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  • 1401.
    Bengtsson, Marie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences.
    Persson, Malin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences.
    ”Då skriver jag väl själv då!”: Förskollärare berättar om hur de arbetar med barns litteracitetsutveckling i förskolan2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to investigate what Swedish preschool teachers say about their ways of supporting the children's development of literacy and what they say about their ways of noticing the children's interests. A sociocultural perspective has been used as a theoretical interpretation tool throughout the study. Seven preschool teachers from six different preschools in a Swedish city have been interviewed and the results show that the different preschool teachers focus on literacy on different levels, but that all of them work with supporting the children's literacy development in some way. Most of them work with a specific reading project, designed to increase the number of hours the children listen to adults reading aloud, and also the number of hours the children read books themselves in the longer run, throughout their school years. The preschool teachers could also give examples of their methods of noticing the children's interests, and also, in some cases, how they planned pedagogical activities based on this. The results of the study were then divided into different thematic areas and discussed, which led to conclusions. The most important conclusion of the study was that the preschool teachers seemed to respect the interests of the children in more ways than they were aware of themselves.

  • 1402.
    Bengtsson, Mathilda
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    Persson, Johanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    "Du kunde beretat lite mer om cklanen liksom hur han såg ut typ": En jämförande studie om kamratbedömning i grundskolans lägre årskurser2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I den här undersökningen ligger fokus på kamratbedömning vilket är en del av den formativa bedömning som är aktuellt i dagens skola. Kamratbedömning innebär att elever bedömer varandras arbeten och ger kommentarer i ett förbättringssyfte. Responsen bör innefatta både skriftlig och muntlig respons för att den ska främja elevernas utveckling. I arbetet med kamratbedömning utvecklar eleverna en självbedömningsförmåga som leder till att de blir självständiga i sitt lärande. Undersökningen syftar till att ta reda på vilka skillnader och likheter det finns mellan en klass som har arbetat med kamratbedömning tidigare och en klass som inte arbetat med metoden. Lärarens roll i processen och elevernas upplevelser av arbetet är också en del av undersökningen. Data har samlats in genom intervjuer med lärarna i respektive klass, en enkät, elevtexter samt observationer. Resultatet visar att klassen som arbetat med kamratbedömning tidigare är mer utveckland i sin skriftliga respons samt att de har en struktur som de förhåller sig till. I elevernas muntliga respons var klasserna likvärdiga. Vidare diskuteras möjliga förklaringar till de skillnader och likheter som synliggjorts i studien samt lärarens roll och elevernas upplevelser. 

  • 1403.
    Bengtsson, Mattias
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Sjöblom, Yvonne
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Öberg, Peter
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    ‘Well, it’s up to me now’ – young care leavers’ strategies for handling adversities when leaving out-of-home care in Sweden2018In: Nordic Social Work Research, ISSN 2156-857X, E-ISSN 2156-8588, Vol. 8, no sup 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AbstractThis qualitative longitudinal study of 20 young Swedish care leavers investigates their subjective experience of and strategies for handling adversities when being in the process of leaving out-of-home care. The empirical data is based on two sets of interviews, the first conducted at time 1 (T1) when they were still in care but the moving out process had begun, the second (T2) 6-10 months later when the vast majority had left care. The thematic analysis based on resilience theory showed that the majority of the informants over time developed process-oriented strategies, which in our categorization emanated either from the inner world of the informants (e.g. through re-framing of experiences and an emerging self-reliance) or from their outer contextual world (e.g. through a restructuring of the social network). The results are discussed from a resilience theoretical perspective in which the informants' strategies are illustrated by the conceptual pair of 'navigation' and 'negotiation', used to make sense of their inner and outer world-oriented strategies.

  • 1404.
    Bengtsson, Mattias
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Sjöblom, Yvonne
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Öberg, Peter
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Young care leavers’ expectations of their future: A question of time horizon2018In: Child & Family Social Work, ISSN 1356-7500, E-ISSN 1365-2206, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 188-195Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates young care leavers’ expectations of their future after discharge from care. The results are based on qualitative longitudinal data where 16- to 21-year-old care leavers (n = 15) were interviewed twice, first when still in care but planning for their discharge (T1) and the second time 6–9 months later (T2). The analysis using a general inductive approach showed that their expectations were dependent on the time horizon and that there was an obvious difference between the young informants’ short- and long-term expectations. Their short-term expectations consisted of worries connected to their approaching discharge (at T1) and how to cope with challenges of everyday life after discharge from care (at T2). These results seem to echo negative outcomes shown in previous quantitative research. However, the informants’ long-term expectations provide a different picture, being mainly positive in both interviews (T1 and T2). The results are discussed from a life course perspective, where the informants’ visions of their future are framed and understood in terms of the different stages of their transition process.

  • 1405.
    Bengtsson, Olof
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Design and Characterization of RF-Power LDMOS Transistors2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In mobile communication new applications like wireless internet and mobile video have increased the demand of data-rates. Therefore, new more wideband systems are being implemented. Power amplifiers in the base-stations that simultaneously handle these wideband signals for many terminals (handhelds) need to be highly linear with a considerable band-width.

    In the past decade LDMOS has been the dominating technology for use in these RF-power amplifiers. In this work LDMOS transistors possible to fabricate in a normal CMOS process have been optimized and analyzed for RF-power applications. Their non-linear behavior has been explored using load-pull measurements. The mechanisms of the non-linear input capacitance have been analyzed using 2D TCAD simulations. The investigation shows that the input capacitance is a large contributor to phase distortion in the transistor.

    Computational load-pull TCAD methods have been developed for analysis of RF-power devices in high-efficiency operation. Methods have been developed for class-F with harmonic loading and for bias-modulation. Load-pull measurements with drain-bias modulation in a novel measurement setup have also been conducted. The investigation shows that the combination of computational load-pull of physical transistor structures and direct measurement evaluation with modified load-pull is a viable alternative for future design of RF-power devices. Simulations and measurements on the designed LDMOS shows a 10 to 15 % increase in drain efficiency in mid-power range both in simulations and measurements. The computational load-pull method has also been used to investigate the power capability of LDMOS transistors on SOI. This study indicates that either a low-resistivity or high-resistivity substrate should be used in manufacturing of RF-power LDMOS transistors on SOI to achieve optimum efficiency. Based on a proper substrate selection these devices exhibit a 10 % higher drain-efficiency mainly due to lower dissipated power in the devices.

  • 1406.
    Bengtsson, Olof
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Integration and Analysis of RF-Power LDMOS Transistors2006Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 1407.
    Bengtsson, Olof
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Johansson, Ted
    Nordlander, Edvard
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Rydberg, Anders
    Optimization of High-Voltage RF Power SiGe Transistors for Cellular Applications1999In: High Power Microwave Electronics: Measurements, Identification, Applications, 1999. MIA-ME '99. Proceedings of the IEEE-Russia Conference, 1999Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The base profile design for high-voltage RF power silicon transistors with epitaxial SiGe base was studied using 2-D process and device simulations. The addition of Ge in the base makes thin base widths with very high base doping possible. This gives rise to a higher maximum oscillation frequency thus improving the critical power gain for these devices

  • 1408.
    Bengtsson, Olof
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Litwin, Andrej
    Olsson, Jörgen
    Small Signal and Power Evaluation of Novel BiCMOS Compatible, Short Channel LDMOS Technology2003In: IEEE transactions on microwave theory and techniques, ISSN 0018-9480, E-ISSN 1557-9670, Vol. 51, no 3, p. 1052-1056Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe a very short-channel 0.15-mum LDMOS transistor with a breakdown voltage of up to 60 V, manufactured in a standard 0.35-mum BiCMOS process. At 1900 MHz and a 12-V supply voltage, the 0.4-mm-gatewidth device with shortest drain drift region gives 100-mW output power P-1 dB at a drain efficiency of 43%. It has a transducer power gain of over 20 dB. The maximum current gain cutoff frequency f(T) is 15 GHz, and the maximum available gain cutoff frequency f(MAX) is 38 GHz. We show the dependence of f(T), an f(MAX) of gate and drain bias for transistors with different-drain drift region length. The LDMOS process module does not affect the performance or the models of other devices. We present for the first time a simple way to create high-voltage high-performance LDMOS transistors for an RF power amplifier use even in a very downscaled silicon technology.

  • 1409.
    Bengtsson, Olof
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Rydberg, Anders
    Chen, Quian
    Johansson, Ted
    Ahl, Bengt
    Purroy-Martin, Fransisco
    Large-Signal Characterization and Modeling of LDMOS-Transistors for RF-Power Applications1997In: GHz97, 1997Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 1410.
    Bengtsson, Olof
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Vestling, Lars
    A Method for Device Intermodulation Analysis from 2D, TCAD Simulations using a Time-domain Waveform Approach2006In: Proceedings of the 36th European Microwave Conference, 2006, p. 169-171Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a fast method useful for IMD analysis at TCAD design level. The method is based on the static load-line transfer function extracted from 2D device simulations. The transfer function is exposed to a time domain signal through a look-up table and the output response is analyzed using the Fast Fourier Transform. The response is compared to measurements of a fabricated device. The method is shown to accurately predict the IMD behavior of a two-tone signal for the 3’rd, 5’th and 7’th order IMD products with regards to sweet spot tracking and relative IMD magnitude. We present a fast and simple way to predict IMD performance from TCAD simulations at an early stage in the design process. The method enables prediction of output response from any signal due to the time domain approach.

  • 1411.
    Bengtsson, Olof
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Vestling, Lars
    FTE Uppsala Universitet.
    Olsson, Jörgen
    FTE Uppsala Universitet.
    A Computational Load-Pull Investigation of Harmonic Loading effects on AM-PM conversion2008In: GigaHertz Symposium 2008: Abstract Book, 2008, p. 83-83Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work computational harmonic load-pull have been used to study the effect of harmonic loading on AM-PM conversion for an RF-Power LDMOS transistor. It is found that especially the load impedance seen at the 2nd harmonic has a large impact (up to 2° or 15% difference) on the phase distortion at P1dB in this investigation conducted at chip level.

  • 1412.
    Bengtsson, Olof
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Vestling, Lars
    FTE Uppsala.
    Olsson, Jörgen
    FTE Uppsala.
    A Computational Load-Pull Method for TCAD Optimization of RF-Power Transistors in Bias-Modulation Applications2008In: 2008 European Microwave Integrated Circuits Conference (EuMIC), 2008, p. 222-225Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract— In this paper a method for TCAD evaluation of RF-Power transistors for high-efficiency operation using drain bias-modulation is presented. The method is based on large signal time-domain transient computational load-pull. With the method, intrinsic device parasitics and mechanisms affecting device efficiency under drain bias modulation can be investigated and optimized for the application making it very useful for RFIC design. A case study has been done on a CMOS compatible LDMOS. For verification under dynamic operation two-tone signals with varying envelope has been simulated. The results show a possible 15% increase in the efficiency of a modulated signal for the studied device at the expense of increased phase distortion observable also in the time-domain waveforms generated. Since the method is based on TCAD it is also useful in the investigation of e.g. dynamic breakdown during high envelope under bias-modulation operation.

  • 1413.
    Bengtsson, Olof
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Vestling, Lars
    The Ångström Laboratory, Solid State Electronics, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Olsson, Jörgen
    The Ångström Laboratory, Solid State Electronics, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    A Computational Load-Pull Method with Harmonic Loading for High-Efficiency Investigations2009In: Solid-State Electronics, ISSN 0038-1101, E-ISSN 1879-2405, Vol. 53, no 1, p. 86-94Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper a method for TCAD evaluation of RF-power transistors in highefficiency operation using harmonic loading is presented. The method is based on large signal timedomain

    computational load-pull. Active loads are used in the harmonic load-pull for simulation time reduction. With the method device performance under different harmonic load impedance can

    be investigated at an early stage in the design process. Alternative designs can be compared and the mechanisms affecting device efficiency in class-F can be studied at chip level. For method validation a case study is made on an LDMOS transistor. The transistor is load-pulled in class-AB and then optimized for efficiency at 2f0 and 3f0 using a novel approach with passive fundamental load and active harmonic loads. A swept simulation is conducted using passive fundamental and

    harmonic loads. Waveforms in compression are analyzed and the mechanisms creating the increased efficiency for in class-F are indentified by a comparative study of class-AB. Class-F harmonic termination is shown to give a 17 % overall reduction of dissipated power and a 9 % increase in output power. The expected efficiency increase is about 3-10 % in the compression

    region depending on level of compression.

  • 1414.
    Bengtsson, Olof
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Vestling, Lars
    Solid State Electronics, Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Olsson, Jörgen
    Solid State Electronics, Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Investigation of SOI-LDMOS for RF-Power Applications Using Computational Load Pull2009In: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, ISSN 0018-9383, E-ISSN 1557-9646, Vol. 56, no 3, p. 505-511Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Small-signal and computational load-pull simulations are used to investigate the effect of substrate resistivity on efficiency in high-power operation of high-frequency silicon-on insulator-LDMOS transistors. Identical transistors are studied on substrates with different resistivities. Using computational load pull, their high-power performance is evaluated. The results are compared to previous investigations, relating the OFF-state out put resistance to high-efficiency operation. From the large-signal simulation, an output circuit model based on a load-line match is extracted with parameters traceable from small-signal simu lations. It is shown that, albeit high OFF-state output resistance is a good indication, it is not sufficient for high efficiency in a high-power operation. The bias and frequency dependence of the coupling through the substrate makes a more detailed ON-state analysis necessary. It is shown that very low resistivity and high resistivity SOI substrates both result in a high efficiency at the studied frequency and bias point. It is also shown that a normally doped medium-resistivity substrate results in a significantly lower efficiency.

  • 1415.
    Bengtsson, Olof
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Vestling, Lars
    The Ångström Laboratory, Solid State Electronics, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Olsson, Jörgen
    The Ångström Laboratory, Solid State Electronics, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Investigation of the Nonlinear Input Capacitance in LDMOS Transistors and its Contribution to IMD and Phase Distortion2008In: Solid-State Electronics, ISSN 0038-1101, E-ISSN 1879-2405, Vol. 52, no 7, p. 1024-1031Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper the mechanisms causing the capacitive, reactive non-linearities in a lateral double diffused MOS, LDMOS, transistor are investigated. The non-linear input capacitance under load-line power match is extracted and analyzed. Computational TCAD load-pull is used to analyze the effect of non-linear capacitance on two-tone intermodulation distortion and AM–PM conversion in class-A operation. High-frequency measurements have been made to verify the use of 2D numerical device simulations for the analysis. It is found that the input capacitance, Cgg, of the LDMOS transistor working under power match conditions is a strongly non-linear function of gate voltage Vg but with an almost linear initial increase in Cgg. The voltage dependence of Cgg is found to mainly affect higher order IMD products in class-A operation. Transient simulations however show that Cgg seriously contributes to the onset of AM–PM conversion well below the 1 dB compression point.

  • 1416.
    Bengtsson, Sandra
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Bydén, Birgitta
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Chefer ska finnas där när man behöver dem: en intervjustudie bland omsorgspersonal2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med vår studie har varit att undersöka hur personal uppfattar att de påverkas av enchefs tillgänglighet. Vår undersökning bestod av kvalitativa intervjuer med sex personal på treolika arbetsplatser inom kommunal äldreomsorg. Våra intervjuer var halvstrukturerade för attge informanterna möjlighet till egen reflektion och för att ge intervjun en öppen karaktär.Intervjuerna bestod av olika teman som vi valde utifrån våra frågeställningar. Nyckelordenuppstod vid intervjuerna. När vi tolkade vårt empiriska material använde vi oss av kvalitativmetod. Det resultat som uppstod var att personal saknade chefens tillgänglighet. Generelltansåg de att det kunde vara svårt att nå chefen. De tillfällen de träffade sin chef ansåg de varaför få eller för korta. När personalen hade sin chef tillgänglig uppfattade de ofta att chefen intelyssnade på dem eller att de inte fick det stöd de ansåg sig behöva. Flera upplevde även att deinte blev tagna på allvar av sin chef. De saknade även bekräftelse och beröm från sin chef isitt arbete. Bekräftelse och beröm fick de oftast från omsorgstagarna och frånarbetskamraterna. Informanterna hade egna ursäkter till otillgängligheten hos chefen.Ursäkterna var att chefen har hög arbetsbelastning vad gäller många möten, för stortpersonalansvar samt för många administrativa uppgifter. Personalen vill ha en chef som är trygg och har struktur samt är delaktig och tar ansvar.

  • 1417.
    Bengtsson, Sebastian
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Fa, Joakim
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskors erfarenheter av stress inom akutsjukvård2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund:

    Akutsjukvård är en varierande arbetsplats där högt patientflöde, tidsbrist och påfrestande situationer är vanligt förekommande, sjuksköterskor vårdar människor som lider av en kritisk skada eller sjukdom där utgången kan bli fatal. Sjuksköterskan måste ha full kontroll och överblick för alla patienter för att snabbt uppmärksamma om en patients tillstånd försämras. Den ofta stressfulla situationen ställer höga krav på sjuksköterskan både fysiskt och psykiskt. Sjuksköterskor försöker vara tidseffektiva genom att fokusera på den medicinska vården vilket kan leda till att patientens behov av att bli bekräftad och att bli lyssnad till brister i de akuta situationerna.

    Syfte:

    Att beskriva sjuksköterskors erfarenheter av stress inom akutsjukvård.

    Metod:

    Litteraturstudie med beskrivande design där tio artiklar användes. En artikel var av kvantitativ ansats och en använde mixed method, de resterande artiklarna var av kvalitativ ansats.

    Huvudresultat:

    Sjuksköterskorna beskrev hur brister i organisationen medförde högre arbetsbelastning och ledde till att stress upplevdes som oundvikligt inom akutsjukvård. Sjuksköterskorna beskrev arbetsmiljön som oförutsägbar och påfrestande och medförde fysiska såväl som psykiska konsekvenser. Detta till följd av en brist på strategiska verktyg och resurser för att hantera den upplevda stressen. Sjuksköterskorna upplevde att på grund av tidsbrist kände de sig otillräckliga i sitt holistiska arbetssätt och att de under bättre omständigheter hade kunnat ge en bättre omvårdnad till patienterna. Det totala antalet deltagare i studierna var 333 sjuksköterskor och majoriteten var kvinnor i åldrarna 20-62 år.

    Slutsatser:

    Genom förbättrade arbetsförhållanden och kunskap om copingstrategier kan vården och hälsan hos sjuksköterskorna förbättras vilket gynnar omvårdnaden och patienten.

  • 1418.
    Bengtz, Erica
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences.
    Wall, Frida
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences.
    ”Att få vara viktig för någon annan betyder allt”: En intervjustudie om förskollärares uppdragsuppfattning och förhållningsätt till barns relationsskapande2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med detta examensarbete är att utifrån ett förskollärarperspektiv bidra med kunskaper om hur de uppfattar att deras arbete kan bidra till barns sociala utveckling. För att undersöka frågan har vi tagit del av 10 förskollärares resonemang kring deras relationsfrämjande arbete på förskolan samt hur de beskriver de relationer som kan gynna hela barnets utveckling.

    I studiens resultat framgår det att förskollärarna vill främja relationer som bygger på ömsesidigt samspel, empati och som kan möjliggöra att barnen vidareutvecklas både socialt och kognitivt. Relationer som är maktbaserade och som inte bygger på ömsesidigt samspel är relationer som förskollärarna vill arbeta för att de ska utvecklas till positiva relationer som gynnar barnens sociala utveckling. Förskollärarna beskriver att deras förhållningssätt gentemot barns sociala förmågor är viktigt för hur relationerna formas på förskolan. Förskollärarna menar att hur de bemöter barnens sociala yttranden inom de vardagliga situationerna är en del av deras förhållningssätt. Inom olika projekt, aktiviteter och lek menar förskollärarna att de arbetar för att utveckla barnens sociala förmågor gällande att skapa kamratrelationer.

  • 1419.
    Benke, Sophie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies.
    Johansson, Anette
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies.
    Hur ser samarbetet ut mellan förskolan ochförskoleklassen utöver överlämningsplanen?2010Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi har valt att titta lite närmare på hur samarbetet ser ut mellan förskolan och förskoleklassen. Detta för att vi under vår verksamhetsförlagda utbildning [VFU] upplevde att det inte alltid fungerade. För att få fram ett resultat har vi valt att använda oss av frågeformulär riktade till pedagogerna i verksamheterna. Det resultat vi kommer fram till är att samarbetet är sparsamt men det finns en önskan att utveckla det, främst hos pedagogerna i förskolan. Vi ser också tydligt konsekvensen av att vara allt för frikostig med tidsfristen för inlämningen av frågeformulären. I vår undersökning framkommer det också att det finns en okunskap hos de tillfrågade pedagogerna om läroplanens innehåll.

  • 1420. Bennani, Az-Eddine
    et al.
    Lhajji, Dhiba
    Investigating strategic alignment in the hotel industry: An exploratory study in France2005In: The 10th Colloquium on “IT governance and IS strategy” organized by Association Information and Management (AIM) Toulouse, France, 21-24 September 2005., 2005, p. 12-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Researchers do not study yet the relationship between the E-Business and IT Governance. In this paper, we intend a theoretical framework in order to link the E-business seen as paradigm to the emerging IT Governance paradigm. Our objectives thus are: (1) to clarify this linkage and illustrate it using a representation model, and (2) apply this view to the Tourism and Hotel Industry. Some data inputs from an exploratory study show the trend in France.

    Key words: E-business paradigm, IT Governance, representation model, Tourism and Hotel Industry, the CIO role, strategic alignment.

  • 1421. Bennani, Az-Eddine
    et al.
    Osarenkhoe, Aihie
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    Lhajji, Dhiba
    An empirical study on the propensity of information technology use by hotels in France2006In: Mediterranean Conference on Information Systems: Mediterranean Conference on Information Systems, Venice, Italy. 5-9 October 2006, 2006, p. 10-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Extant literature has, to date, focused almost entirely on the use of interpersonal buyer-seller interactions during the process of creating service outcomes. This paper aims to fill this void by contributing to extant knowledge on customer interactions with technology-based self-service delivery options. The extent to which technological interface that enables customers to produce a service independent of a direct service employee involvement is used by hotels of various categories in France is, thus highlighted in this paper. It is, however, assumed in this paper that there can be significant dissimilarities in the response time when using e-mails to communicate with customers. These dissimilarities are investigated on the basis of an e-mailing action that encompasses sending a typical room-booking request to French hotels. Exhaustive samples of 240 hotels spread out in 120 cities located in France constituted the target group. One-way ANOVA testing differences between means was used to assess the impact of the hotel category (independent variable) on response time (dependent variable) among hotels in France. Our findings found significant dissimilarity in responsiveness across hotels categories. The implication of the findings for management is basically the fact that responsiveness is most likely the first step in providing good quality technology-based buyer-seller interactions to create service outcomes using the Internet/e-mail. One of the major concepts in customer relationship management is speed at which firms respond to questions and problems during the service encounter.

    Keywords: information and communication technology (ICT), Buyer-seller interactions, Internet/e-mail, technology-based self-service delivery options, responsiveness.

  • 1422.
    Bennemo, Karin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Stockhaus, Jennie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Effektivisering av materialförsörjning mellan leverantör och kund: En fallstudie vid Emballagetillverkaren2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: A supply chain has a mayor impact on company’s competitiveness and profitability, this fact has led to increased interest in efficiencys of supply chains. This bachelor degree consist a case study at Emballagetillverkaren where the supply chain was analysed between supplier and customer with the intention of reducing tied up capital and lead times.Purpose: The aim of this thesis is to find prerequisites for a effective material supply between supplier and customer.Method: In order to answer the purpose of this thesis a case company called Emballagetillverkaren and its customer has been investigated. The case company and the supply chain between supplier and customer were observed and interview questions were formulated based on the observations. Interviews and observations were conducted to gain a deeper understanding of the problems of high tied up capital and long lead times.Results: A mapping of the current situation was established to clarify the methods of operation. The material and the information flow from both the case company and The Engeneering Company was mapped. The interviews have been devided into the categories "Planning and Forecasting", "Inventory and Materials" and "Communication".Conclusion:The prerequisites for effective material supply are an integrated and coordinated supply chain, healthy processes at work, the lean philosophy and its tools, supply chain efficiency, efficient and coordinated information and material flows, appropriate material supply method, inventory management, forecasts, good customer and supplier relationship and communication. As a conclusion we want to highlight forecasts, high resource utilization and communication to achieve a effective material supply between supplier and customer.

  • 1423.
    Bennett, Danny
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    "Drag Queens Talk Like Women, You Know": A Study in the Use of the hedge "You Know" in feminine-gendered Speech2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to analyze and compare the use of the verbal hedge "you know" in the spontaneous speech of women and drag queens to compare for instances of certainty and uncertainty as described by Holmes (1986). For the data, episodes of the reality shows RuPaul’s Drag Race Untucked which airs on Logo TV and The Real Housewives of Orange County which airs on Bravo TV were manually transcribed by the conventions of written speech. The use of "you know" was then analyzed by function and context. In the results of this study, the women used "you know" to express uncertainty more often than the drag queens, except not in the way Lakoff (2004) described as being an aspect of "women’s language." The drag queens used "you know" more often to express certainty. However, when used to express uncertainty its use by the drag queens was more relevant to "women’s language" as described by Lakoff (2004) or an exaggerated performance of femininity.

  • 1424.
    Bennett, J. M.
    et al.
    Physics Division, Michelson Laboratory, Naval Air Warfare Center, China Lake, CA, United States.
    Rönnow, Daniel
    Acreo AB, Kista, Sweden.
    Test of Opticlean strip coating material for removing surface contamination2000In: Applied Optics, ISSN 0003-6935, E-ISSN 1539-4522, Vol. 39, no 16, p. 2737-2739Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The strip coating material, Opticlean, which has been reformulated, has been shown to remove 1-5-mu m-diameter particles as well as contamination remaining from previous drag wipe cleaning on a used silicon wafer. In addition, no residue that produced scattering was found on a fresh silicon wafer when Opticlean was applied and then stripped off. The total integrated scattering technique used for the measurements could measure scattering levels of He-Ne laser light as low as a few ppm (parts in 106), corresponding to a surface roughness of <1 Angstrom rms.

  • 1425.
    Bennhult, Linnea
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Engren, Karolina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Bedömning av området energi: En jämförelse mellan Miljöbyggnad, Svanen, FEBY12 och PHI2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish building and property management sector are responsible for about 30 % of the total energy use. In order to take environmental consideration, different environmental assessment tools and standards are used. Miljöbyggnad, Svanen, FEBY12 and PHI are some of these. There has been increased interest to certify buildings and therefore it is of interest to evaluate the assessment of the energy field to see if relevant energy aspects are assessed. First a literature review was carried out with delimitation to evaluate the systems manuals and guidelines for new produced multi-apartment dwellings in Sweden. Then a comparison between the systems assessments and methods of calculations for the energy field as well as the systems considerations for the energy’s environmental effect was carried out. The comparison was based on emissions related to production and use and also depletion of non- renewable resources. Finally the theory from the literature review and the results from the comparison were discussed and that led to some recommendations for the systems.

    Different assessment systems that are used for the systems are grading systems, marking systems and certifications. The systems judge similar indicators and subfields for energy. Something that they all judge is building’s annual energy use but they define them differently. Beyond that, the systems distinguish in the judgements of the energy field. The requirements of the inputs for energy calculations are different for the systems. As well as the energy’s environmental impact, all systems take some consideration by judging the energy use. Some of the systems also take into consideration the environmental impact through assessment of energy source’s environmental impact or through energy form factors and primary energy factors for the energy type.

    For all systems the indicators and the subfields are mandatory but the criteria and requirement levels are different. The systems that take consideration to climatic zones allow buildings located in colder climate to use more energy and have more environmental impact, the systems should reformulate the criteria and requirements were consideration is not taken to climate zones. The requirements of the heat effect demand for buildings should not take consideration to the heating system because the heating system does not affect the heat effect demand.

    At the moment the systems are undeveloped when it comes to consideration to the energy’s environmental impacts and should therefore revise this. Some recommendations for the judgements of the energy field is to allocate the energy use/ per person and to judge primary energy or carbon dioxide emissions, other emissions and to judge the energy’s environmental impacts from “the cradle to the grave”. However it can be problematic to judge primary energy because today, there are no standards for how primary energy factors should be calculated currently.

    Key words: environmental assessment tools, Passive house standards, Miljöbyggnad, Svanen, FEBY12, PHI, energy, environmental impact 

  • 1426.
    Benselfelt, Milena
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Brändström, Sophia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Elledningars rättighetstyper; ledningsrätt, servitut och nyttjanderätt: Elbolagens och lantmäterimyndigheternas åsikter2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden is constantly developing and it means more lines in the ground, which leads to more questions about their legal rights. The electricity grid is divided into three different sizes; the core network, the regional network and the local network. The electricity grid is an important part of the infrastructure, and it should be legally protected through for example, utility easement or agreement easement.. Issues may arise about the legal rights of power lines such as when a transfer occurs, etc. Thus it is important to examine how the power lines should be legally protected.

    The purpose of the study is to examine how the electricity companies legally protect their power lines, as well as the pros and cons of the legal rights, based on the aspects of electricity companies and cadastral authorities. The purpose is also to highlight the most common issue regarding the legal rights on power lines.

    The questions that were formulated according to the purpose were:

    1. How do electricity companies legally protect their power lines?

    2. What are the pros and cons of the legal rights based on the views of electricity companies and surveyors?

    3. What is the most common problem that electric companies have about legal rights of power lines?

    By using a qualitative method in form of an interview study, the data for the study has been obtained. The interview study consisted of 16 interviews with experts from electricity companies and cadastral authorities. As the study should cover all of Sweden, electricity companies and land surveyors were selected with a geographical spread.

    The study shows that electricity companies legally protect their power lines depending on their size. The study also shows the differences between the electricity companies and the cadastral authorities ́ views on the pros and cons of the legal rights. Issues may occur depending on who owns the land where the lines are to be constructed. 

  • 1427.
    Berg, Björn
    et al.
    Dipartimento biologia strutturale e funzionale, Complesso universitario di Monte S. Angelo, Napoli, Italy; Department of forest ecology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Davey, M. P.
    Department of plant sciences, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
    De Marco, A.
    Dipartimento biologia strutturale e funzionale, Complesso universitario di Monte S. Angelo, Napoli, Italy.
    Emmett, B
    Centre for ecology and hydrology, Bangor.
    Faituri, M.
    Department of soils and water, Omar AlMukhtar university, Elbeida, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya.
    Hobbie, S. E.
    Department of ecology, evolution and behavior, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, USA.
    Johansson, Maj-Britt
    University of Gävle.
    Liu, C.
    Department of landscape science and engineering, College of agriculture and biology, Shanghai, ChinaShanghai Jiao Tong university,.
    McClaugherty, C.
    Department of biology, Mount Union college, Alliance, USA.
    Norell, L.
    Unit of applied statistics and mathematics, SLU, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Rutigliano, F. A.
    Dipartimento di scienze ambientali, Seconda Università degli studi di Napoli, Caserta, Italy.
    Vesterdal, L.
    Forest & landscape Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Hørsholm, Denmark.
    Virzo De Santo, A.
    Dipartimento biologia strutturale e funzionale, Complesso universitario de Monte S. Angelo, Napoli, Italy.
    Factors influencing limit values for pine needle litter decomposition: A synthesis for boreal and temperate pine forest systems2010In: Biogeochemistry, ISSN 0168-2563, E-ISSN 1573-515X, Vol. 100, no 1, p. 57-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We synthesized available data for decomposition of pine (Pinus) needle litter in pine forests to determine the litter chemical characteristics and climate factors that explained variation in the limit value, i. e. the level of accumulated mass loss at which the decomposition process either continues at a very low rate or possibly stops. Our data base included 56 separate studies on decomposition of pine needle litter, spanning Scots pine, lodgepole pine, Aleppo pine, stone pine and white pine, mainly incubated at the site of collection. Studies had 5 to 19 samplings, on average 10, and the decomposition was followed to a mass loss ranging from 47 to 83%, on average 67%. The periods from 3.0 to 5.4 years, on average 3.9 years, were of sufficient duration to allow estimates of limit values of decomposition. We used a linear mixed model with regression effects to relate limit values to potential explanatory variables, namely the sites' long-term mean annual temperature (MAT) and mean annual precipitation (MAP) and to substrate-chemistry factors. Regarding the latter, we explored two models; one that included initial concentrations of water solubles, lignin, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and Mn and one that included only lignin, N, Ca, and Mn to focus on those nutrients known to influence lignin degradation. Using backward elimination significant explanatory variables were determined. For litter decomposed in its site of origin we found the limit value to depend mainly on the initial concentration of Mn, with higher Mn concentrations resulting in higher accumulated mass loss. Thus, litter with higher Mn reached a higher limit value and left a smaller stable fraction. This is likely due to the fact that Mn is an essential component of ligninolytic enzymes important for degrading litter in the later stages of decomposition. Manganese has received little attention in decomposition studies to date. Given its significance in this synthesis, the role of Mn in influencing variation in the late stages of decomposition among ecosystems and among litters of other genera besides Pinus deserves further attention.

  • 1428.
    Berg, Björn
    et al.
    Department of Forest Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland .
    Erhagen, Björn
    Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, University of Umeå, Umeå, Sweden .
    Johansson, Maj-Britt
    University of Gävle.
    Nilsson, Mats
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå.
    Stendahl, Johan
    Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    Trum, Florence
    Earth and Life Institute, Universite' catolique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium .
    Vesterdal, Lars
    Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, University of Copenhagen, Fredriksberg C, Denmark .
    Manganese in the litter fall-forest floor continuum of boreal and temperate pine and spruce forest ecosystems: a review2015In: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, E-ISSN 1872-7042, Vol. 358, p. 248-260, article id 15021Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have reviewed the literature on the role of manganese (Mn) in the litter fall-to-humus subsystem. Available data gives a focus on North European coniferous forests. Manganese concentrations in pine (Pinus spp.) foliar litter are highly variable both spatially and temporally within the same litter species and for the genus Pinus we found a range from 0.03 to 3.7mgg-1. Concentrations were related negatively to site mean annual temperature (MAT) and annual actual evapotranspiration (AET) for pine species litter but not for that of Norway spruce (Picea abies) as a single species. Combined data for several species showed a highly significant relationship to MAT.Manganese peroxidase is an Mn-dependent enzyme, found in white-rot fungi, essential for the degradation of lignin and ligninlike compounds. The decomposition rates of lignified litter tissue (late phase) is positively related to the litter’s Mn concentration. Further, the Mn concentration is positively related to the limit value for decomposition - the higher the Mn concentration the smaller the stable litter fraction. Manganese release from decomposing litter appears at least in part to be species related. Thus was release from pine needle litter significantly faster (p<. 0.001) than that from the Mn-richer litter of Norway spruce. Over Northern Europe concentrations of total Mn in mor humus as well as extractable Mn in the mineral soil increase with decreasing MAT and over a climatic gradient the Mn concentrations in Norway spruce mor increase more with decreasing MAT than in a gradient with Scots pine. Higher Mn concentrations in humus appear to decrease its stability and result in a higher release of carbon dioxide (CO<inf>2</inf>) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). We conclude that this may explain (i) the lower amount of carbon (C) in mor layers under Norway spruce as compared to Scots pine as well as the higher amount of C in mineral soil under spruce. The increase in nitrogen (N) concentration in humus, following N fertilization resulted in a decrease in that of Mn. We have found four cases - empirical - with negative interaction between Mn and N; (i) in pine foliar litter fall concentrations of Mn decrease with site MAT whereas those of N increase, (ii) in decomposing late-stage litter with N retarding and Mn stimulating decomposition, (iii) for the stable phase, limit values are related negatively to N and positively to Mn, and (iv) Mn concentrations in humus decrease with MAT whereas those of N increase.

  • 1429.
    Berg, Björn
    et al.
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Erhagen, Björn
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Johansson, Maj-Britt
    University of Gävle.
    Vesterdal, Lars
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Faituri, Mikaeel
    Omar AlMuktar University, Elbeida, Libya.
    Sanborn, Paul
    University of British Columbia, Prince George, Canada.
    Nilsson, Mats
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Manganese dynamics in decomposing needle and leaf litter: a synthesis2013In: Canadian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0045-5067, E-ISSN 1208-6037, Vol. 43, no 12, p. 1127-1136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present synthesis paper was to determine whether concentration changes and net release of manganese (Mn), as related to accumulated litter mass loss, are related to initial Mn concentration, mean annual temperature (MAT), mean annual precipitation (MAP), and tree genus or species. We also examined whether limit values for decomposition are related to initial litter Mn concentration, MAT, and MAP. We compiled 84 foliar litter decomposition studies, conducted mainly in boreal and temperate forest ecosystems, for which Mn dynamics had been well documented. Manganese concentration and amount were related to accumulated litter mass loss at each sampling time for each single study, as well as for (i) all studies combined (n = 748) and (ii) for species groups viz. Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) (n = 284), pine (Pinus) species (n = 330), and deciduous species (n = 214). The changes in Mn concentration with accumulated mass loss followed quadratic functions showing significantly higher Mn concentrations for Norway spruce vs. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) (p < 0.0001) and vs. deciduous species (p < 0.01), as well as significantly higher for deciduous species vs. Scots pine (p < 0.0001). Manganese release rates were different among the three species groups (p < 0.001). Still, rates were related to initial Mn concentrations (p < 0.001) for all litter types combined and for the three species groups. Norway spruce released Mn more slowly than pine and deciduous species. Rates were related to climatic factors for litter of Norway spruce and deciduous species. Limit values for all litter and for pine species separately were related to Mn (p < 0.001) and MAT (p < 0.001). For Norway spruce, limit values were related to MAT (p < 0.001) and MAP (p < 0.01). It appears that Norway spruce litter retains Mn more strongly in the litter structure, producing humus richer in Mn than does litter of pine and deciduous species.

  • 1430.
    Berg, Björn
    et al.
    Department of Forest Ecology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Johansson, Maj-Britt
    University of Gävle.
    Liu, Chunjiang
    School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China; Shanghai Urban Forest Research Station, State Forestry Administration, Shanghai, China.
    Faituri, Mikaeel
    Department of Soils and Water, Omar AlMukhtar University, Elbeida, Libya.
    Sanborn, Paul
    Ecosystem Science and Management Program, University of Northern British Columbia, Prince George, Canada.
    Vesterdal, Lars
    Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark.
    Ni, Xiangyin
    Long-term Research Station of Alpine Forest Ecosystems, Key Laboratory of Ecological Forestry Engineering, Institute of Ecology and Forestry, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, China.
    Hansen, Karin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ukonmaanaho, Liisa
    Natural Resources Institute Finland, Helsinki, Finland.
    Calcium in decomposing foliar litter – A synthesis for boreal and temperate coniferous forests2017In: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, E-ISSN 1872-7042, Vol. 403, p. 137-144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have synthesized available data for calcium (Ca) dynamics in decomposing foliar litter of mainly pine (Pinus), spruce (Picea), and birch (Betula) species to determine patterns of Ca concentration with climate in newly shed litter and its dynamics in decomposing litter as well as a possible role for Ca as regards limit values. Initial Ca concentration was negatively related to mean annual precipitation (MAP) with different relationships among genera. A limited data set showed a positive relationship across species (p &lt; 0.05) to extractable Ca in soil. In paired stands, litter of both Norway spruce (Picea abies) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) had higher Ca concentrations than Scots pine (Pinus silvestris), Norway spruce litter even twice as high. Relationships between initial concentrations of Ca and those of other nutrients appeared to be dominated by the positive ones to potassium (K) and magnesium (Mg) and specifically for deciduous litter there was a negative relationship to nitrogen (N). In decomposing litter, Ca concentration followed a negative quadratic (Ca = a + t − t2) function and had a maximum, which was variable. The Ca maximum concentration during decomposition was positively related to initial Ca concentration both within and among species. Separate linear relationships based on species were combined into one, in common for all investigated species and genera (R2 = 0.914, n = 63, p &lt; 0.001). Limit values for decomposition were positively related to maximum Ca concentration at p &lt; 0.05 with separate functions for pine and spruce litter. Calcium net release started directly after the incubation and was linear to accumulated mass loss of litter, giving a slope coefficient for each study. The net release rates were linear to initial Ca concentration both within and across species/genera. All studies combined gave a negative linear relationship (R2 = 0.894, n = 67, p &lt; 0.001).

  • 1431.
    Berg, Björn
    et al.
    Department of Forest Ecology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finlan; Dipartimento Biologia Strutturale e Funzionale, Complesso Universitario, Napoli, Italy.
    Johansson, Maj-Britt
    University of Gävle.
    Nilsson, Åke
    Department of Forest Soils, Swedish University of Agriculture, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Gundersen, Per
    Forest and Landscape Denmark, University of Copenhagen, HØrsholm, Denmark.
    Norell, Lennart
    Unit of Applied Statistics and Mathematics, Swedish University of Agrictulture, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Sequestration of carbon in the humus layer of Swedish forests - direct measurements2009In: Canadian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0045-5067, E-ISSN 1208-6037, Vol. 39, no 5, p. 962-975Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To determine sequestration rates of carbon dioxide (CO2) we calculated the carbon (C) storage rate in humus layers of Swedish forests with Podsolic soils, which account for 14.2 x 106 ha of the 22.7 x 106 ha of forested land in Sweden. Our data set covered 41 years of humus inventories and mean humus layer thickness in 82513 plots. We analysed three forest types: (i) all combinations of tree species, (ii) forests dominated (>70%) by Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.), and (Ui) forests dominated (>70%) by Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). To relate changes in humus layer thickness to land area we used the intersections in 25 km x 25 km grids and used kriging interpolation, permitting calculations for each forest type. For each intersection mean humus thickness for each year was calculated and regressed against time to obtain the rate of change. This rate, humus bulk density, and humus C concentration were used, to calculate sequestration rates. The mean sequestration rate was 251 kg C-ha-1'year1, which is higher than theoretical values. The sequestration rate was positively related to temperature sum, albeit including effects of forest management. The pine-dominated forest type had a mean rate of 283 kgCha⁁year-1, and. the spruce-dominated had a mean rate of 239 kg Cha-1-year1. Under similar site conditions, pine sequestered more C than spruce (difference of 71 kg Cha-1'year-1; p < 0.0001), showing the importance of this type of ecosystem for C sequestration.

  • 1432.
    Berg, Björn
    et al.
    Department of Forest Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Kjønaas, O. J.
    Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research, Ås, Norway.
    Johansson, Maj-Britt
    University of Gävle.
    Erhagen, B.
    Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Åkerblom, S.
    Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Late stage pine litter decomposition: Relationship to litter N, Mn, and acid unhydrolyzable residue (AUR) concentrations and climatic factors2015In: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, E-ISSN 1872-7042, Vol. 358, p. 41-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate relationships between decomposition rates of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. contorta) needle litter in the late stage of decomposition (>30% accumulated mass loss), and the progressively changing concentrations of manganese (Mn), nitrogen (N), and acid unhydrolyzable residue (AUR), as well as mean annual temperature (MAT) and mean annual precipitation (MAP). Using available long-term decomposition studies on pine needle litter in a climate gradient in Sweden, we calculated annual mass loss and related to concentrations of Mn, N, and AUR at the start of each one-year period as well as to MAT and MAP. We investigated these relationships for (i) all data on annual mass loss combined and (ii) annual mass loss for five different decomposition categories as defined by accumulated mass loss. We found highly significant, negative, and dominant relationships between annual mass loss and N (R2=0.39) and AUR (R2=0.39), a slight but significant positive relationship to Mn (R2=0.08) and a significant negative relationship to MAT (R2=0.06). The relationships were dynamic, and changed with accumulated mass loss. The rate-dampening effect of N decreased to be a rate-enhancing effect at c. 60-80% accumulated mass loss. A similar trend was found for AUR, becoming rate-enhancing at 70-80% accumulated mass loss. For Scots pine needle litter the effect of MAT on mass loss decreased with increasing accumulated mass loss and changed to a rate-dampening effect at c. 50-70% accumulated mass loss. Mn showed a stimulating effect on mass loss rate in all categories whereas MAP showed no effect in this mainly boreal climatic gradient. The current approach indicates a method for detailed studies of rate-regulating factors for litter decomposition. 

  • 1433.
    Berg, Christine
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Stjernqvist, Nathalie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Förtroendets roll i en bostadsaffär: en analys av fastighetsmäklarens och kundens perspektiv2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Förtroende är något som stärker och påverkar kvalitén i det vi gör både på det privata och professionella planet: Hur skapas ett förtroende i en relation mellan fastighetsmäklare och kund i en bostadsaffär?

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att komma fram till vad som är viktigt för att skapa förtroende i säljprocessen mellan fastighetsmäklare och kund i en bostadsaffär.

    Metod: Vi har valt att använda oss utav en kvalitativ metod där vi samlat in vår information genom litteratur inom ämnet samt genom besöks- och telefonintervjuer med fastighetsmäklare och kunder. Totalt har 16 intervjuer genomförts som sedan har sammanställts i en empiridel.

    Resultat & slutsats: Förtroendet skapas genom att mäklaren är engagerad och förstår vad som är viktigt för kunden. Kunden vill att det ska ”klicka” med mäklaren och att en personkemi skall uppstå och att denne är öppen och ärlig med allt. Kunden skall kunna lita på att mäklaren gör det han säger att han ska, håller det han lovar och är kompetent. Mäklaren måste bry sig och inte se till sin egen vinning. Arbetar man på ett förtroendeingivande sätt kommer det att resultera i rekommendationer och följdaffärer.

    Förslag till fortsatt forskning: Det som man skulle kunna göra för att se tydligare paralleller är att intervjua fastighetsmäklare och deras kunder, för att se om bilden som fastighetsmäklaren vill förmedla stämmer överens med vad kunden upplevt samt utföra observationer på hur fastighetsmäklare arbetar med förtroende gentemot kunder.

    Uppsatsens bidrag: Vi anser att denna studie har bidragit med en ökad förståelse för vad som är viktigt för att skapa förtroende i en bostadsaffär. Vi har även redogjort för vad fastighetsmäklare gör för att skapa förtroende samt hur kunderna upplever detta. 

  • 1434.
    Berg, Emma
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Berg, Pär
    Motivationsfaktorers påverkan på utbildningsval: en utgångspunkt för HR-arbete kring arbetsmotivation?2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 1435.
    Berg, Erika
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Berglund, Terés
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Renskötselrätt vid lantmäteriförrättning: Hur beaktas rättigheten?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Renskötselrätt innebär enligt rennäringslagen en rätt för samer att använda mark inom ett renskötselområde till underhåll för sig och sina renar. Renskötselrätten grundas på urminnes hävd och tillkommer den som är same och medlem i en sameby. Renskötselrätt innebär en särskild rätt till fast egendom vilken existerar parallellt med äganderätten och omfattas av egendomsskyddet i 2 kap. 15 § regeringsformen.

    Enskilda individer kan tvingas till rådighetsinskränkningar eller till att avstå mark till förmån för allmänna intressen som infrastruktur och bebyggelse. Detta ska ske enligt reglerna för markåtkomst som återfinns i ett tjugotal lagar. Enligt Europakonventionen och regeringsformen ska den som tvingas avstå mark eller rättigheter ersättas.

    En fastighetsbildningsförrättning handläggs av lantmäterimyndigheten enligt reglerna i fastighetsbildningslagen. Ett återkommande problem är att värdera vilken skada en sameby lider när ersättning enligt lag måste prövas i samband med ett intrång.

    Syftet med detta arbete är dels att bidra med ökad kunskap om renskötselrättens juridiska innebörd, och dels att synliggöra hur renskötselrätten i nutid beaktas vid markåtkomst inom en lantmäteriförrättning. Detta för att bidra till att skapa en samsyn och en enhetlig handläggning av åtgärder som påverkar renskötselrätten. För att svara på denna studies frågeställningar har studier av förrättningsakter och intervjuer med förrättningslantmätare och en representant från Länsstyrelsen genomförts.

    Resultatet av studien visar att det i dagsläget är oklart hur renskötselrätten ska beaktas inom en lantmäteriförrättning och att det saknas arbetsstöd för hur renskötselrätten ska värderas vid ett intrång. I slutsatserna i detta arbete framgår det att detta beror på att det finns luckor i rennäringslagen vilket gör att den inte integrerar väl med annan lag och att det många gånger är oklart vilken myndighet som äger vilken fråga rörande renskötselrätten. För en enhetlig handläggning av ärenden som berör renskötselrätten krävs utbildning, klarläggande av vissa begrepp och bättre samverkan mellan myndigheter. Men framförallt krävs en revidering av rennäringslagen och relationen mellan den och annan lag.

  • 1436.
    Berg, Frida
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology.
    Lärares metoder: En studie om hur en lärare omvandlar en metod för läs- och skrivinlärning med hjälp av datorer till sin egen2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Användandet av informations- och kommunikationsteknologi (IKT) är något som blir mer och mer vanligt i skolorna. Elever som med hjälp av datorer skriver sig till läsning är något som uppmärksammats genom Arne Tragetons metod och hans bok Att skriva sig till läsning - IKT i förskoleklass och skola (2005). Syftet med denna undersökning har varit att studera hur en lärare omvandlar Arne Tragetons metod till sin egen, vilka val läraren gör, vad som påverkar dessa val och var läraren får informationen ifrån.

     

    I den tidigare forskningen tas det upp att en lärare ständigt bör söka kunskap om sina egna metoder och vara medveten om att det pågår en ständig lärprocess. En lärarens erfarenheter och kunskaper om undervisningsmetoder påverkar elevernas inlärning och utveckling. Det bör enligt Alexandersson finnas en medvetenhet hos läraren om den egna handlingen i undervisningen. I valet av metod är även faktorer som ideologisk övertygelse, metoders effektivitet och relevans i undervisningssituationen av vikt.

     

    I den tidigare forskningen framträder även att datoranvändandet som metod i läs- och skrivutvecklingen kan ha positiva effekter. Samtidigt är det viktigt att det finns en tanke bakom datoranvändandet. Det är inte datorn som skapar lärandet utan datorn ger en möjlighet till lärande.

     

    Studien är av kvalitativ karaktär och datamaterialet består av två semi-strukturerade intervjuer. De teman som tas upp under intervjuerna och diskuteras har skapats utifrån observationer i klassrummet och Tragetons metod för att skriva sig till läsning. Anledningen till valet av kvalitativ karaktär och en semi-strukturerad intervju, var för att tillsammans med lärarens skapa en diskussion kring hennes tankar bakom de val hon gjort.

     

    Slutsatsen av studien visar att läraren omvandlar metoden utifrån vad hon anser att eleverna och situationen kräver. Vad som påverkar dessa val är olika beroende på arbetets syfte och hur situationen med eleverna ser ut. Hennes tidigare erfarenhet och kollegors erfarenhet och kunskap är ett sätt för henne att kunna omvandla och utveckla metoden för att den ska fungera för henne och hennes elever.

     

  • 1437.
    Berg, Gustav
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Industrial design.
    Smoketrack - En digital plattform för personer som har bestämt sig för att sluta röka2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sedan cigaretten introducerades under 1800-talet har rökningens vara eller inte vara debatterats ständigt. Riskerna med rökning har lett till att fler och fler åtgärder införts för att försvåra tillgången till tobak, och möjligheterna att röka överallt har kraftigt begränsats. I samarbete med företaget Deversify och deras produkt Smoketrack avser examensarbetet att skapa en digital plattform i syfte med att erbjuda hjälp till ett rökfritt liv. 

    Arbetet behandlar vilka funktioner en applikation ska innehålla, och processen som ledde fram till det, för att i kombination med produkten Smoketrack uppmuntra till rökavvänjning. Arbetet har utförts genom en designprocess bestående av intervjuer och användartester samt litteraturdata. Resultatet av arbetet gestaltas genom en mobilapplikation med fokus på en community för sina medlemmar.

  • 1438.
    Berg, Hanna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences.
    Svedberg, Emma
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences.
    Lekande lätt att lära matematik: en handledning i matematik för förskolans personal2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Forskning visar på att allt fler förskollärare anser att det är svårt att lära ut matematik till yngre barn. För att bidra till ökad matematikundervisning samt förståelse framställdes en produkt, i form av en handledning. Handledningen riktar sig till förskolepersonal som arbetar med barns lärande av matematik. Detta gjordes främst för att all förskolepersonal ska kunna vara delaktig i undervisningen.

    Handledningen innefattade fyra olika matematiska avsnitt med varierande aktiviteter som kallades talraden, geometri, mönster samt mätning. De utvalda aktiviteterna stöds i handledningen främst av Bishops matematiska aktiviteter och mål från förskolans läroplan samt vetenskaplig grund i form av forskning. Handledningen provades av intresserad förskolepersonal från tre olika förskolor. De 14 personerna som provade materialet svarade sedan på en utvärderingsenkät som handledningen reviderades utifrån. Under arbetets gång gavs tillfälle att presentera handledningen för en grupp förskolechefer. De lämnade sina åsikter som sedan jämfördes med förskolepersonalens svar. Resultatet visade att handledningen fyller en funktion i matematikundervisningen i förskolan samt att den fungerar både i teori och praktik. Slutsatsen som dras är att handledningen bidrar till att underlätta matematikundervisningen.

  • 1439.
    Berg, Harry
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Forsberg, Mikael
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Hedman, Inger
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Helmerson, Anna
    Johansson, Inge
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Nilheim, Britt
    Stöpfgeshoff, Helena
    Att gestalta och förstå demokratiska värderingar i fritidshemmets arbete: något om innehållet i och principer för pedagogiskt arbete i Gävles fritidshem2011Report (Other academic)
  • 1440.
    Berg, Henrik
    et al.
    Faculty of Computer Sciences, Østfold University College, Halden, Norway.
    Olsson, Roland
    Faculty of Computer Sciences, Østfold University College, Halden, Norway.
    Lindblad, Thomas
    Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Physics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Chilo, José
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Automatic design of pulse coupled neurons for image segmentation2008In: Neurocomputing, ISSN 0925-2312, E-ISSN 1872-8286, Vol. 71, no 10-12, p. 1980-1993Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Automatic Design of Algorithms through Evolution (ADATE) is a program synthesis system that creates recursive programs in a functional language with automatic invention of recursive help functions and self-adaptive optimization of numerical values. We implement a neuron in a pulse coupled neural network (PCNN) as a recursive function in the ADATE language and then use ADATE to automatically evolve better PCNN neurons for image segmentation. Our technique is generally applicable for automatic improvement of most image processing algorithms and neural computing methods. It may be used either to generally improve a given implementation or to tailor that implementation to a specific problem, which with respect to image segmentation for example can be road following for autonomous vehicles or infrared image segmentation for heat seeking missiles that are to distinguish the heat source of the target from flares.

  • 1441.
    Berg, Jonatan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Industrial design.
    Ett nytt användningsområde för materialet OrganoComp®: genom en materialdriven designprocess2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med detta projekt är att med hjälp av en materialinriktad designprocess skapa en produkt av biokompositmaterialet OrganoComp® för att demonstrera dess styrkor och möjligheter. Arbetet kommer att följa metoden ”Material Driven Design (MDD)”, vilket betyder att processen kommer att börja med en noggrann studie av materialet – dels tekniskt och ur ett användarcentrerat perspektiv, men även jämförelsemässigt mot andra material.

    Insikterna från dessa studier kommer sedan trattas ner och sammanfattas i en ”designintention” som ska sätta målet för designarbetet. Slutligen kommer ett antal koncept som uppfyller designintentionen arbetas fram, varav ett koncept – ett litet, ihopvikbart och nedbrytbart paraply/regnskydd kommer att väljas ut som det slutgiltiga. Paraplyet visar på materialets vattenavvisande egenskaper, i kombination med hårdhet och vikbarhet. 

    Målet med projektet är att skapa en demonstrator som även har potential att bli en användbar produkt i framtiden, och samtidigt ge företaget OrganoClick nya insikter och flera förslag på nya användningsområden för sitt material.

  • 1442.
    Berg, Lina
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Bäck, Karin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Lägre arbetsmotivation och arbetstillfredsställelse bland omsorgspersonal med flexibel arbetsplats2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to examine differences in work motivation and job satisfaction among nursing assistants, depending on whether they had a permanent or flexible workplace. The study involved two groups of participants, the one belonging to a permanent ward while the employees of the other group moved around between wards depending on where they were currently needed. The study was conducted as a survey in care administration in a small municipality. A total of 55 people responded to the questionnaire, which was divided into two parts; Basic need satisfaction at work scale measuring the motivation subscales of autonomy, competence and connectedness and Minnesota job satisfaction scale measuring job satisfaction based on intrinsic and extrinsic aspects. The study showed that employees with a flexible workplace had lower motivation and job satisfaction than workers with permanent workplace. Autonomy, connectedness and internal job satisfaction showed a significant result, competence and external job satisfaction tended to significant effect.

  • 1443.
    Berg, Magdolna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Camilla, Örnebro
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Svenska företags motiv till hållbarhetsrapportering: Är det till nytta för alla?2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Title: Swedish companies motivation to sustainability reporting – Is it beneficial to everyone?

    Level: Final assignment for Bachelor Degree in Business Administration

    Author: Magdolna Berg and Camilla Örnebro

    Supervisor: Jan Svanberg

    Date: 2014-06

    Aim: As of now sustainability reporting is functioning on a voluntary basis. Present rules and regulations cover disclosure of various environmental emissions but do not prescribe this to be in a form of a sustainability report, but as a part of the annual report or in other optional forms to local authorities. The latest form – GRI standard – is cut out to fit bigger companies needs but in the meantime it is too extensive for smaller companies to even try to report according to its principles. The aforementioned problem and the fact that it is voluntary makes us wonder about the reasons why certain companies still take on to disclose information in a sustainability report while others choose not to do this. Furthermore we wonder if it would be beneficial till everyone to make it obligatory.

    Method: We have combined quantitative and qualitative data collection methods as part of a survey design. We have chosen to send out questionnaires as a main method in order to be able to collect big amounts of information and we have also done semi-structured interviews as a supporting method in order to get a deeper understanding for our results. We use a deductive approach and formulate hypothesis from previous research which we test with various statistic methods. The result is then confirmed by triangulation with the help of a content analysis of our empiric data from the semi-structured interviews.

    Result & Conclusions: Swedish companies disclose sustainability reports both for ethical and strategic reasons. Stakeholders require legitimating from bigger companies and sustainability report is an appropriate tool for them just for doing this. Ethical behavior brings also long term sustainable development and benefits even society and nature. Manipulating public opinions or the need to fulfill legal requirements as a motivation to sustainability reporting doesn’t seem to be present with regards to Swedish circumstances. Companies choose not to make sustainability disclosures in a form of sustainability reporting since there doesn’t seem to exist a cost effective or relevant sustainability report format and neither do stakeholders demand it.

    Suggestions for future research: It would be interesting to see how much small companies - that are not present on a stock exchange – know about sustainability and what their attitude is towards sustainability reporting.  Furthermore authorities and professional organizations could develop a standard that is adjusted to fit smaller companies and a program for implementation that would give more drive for an ethical and sustainable business enterprise.

    Contribution of the thesis: This paper could highlight Swedish companies’ attitude to sustainability reporting and give ideas about which incentives could drive this important topic and even about how a sustainable and responsible approach can be taken to the next level.

    Keywords: sustainability reporting, motive, EU, Sweden, GRI, voluntary, obligatory

  • 1444.
    Berg, Maria
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Hansson, Marie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    What hinders and promotes the use of CBT in a residential home?: - an interiew study2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This qualitative study aimed to identify how personnel working in a residential home in Sweden work withCognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) orientation within the organization. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with five personnel. The research questions were; How do the personnel describe the CBT orientation? How do the personnel describe the CBT tools and methods? How do the personnel describe and measure the implementation of CBT?

    The results were analyzed an Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) tool in order to gain a greater understanding of the data. The theories used to analyze the results were the learning theory, attachment theory and New Public Management (NPM). The results of this study indicate that CBT was incorporated in the daily lives of the residents throughout the course of the day and the personnel described common methods such as Aggression Replacement Therapy (ART), Dialectal Behavioral Therapy (DBT), and Motivational Interviewing (MI). 

  • 1445.
    Berg, Marianne
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Berglund, Helene
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Utvärdering av möjligheten att använda UAS vid gränsmätning i skogsmiljö2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Real properties in Dalarna often consist of small lots of forest or agriculture. These lots are often elongated and consequently impractical, therefore the Swedish mapping, cadastral and land registration authority performs comprising land consolidations. These are to swap land between the owners of the properties, in order to form appropriate lots, for purpose of, inter alia, promoting investment and development opportunities in the region. In order to establish a map, a decision basis, for the valuation of the lot, the claimed proprietary right has to be surveyed. The work is performed with NRTK (network-RTK) or total station, and the maximum allowed planar deviation is 0.50 m (base level requirement). The purpose of this study was to examine whether there is a possibility of using Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) when claimed property boundaries are going to be surveyed. UAS is a system consisting of an unmanned aerial vehicle, a digital camera, a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver, an Inertial Navigation System (INS) and a control station.

    In a delimitated area of about 24 ha in Norra Åbyggeby, north of Gävle, black and white and white markers, with the size of 0.40x0.40 m, were positioned in the terrain and then surveyed as ground control points or boundary points with network RTK. Mean planimetric coordinates have been calculated for the control points, which have been used as reference coordinates. These have been compared with the coordinates measured in an orthophotomosaic produced from flights with UAS at an altitude of 100 and 180 m. To get a further comparison, the coordinates were determined by a block adjustment in the software PhotoScan from Agisoft. The object identification of the markers, placed in different environments, and from different altitudes has been studied.

    The digitalization in the orthophotomosaic resulted in a Root Mean Square error (RMS-value) of 0.083 m at an altitude of 100 m and a value of 0.049 m at an altitude of 180 m. Corresponding RMS values were 0.071 m at an altitude of 100 m and 0.077 m at an altitude of 180 m when computed in PhotoScan. F-test has been calculated using the four RMS values, the result of the F-test showed that coordinates obtained in an orthophotomosaic, in ArcMap, are equivalent to coordinates obtained by block adjustment, in PhotoScan. The F-test also showed that the coordinates are equivalent from altitudes 100 and 180 m by block adjustment, but they are not equivalent when they are obtained in an orthophotomosaic from altitudes 100 and 180 m. If we disregard the systematic error at three of the points (orthophotomosaic 100 m) the F-test did not show any statistically significant difference between the two altitudes.

    All deviations were below the base level requirement. The largest planar deviation was 0.181 m at an altitude of 100 m and 0.083 m at an altitude of 180 m. Corresponding values for PhotoScan were 0.155 m and 0.148 m. How dense the forest was where the marker was placed and the impact of the sun, in terms of shadows and brightness, have affected the composition of the mosaic, and consequently the deviations. UAS can be used for surveying of claimed property boundaries, but there is no guarantee that all signalized boundary points can be surveyed directly in the orthophotomosaic. One recommendation is to use a less accurate method for the measurement of the ground control points (needed for the georeferencing of the point cloud/orthophotomosaic) than the method used in this thesis. The higher altitude is preferable because the time requirement of the flight will be shorter, and a smaller number of aerial photos need to be processed. Choose the method that the user is used to, manual digitizing in an orthophotomosaic or automatic calculation in a block adjustment.

  • 1446.
    Berg, Mia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology.
    Frånlund, Christin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology.
    Att vara lugnet i stormen: Krisstödjares upplevelser av möten med barn efter barnförhör2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to explore what is considered important in a crisis supportintervention after child interrogation at a child advocacy center. The method used was semistructuredinterviews with four social workers in the crisis support team. The analysis wasbased on systems theory and salutogenesis. The result showed that the legal process,constructed to protect children’s rights, also contributes to the crisis. It showed that the parentsneed to be strengthened in order to support the child. The social workers feel that they help thefamilies in the first crisis, but a lack of resources prevent them from continuing the support,missing the chance to real change. We discusses how well the social workers could helpputting children in a better position than before, with the crisis support method.

  • 1447.
    Berg, Mia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology. University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology, Ämnesavdelningen för sociologi.
    Storm, Anette
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Autonomi: på vems villkor2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Autonomiprincipen är det förhållningssätt som vägleder habiliteringspersonalen i sitt dagliga arbete. "Lagen om stöd och service till vissa funktionshindrade personer" (LSS) och Socialtjänstlagen (SoL) beskriver att den kommunala verksamheten ska grundas på respekt för den enskildes självbestämmanderätt och integritet. Utifrån detta ville vi i denna kvalitativa undersökning ta reda på vilket förhållningssätt habiliteringspersonal, i daglig verksamhet, har när det gäller den professionella makten gentemot de intellektuellt funktionsnedsatta kundernas rätt till autonomi.

     

    Det är för habiliteringspersonalen, i vår undersökning, klart att kunden ska ha ett självbestämmande "i största möjliga mån". Det är det förhållningssätt som habiliteringspersonalen vi intervjuat praktiserar i dagsläget. De efterlyser dock regler från ledningen för att få vägledning i hur de ska förhålla sig till kundernas autonomi. Vidare anser habiliteringspersonalen inte att de har de personalresurser som behövs för att kunna tillgodose en god autonomi för kunden när det är en blandning av olika diagnoser i grupperna där vissa kunder kräver mer personalresurser än andra. Det maktövertag som habiliteringspersonalen har gentemot kunderna säger de sig vara väl medvetna om och kan förhålla sig till i sina beslut. Vi ser dock i våra resultat att habiliteringspersonalen utövar makt och påverkar kunderna omedvetet, vilket de i vissa fall blev medvetna om under våra intervjuer. Samhällets oskrivna regler gör även de att vi omedvetet kategoriserar människor så snart vi möts.

     

    Den slutsats vi har dragit är att det är mycket svårt att göra upp generella regler utifrån den vision som autonomiprincipen innebär. Arbetssättet måste formas individuellt för varje kund och kräver habiliteringspersonal som hela tiden är lyhörd för kundens önskningar. Arbetsgivarens möjlighet att påverka och hjälpa habiliteringspersonalen till att medvetet förhålla sig till den professionella makten gentemot kundernas autonomi är att föra en ständig diskussion i ämnet.

  • 1448.
    Berg, Robert
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics.
    Sandström, Mikael
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics.
    Den rationella individen – En lagbrytare?: En studie av överutnyttjandet av tillfällig föräldrapenning vid införandet av en karensdag i det svenska sjuklönesystemet2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this paper is to examine whether the introduction of a qualifying day in the use of sick insurance in the Swedish welfare system resulted in an increase in the use of parental benefits as substitute to avoid the qualifying day. We believe that this could be the case because of the higher gain from the welfare system. We use OLS to perform a linear regression from a data set from the data base LINDA during 1991-1996. The results in this paper are that there is a significant increase in the parental benefit after the reform although there is a negative trend for parental benefit during the examined period.

  • 1449.
    Berg, Sofie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences.
    Ström, Katarina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences.
    Anmälningsplikten: En studie om fem förskollärares uppfattning om den gällande anmälningsplikten2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I detta arbete har vi undersökt hur mycket kunskap det finns om den rådande anmälningsplikten i två kommuner. Syftet med detta var att undersöka hur anmälningsplikten uppfattas av fem verksamma pedagoger. Vi har tagit del av deras berättelser och upplevelser genom att intervjua dem angående hur de uppfattar anmälningsplikten och det ansvar som det innebär. Av resultatet som framkom konstaterade vi att det behövs mer kunskap och fortbildning inom ämnet hos pedagogerna för att kunna säkerställa barnens välbefinnande.

    Barnomsorgen har gått från att ha varit en förvaringsplats för barn till förvärvsarbetande föräldrar till en verksamhet med pedagogiska mål och riktlinjer. Även synen på barn har drastiskt förändras från att barnen tidigare setts och behandlats som ”små” vuxna till att få lagar och rättigheter som är mer anpassade för barn.

  • 1450.
    Berg, Vicki
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences.
    Förskollärares syn på naturvetenskap och teknik inom svensk och norsk förskola2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie handlar om hur några svenska och en norsk förskollärare förhåller sig till och arbetar med naturvetenskap och teknik i förskolan. Frågor som undersöks är; vilket förhållningssätt har de intervjuade förskollärarna själva till naturvetenskap och teknik, hur är de intervjuade förskollärarnas inställning till naturvetenskap och teknik i förskolan och hur arbetar man med detta i det dagliga arbete samt hur uttrycker sig de intervjuade förskollärarna om de läroplansmål som finns kring naturvetenskap och teknik. Studien har genomförts genom kvalitativ metod där tre förskollärare i Sverige och en förskollärare i Norge har i berättelseform besvarat ett antal intervjufrågor. Resultatet som framkom av studien är att förskollärare kan ha mycket olika förhållningssätt till naturvetenskapens och teknikens roll i förskolan. Ämnena ses också som områden som inte faller sig lika naturligt som andra områden som inbegrips i förskolans läroplan, och problematiken kring naturvetenskapens och teknikens roll i förskolan diskuteras. Den norska och svenska förskolans läroplan har behandlats, och det finns liknande mål inom dessa kring naturvetenskap och teknik. Flera förskollärare nämner dessa som bra, men även diffusa vilket leder till olika tolkningar av målen.

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