då samtliga respondenter poängterade denna faktor under samtalens gång. Vidareutveckling är en faktor som flera av de teorier vi har valt att redovisa har berört som en vital aspekt, exempelvis har Maslow, Deci och Ryan påpekat detta. Dessa teorier kan nu styrkas ytterligare med detta resultat

    Förslag till fortsatt forskning: Vi kan föreslå att fokusera på en yrkesgrupp i taget för att göra djupa studier och därmed få en bättre bild av motivationsfaktorerna. Ytterligare aspekter som kan beaktas är huruvida en enskild individs uppväxtbakgrund, föräldrarnas utbildningsnivå, deltagarens ålder, utbildningsnivå och kultur kan ha inverkan på vad som motiverar individen på dess arbetsplats.

    Uppsatsens bidrag: Att skapa och bidra till en uppdaterad bild på professionella medarbetarnas syn på motivation. Även utifrån den empiri vi har samlat ihop, konstatera att vad som bidrar till respondenternas motivation inte skiljer sig markant mellan olika yrkesgrupper.

  • 1317.
    Torounidis, Thomas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Transforming research into business: MBA-thesis in marketing2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis describes the innovation system in and around Lund. The aim was to investigate the innovation system in and around Lund by using functional analysis, i.e. analyzing functions and processes rather than actors and their independent task. Actors have been identified, grouped by their relevance and connection to specific processes, and described. A functional analysis has then been performed on the selected actors to establish current status and potential future needs.

  • 1318.
    Torres, Katarina
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Sörensson, Glafira
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Splittring av arbetsuppgifter inom internkontroll: Balans mellan riskhantering och effektivitet2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Begreppet internkontroll har de senaste åren blivit allt mer omtalat och eftertraktat. Organisationer behöver en genomgripande struktur för internkontroll och splittring av arbetsuppgifter för att kunna säkra sin måluppfyllelse. Det finns en hel del studier gjorda kring internkontroll med fokus på olika aspekter inom begreppet. I denna studie ligger tonvikten på hur ledningen med hjälp av splittring av arbetsuppgifter (segregation of duties) kan åstadkomma balans mellan riskhantering och effektivitet.

    Syfte: Huvudsyftet med studien är att skapa förståelse för hur ledningen med hjälp av splittring av arbetsuppgifter kan åstadkomma balans mellan riskhantering och effektivitet. För att kunna få underlag att uppfylla detta huvudsyfte behöver studien uppnå två delsyften, nämligen att belysa hur arbetet kring internkontroll kan organiseras samt vilka risker som uppmärksammas i samband med splittring av arbetsuppgifter.

    Genomförande: Huvudsyftets roll i studien är att skapa förståelse för balansproblematiken som studeras. För att kunna uppfylla syftet har en kvalitativ undersökning utförts. Studien är en tvåfallsstudie där fenomenet har undersökts på djupet både i en centraliserad och i en decentraliserad organisation. Detta har gjorts genom intervjuer. Respondenterna är chefer på olika nivåer inom båda organisationerna samt tjänstemän. Olika informantgrupper har valts för att kunna se hur olika personer med olika befattningar ser på samma fenomen för att skapa en helhet.

     

    Bidrag: Studien uppmärksammar att organisationer inte gör några större avvägningar gällande riskhantering och effektivitet inom splittring av arbetsuppgifter. Mot bakgrund av detta finns det ett behov av vidareforskning kring den aspekten.

  • 1319.
    Torstensson, Caroline
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Jonsson, Annika
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Externa mentorsprogram - För kvinnor som vill avancera i karriären?2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    SammanfattningProblemdiskussion: Inom området ledarskap så domineras de högre positionerna av männen, och har så alltid gjort. Kvinnorna som vill avancera stöter på fler svårigheter än män, och detta fenomen har sedan 1986 benämnts The Glass Ceiling – då begreppet först dök upp i Wall Street Journal. Kvinnor verkar alltså slå emot ett glastak på sin väg mot toppen, som hindrar dem från avancemang. För att överbygga hindren har en del olika lösningar föreslagits i befintlig forskning, och vi har valt att fördjupa oss i ämnet externt mentorskap. Även genusfrågan har getts visst fokus i vår studie, då vi utifrån den forskning vi tagit del av uppfattar genus vara en viktig aspekt att beakta inom området.Syfte: Syftet med vår studie är att bilda oss en uppfattning om kvinnliga adepters syn på externa mentorprogram och dess betydelse för karriären. Vi vill även undersöka om det finns skillnader beroende av om mentorn är kvinnlig eller manlig.Avgränsning: Den i särklass största delen av respondenterna i vår undersökning är verksamma inom IT- och Telecombranschen. Detta p.g.a. att vi har haft störst tillgång till respondenter att fråga ifrån mentorsprogrammet Womentor, som riktar sig just till kvinnor inom denna bransch. Dock finns även diverse andra branscher representeradeTeori: Teorin bygger på fakta från vetenskapliga artiklar och litteratur som behandlar ämnena kvinnligt ledarskap samt mentorskap.Metod: Studien är kvalitativ och bygger på intervjuer gjorda med kvinnor på mellanchefsnivå. Ett deduktivt synsätt är valt men även det abduktivt synsättet finns med i studien. Inspiration till intervjufrågorna är hämtad från den forskning som finns representerad i teori kapitlet.Empiri: Den empiriska datan är insamlad med hjälp av intervjuer från 32 stycken kvinnliga respondenter i åldrar mellan 28 och 58 år, som är/har varit adepter i 4 olika externa mentorprogram. Resultatet av intervjuerna är insatta i en matris för att efter bearbetningen kunna identifiera lokala och globala mönster.Analys: I analysen ställs resultatet av intervjuerna mot befintlig teori och även nya möjliga teorier föreslås.Slutsats: Vi har i våra resultat kommit fram till att externa mentorsprogram kan vara effektiva för kvinnor som såväl vill klättra på karriärstegen som kvinnor som vill utvecklas i sina nuvarande yrkesroller. Vår studie påvisade att det inte spelar någon betydande roll för adepterna om deras mentorer är kvinnliga eller manliga.

  • 1320.
    Tosterud, Susanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Träpellets: en växande affärsmöjlighet: Produktion av träpellets i Brasilien för export till Europa2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title:                     

    Wood pellets: A growing business opportunity

    Production of Brazilian wood pellets for export to Europe

    Level:

    Final assignment for Master in Business Administration

    Author:                 

    Susanna Tosterud

    Supervisor:               

    Jonas Kågström

    Date:                     

    2012 - June

    Aim:                               

    The purpose of this study is to examine the existing economic conditions to produce pellets in Brazil for export to Europe.

    Method:            

    The study used a qualitative method where data collection for the empirical section consists mainly of semi-structured open interview questions that were sent to the respondents via e-mail. Then they were contacted by phone to make sure that the information had been correctly perceived. The respondent’s answers are reported in the empirical chapter and have been analyzed and processed with the help of two marketing theories: the marketing mix (the 4 Ps) and SWOT analysis.

    Result & Conclusions:                       

    The result shows that at present time it is not profitable to export pellets from Brazil to Europe. Prices for pellets in the European market are too low, an increase of approximately USD 50/ton is necessary for an acceptable profit. The Brazilian pellet production needs to be further developed with regards to cost and quality requirements. This is needed in order to become competitive in the European market.

    Suggestions for future research:     

    The empirical part of the study was based solely on qualitative interviews. It would be interesting to follow-up this study with a quantitative approach to improve reliability in the answers. Only two marketing theories have been used in this study and it would be important to also make a PESTLE analysis (political, economic, sociological, technological, legal and environmental aspects).

    Contribution of the thesis:      

    There are many discussions about climate change and the various options available to replace fossil fuels. This study contributes to a better understanding of the prerequisites for profitable pellet production in Brazil based on exports to Europe.

    Key words:                                 

    Pellet market, Brazil, exports, market research and bioenergy.

  • 1321.
    Tribble, Joel Lawrence
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Jimaale, Abdi Fatah
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Inre och yttre motivation: En studie om vilka faktorer som motiverar unga medarbetare mest i fyra detaljhandelsföretag2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation - a study of what motivates young employees the most within four retail businesses.

    Level: Final assignment for Bachelor Degree in Business Administration

    Authors: Joel Lawrence Tribble & Abdi Fatah Jimaale

    Supervisor: Lars Ekstrand

    Date: 2013 - June

    Aim: The purpose of the study is that, given the incentives applied in the retail businesses, consider whether it is intrinsic or extrinsic motivators that have the greatest positive impact on young employees' motivation. Our research questions are:                      Is it intrinsic or extrinsic motivators that have the greatest positive impact on young employees' motivation?     What incentives do companies apply to motivate their employees to perform the desired performance?             Method: We have done case studies on four industry-leading retail companies, where we conducted four interviews with their respective managers. We also distributed 60 surveys to the selected companies employees where we aimed ourselves to young employees aged 15-30 years. Secondary data in forms of literature and prior research have been studied. The information generated were then processed and analyzed, which then led to our conclusion. Result & Conclusions: We have found that job security and good coworkers are the two most motivating factors among the study's young employees, and these are intrinsic motivators. Suggestions for future research:          

    • What are the differences of motivation preferences between different generational groups?
    • Which control system motivates employees the most?
    • Do companies design their incentive systems in an efficient way?

    Contribution of the thesis: The contribution that the thesis has given is an increased understanding of what motivates young employees more and less within the detail industry, and what incentives the studied companies use to motivate their employees to perform the desired performance.

  • 1322.
    Trulsson, Jonas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Geografisk och individuell risk - Vad skiljer oss åt?2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Huvudsyftet med studien är att undersöka om det finns skillnader i risktagande mellan individer som bor i olika områden inom Gävle kommun, med konsumtion av försäkringsskydd som riskmått. Gävle kommuns 18 områden är indelade i fyra regioner vilka är centrum, norr, söder-väst och öst.Delsyftet är att studera vilka individuella variabler såsom ålder, förvärvsinkomst, boende, boendeförhållande, utbildning samt sysselsättning som påverkar konsumtionen av försäkringsskydd. Vidare syftar studien till att studera hur två fenomen, adverse selection och moral hazard, vilka härrör från informationsasymmetri, påverkar konsumtionen av försäkringsskydd.

    Metod: Arbetet utgår ifrån fyra stycken valda metoder vilka är klassificering, kvantifiering, hypotesprövning samt komparation. Vidare har sambandsmåttet, chi-två (χ2), använts för att antingen falsifiera eller inte falsifiera en uppställd hypotes. Vidare bygger arbetet på både sekundärkällor i form av litteratur, Internet samt uppsatser/papers och på primärkällor i form av intervjuer.

    Resultat & slutsats: Av de 27 chitvå-test som genomförts var det 3 test som visade på statistisk signifikans. Testet mellan boendeförhållande och konsumtion av försäkringar visade på statistisk signifikans på nivån 2,5 %. Testet mellan sysselsättning och konsumtion av försäkringar visade på statistisk signifikans på nivån 10 %. Slutligen visade testet mellan sysselsättning och konsumtion av tilläggsförsäkringar på statistisk signifikans på nivån 0,1 %.

    Förslag till fortsatt forskning: En ny undersökning av samma karaktär som denna med liknande intervjufrågor och liknande hypotesprövning. En liknande undersökning med kvantitativa variabler i stället för de något informationsfattiga variablerna på nominal- och ordinalskalenivå som detta arbete bygger på. En undersökning inom en annan kommun eller stad. En undersökning om risktagande där spel alternativt någon form av ”gambling” används som riskmått.

    Uppsatsens bidrag: Först och främst en idé/metod för hur man kan undersöka risktagande bland individer. Vidare visade uppsatsen på ett beroende mellan boendeförhållande och konsumtion av försäkringar samt ett beroende mellan sysselsättning och konsumtion av försäkringar och konsumtion av tilläggsförsäkringar.

  • 1323.
    Tsakalou, Eleni
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Why are women underrepresented in engineering management?: the case of Asea Brown Boveri (ABB)2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine the factors that influence the underrepresentation of women in managerial positions in engineering sector. The study is based on the fact that there are less female leaders both in management and in engineering.

    Design/Methodology/Approach: The method used in order to accomplish this research is a qualitative approach. The primary data was collecting by semi-structured interviews with employees of the case company (ABB). The sample consists of ten employees, males and females, who hold different positions in the company.

    Findings: The empirical findings and the analysis show the factors regarding the underrepresentation of women in managerial positions. The study indicates that glass ceiling, gender stereotyping, engineering culture and balancing professional and family life, are major obstacles in women‘s career today.

    Limitations: I limited my study to only one engineering company therefore the results cannot be generalized for the whole engineering industry. Also, even though this study examines why women are underrepresented in engineering industry, I interviewed both male and female employees in order to illustrate both perspectives about the issue.

    Contribution: This study confirms the existing theories regarding the affect of underrepresentation of women in engineering industry and highlights the facts that delay women‘s advancement. Engineering culture does not encourage mentoring towards women and women are seen as outsiders in networking activities. Thus, this study gives the opportunity to managers in engineering to consider the reality about females in the sector in order to improve the current situation.

  • 1324.
    Törnkvist Metajittikorn, Jennifer
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Örnklint, Caroline
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Personlighetsdrag och motivation inom säljande organisationer: En studie om hur Femfaktorsteorin och Aspiration Index tillsammans kan utveckla en förståelse för säljares drivkrafter2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 1325.
    Uddströmer, Louise
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Berndtsson, Stéphanie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Fastighetsmäklarbranschens anseende: - Faktorer som påverkar allmänhetens förtroende för fastighetsmäklare2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT

    Title: Real estate agents industry's reputation:

    - Factors affecting public confidence in the real estate agent

    Level: Final assignment for Bachelor Degree in Business Administration

    Author: Louise Uddströmer and Stéphanie Berndtsson

    Supervisor: Per-Arne Wikström

    Date: 2011 – May

    Aim: To try to present possible solutions to the problem of the real estate brokerage profession’s poor reputation and how the broker’s reputation can be improved in the future. The aim is to identify the major factors affecting the real estate profession's reputation among the public. We will examine, why and how these factors are important for the union's reputation and demonstrate the importance of real estate agents needs to strengthen their confidence. 

    Method: We have taken facts and materials to our thesis from articles, internet, literature, interviews and personal experiences. We have done partly a survey and partly interviews with real estate agents and industry associations. We used the first-mentioned to measure the factors, which affect brokers' confidence and the other to find solutions to the problem. We have made careful and critical selections when collecting empirical data. The facts and empirical data shall be used for our analysis and conclusion.

    Result & Conclusions: Through our quantitative research we have obtained the factors, which affect the public's trust in estate agents. For instance, bidding and cap rates. 141 persons participated in our study and about 30% of those had low or none confidence in the real estate agents. In our interviews with real estate agents and trade organizations they told us about their own experiences and shared their views on a solution of the problem with us. It will take time for industry to get more confidence from the public, but in the future we believe, that the problem will be solved, if all the brokers with their work will be greater in detail and clarity against both sellers and buyers.

    Suggestions for future research: We have limited our study to see, how the public looks at real estate agents in Sweden. Further study could cover, for example:

    -          To see how the public's trust for different real estate brokerage firms is.

    -          To  redo the survey in about a year, to see, if the new real estate law and action against the cap rates have had any effect on public confidence in the real estate agents.

    -          To compare how the public trust for real estate agents looks like in different parts of the country.

    -          To compare how the public trust for real estate agents looks like in different countries.

    Contribution of the thesis: Through this paper we have identified various factors, which affect the public's trust in the real estate agent. We have given examples of possible steps, which must be done to strengthen the trust in real estate agents as an occupational group and how it can be improved. We hope, that we through this paper have highlighted the importance of real estate broker's image.

    Key words: Real estate agent. Public. Trust. Factor. Cap rates. Bidding.

  • 1326.
    Ullman, Klas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Reglering av Fastighetsmäklare: är utbildning och licensiering av mäklare nödvändig?2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen diskuterar huruvida en ökad reglering av fastighetsmäklarbranschen kan hämma och skada effektiviteten på mäklarmarknaden. För att ge en bredare kontext som kan belysa frågeställningen har en översiktlig jämförelse gjorts mellan Sverige och England.

  • 1327.
    Urby, Viktor
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Enoksson, Felix
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Redovisning av uppskjuten skatt på fastigheter: En studie på fastighetsbolag inom K3-regelverket2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka hur redovisningsansvariga på företag inom fastighetsbranschen uppfattar det nya K3-regelverket vad gäller redovisning av uppskjuten skatt som uppstår på grund av att beskattningen är delvis frikopplad från redovisning av fastigheter.

     

    Metod: Studien är av kvantitativ natur med en deduktiv ansats. Insamling av empiri har skett genom insamling av data i form av webbenkäter och dokumentstudie. Det empiriska utfallet har sedan analyserats mot tidigare forskning och teorier.

     

    Resultat och slutsats: Resultatet visar på att det finns flera förklaringsvariabler som både enskilt och tillsammans påverkar respondenterna och hur de uppfattar redovisning av uppskjuten skatt.

     

    Förslag till framtida forskning: Då denna studie bygger på respondenternas uppfattning rörande redovisning av uppskjuten skatt i dagsläget kan en senare studie göras som behandlar det faktiska utfallet. Likaså undersöker inte denna studie alla tänkbara förklaringsvariabler som kan påverka utfallet. En ny studie kan därför göras som behandlar faktorer som exempelvis företagets marknadsposition och jämföra utfallet från ett sådant perspektiv.

  • 1328.
    Valentin, Corine
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Högberg, Emma
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Ledarskapets makt och anställdas commitment : - En fallstudie om maktens influens på upplevt commitment i en konsultverksamhet2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Power and organisational commitment are two essential concepts regarding a corporation’s leadership and workforce. The core of leadership consists of the influence the leader has over the workforce and the concept of power is to work as a propellant regarding his or hers influence. It thus applies that the leader utilise the power to influence the workforce to work towards the organisation's goals. For the leader to achieve the above and at the same time strive to retain proficient labour it is vital that he or she can enable organisational commitment among the employees. The aim of the study is therefore to analyse how a leader within a consulting firm uses his or her power in order to generate organisational commitment.

    The study is intended to convey a deep and thorough understanding regarding its aim, therefore we applied a case study design with a qualitative research strategy and a deductive approach. Furthermore, the study intends to examine a specific case company from which the study's primary data has been obtained through interviews with the company’s employees, the company's president and the owner. To be able to present the reader with a deeper understanding regarding the study’s problem discussion a theoretical framework, which addresses the study's main concepts and describes other relevant concepts appropriate to the subject has been developed.

    We could not based on the study’s conclusions distinguish between which powerbase that benefits which form of organisational commitment. However, it is clear that the case company applies two forms of power bases, knowledge - and the positioning base of power which, in the selected case company collectively promotes three forms of commitment, affective, normative and calculating commitment. Since the case company’s employees are comprised by a majority of men, it would be interesting if further research investigated whether the above-mentioned power bases promotes other forms of commitment in a consultancy with a majority of women employed.

  • 1329.
    Valmila, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Mellberg, Eric
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Påverkar kvinnor i bolagsstyrelser bolagens lönsamhet?: En svensk studie2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I den politiska debatten är jämställdhetsfrågan ett ständigt diskussionsämne. Även EU uppmärksammar detta och lägger fram ett förslag som innebär att minst 40 % av styrelseledamöterna ska vara kvinnor år 2020. Det finns flertalet internationella studier som undersöker om det finns något samband mellan kvinnor i bolagsstyrelsen och bolagens lönsamhet, resultaten är varierande. Med detta i åtanke inriktar sig studiens syfte åt att undersöka om det finns något samband mellan de två variablerna i de svenska aktiebolagen noterade på Large Cap-listan.

     

    Denna uppsats använder sig av en kvantitativ metod. Lönsamhetsmåttet som granskas i denna studie är räntabilitet på totalt kapital och jämställdhetsmåttet är andelen kvinnor, denna information hämtas ifrån bolagens årsredovisningar. För att undersöka om kvinnor i bolagsstyrelserna samvarierar med bolagens lönsamhet används Pearsons korrelationsanalys.

    Studien konstaterar att det inte finns något samband mellan de två variablerna som är kvinnor i bolagsstyrelser och bolagens lönsamhet hos de svenska Large Cap-bolagen. Anledningen till detta kan vara att kvinnorna i bolagsstyrelserna är en minoritet, vilket innebär att det blir svårt för de att påverka lönsamheten. Kvinnor i bolagsstyrelserna kan dock bidra med andra positiva effekter som i sin tur är värdeskapande för organisationerna.    

     

    Denna uppsats undersöker ej om det finns någon kausalitet mellan variablerna. Detta är något som vidare forskning bör ta hänsyn till. Ytterligare ett förslag är att involvera fler lönsamhetsmått i sin undersökning för att få en heltäckande bild över bolagens lönsamhet.  

     

    Uppsatsen visar på att det ej finns något samband mellan kvinnor i bolagsstyrelser och bolagens lönsamhet. Detta visar på att bolagen ej kan höja sin lönsamhet enbart genom att tillsätta kvinnor i bolagsstyrelsen.

  • 1330.
    van der Linde, Sander
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Cultivating the Cultural Brands: Gävle Teater and Gävle Konserthuset in Sweden2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Purpose – The aim of this study is to gain a deeper understanding on how brand equity for non-profit entertainment-based service firms in the cultural sector can be cultivated.

    Design/approach/methodology – An existing model to cultivate brand equity in commercial service firms is utilised to assess the applicability on specific non-profit firms. Furthermore, five interviews have been held to investigate the case companies’ practises and a survey has been taken to measure the perceptions from the visitors/customers’ point of view, which is referred to as a triangulation method.

    Findings – The findings show that brand equity can be cultivated by the means of the tested model, though, the popularity and famousness of a particular artist temporarily transfers its brand equity to the particular cultural institution wherefore the brand awareness is boosted significantly and brand meaning becomes more elucidated. As a result, entertainment-based cultural (non-profit) firms need to guarantee high quality experiences in which both the service and performance are amalgamated. Furthermore, companies must adapt to the rapid changing advertisement methods to reach (new) visitors. Thereby, a new model has been developed based on the study outcomes, which includes a new factor that influences the cultivation of brand equity in the specified sector and firms. The added factor in the developed model is “Programme Brand Equity” and exerts its influence on the original factors.

    Limitations and further research – Limitations are that the findings from these particular firms may not be found in other similar firms, which is a typical implication of every case study. Furthermore, this research is first in this topic wherefore supplementary literature is obligatory. Consequently, the findings of this research may have substantial abnormalities from practise. The developed model should be tested for generalisation of outcomes.

    Originality/value – This study links brand equity cultivation methods to entertainment-based cultural non-profit service firms and is first on this topic hence suggestions for further enlightenment are provided since it brings implications along.

    Key words – Brand equity, Word-of-Mouth/WOM, Brand Meaning, Brand Awareness.

  • 1331.
    Vedin, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Klimat för felhantering och Etiskt ledarskap: Felhantering i revision: En undersökning av ett tänkbart samband mellan etiskt ledarskap och felhanteringsklimat.2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    For an audit organization, it is important to work toward maintaining

    a high error climate to handle errors in an efficient and proper

    manner. This means that it is important for accountants to work

    towards high quality of work, reduce and manage errors that may

    occur in their daily work. Therefore, auditors must know how to

    handle errors in order to improve efficiency, which can be affected by

    how leadership is exercised in the workplace. The error climate

    means being able to act in a manner which will ensure a good job

    towards customers but also within the internal operations.

    The ethical leadership may thus have an impact on how auditors

    handle the error environment both internally and externally. It is very

    important for customers to have confidence in the business but also to

    maintain the order and the general rules of society for accounting

    firms.

    My study aims to show the thinkable relationship between ethical

    leadership and the error climate. The study included a questionnaire

    survey with answers from 113 accountants in Sweden. Three

    hypotheses were formulated and the analytical tests showed that there

    is a hint of connection between ethical leadership and error climate. A

    strong relation was however found between error management and

    error climate. The study also shows a weak relation between ethical

    leadership and learning from errors in the error climate.

    Keywords: Error climate, ethical leadership, error management.

  • 1332.
    Velevska, Biljana
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Intern marknadsföring i ett IT-konsult företag: en fallstudie på Know IT Gävleborg AB2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med uppsatsen är att studera hur den intern marknadsföringen används och hur det påverkar företagets anställda, i ett IT-konsult företag.

     

    Metod: Formen fallstudie har använts och studien innehåller en kvalitativ undersökning med personliga intervjuer vilka gjorts på både ledning och personalnivå. Intervjuerna tog plats på företaget som studerades och fokuserar på; motivation, belöning, utveckling, beslutsfattande, intern kommunikation, ansvar och miljö. Vid intervjutillfällena har det även använts mätskalor. Analysarbetet genomfördes genom att sammanställa empirin och koppla ihop den med teorin. Därefter drogs slutsatsen som visar hur den interna marknadsföringen påverkar IT-konsulterna i företaget. Det lämnas även rekommendationer till företaget Know IT Gävleborg.

                                                                                      

    Resultat & slutsats: Resultaten som funnits är att företaget Know IT Gävleborg AB övergripande lyckats väl med den interna marknadsföringen men att det finns brister inom vissa områden. VD på företaget gör en hel del åtgärder för att medarbetarna ska må bra men det skulle kunna göras vissa förbättringar på några områden. Medarbetarna ges en hel del frihet inom sin yrkesroll men även en hel del krav medföljer den friheten. Detta leder till att medarbetarna är aktiva inom det område som intresserar och motiverar dem. Ledningen som implementerar de interna marknadsföringsaktiviteterna bör vara mer aktiv i att hitta de brister som finns och försöka åtgärda dem. Dessa brister beror till viss del på att VD lägger en något för stor del av tiden på konsultarbete i jämförelse med vad han skulle behöva för att underhålla den interna marknadsföringen.

     

    Förslag till fortsatt forskning: Studien har begränsats till att undersöka den interna marknadsföringen för IT-konsulter som arbetar in-house på Know IT Gävleborg AB. Fortsatt forskning skulle kunna göras genom att utöka studien till att undersöka den interna marknadsföringens påverkan på alla medarbetarna. Det skulle dessutom vara intressant att jämföra den med andra IT-konsultföretag inom samma bransch och samma region.

     

    Uppsatsens bidrag: Uppsatsen har bidragit till att ge en inblick i hur den interna marknadsföringen fungerar i ett litet IT-konsultföretag. Eftersom det varit svårt att finna tidigare utförda studier inom samma område kan denna studie bidraga med underlag för teorier och framtida jämförande forskning inom området. Resultatet kan vara intressant för studenter, ledare som är ansvariga för intern marknadsföring inom tjänsteföretag och medarbetare i IT-konsult företag.

     

    Nyckelord: Intern marknadsföring, Motivation, Fallstudie, IT-konsultföretag, Know IT Gävleborg AB.

  • 1333.
    Vestin, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Lindberg, Mari
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Vilka faktorer påverkar tapetförsäljningen?: en studie av sex tapetföretags resultaträkningar.2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka om man ur de sex tapetförsäljnings företagens resultaträkningar kan utläsas om inredningsprogrammen haft någon påverkan på tapetförsäljnings företagens resultat. 

     

    Metod: För att kunna utföra denna studie har vi gjort en kvantitativ undersökning av företagens resultaträkningar från 1991 till 2010. De data vi har fått fram har vi redovisat i fyra grafer för att få fram skillnaderna i varje segment, samt skillnaderna mellan de olika segmenten.

     

    Resultat & slutsats: Vi har kommit fram till att det inte finns något enhälligt svar till om inredningsprogrammen har haft någon påverkan på tapettillverkarnas resultat. Det finns flera orsaker till varför resultaten har gått upp och ner för företagen. En orsak är de finanskriser som har varit, men även medelinkomstutvecklingen, vårt förhållningssätt till våra bostäder, och att bostäder blivit en kapitalinvestering.

     

    Förslag till fortsattforskning: Vi skulle vilja föreslå att man som fortsatt forskning går utanför våra avgränsningar och undersöker hur återförsäljare och målerifirmor har upplevt om inredningsprogrammen har haft betydelse för hur mycket tapeter de har fått sälja/fått i uppdrag att sätta upp. Detta kan göras med en blandning av enkäter och intervjuer.

     

    Studiens bidrag: Då detta arbete är det första av sitt slag så anser vi att det kan användas som en språngbräda för de som vill göra en fortsättning och fördjupning av studier inom samma område. Företagens nytta av vår studie kan vara att inredningsprogrammens påverkan på resultaträkningarna inte varit signifikant.

     

    Nyckelord: Tapeter, resultaträkningar, finanskris, medelinkomst, inredningsprogram, resultat efter finansiella poster.

  • 1334.
    Vestlund, Emil
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Hyder, Raqiq
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Styrkonceptet Lean Productions påverkan på medarbetares självständighet och delaktighet: Medarbetares upplevelser av Lean Production2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of our study is to create an understanding of how employees experience that autonomy and participation are influenced by an application of Lean Production. The method builds on a hermeneutic science tradition and a social constructivist perspective on reality. The case study is carried out through an abductive approach between theoretical and empirical material. The study is based on a qualitative research design and is grounded on the empirical evidence that consists of eleven semi-structured interviews, which is further thematically analyzed. The study indicates that employees experience autonomy and participation differently when the concept Lean Production is applied. Although we do see some components of the factors autonomy and participation be affected both negatively and positively. The reason for these effects on the components of autonomy and participation, we derive mainly to be barriers of hierarchy and standardization. We also see that a big part is contingent on situation and can depend on environment and individual. For future research we see a need for more extensive analysis’ in how organizations can prevent the negative consequences and stimulate the positive effects that Lean Production bring. We also suggest that research is done concerning how well standardization fits in swedish organizations, where employees often are empowered. The study highlights barriers of hierarchy and standardization as influencing factors for employees when implementing Lean production, in contrast to previous research, while autonomy and participation also depends on situation.

  • 1335.
    Vestlund, Malin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Lööw-Ohlson, Jonas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Företagens behov av revision: efter avskaffandet av revisionsplikten för mindre företag i Sverige2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: Companies needs of the audit, after the abolition of the statutory audit for smaller companies in Sweden.

    Level: Final assignment for Bachelor Degree in Business Administration

    Authors: Jonas Lööw-Ohlson & Malin Vestlund

    Supervisor: Markku PenttinenDate: 2013-02-20

    Aim: The purpose of this work is to investigate how the abolishment of the statutory audit affected the different actors involved in this change, and that on this basis identify the factors that control the need and choice of voluntary audit for small companies in Sweden.

    Method: This study has a deductive, qualitative approach, as the gathering of empirical data is based on the set framework.

    Results and Conclusions: Benefits for companies to choose voluntary audit is primarily that the audit is considered to bring reliability to the accounts and it provides a quality stamp for the company in its dealings with external stakeholders. The companies need for audit depends on the demands and expectations placed on their accounts from different stakeholders and how well the audit helps them to meet these requirements. The decisive factor is if the companies feel that the benefits they get from choosing voluntary audit outweigh the cost. Many of the concerns and aspirations that the various stakeholders had prior to the abolishment of the statutory audit has actually become a reality. However it is still too early to see what impact the abolishment will have on taxes and financial crime, but it does not seem like it will have as big of an effect as they thought it would have, if any at all. It has also been shown that neither interest rates nor loan terms have been affected as much as some of the stakeholders expected, as that had happened in other countries. Banks focus more on the current situation of the companies and the only thing that it could affect is that it may take longer for the companies to get loans and credits approved if not good enough documentation needed for assessment is available. The abolishment has led to that the market for audit and accounting firms has changed. There were different views on what kind of firms would be the biggest losers of this change. What emerges is that neither accounting firms nor larger audit firms are affected very much. Accounting firms may notice some more competition as audit firms now offer accounting services to a greater extent than before. Audit services are replaced by accounting services. Collaborations between different stakeholders and a development of regulatory framework in order to ensure the quality of the accounts and income tax returns has been started after the abolishment. All participants in the survey are in favor of raising the limit to the EU level.

    Suggestions for future research: It would be interesting to see a similar study a little further ahead in time with more statistical data. For example at five and ten years after the change. It would also be interesting to have a comparison of the companies that choose not to have an auditor. How many of the companies that hires an accounting firm for help and how many that handles the bookkeeping themselves. Are there differences here between and within different industries? It would also be interesting to see a larger quantitative survey among the companies in Sweden, regarding the factors that led to the choice of keeping the audit or removing it, like the survey made by Collis in England. It might be interesting to see how significant the impact factors identified have been for the companies and if there are other factors that have made a difference and been more decisive. For example, direct claims by creditors, perceived benefits etc.

    Contribution of the thesis: This paper contributes to a better understanding of how the abolishment of the statutory audit affected the different actors and what they think of a future increase of the limits to EU level. It identifies the factors driving the companies need for audit. It also shows the adjustments that have occurred and still occurs in both approaches and practices, of the actors involved, in an effort to help companies meet statutory quality requirements on the annual accounts and tax returns.

    Keywords: Statutory Audit, mandatory, voluntary, audit, accounting, abolishment

  • 1336.
    Vidman, Åsa
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Strömberg, Annika
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Både och och lite till: ledarskap som hälsofrämjande faktor2014In: Hälsa, livsmiljö och arbetsliv: ur ett socialt arbete-perspektiv / [ed] Fereshteh Ahmadi & Sam Larsson, Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2014, p. 77-95Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 1337.
    Viklund, Christer
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Johansson, Alexander
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Attributs påverkan på förtroendet2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte

    Syftet med vår studie är att analysera sambandet mellan attribut och förtroende vid val av försäljare som tillhandahåller tjänster eller produkter av meriterad karaktär.

     

    Metod

    Ett deduktivt synsätt med analys av litteratur och vetenskapliga artiklar för att skapa en god översikt av tidigare forskning. Vår empiri genomförs med en kvantitativ metod genom en enkät-/surveyundersökning. Våra resultat analyseras i SPSS där vi utfört en deskriptiv statistik, korrelationsanalys, klusteranalys och faktoranalys. Detta följs av vår egen analys, diskussion och slutsats.

     

    Slutsats

    Utifrån vår studie kan vi konstatera att valen av attribut som en försäljare av tjänster eller produkter av meriterad karaktär gör kan ha en betydelsefull påverkan för förtroendeskapandet gentemot en kund. Detta bör enligt oss en försäljare ta i beaktning då det i sin tur kan ha stor betydelse för genomförandet av en affär. De mer naturliga eller vanligare attributen har en mindre negativ påverkan och de mer ovanliga och utstickande attributen har en större negativ påverkan på förtroendet.

    Uppsatsens bidrag

    Vårt bidrag till ämnet företagsekonomi och marknadsföring är påverkan av fastighetsmäklares eller försäljares val att genom skäggväxt, smink, piercingar eller tatueringar riskera att negativt drabba kundens förtroende för fastighetsmäklaren eller försäljaren.

  • 1338.
    Vilhelmson, Pär
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Källquist, Tomas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Kamratgranskning: en väg till fördjupade lärprocesser?2012In: I mötet mellan vetenskap och lärande: 13 högskolepedagogiska utmaningar / [ed] Göran Fransson & Helena Hammarström, Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2012, p. 161-180Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 1339.
    Vlangar, Andreea
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Lefèvre, Nathan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Impact of Online Word of Mouth on moviegoers: Students at the University of Gävle2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this research is to investigate online WOM in terms of its practice and the effect it can have on movie consumers. What are the motives moviegoers have in generating eWOM? Where can eWOM on movies be found online, and how does it impact its readers?

    Design/methodology/approach

    In order to develop our aim and research questions, the main concepts about WOM in general and WOM in the film industry were reviewed. Furthermore, the method of research was quantitative and was conducted on Business students at the University of Gävle, Sweden. An online survey was put at their disposal by mail as well as social media.

    Findings

    With the help of the results of our study, we discovered that our respondents had a positive attitude towards generating online WOM if given the opportunity. We identified the main motives movie consumers have, when it comes to generating eWOM, positive as well as negative. The effect of eWOM on moviegoers was also analyzed and we could conclude that positive eWOM can influence moviegoers to consider a specific movie and negative eWOM can either have no impact on filmgoers or make them disregard the specific movie. Finally, our findings also suggest that social media and review websites are the most used platforms for eWOM on movies.

    Theoretical & Practical implications

    This research offers a base for further research as it specifically focuses on consumer behavior towards eWOM, specifically in the film industry. The behavior of the consumers was examined from both the negative and the positive aspects of eWOM to deeper understand the effect it has in the film industry. Furthermore, the willingness to generate eWOM, motives, platforms of generation and effect were also key aspects of our research.

    Originality/value

    This research is unique in its kind due to its consideration of differentiating on both negative and positive aspects of eWOM. Previous research tends to focus only on the general phenomena of WOM, which did not give the possibility to understand the different ways it affects the consumers.

  • 1340.
    Voithofer, Edith Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Does the country of origin matter for sustainable products? A comparison of European sporting goods producers.2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Title: Does the Country of Origin Matter for Sustainable Products? A Comparison of European Sporting Goods Producers

    Level: Final assignment for Master Degree in Business Administration

    Author: Edith Anna Voithofer

    Supervisor: Jonas Kågström, Ph.D.

    Date: January 24, 2013

    Aim of study: The brand name and its country of origin is information that is used from consumers to make purchase decisions. Although existing research discusses several country of origin – aspects from other industries, literature within the sporting goods industry is still spare. Environmental pollution is an important topic nowadays, and the sporting goods industry is trying to include more “green” aspects within their business strategy, or is already quite successful in doing so. To fill the research gap, this thesis focuses on sustainable producers with a very good sustainable reputation in order to analyze the importance of the country of origin effect within the sustainable outdoor industry.

    Methodology: For this paper a conclusive research design was taken, as it is more formal, and used to test specific relationships. The quantitative research included respondents from two sustainable outdoor brands (originally from Sweden and Germany) who answered an online survey. Basis for the selection process was the independent bluesign® standard, a strong and global sustainability standard. The survey included five constructs to quantify the dimensions of brand equity and overall brand equity.

    Results: Both respondent groups are similar regarding their demographic data characteristics and their opinion when it comes to the quality of outdoor goods and its brand association. In particular, they seem to feel strongly connected towards the brands; they were proud and very loyal. Nevertheless, differences were identified. Sustainable products seem to be valued higher from Swedish respondents, whereas loyalty seems to be more important for German participants.

    Contribution of the study: Although existing research discusses several country of origin related aspects from other industries, relevant literature within the sporting goods industry, and here specifically the sustainable outdoor industry is still sparse. These topics are covered in this study.

    Keywords: Country of origin, Sustainability, Sporting Goods Industry, Outdoor Industry

  • 1341.
    Vozila Uhlin, Hanna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Hermansson, Jessica
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Det autentiska transformativa ledarskapets effekter inom revisionsbyråer2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: The authentic transformational leadership effects in accounting firms

    Level: Final assignment for Bachelor Degree in Business Administration

    Authors: Hanna Vozila Uhlin & Jessica Hermansson

    Supervisor: Jan Svanberg

    Date: June - 2015

    Aim: The actual function of an auditor is based on an independent and objective review. Since there have been some auditing scandals in recent years; there is reason to believe that this is not always the case. Theories and research on ethical leadership, including the authentic transformative leadership, show a positive impact on employees when it comes to strengthening them morally and promote ethical decision-making. Ethical leadership has also been indirectly shown to influence employees' thoughts through the positive influence the leader has when it comes to building an ethical culture in the organization. This study investigates the authentic transformative leadership`s direct impact on the auditors’ ethical decisions and actions, as well as the leadership´s impact associated with an ethical culture.

    Method: For this study we have conducted a survey by sending out questionnaires to 1,000 approved and certified public accountants of FAR's membership. The collected data were processed and analyzed using SPSS Statistics. The results of the statistical analyses are reported in separate tables.

    Results & Conclusions: The results indicate that the authentic transformative leadership has a positive effect on the ethical culture, which in turn has a positive effect on objectivity. The results further show no relationship to indicate that an authentic transformational leadership or an ethical culture would have a positive impact on the auditors' actions in terms of quality-reducing actions, RAQ acts.

    Suggestions for future research: Replication of the study in a larger sample with complementary personal interviews to show the additional aspects of personality factors in addition.

    Contribution of the thesis: The study contributes to knowledge about how an authentic transformational leadership within the audit firm can influence the auditors' objectivity and actions. This can be useful for auditing firms to pay attention to the lack of confidence that society currently has for auditors. The academic character of the study can be the basis for further research in the area.

    Keywords: Authentic transformational leadership, ethical culture, RAQ acts, objectivity.

  • 1342.
    Wahlberg, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Att upptäcka ett företag och dess omvärld2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: Discovering a company and its environment

     

    Level: Final assignment for Bachelor degree in Business Administration

     

    Author: Daniel Wahlberg

     

    Supervisor: Lars-Torsten Eriksson

     

    Date: 2011-June

     

    Aim: The aim of this study is to describe the company A-assistanceLeimirAB and examine the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats it needs to take into account in its planning for the future.

     

    Method: The study is based on a deductive approach and is a case study in which data collection occurred primarily through interviews with company CEO and surveys sent to company officials. Since I work in the company one could say participation observation is included, and an obvious use of internal documents. The theoretical foundation is based on the literature on marketing- and business development. With the MIO-model as a framework, I focused on two submodeller, the verbal description of the business idea and the schematic SWOT model.

     

     

    Result & Conclusions: The thesis proposes a new business idea that can be expressed as: "We as private company provides the best PERSONAL assistance in accordance with LSS to handicapped across the country, words as independence, self determination and  skills are the foundation stones for your assistance. " Furthermore, a consolidated SWOT description is also shown and can provide a base for the company and its analysis and for further discussions and planning.

     

    Suggestions for future research: MIO-model consists of four steps, this study examined the first two steps in the model. To explore the strategies and policies and how to suit A-assistans would therefore be interesting. Individual issues of interest includes marketing- and service development, pricing, education and quality assurance for the company.

     

    Contributions for the thesis: The study has helped to explain how a company as A-assistans should do to examine how to work in the present situation and how this shold be summarized. The study has also demonstrated how to work with the development of the company.

     

    Keywords: SWOT analysis, MIO model, business idea, business development, entrepreneurship

  • 1343.
    Walfridsson, Josefine
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Yassin, Iman
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Prestationsmätning av Corporate social responsibility (CSR) för den interna styrningen: En kvalitativ studie2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Title: Performance measurement of Corporate social responsibility (CSR) for internal control – A qualitative study

    Level: Final assignment for Bachelor Degree in Business Administration

    Authors: Josefine Walfridsson and Iman Yassin

    Supervisor: Tomas Källquist and Pär Vilhelmson

    Date: 2019 – January

     

    Aim: The aim of this study is to create an understanding of how operations are working to introduce CSR into their internal performance measurements.

    Method: The study is based on a hermenuetic research tradtition with an abductive approach. The theoretical framework has been built based on previous research. The empirical material has been collected based on ten qualitative semi-structured interviews. Both the theory and the empirics are then discussed in a thematic analysis that led to the study's results and contributions.

     

    Results: Performance measurement of CSR is not used for management accounting purpose, but is primarily used for external reporting of CSR performance as a way of creating transparency towards external stakeholders. The study has indicated that performance measurement of CSR is used for management accounting purpose in few operations but limited in the majority of the operations studied.

     

    Contribution of the thesis: The study contributes with practical insight into the performance measurements of CSR in operations management accounting, where it turns out that focus is mainly on external reporting in practice. The previous research on the subject is characterized by normative studies. Where performance measurements of CSR is described as very useful in the management accounting of operations. Furthermore the previous research indicates that performance measurements of CSR in operations mainly focus on external reporting, which our empirical study supports.

     

    Suggestions for future research: Suggestions for future research is to do more empirical studies on performance measurements of CSR in the management accounting of operations, since there is few studies made in this area. Another suggestion is to do research in how operations work to bring CSR into their performance measurement system, as in the previous research is termed SPMS.

    Keywords: Performance measurement, Corporate social responsibility (CSR), Management accounting, Sustainability performance measurement system (SPMS)

  • 1344.
    Wallberg, Maria
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Wennertorp, Nora
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Svenska revisorers revisionsförfarande: Verkligt värde på förvaltningsfastigheter2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to create an understanding of how auditors audit fair value of investment properties.

    The research strategy is of qualitative nature, with an abductive research approach and is based on the hermeneutical research tradition. The empirical study is based on semi-structured interviews which are then interpreted and linked to previous research and relevant theories to answer the study’s research questions.

    The study shows how the auditors proceed during the audit of fair value of investment properties, through a model with three phases. No big difference of audit methodology can be identified through the empirical study. The study also concludes that IAS 40 results in higher demands on auditors' knowledge due to the major importance and risk that fair value brings, which means more subjective assessments of assumptions and inputs. The study's theoretical contributions include a three-phase model for the audit process of fair value of investment properties and the difference between a full valuation and a desktop valuation. The practical contribution of the study consists of proposals for change in the framework.

    As suggestions for further research in this area, the authors suggest why the inexperienced auditors have a less positive view of fair value. Also deferred taxes in real estate is highlighted as an area of opportunity for further research.

  • 1345.
    Wallin, Martin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Kjellgren, Alexander
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Långsiktigt fastighetsföretagande genom personliga, hållbara och lojala kundrelationer2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien är att skapa förståelse för hur ledningen i fastighetsföretag arbetar för att på lång sikt skapa personliga, hållbara och lojala kundrelationer.

    Studien antar ett aktörssynsätt och den hermeneutiska traditionen. En fallstudie på totalt fem fastighetsföretag har genomförts där sammanlagt 18 kvalitativa intervjuer fullbordats.

    Studien visar att företag arbetar också utanför sin kärnverksamhet för att skapa personliga, hållbara och lojala kundrelationer. Företag bör skapa ett värde som även delas av kunder. För att skapa starkare band till sina kunder kan företag styra sin verksamhet med hjälp av CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility) verksamheter av olika slag för att skapa hållbara, djupa och långsiktiga kundrelationer och därigenom bidra till att infria kundernas önskemål. Genom att leverera produkter och tjänster av hög kvalitet, att tillhandahålla aktiviteter för kunder och samarbeta med nyckelpersoner kan kundernas lojalitet öka.

    Förslag till vidare forskning är att genomföra en ny studie med samma syfte, dock med tillägg av intervjuer med kunder. Det är också viktigt att studera frågan utifrån kundernas perspektiv, för att närmare undersöka hur kunder vill stärka relationen till de företag man arbetar med. På detta sätt kan en bild ges av hur kunder på bästa sätt kan motiveras att ställa upp och vara med och påverka företagens beslut. I flera intervjuer har det framkommit att ledningen i företagen ofta har problem att få en bred uppslutning vid kundmöten.

  • 1346.
    Wallmon, Monika
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration. Uppsala universitet, Företagsekonomiska institutionen.
    A Manifesto for Anarchist Entrepreneurship: Provocative Demands for Change and the Entrepreneur2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This manifesto takes a broad and critical approach to entrepreneurial research. The author consciously uses a provocative way of arguing for the importance of challenging received academic wisdom about entrepreneurship.

    It is a manifesto that spells out why we should question the idea that entrepreneurship research is neutral. It is the academic's privilege to ask questions; hence the appeal here to critical theory, familiar from other traditions than business management, and a useful corrective when considering the dominant and hegemonic perspectives in entrepreneurship research.

    The manifesto presents entrepreneurship as something that goes far beyond market-oriented business to an enterprising spirit that could keep society self-reflecting and self-critical by questioning what it takes for granted; mobilizing the entrepreneurial energies of those who voluntarily marginalize themselves–individuals and groups who are not afraid to stand out, channeling their self-confidence to defend values that contrast the dominant ones. They are to be found among performance artists practising social art, "extreme" entrepreneurs, and creative anarchists who take society itself as their target when trying to instigate change.

    When the entrepreneurial focus is not the market per se, but rather the social norms and values in which economic activity is embedded, the entrepreneur's task becomes to challenge whatever is taken for granted–an incitement that is as much social as economic. Thus, the entrepreneur as a provocateur takes on the most established institutions, her only guiding principle being to question whatever principles that society unthinkingly espouses, whatever is taken for granted. Unlike market entrepreneurs, who appreciate institutions since they provide an otherwise unknowable environment with basic "rules of the game", provocative entrepreneurs question even the most formal, long-standing institutions. Their motivation is a generic obstinacy, and their vision is to be recognized for making people aware–and for their actions, even as they rub saltpetre in society's wounds.

    Entrepreneurship in the form it is presented in this manifesto asks the awkward question or presents the uncomfortable truth, forcing all to take a long hard look at themselves in a cold, self-critical light. The essays here cover a variety of forms of anarchist entrepreneurship–all with a strong driving spirit. The manifesto aims to stimulate entrepreneurs and researchers, as well as politicians and citizens, to engage, to initiate, and to act, all in the name of the society.

  • 1347.
    Wallström, Emilia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Simonsson, Evelina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Attityd till ett varumärke via produktplacering: En jämförande studie mellan Generation X och Generation Y2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The purpose of this study is to compare how Generation X and Y´s attitude towards a brand is influenced by product placement.

    Method: In the study, a survey was conducted using experimental design with 169 respondents. Each respondent was asked to watch a specific episode from the TV-series Solsidan where product placement occurs. Thereafter the respondents answered a survey about product placements that appeared in the episode.

    Results & conclusion: According to the results, Generation X and Y in most cases have the same attitude to product placement in general. Our conclusion is that both Generation X and Y have a positive attitude towards a brand used in a product placement in the TV-series Solsidan. We can see an exception in prominent product placement where both generations show a negative attitude. For all kinds of product placement, there is no difference between generation's attitude, since Generation X and Generation Y have the same attitude.

    Suggestions for further research: Our proposal for further research is to do the same type of study with more respondents. Another suggestion is to do the same type of study using a qualitative survey.

    Contribution of the thesis: The theoretical contribution is our comparative study between Generation X and Generation Y and their attitude towards brands through product placement. Our practical contribution is to expand the knowledge of marketers to use the different kinds of product placement. This in order to help those who use product placement to reach different age categories, as they want a positive impact on the consumer's brand attitude.

  • 1348.
    Wandt, Christian
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Akdogan, Fredrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Externa intressenters uppfattning om SMS-kreditgivares image och rykte2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Titel:

    Externa intressenters uppfattning om SMS-kreditgivares image och rykte

    Kurspoäng:

    15 HP

    Kursnivå:

    C-uppsats i företagsekonomi

    Författare:

    Fredrik Akdogan & Christian Wandt

    Handledare:

    Agneta Sundström

    Biträdande handledare:

    Zahra Ahmadi

    Examinator:

    Akmal Hyder

    Datum:

    2013-06-

    Syfte:

    Syftet är att öka förståelsen för hur SMS-lån uppfattas av potentiella kunder och intresseorganisationer samt hur de ser på långivande företags image och rykte. Delsyftet är att förstå hur bilden av SMS-lån hos intresseorganisationer kan påverka potentiella låntagare i samband med lån.

    Metod:

    För att genomföra studien har vi samlat information från artiklar och litteratur. Vi har genomfört intervjuer med anställda på två myndigheter och en intervju med en nyhetsbyrå samt även samlat in data genom en enkätundersökning för att ta reda på hur potentiella låntagare uppfattar SMS-lån och hur de uppfattar information om lånen från intresseorganisationer.

    Slutsats:

    Studien har visat att intresseorganisationer har en stark inverkan på företagens image och rykte. Ett samarbete mellan dessa ökar deras förmåga att sprida information till potentiella SMS-låntagare vilket gör att de kan anpassa långivningen att den blir mer informativ och trovärdighet. 5

    Allmänheten har en mycket dålig bild av dessa företag och dessa skulle vad vi kan anta tjäna på att arbeta på ett sätt som bättre ligger i linje med vad dessa intresseorganisationer vill se. Vår slutsats är att ska intresseorganisationer kunna påverka SMS-företagen och deras image och rykte krävs att intresseorganisationer samarbetar med varandra för att sprida information om SMS-lån till potentiella kunder.

    Förslag till fortsatt forskning:

    Förslag till forskning är att undersöka hur intresseorganisationer kan påverka image och rykte inom andra branscher som i dagsläget får anses ha diskutabla rykten. Ett exempel, där även KOV är inblandad i dagsläget när det gäller att ta ställning, är tobaksbranschen. Där spelar även regering och riksdag stor roll genom lagverket som kan påverka potentiella kunder på fler sätt.

    Uppsatsens bidrag:

    Denna studie kan verka som underlag för företag att ta ställning till hur de upplevs utifrån deras image och rykte och att inse vilken inverkan intresseorganisationer har och behovet av att samverka med dem. Vidare har denna studie bidragit med kunskap för företagen om nya sätt att arbeta med organisationerna och visar vikten av att de anpassa sig till deras önskemål för att på det sättet förbättra sin image och sitt rykte.

    Nyckelord:

    SMS-kreditgivare, Brand, Brand Equity modell, Image, Rykte

  • 1349.
    Wang, Jun
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Yang, Yuanyuan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Competencies required by female leaders in University libraries: The library of the University of Gävle2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Title: Competencies required by female leaders in University libraries- The library of the University of Gävle

    Level: Second cycle, Final assignment for Master Degree in Business Administration

    Author: Yuanyuan Yang and Jun Wang

    Supervisor: Maria Fregidou-Malama and Pär Vilhelmson

    Date: 2013 - June

    Purpose: This study focus on female leadership in University library. We aim to investigate which competencies are required by female leader in Swedish University libraries.

    Method: This is a single case study. Data were collected from Gävle University through questionnaire with all the staffs of the library and face-to-face interview with the chief librarian and three librarians. Quantitative data were analyzed with Microsoft Excel.

    Result & Conclusion: Male and female should possess the same competencies. There is not any competency required only by female. However, female are considered have advantage in interpersonal effectiveness.

    Suggestions for further study: This research was done in a small size library; it could be interesting to investigate in this research in bigger size library. Besides, it could be also interesting to extend this research to other countries which has different culture with Sweden, to investigate how gender issue affects female chief librarian development.

    Keyword: gender, leadership, librarian, female, competencies

  • 1350.
    Wang, Jun
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Yang, Yuanyuan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    H&M fast fashion business model in China2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT

    Title: H&M fast fashion business model in China

    Level: Bachelor Degree in Business Administration

    Author: Yuanyuan Yang & Jun Wang

    Supervisor: Ernst Hollander

    Date: 2013-03-11

     

    Aim:

    Business model have been applied to different industries, and many entrepreneurs consider a good business model to be half the success. As per our observation, there were problems existing in H&M in China, for example, quality problem, price advantage lost and so on. However, H&M still has a good sale performance in China and we believed it largely depends on its successful business model. This study aims to examine what H&M fast fashion business model is and how H&M’s business model influences its development in China in different period.

     

    Method:

    The method we used consisted of research process, research approach and data collection. A qualitative research was developed in the way of interviews. Primary data was collected from the interview which we conducted with two interviewees of H&M employees from different countries and the other interviewees both work for Chinese fashion industry. Secondary data included relevant extant literature, articles and online resources. As a research tools, SWOT was used to analyze the operation of H&M in China. With the collected data and the previous analysis, the result presents H&M’s short-term, mid term and long-term development in China.

     

    Result & Conclusion:

    The unique business model is the main reason H&M have such good sales performance even when they have many problems as we had observed from their retail stores in China. H&M makes good use of its supply chain and information system to ensure delivering right products to their customers in the right time and at the right place with the right price.

    We believe the strengths of its business model would bring a lot of benefits for H&M in short-term development and mid-term development in China. As for the long-term development, the weaknesses of its business model maybe bring some problems.

     

    Suggestions for future research:

    Quality problem and supply chain pollution is important for H&M’s long term development in China. Therefore, to ensure products’ quality and supply chain management improvement could be studied in future. Moreover, since business model consisted by lots of aspects, in-depth study is necessary in order to better understand H&M business model. Last but not the least, Chinese local fast fashion industry is still on the initial stage and thus, to borrow idea from H&M’s business model to develop Chinese fast fashion industry is interesting and important to be studied in the future.

     

    Contribution of the study:

    Fast fashion business model have been created based on the business model and fast fashion characteristics. Hopefully, it would be helpful for further study which focuses on fast fashion industry. The specific knowledge of China is able to compensate the situation that most studies are focus on developed countries.

     

    Key words: fast fashion in China, H&M in China, clothing industry, fast fashion business model, China

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