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  • 1501.
    Benselfelt, Milena
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Brändström, Sophia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Elledningars rättighetstyper; ledningsrätt, servitut och nyttjanderätt: Elbolagens och lantmäterimyndigheternas åsikter2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden is constantly developing and it means more lines in the ground, which leads to more questions about their legal rights. The electricity grid is divided into three different sizes; the core network, the regional network and the local network. The electricity grid is an important part of the infrastructure, and it should be legally protected through for example, utility easement or agreement easement.. Issues may arise about the legal rights of power lines such as when a transfer occurs, etc. Thus it is important to examine how the power lines should be legally protected.

    The purpose of the study is to examine how the electricity companies legally protect their power lines, as well as the pros and cons of the legal rights, based on the aspects of electricity companies and cadastral authorities. The purpose is also to highlight the most common issue regarding the legal rights on power lines.

    The questions that were formulated according to the purpose were:

    1. How do electricity companies legally protect their power lines?

    2. What are the pros and cons of the legal rights based on the views of electricity companies and surveyors?

    3. What is the most common problem that electric companies have about legal rights of power lines?

    By using a qualitative method in form of an interview study, the data for the study has been obtained. The interview study consisted of 16 interviews with experts from electricity companies and cadastral authorities. As the study should cover all of Sweden, electricity companies and land surveyors were selected with a geographical spread.

    The study shows that electricity companies legally protect their power lines depending on their size. The study also shows the differences between the electricity companies and the cadastral authorities ́ views on the pros and cons of the legal rights. Issues may occur depending on who owns the land where the lines are to be constructed. 

  • 1502.
    Berg, Björn
    et al.
    Dipartimento biologia strutturale e funzionale, Complesso universitario di Monte S. Angelo, Napoli, Italy; Department of forest ecology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Davey, M. P.
    Department of plant sciences, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
    De Marco, A.
    Dipartimento biologia strutturale e funzionale, Complesso universitario di Monte S. Angelo, Napoli, Italy.
    Emmett, B
    Centre for ecology and hydrology, Bangor.
    Faituri, M.
    Department of soils and water, Omar AlMukhtar university, Elbeida, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya.
    Hobbie, S. E.
    Department of ecology, evolution and behavior, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, USA.
    Johansson, Maj-Britt
    University of Gävle.
    Liu, C.
    Department of landscape science and engineering, College of agriculture and biology, Shanghai, ChinaShanghai Jiao Tong university,.
    McClaugherty, C.
    Department of biology, Mount Union college, Alliance, USA.
    Norell, L.
    Unit of applied statistics and mathematics, SLU, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Rutigliano, F. A.
    Dipartimento di scienze ambientali, Seconda Università degli studi di Napoli, Caserta, Italy.
    Vesterdal, L.
    Forest & landscape Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Hørsholm, Denmark.
    Virzo De Santo, A.
    Dipartimento biologia strutturale e funzionale, Complesso universitario de Monte S. Angelo, Napoli, Italy.
    Factors influencing limit values for pine needle litter decomposition: A synthesis for boreal and temperate pine forest systems2010In: Biogeochemistry, ISSN 0168-2563, E-ISSN 1573-515X, Vol. 100, no 1, p. 57-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We synthesized available data for decomposition of pine (Pinus) needle litter in pine forests to determine the litter chemical characteristics and climate factors that explained variation in the limit value, i. e. the level of accumulated mass loss at which the decomposition process either continues at a very low rate or possibly stops. Our data base included 56 separate studies on decomposition of pine needle litter, spanning Scots pine, lodgepole pine, Aleppo pine, stone pine and white pine, mainly incubated at the site of collection. Studies had 5 to 19 samplings, on average 10, and the decomposition was followed to a mass loss ranging from 47 to 83%, on average 67%. The periods from 3.0 to 5.4 years, on average 3.9 years, were of sufficient duration to allow estimates of limit values of decomposition. We used a linear mixed model with regression effects to relate limit values to potential explanatory variables, namely the sites' long-term mean annual temperature (MAT) and mean annual precipitation (MAP) and to substrate-chemistry factors. Regarding the latter, we explored two models; one that included initial concentrations of water solubles, lignin, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and Mn and one that included only lignin, N, Ca, and Mn to focus on those nutrients known to influence lignin degradation. Using backward elimination significant explanatory variables were determined. For litter decomposed in its site of origin we found the limit value to depend mainly on the initial concentration of Mn, with higher Mn concentrations resulting in higher accumulated mass loss. Thus, litter with higher Mn reached a higher limit value and left a smaller stable fraction. This is likely due to the fact that Mn is an essential component of ligninolytic enzymes important for degrading litter in the later stages of decomposition. Manganese has received little attention in decomposition studies to date. Given its significance in this synthesis, the role of Mn in influencing variation in the late stages of decomposition among ecosystems and among litters of other genera besides Pinus deserves further attention.

  • 1503.
    Berg, Björn
    et al.
    Department of Forest Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland .
    Erhagen, Björn
    Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, University of Umeå, Umeå, Sweden .
    Johansson, Maj-Britt
    University of Gävle.
    Nilsson, Mats
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå.
    Stendahl, Johan
    Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    Trum, Florence
    Earth and Life Institute, Universite' catolique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium .
    Vesterdal, Lars
    Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, University of Copenhagen, Fredriksberg C, Denmark .
    Manganese in the litter fall-forest floor continuum of boreal and temperate pine and spruce forest ecosystems: a review2015In: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, E-ISSN 1872-7042, Vol. 358, p. 248-260, article id 15021Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have reviewed the literature on the role of manganese (Mn) in the litter fall-to-humus subsystem. Available data gives a focus on North European coniferous forests. Manganese concentrations in pine (Pinus spp.) foliar litter are highly variable both spatially and temporally within the same litter species and for the genus Pinus we found a range from 0.03 to 3.7mgg-1. Concentrations were related negatively to site mean annual temperature (MAT) and annual actual evapotranspiration (AET) for pine species litter but not for that of Norway spruce (Picea abies) as a single species. Combined data for several species showed a highly significant relationship to MAT.Manganese peroxidase is an Mn-dependent enzyme, found in white-rot fungi, essential for the degradation of lignin and ligninlike compounds. The decomposition rates of lignified litter tissue (late phase) is positively related to the litter’s Mn concentration. Further, the Mn concentration is positively related to the limit value for decomposition - the higher the Mn concentration the smaller the stable litter fraction. Manganese release from decomposing litter appears at least in part to be species related. Thus was release from pine needle litter significantly faster (p<. 0.001) than that from the Mn-richer litter of Norway spruce. Over Northern Europe concentrations of total Mn in mor humus as well as extractable Mn in the mineral soil increase with decreasing MAT and over a climatic gradient the Mn concentrations in Norway spruce mor increase more with decreasing MAT than in a gradient with Scots pine. Higher Mn concentrations in humus appear to decrease its stability and result in a higher release of carbon dioxide (CO<inf>2</inf>) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). We conclude that this may explain (i) the lower amount of carbon (C) in mor layers under Norway spruce as compared to Scots pine as well as the higher amount of C in mineral soil under spruce. The increase in nitrogen (N) concentration in humus, following N fertilization resulted in a decrease in that of Mn. We have found four cases - empirical - with negative interaction between Mn and N; (i) in pine foliar litter fall concentrations of Mn decrease with site MAT whereas those of N increase, (ii) in decomposing late-stage litter with N retarding and Mn stimulating decomposition, (iii) for the stable phase, limit values are related negatively to N and positively to Mn, and (iv) Mn concentrations in humus decrease with MAT whereas those of N increase.

  • 1504.
    Berg, Björn
    et al.
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Erhagen, Björn
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Johansson, Maj-Britt
    University of Gävle.
    Vesterdal, Lars
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Faituri, Mikaeel
    Omar AlMuktar University, Elbeida, Libya.
    Sanborn, Paul
    University of British Columbia, Prince George, Canada.
    Nilsson, Mats
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Manganese dynamics in decomposing needle and leaf litter: a synthesis2013In: Canadian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0045-5067, E-ISSN 1208-6037, Vol. 43, no 12, p. 1127-1136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present synthesis paper was to determine whether concentration changes and net release of manganese (Mn), as related to accumulated litter mass loss, are related to initial Mn concentration, mean annual temperature (MAT), mean annual precipitation (MAP), and tree genus or species. We also examined whether limit values for decomposition are related to initial litter Mn concentration, MAT, and MAP. We compiled 84 foliar litter decomposition studies, conducted mainly in boreal and temperate forest ecosystems, for which Mn dynamics had been well documented. Manganese concentration and amount were related to accumulated litter mass loss at each sampling time for each single study, as well as for (i) all studies combined (n = 748) and (ii) for species groups viz. Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) (n = 284), pine (Pinus) species (n = 330), and deciduous species (n = 214). The changes in Mn concentration with accumulated mass loss followed quadratic functions showing significantly higher Mn concentrations for Norway spruce vs. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) (p < 0.0001) and vs. deciduous species (p < 0.01), as well as significantly higher for deciduous species vs. Scots pine (p < 0.0001). Manganese release rates were different among the three species groups (p < 0.001). Still, rates were related to initial Mn concentrations (p < 0.001) for all litter types combined and for the three species groups. Norway spruce released Mn more slowly than pine and deciduous species. Rates were related to climatic factors for litter of Norway spruce and deciduous species. Limit values for all litter and for pine species separately were related to Mn (p < 0.001) and MAT (p < 0.001). For Norway spruce, limit values were related to MAT (p < 0.001) and MAP (p < 0.01). It appears that Norway spruce litter retains Mn more strongly in the litter structure, producing humus richer in Mn than does litter of pine and deciduous species.

  • 1505.
    Berg, Björn
    et al.
    Department of Forest Ecology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Johansson, Maj-Britt
    University of Gävle.
    Liu, Chunjiang
    School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China; Shanghai Urban Forest Research Station, State Forestry Administration, Shanghai, China.
    Faituri, Mikaeel
    Department of Soils and Water, Omar AlMukhtar University, Elbeida, Libya.
    Sanborn, Paul
    Ecosystem Science and Management Program, University of Northern British Columbia, Prince George, Canada.
    Vesterdal, Lars
    Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark.
    Ni, Xiangyin
    Long-term Research Station of Alpine Forest Ecosystems, Key Laboratory of Ecological Forestry Engineering, Institute of Ecology and Forestry, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, China.
    Hansen, Karin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ukonmaanaho, Liisa
    Natural Resources Institute Finland, Helsinki, Finland.
    Calcium in decomposing foliar litter – A synthesis for boreal and temperate coniferous forests2017In: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, E-ISSN 1872-7042, Vol. 403, p. 137-144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have synthesized available data for calcium (Ca) dynamics in decomposing foliar litter of mainly pine (Pinus), spruce (Picea), and birch (Betula) species to determine patterns of Ca concentration with climate in newly shed litter and its dynamics in decomposing litter as well as a possible role for Ca as regards limit values. Initial Ca concentration was negatively related to mean annual precipitation (MAP) with different relationships among genera. A limited data set showed a positive relationship across species (p &lt; 0.05) to extractable Ca in soil. In paired stands, litter of both Norway spruce (Picea abies) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) had higher Ca concentrations than Scots pine (Pinus silvestris), Norway spruce litter even twice as high. Relationships between initial concentrations of Ca and those of other nutrients appeared to be dominated by the positive ones to potassium (K) and magnesium (Mg) and specifically for deciduous litter there was a negative relationship to nitrogen (N). In decomposing litter, Ca concentration followed a negative quadratic (Ca = a + t − t2) function and had a maximum, which was variable. The Ca maximum concentration during decomposition was positively related to initial Ca concentration both within and among species. Separate linear relationships based on species were combined into one, in common for all investigated species and genera (R2 = 0.914, n = 63, p &lt; 0.001). Limit values for decomposition were positively related to maximum Ca concentration at p &lt; 0.05 with separate functions for pine and spruce litter. Calcium net release started directly after the incubation and was linear to accumulated mass loss of litter, giving a slope coefficient for each study. The net release rates were linear to initial Ca concentration both within and across species/genera. All studies combined gave a negative linear relationship (R2 = 0.894, n = 67, p &lt; 0.001).

  • 1506.
    Berg, Björn
    et al.
    Department of Forest Ecology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finlan; Dipartimento Biologia Strutturale e Funzionale, Complesso Universitario, Napoli, Italy.
    Johansson, Maj-Britt
    University of Gävle.
    Nilsson, Åke
    Department of Forest Soils, Swedish University of Agriculture, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Gundersen, Per
    Forest and Landscape Denmark, University of Copenhagen, HØrsholm, Denmark.
    Norell, Lennart
    Unit of Applied Statistics and Mathematics, Swedish University of Agrictulture, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Sequestration of carbon in the humus layer of Swedish forests - direct measurements2009In: Canadian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0045-5067, E-ISSN 1208-6037, Vol. 39, no 5, p. 962-975Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To determine sequestration rates of carbon dioxide (CO2) we calculated the carbon (C) storage rate in humus layers of Swedish forests with Podsolic soils, which account for 14.2 x 106 ha of the 22.7 x 106 ha of forested land in Sweden. Our data set covered 41 years of humus inventories and mean humus layer thickness in 82513 plots. We analysed three forest types: (i) all combinations of tree species, (ii) forests dominated (>70%) by Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.), and (Ui) forests dominated (>70%) by Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). To relate changes in humus layer thickness to land area we used the intersections in 25 km x 25 km grids and used kriging interpolation, permitting calculations for each forest type. For each intersection mean humus thickness for each year was calculated and regressed against time to obtain the rate of change. This rate, humus bulk density, and humus C concentration were used, to calculate sequestration rates. The mean sequestration rate was 251 kg C-ha-1'year1, which is higher than theoretical values. The sequestration rate was positively related to temperature sum, albeit including effects of forest management. The pine-dominated forest type had a mean rate of 283 kgCha⁁year-1, and. the spruce-dominated had a mean rate of 239 kg Cha-1-year1. Under similar site conditions, pine sequestered more C than spruce (difference of 71 kg Cha-1'year-1; p < 0.0001), showing the importance of this type of ecosystem for C sequestration.

  • 1507.
    Berg, Björn
    et al.
    Department of Forest Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Kjønaas, O. J.
    Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research, Ås, Norway.
    Johansson, Maj-Britt
    University of Gävle.
    Erhagen, B.
    Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Åkerblom, S.
    Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Late stage pine litter decomposition: Relationship to litter N, Mn, and acid unhydrolyzable residue (AUR) concentrations and climatic factors2015In: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, E-ISSN 1872-7042, Vol. 358, p. 41-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate relationships between decomposition rates of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. contorta) needle litter in the late stage of decomposition (>30% accumulated mass loss), and the progressively changing concentrations of manganese (Mn), nitrogen (N), and acid unhydrolyzable residue (AUR), as well as mean annual temperature (MAT) and mean annual precipitation (MAP). Using available long-term decomposition studies on pine needle litter in a climate gradient in Sweden, we calculated annual mass loss and related to concentrations of Mn, N, and AUR at the start of each one-year period as well as to MAT and MAP. We investigated these relationships for (i) all data on annual mass loss combined and (ii) annual mass loss for five different decomposition categories as defined by accumulated mass loss. We found highly significant, negative, and dominant relationships between annual mass loss and N (R2=0.39) and AUR (R2=0.39), a slight but significant positive relationship to Mn (R2=0.08) and a significant negative relationship to MAT (R2=0.06). The relationships were dynamic, and changed with accumulated mass loss. The rate-dampening effect of N decreased to be a rate-enhancing effect at c. 60-80% accumulated mass loss. A similar trend was found for AUR, becoming rate-enhancing at 70-80% accumulated mass loss. For Scots pine needle litter the effect of MAT on mass loss decreased with increasing accumulated mass loss and changed to a rate-dampening effect at c. 50-70% accumulated mass loss. Mn showed a stimulating effect on mass loss rate in all categories whereas MAP showed no effect in this mainly boreal climatic gradient. The current approach indicates a method for detailed studies of rate-regulating factors for litter decomposition. 

  • 1508.
    Berg, Björn
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology.
    Sun, Tao
    Johansson, Maj-Britt
    Sanborn, Paul
    Ni, Xiangying
    Lönn, Mikael
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology.
    Magnesium dynamics in decomposing foliar litter - a synthesis2019In: Geoderma, ISSN 0016-7061, E-ISSN 1872-6259Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1509.
    Berg, Christine
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Stjernqvist, Nathalie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Förtroendets roll i en bostadsaffär: en analys av fastighetsmäklarens och kundens perspektiv2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Förtroende är något som stärker och påverkar kvalitén i det vi gör både på det privata och professionella planet: Hur skapas ett förtroende i en relation mellan fastighetsmäklare och kund i en bostadsaffär?

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att komma fram till vad som är viktigt för att skapa förtroende i säljprocessen mellan fastighetsmäklare och kund i en bostadsaffär.

    Metod: Vi har valt att använda oss utav en kvalitativ metod där vi samlat in vår information genom litteratur inom ämnet samt genom besöks- och telefonintervjuer med fastighetsmäklare och kunder. Totalt har 16 intervjuer genomförts som sedan har sammanställts i en empiridel.

    Resultat & slutsats: Förtroendet skapas genom att mäklaren är engagerad och förstår vad som är viktigt för kunden. Kunden vill att det ska ”klicka” med mäklaren och att en personkemi skall uppstå och att denne är öppen och ärlig med allt. Kunden skall kunna lita på att mäklaren gör det han säger att han ska, håller det han lovar och är kompetent. Mäklaren måste bry sig och inte se till sin egen vinning. Arbetar man på ett förtroendeingivande sätt kommer det att resultera i rekommendationer och följdaffärer.

    Förslag till fortsatt forskning: Det som man skulle kunna göra för att se tydligare paralleller är att intervjua fastighetsmäklare och deras kunder, för att se om bilden som fastighetsmäklaren vill förmedla stämmer överens med vad kunden upplevt samt utföra observationer på hur fastighetsmäklare arbetar med förtroende gentemot kunder.

    Uppsatsens bidrag: Vi anser att denna studie har bidragit med en ökad förståelse för vad som är viktigt för att skapa förtroende i en bostadsaffär. Vi har även redogjort för vad fastighetsmäklare gör för att skapa förtroende samt hur kunderna upplever detta. 

  • 1510.
    Berg, Emma
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Berg, Pär
    Motivationsfaktorers påverkan på utbildningsval: en utgångspunkt för HR-arbete kring arbetsmotivation?2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 1511.
    Berg, Erika
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Berglund, Terés
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Renskötselrätt vid lantmäteriförrättning: Hur beaktas rättigheten?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Renskötselrätt innebär enligt rennäringslagen en rätt för samer att använda mark inom ett renskötselområde till underhåll för sig och sina renar. Renskötselrätten grundas på urminnes hävd och tillkommer den som är same och medlem i en sameby. Renskötselrätt innebär en särskild rätt till fast egendom vilken existerar parallellt med äganderätten och omfattas av egendomsskyddet i 2 kap. 15 § regeringsformen.

    Enskilda individer kan tvingas till rådighetsinskränkningar eller till att avstå mark till förmån för allmänna intressen som infrastruktur och bebyggelse. Detta ska ske enligt reglerna för markåtkomst som återfinns i ett tjugotal lagar. Enligt Europakonventionen och regeringsformen ska den som tvingas avstå mark eller rättigheter ersättas.

    En fastighetsbildningsförrättning handläggs av lantmäterimyndigheten enligt reglerna i fastighetsbildningslagen. Ett återkommande problem är att värdera vilken skada en sameby lider när ersättning enligt lag måste prövas i samband med ett intrång.

    Syftet med detta arbete är dels att bidra med ökad kunskap om renskötselrättens juridiska innebörd, och dels att synliggöra hur renskötselrätten i nutid beaktas vid markåtkomst inom en lantmäteriförrättning. Detta för att bidra till att skapa en samsyn och en enhetlig handläggning av åtgärder som påverkar renskötselrätten. För att svara på denna studies frågeställningar har studier av förrättningsakter och intervjuer med förrättningslantmätare och en representant från Länsstyrelsen genomförts.

    Resultatet av studien visar att det i dagsläget är oklart hur renskötselrätten ska beaktas inom en lantmäteriförrättning och att det saknas arbetsstöd för hur renskötselrätten ska värderas vid ett intrång. I slutsatserna i detta arbete framgår det att detta beror på att det finns luckor i rennäringslagen vilket gör att den inte integrerar väl med annan lag och att det många gånger är oklart vilken myndighet som äger vilken fråga rörande renskötselrätten. För en enhetlig handläggning av ärenden som berör renskötselrätten krävs utbildning, klarläggande av vissa begrepp och bättre samverkan mellan myndigheter. Men framförallt krävs en revidering av rennäringslagen och relationen mellan den och annan lag.

  • 1512.
    Berg, Frida
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology.
    Lärares metoder: En studie om hur en lärare omvandlar en metod för läs- och skrivinlärning med hjälp av datorer till sin egen2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Användandet av informations- och kommunikationsteknologi (IKT) är något som blir mer och mer vanligt i skolorna. Elever som med hjälp av datorer skriver sig till läsning är något som uppmärksammats genom Arne Tragetons metod och hans bok Att skriva sig till läsning - IKT i förskoleklass och skola (2005). Syftet med denna undersökning har varit att studera hur en lärare omvandlar Arne Tragetons metod till sin egen, vilka val läraren gör, vad som påverkar dessa val och var läraren får informationen ifrån.

     

    I den tidigare forskningen tas det upp att en lärare ständigt bör söka kunskap om sina egna metoder och vara medveten om att det pågår en ständig lärprocess. En lärarens erfarenheter och kunskaper om undervisningsmetoder påverkar elevernas inlärning och utveckling. Det bör enligt Alexandersson finnas en medvetenhet hos läraren om den egna handlingen i undervisningen. I valet av metod är även faktorer som ideologisk övertygelse, metoders effektivitet och relevans i undervisningssituationen av vikt.

     

    I den tidigare forskningen framträder även att datoranvändandet som metod i läs- och skrivutvecklingen kan ha positiva effekter. Samtidigt är det viktigt att det finns en tanke bakom datoranvändandet. Det är inte datorn som skapar lärandet utan datorn ger en möjlighet till lärande.

     

    Studien är av kvalitativ karaktär och datamaterialet består av två semi-strukturerade intervjuer. De teman som tas upp under intervjuerna och diskuteras har skapats utifrån observationer i klassrummet och Tragetons metod för att skriva sig till läsning. Anledningen till valet av kvalitativ karaktär och en semi-strukturerad intervju, var för att tillsammans med lärarens skapa en diskussion kring hennes tankar bakom de val hon gjort.

     

    Slutsatsen av studien visar att läraren omvandlar metoden utifrån vad hon anser att eleverna och situationen kräver. Vad som påverkar dessa val är olika beroende på arbetets syfte och hur situationen med eleverna ser ut. Hennes tidigare erfarenhet och kollegors erfarenhet och kunskap är ett sätt för henne att kunna omvandla och utveckla metoden för att den ska fungera för henne och hennes elever.

     

  • 1513.
    Berg, Gustav
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Industrial design.
    Smoketrack - En digital plattform för personer som har bestämt sig för att sluta röka2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sedan cigaretten introducerades under 1800-talet har rökningens vara eller inte vara debatterats ständigt. Riskerna med rökning har lett till att fler och fler åtgärder införts för att försvåra tillgången till tobak, och möjligheterna att röka överallt har kraftigt begränsats. I samarbete med företaget Deversify och deras produkt Smoketrack avser examensarbetet att skapa en digital plattform i syfte med att erbjuda hjälp till ett rökfritt liv. 

    Arbetet behandlar vilka funktioner en applikation ska innehålla, och processen som ledde fram till det, för att i kombination med produkten Smoketrack uppmuntra till rökavvänjning. Arbetet har utförts genom en designprocess bestående av intervjuer och användartester samt litteraturdata. Resultatet av arbetet gestaltas genom en mobilapplikation med fokus på en community för sina medlemmar.

  • 1514.
    Berg, Hanna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences.
    Svedberg, Emma
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences.
    Lekande lätt att lära matematik: en handledning i matematik för förskolans personal2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Forskning visar på att allt fler förskollärare anser att det är svårt att lära ut matematik till yngre barn. För att bidra till ökad matematikundervisning samt förståelse framställdes en produkt, i form av en handledning. Handledningen riktar sig till förskolepersonal som arbetar med barns lärande av matematik. Detta gjordes främst för att all förskolepersonal ska kunna vara delaktig i undervisningen.

    Handledningen innefattade fyra olika matematiska avsnitt med varierande aktiviteter som kallades talraden, geometri, mönster samt mätning. De utvalda aktiviteterna stöds i handledningen främst av Bishops matematiska aktiviteter och mål från förskolans läroplan samt vetenskaplig grund i form av forskning. Handledningen provades av intresserad förskolepersonal från tre olika förskolor. De 14 personerna som provade materialet svarade sedan på en utvärderingsenkät som handledningen reviderades utifrån. Under arbetets gång gavs tillfälle att presentera handledningen för en grupp förskolechefer. De lämnade sina åsikter som sedan jämfördes med förskolepersonalens svar. Resultatet visade att handledningen fyller en funktion i matematikundervisningen i förskolan samt att den fungerar både i teori och praktik. Slutsatsen som dras är att handledningen bidrar till att underlätta matematikundervisningen.

  • 1515.
    Berg, Harry
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Forsberg, Mikael
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Hedman, Inger
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Helmerson, Anna
    Johansson, Inge
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Nilheim, Britt
    Stöpfgeshoff, Helena
    Att gestalta och förstå demokratiska värderingar i fritidshemmets arbete: något om innehållet i och principer för pedagogiskt arbete i Gävles fritidshem2011Report (Other academic)
  • 1516.
    Berg, Henrik
    et al.
    Faculty of Computer Sciences, Østfold University College, Halden, Norway.
    Olsson, Roland
    Faculty of Computer Sciences, Østfold University College, Halden, Norway.
    Lindblad, Thomas
    Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Physics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Chilo, José
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Automatic design of pulse coupled neurons for image segmentation2008In: Neurocomputing, ISSN 0925-2312, E-ISSN 1872-8286, Vol. 71, no 10-12, p. 1980-1993Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Automatic Design of Algorithms through Evolution (ADATE) is a program synthesis system that creates recursive programs in a functional language with automatic invention of recursive help functions and self-adaptive optimization of numerical values. We implement a neuron in a pulse coupled neural network (PCNN) as a recursive function in the ADATE language and then use ADATE to automatically evolve better PCNN neurons for image segmentation. Our technique is generally applicable for automatic improvement of most image processing algorithms and neural computing methods. It may be used either to generally improve a given implementation or to tailor that implementation to a specific problem, which with respect to image segmentation for example can be road following for autonomous vehicles or infrared image segmentation for heat seeking missiles that are to distinguish the heat source of the target from flares.

  • 1517.
    Berg, Jonatan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Industrial design.
    Ett nytt användningsområde för materialet OrganoComp®: genom en materialdriven designprocess2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med detta projekt är att med hjälp av en materialinriktad designprocess skapa en produkt av biokompositmaterialet OrganoComp® för att demonstrera dess styrkor och möjligheter. Arbetet kommer att följa metoden ”Material Driven Design (MDD)”, vilket betyder att processen kommer att börja med en noggrann studie av materialet – dels tekniskt och ur ett användarcentrerat perspektiv, men även jämförelsemässigt mot andra material.

    Insikterna från dessa studier kommer sedan trattas ner och sammanfattas i en ”designintention” som ska sätta målet för designarbetet. Slutligen kommer ett antal koncept som uppfyller designintentionen arbetas fram, varav ett koncept – ett litet, ihopvikbart och nedbrytbart paraply/regnskydd kommer att väljas ut som det slutgiltiga. Paraplyet visar på materialets vattenavvisande egenskaper, i kombination med hårdhet och vikbarhet. 

    Målet med projektet är att skapa en demonstrator som även har potential att bli en användbar produkt i framtiden, och samtidigt ge företaget OrganoClick nya insikter och flera förslag på nya användningsområden för sitt material.

  • 1518.
    Berg, Lina
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Bäck, Karin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Lägre arbetsmotivation och arbetstillfredsställelse bland omsorgspersonal med flexibel arbetsplats2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to examine differences in work motivation and job satisfaction among nursing assistants, depending on whether they had a permanent or flexible workplace. The study involved two groups of participants, the one belonging to a permanent ward while the employees of the other group moved around between wards depending on where they were currently needed. The study was conducted as a survey in care administration in a small municipality. A total of 55 people responded to the questionnaire, which was divided into two parts; Basic need satisfaction at work scale measuring the motivation subscales of autonomy, competence and connectedness and Minnesota job satisfaction scale measuring job satisfaction based on intrinsic and extrinsic aspects. The study showed that employees with a flexible workplace had lower motivation and job satisfaction than workers with permanent workplace. Autonomy, connectedness and internal job satisfaction showed a significant result, competence and external job satisfaction tended to significant effect.

  • 1519.
    Berg, Lotta
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Attityder till och kunskap om trycksår och trycksårsprevention: En enkätstudie2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Trycksår är ett omfattande och kostsamt problem för samhället, leder till smärta och lidande hos patienterna. Trots mycket vetenskaplig fakta om ämnet fortsätter prevalensen av trycksår att vara alltför hög. Många studier påvisar att det finns brister i både kunskap och attityder till trycksår och trycksårsprevention bland omvårdnadspersonal. Syfte: Att beskriva och jämföra vilka attityder till och vilken kunskap om trycksår och trycksårsprevention det fanns hos omvårdnadspersonal inom två olika verksamhetsområden ortopedi och kirurgi. Metod: Deskriptiv och komparativ enkätstudie med kvantitativ ansats. Enkäter delades ut till 82 sjuksköterskor och undersköterskor inom två olika omvårdnadsenheter, ortopedi och kirurgi. Det var 41 personer som deltog i studien. Resultat: Samtliga var positivt inställda till trycksårsprevention. Inga statistiskt signifikanta skillnader fanns mellan grupperna inom attityddelen. Inom kunskapsdelen fanns en statistiskt signifikant skillnad mellan grupperna i temat Riskbedömning/instrument, där omvårdnadspersonalen inom kirurgi besatt en större kunskap. Inom resterande teman fanns inga statistiskt signifikanta skillnader mellan grupperna. Slutsats: I denna studie var attityderna till att arbeta med trycksårsprevention positiva, det fanns dock kunskapsbrist bland omvårdnadspersonalen inom vissa områden av trycksår och trycksårsprevention. Inom temat Förebyggande åtgärder fanns mest bristande kunskap, därför behövs utbildning där tyngdpunkten bör ligga på de bristande områdena inom trycksår och trycksårsprevention.

     

  • 1520.
    Berg, Magdolna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Camilla, Örnebro
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Svenska företags motiv till hållbarhetsrapportering: Är det till nytta för alla?2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Title: Swedish companies motivation to sustainability reporting – Is it beneficial to everyone?

    Level: Final assignment for Bachelor Degree in Business Administration

    Author: Magdolna Berg and Camilla Örnebro

    Supervisor: Jan Svanberg

    Date: 2014-06

    Aim: As of now sustainability reporting is functioning on a voluntary basis. Present rules and regulations cover disclosure of various environmental emissions but do not prescribe this to be in a form of a sustainability report, but as a part of the annual report or in other optional forms to local authorities. The latest form – GRI standard – is cut out to fit bigger companies needs but in the meantime it is too extensive for smaller companies to even try to report according to its principles. The aforementioned problem and the fact that it is voluntary makes us wonder about the reasons why certain companies still take on to disclose information in a sustainability report while others choose not to do this. Furthermore we wonder if it would be beneficial till everyone to make it obligatory.

    Method: We have combined quantitative and qualitative data collection methods as part of a survey design. We have chosen to send out questionnaires as a main method in order to be able to collect big amounts of information and we have also done semi-structured interviews as a supporting method in order to get a deeper understanding for our results. We use a deductive approach and formulate hypothesis from previous research which we test with various statistic methods. The result is then confirmed by triangulation with the help of a content analysis of our empiric data from the semi-structured interviews.

    Result & Conclusions: Swedish companies disclose sustainability reports both for ethical and strategic reasons. Stakeholders require legitimating from bigger companies and sustainability report is an appropriate tool for them just for doing this. Ethical behavior brings also long term sustainable development and benefits even society and nature. Manipulating public opinions or the need to fulfill legal requirements as a motivation to sustainability reporting doesn’t seem to be present with regards to Swedish circumstances. Companies choose not to make sustainability disclosures in a form of sustainability reporting since there doesn’t seem to exist a cost effective or relevant sustainability report format and neither do stakeholders demand it.

    Suggestions for future research: It would be interesting to see how much small companies - that are not present on a stock exchange – know about sustainability and what their attitude is towards sustainability reporting.  Furthermore authorities and professional organizations could develop a standard that is adjusted to fit smaller companies and a program for implementation that would give more drive for an ethical and sustainable business enterprise.

    Contribution of the thesis: This paper could highlight Swedish companies’ attitude to sustainability reporting and give ideas about which incentives could drive this important topic and even about how a sustainable and responsible approach can be taken to the next level.

    Keywords: sustainability reporting, motive, EU, Sweden, GRI, voluntary, obligatory

  • 1521.
    Berg, Maria
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Hansson, Marie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    What hinders and promotes the use of CBT in a residential home?: - an interiew study2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This qualitative study aimed to identify how personnel working in a residential home in Sweden work withCognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) orientation within the organization. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with five personnel. The research questions were; How do the personnel describe the CBT orientation? How do the personnel describe the CBT tools and methods? How do the personnel describe and measure the implementation of CBT?

    The results were analyzed an Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) tool in order to gain a greater understanding of the data. The theories used to analyze the results were the learning theory, attachment theory and New Public Management (NPM). The results of this study indicate that CBT was incorporated in the daily lives of the residents throughout the course of the day and the personnel described common methods such as Aggression Replacement Therapy (ART), Dialectal Behavioral Therapy (DBT), and Motivational Interviewing (MI). 

  • 1522.
    Berg, Marianne
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Berglund, Helene
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Utvärdering av möjligheten att använda UAS vid gränsmätning i skogsmiljö2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Real properties in Dalarna often consist of small lots of forest or agriculture. These lots are often elongated and consequently impractical, therefore the Swedish mapping, cadastral and land registration authority performs comprising land consolidations. These are to swap land between the owners of the properties, in order to form appropriate lots, for purpose of, inter alia, promoting investment and development opportunities in the region. In order to establish a map, a decision basis, for the valuation of the lot, the claimed proprietary right has to be surveyed. The work is performed with NRTK (network-RTK) or total station, and the maximum allowed planar deviation is 0.50 m (base level requirement). The purpose of this study was to examine whether there is a possibility of using Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) when claimed property boundaries are going to be surveyed. UAS is a system consisting of an unmanned aerial vehicle, a digital camera, a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver, an Inertial Navigation System (INS) and a control station.

    In a delimitated area of about 24 ha in Norra Åbyggeby, north of Gävle, black and white and white markers, with the size of 0.40x0.40 m, were positioned in the terrain and then surveyed as ground control points or boundary points with network RTK. Mean planimetric coordinates have been calculated for the control points, which have been used as reference coordinates. These have been compared with the coordinates measured in an orthophotomosaic produced from flights with UAS at an altitude of 100 and 180 m. To get a further comparison, the coordinates were determined by a block adjustment in the software PhotoScan from Agisoft. The object identification of the markers, placed in different environments, and from different altitudes has been studied.

    The digitalization in the orthophotomosaic resulted in a Root Mean Square error (RMS-value) of 0.083 m at an altitude of 100 m and a value of 0.049 m at an altitude of 180 m. Corresponding RMS values were 0.071 m at an altitude of 100 m and 0.077 m at an altitude of 180 m when computed in PhotoScan. F-test has been calculated using the four RMS values, the result of the F-test showed that coordinates obtained in an orthophotomosaic, in ArcMap, are equivalent to coordinates obtained by block adjustment, in PhotoScan. The F-test also showed that the coordinates are equivalent from altitudes 100 and 180 m by block adjustment, but they are not equivalent when they are obtained in an orthophotomosaic from altitudes 100 and 180 m. If we disregard the systematic error at three of the points (orthophotomosaic 100 m) the F-test did not show any statistically significant difference between the two altitudes.

    All deviations were below the base level requirement. The largest planar deviation was 0.181 m at an altitude of 100 m and 0.083 m at an altitude of 180 m. Corresponding values for PhotoScan were 0.155 m and 0.148 m. How dense the forest was where the marker was placed and the impact of the sun, in terms of shadows and brightness, have affected the composition of the mosaic, and consequently the deviations. UAS can be used for surveying of claimed property boundaries, but there is no guarantee that all signalized boundary points can be surveyed directly in the orthophotomosaic. One recommendation is to use a less accurate method for the measurement of the ground control points (needed for the georeferencing of the point cloud/orthophotomosaic) than the method used in this thesis. The higher altitude is preferable because the time requirement of the flight will be shorter, and a smaller number of aerial photos need to be processed. Choose the method that the user is used to, manual digitizing in an orthophotomosaic or automatic calculation in a block adjustment.

  • 1523.
    Berg, Mia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology.
    Frånlund, Christin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology.
    Att vara lugnet i stormen: Krisstödjares upplevelser av möten med barn efter barnförhör2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to explore what is considered important in a crisis supportintervention after child interrogation at a child advocacy center. The method used was semistructuredinterviews with four social workers in the crisis support team. The analysis wasbased on systems theory and salutogenesis. The result showed that the legal process,constructed to protect children’s rights, also contributes to the crisis. It showed that the parentsneed to be strengthened in order to support the child. The social workers feel that they help thefamilies in the first crisis, but a lack of resources prevent them from continuing the support,missing the chance to real change. We discusses how well the social workers could helpputting children in a better position than before, with the crisis support method.

  • 1524.
    Berg, Mia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology. University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology, Ämnesavdelningen för sociologi.
    Storm, Anette
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Autonomi: på vems villkor2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Autonomiprincipen är det förhållningssätt som vägleder habiliteringspersonalen i sitt dagliga arbete. "Lagen om stöd och service till vissa funktionshindrade personer" (LSS) och Socialtjänstlagen (SoL) beskriver att den kommunala verksamheten ska grundas på respekt för den enskildes självbestämmanderätt och integritet. Utifrån detta ville vi i denna kvalitativa undersökning ta reda på vilket förhållningssätt habiliteringspersonal, i daglig verksamhet, har när det gäller den professionella makten gentemot de intellektuellt funktionsnedsatta kundernas rätt till autonomi.

     

    Det är för habiliteringspersonalen, i vår undersökning, klart att kunden ska ha ett självbestämmande "i största möjliga mån". Det är det förhållningssätt som habiliteringspersonalen vi intervjuat praktiserar i dagsläget. De efterlyser dock regler från ledningen för att få vägledning i hur de ska förhålla sig till kundernas autonomi. Vidare anser habiliteringspersonalen inte att de har de personalresurser som behövs för att kunna tillgodose en god autonomi för kunden när det är en blandning av olika diagnoser i grupperna där vissa kunder kräver mer personalresurser än andra. Det maktövertag som habiliteringspersonalen har gentemot kunderna säger de sig vara väl medvetna om och kan förhålla sig till i sina beslut. Vi ser dock i våra resultat att habiliteringspersonalen utövar makt och påverkar kunderna omedvetet, vilket de i vissa fall blev medvetna om under våra intervjuer. Samhällets oskrivna regler gör även de att vi omedvetet kategoriserar människor så snart vi möts.

     

    Den slutsats vi har dragit är att det är mycket svårt att göra upp generella regler utifrån den vision som autonomiprincipen innebär. Arbetssättet måste formas individuellt för varje kund och kräver habiliteringspersonal som hela tiden är lyhörd för kundens önskningar. Arbetsgivarens möjlighet att påverka och hjälpa habiliteringspersonalen till att medvetet förhålla sig till den professionella makten gentemot kundernas autonomi är att föra en ständig diskussion i ämnet.

  • 1525.
    Berg, Robert
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics.
    Sandström, Mikael
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics.
    Den rationella individen – En lagbrytare?: En studie av överutnyttjandet av tillfällig föräldrapenning vid införandet av en karensdag i det svenska sjuklönesystemet2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this paper is to examine whether the introduction of a qualifying day in the use of sick insurance in the Swedish welfare system resulted in an increase in the use of parental benefits as substitute to avoid the qualifying day. We believe that this could be the case because of the higher gain from the welfare system. We use OLS to perform a linear regression from a data set from the data base LINDA during 1991-1996. The results in this paper are that there is a significant increase in the parental benefit after the reform although there is a negative trend for parental benefit during the examined period.

  • 1526.
    Berg, Sofie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences.
    Ström, Katarina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences.
    Anmälningsplikten: En studie om fem förskollärares uppfattning om den gällande anmälningsplikten2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I detta arbete har vi undersökt hur mycket kunskap det finns om den rådande anmälningsplikten i två kommuner. Syftet med detta var att undersöka hur anmälningsplikten uppfattas av fem verksamma pedagoger. Vi har tagit del av deras berättelser och upplevelser genom att intervjua dem angående hur de uppfattar anmälningsplikten och det ansvar som det innebär. Av resultatet som framkom konstaterade vi att det behövs mer kunskap och fortbildning inom ämnet hos pedagogerna för att kunna säkerställa barnens välbefinnande.

    Barnomsorgen har gått från att ha varit en förvaringsplats för barn till förvärvsarbetande föräldrar till en verksamhet med pedagogiska mål och riktlinjer. Även synen på barn har drastiskt förändras från att barnen tidigare setts och behandlats som ”små” vuxna till att få lagar och rättigheter som är mer anpassade för barn.

  • 1527.
    Berg, Vicki
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences.
    Förskollärares syn på naturvetenskap och teknik inom svensk och norsk förskola2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie handlar om hur några svenska och en norsk förskollärare förhåller sig till och arbetar med naturvetenskap och teknik i förskolan. Frågor som undersöks är; vilket förhållningssätt har de intervjuade förskollärarna själva till naturvetenskap och teknik, hur är de intervjuade förskollärarnas inställning till naturvetenskap och teknik i förskolan och hur arbetar man med detta i det dagliga arbete samt hur uttrycker sig de intervjuade förskollärarna om de läroplansmål som finns kring naturvetenskap och teknik. Studien har genomförts genom kvalitativ metod där tre förskollärare i Sverige och en förskollärare i Norge har i berättelseform besvarat ett antal intervjufrågor. Resultatet som framkom av studien är att förskollärare kan ha mycket olika förhållningssätt till naturvetenskapens och teknikens roll i förskolan. Ämnena ses också som områden som inte faller sig lika naturligt som andra områden som inbegrips i förskolans läroplan, och problematiken kring naturvetenskapens och teknikens roll i förskolan diskuteras. Den norska och svenska förskolans läroplan har behandlats, och det finns liknande mål inom dessa kring naturvetenskap och teknik. Flera förskollärare nämner dessa som bra, men även diffusa vilket leder till olika tolkningar av målen.

  • 1528.
    Bergabo-Lundqvist, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Lindkvist, Anders
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskans erfarenheter av att arbeta med triage på en akutmottagning: litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Triage is a tool used to carry out assessments and priorities of patients in emergency rooms. The assessment of the patients is divided into different levels according to their health needs. The purpose of the assessments is to ensure that those who have the greatest need of assistance are taken care of first. A registered nurse performs this assessment.

    Aim: To describe the nurse´s experience working with triage in a emergency department and to describe the data collection method used in the articles included in the result.

    Method: A literature study with descriptive design, were ten scientific articles were included. A search for scientific material was carried out ant retrieved from the University of Gävle databases Cinahl and PubMed and through a manual search of the two databases.

    Results: It emerged that nurses describes causes like lack of education, a lack of experience and factors that affect the work environment has been shown to be important for their experience in working with triage. Selected items data collections methods consisted of interview studies, surveys, observational studies and a web-based survey.

    Conclusion: The results reveled three main factors affecting nurse´s experience of triage: Clinical experience, work environment and education. The factors, each individually is important for nurse’s occupation, not just in emergency care, but also in other areas in healthcare. Despite the great variety influx of patients in emergency rooms the nurse’s professional satisfaction is but if more emphasis was placed on creating a more enjoyable working environment, providing training and reviewing clinical significance of professional experience at the triage then work satisfaction migh be even higher.

  • 1529.
    Bergdahl, Emma
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Hinder och möjligheter för företagssköterskor vid införandet av goda matvanor hos företag2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

     

    Emma Bergdahl

    Obstacles and opportunities among occupational health nurses when implementing healthy eating habits.

    C thesis in Public Health. Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies. University of Gävle. Autumn 2012

     

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate which obstacles and opportunities nurses within occupational health find when trying to implement healthy eating habits among the employees in their respective company. Another objective was to see if the nurses worked according to the Guidelines, issued by the National Board of Health and Welfare.

    Method: The study was a quantitative study and conducted among nurses in central Sweden. A web survey was distributed to nurses who chose to participate. The response rate was 66 percent. The results were compiled in Excel since the characters and results are displayed in the form of figures, text and quotes.

    Results: The results showed that the most common obstacles found by nurses when trying to implement healthy eating habits among workers, were lack of motivation, lack of time and finances of companies. The opportunities were motivation, cooperation with other actors and adequate knowledge in the field. Healthy eating habits received low priority among the nurses.

    Conclusion: Motivation will always be necessary in order to change lifestyle or habits. Therefore, a high priority must be to work more with how to motivate those individuals who may not be so inclined to make a change.

  • 1530.
    Bergdahl, My
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Snäll, Josephine
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Kan den interna kommunikationen inom en organisation predicera uppfyllelsen av medarbetarnas psykologiska kontrakt?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to quantitatively examine whether the internal communication (based on the dimensions: personal feedback, relationship with superiors, organizational integration and communication climate) can predict the psychological contract (which consists of expectations, commitments and promises that arises between one employee and employer). A survey was sent to two department stores in central Sweden within an international organization. The survey was based on parts of the Communication Satisfaction Questionnaire (CSQ) (Downs & Adrian, 2004) and Isaksson and Bellaaghs (2005) Swedish translation of the PSYCONES project's measuring instrument for the psychological contract. The survey aimed at employees without a leading position and was answered by 70 employees at the organization. The result showed that the communication dimensions together as a model significant predicted the fulfilment of the psychological contract. Organizational integration predicts the employees' psychological contract the strongest. Even the dimension relationship with superiors contributed with a unique proportion of the coefficient of determination.

  • 1531.
    Berge, Karin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Personalansvarigas uppfattningar om och förväntningar av hälsofrämjande åtgärder för personalen2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Problemformulering: Forskning visar att hälsofrämjande åtgärder både kan förbättra medarbetares hälsa och utveckla verksamheten. Då man aktivt arbetar med att utveckla hälsofrämjande åtgärder är det väsentligt med en ständig utvärdering. Det finns mycket beskrivet i forskningen kring hälsofrämjande åtgärder på arbetsplatsen dock finns det inte mycket kring personalansvarigas uppfattningar och förväntningar av dessa åtgärder. Syfte: Undersöka vad personalansvariga har för uppfattningar om och förväntningar av hälsofrämjande åtgärder för personalen. Metod: Studien valdes att göras med en kvalitativ ansats och med grundad teori som forskningsdesign. Datainsamlingen har gjorts med hjälp av tio kvalitativa semistrukturerade intervjuer. Resultat och slutsats: Personalansvariga beskriver en förväntan av att hälsofrämjande åtgärder ska ge deras medarbetare ökat välbefinnande på arbetet. De anser att friskvård ger friskare medarbetare vilket leder till mindre sjukfrånvaro. Den fysiska miljön beskrivs som en viktig hälsofrämjande faktor på arbetsplatsen. Personalansvariga menar att medarbetarnas behov av att bli sedda och uppmärksammade tillfredställs då hälsofrämjande åtgärder erbjuds. Personalansvariga visar inget större intresse av att se vad de hälsofrämjande åtgärder som erbjuds, ger medarbetaren och organisationen. De utför inte heller några personalekonomiska beräkningar eller använder några kalkyler innan de genomför hälsofrämjande satsningar. Personalansvariga talar om egna brister i utbildning inom ämnet men det finns en tydlig möjlighetsbaserad tankekultur snarare än problembaserad tankekultur hos flertalet av personalansvariga.

  • 1532.
    Berge, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Kommunikativa leksaker: Att kunna uttrycka känslor genom lek2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to develop a communicativetoy that gives children the opportunity to easiercommunicate and express themselves about their ownand others’ feelings.The range of today’s market of toys were examined tofind areas in which an interesting development couldbe possible. A study on children, play, toys, communication,Design for All and children with disabilitieswas made, to gather the necessary facts in order toclarify what is required of a toy and what the necessitiesare. A survey was also used to get a clearer pictureof the three emotions chosen to work on; happy, angryand sad. These studies have been the basis for thedesign process where I have worked with sketches andmodels. The work resulted in a final product in whicha series of toys were produced, the toyserie Honest. Theserie consists of three toys, with the same basic shapeto clearify that they belong to the same family, expressingdifferent emotions.The toys will in this way help children to express theirand others’ feelings and how they feel. The ability tocommunicate is vital to the psychological, social andcultural development. This is precisely why such a toy,an alternative mean of communication about how youand others feel, is so important.

  • 1533.
    Bergefur, Jill
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Warberg, Karin
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Stora bostadsfastigheter på landsbygden med skogsskiften. Hur påverkar förändrad tillämpning av fastighetsbildningslagen bosättningen på landsbygden?: En undersökning i Gävle, Ockelbo och Hofors kommun.2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Historically, residential property is limited to the area needed for the property to substantially have the character of a residential plot. An increased demand for an attractive rural housing resulted in changes to property law, which made it possible to form large residential properties with combined purposes, all in line with the existing rural policy. Still, however, there were restrictions to bring forest land to residential plots for the protection of the productive forestry. The Swedish mapping, cadastral and land registration authority (Lantmäteriet) have therefore created working recommendations to facilitate the opportunity to incorporate forest plots, including the collection of firewood for household use. This study had the aim to investigate how the amended legislation, with subsequent work recommendations influenced the formation of large residential properties in rural areas.

    Why people move is an important issue for both researchers in the field and politicians, as the regional policy should be adapted to where people want to live and why they choose to move there. Previous studies have mainly focused on economic motives, but the living environment and nature’s impact has been increasingly highlighted in recent years. The importance of the property’s physical design for the decision to move, however, is less investigated. We have therefore examined whether and how those properties affected settlement in rural areas within the selected municipalities. The study consisted partly of a postal questionnaire to the property owners who hold these large residential properties with forest parcels included and semi-structured interviews with surveyors who carried out these missions.

    Overall, we saw that large residential properties with forest and land was a reason for the counter-urbanization that has taken place because many of the migratory reasons given have been difficult to achieve with a different type of property. Although surveyors’ assessment differed in terms of details the main purpose to create appropriate and attractive residential properties without the productive forest damaged was fulfilled. We made the conclusion that the property formed, perceived as attractive by those who moved to these properties because they took advantage of the opportunities available with this accommodation.

  • 1534.
    Bergefur, Matilda
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences.
    Åkesdotter, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences.
    Sjunkande läsresultat - har eleverna blivit sämre läsare?2013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Lästester genomförda av IEA, PIRLS och PISA, både inom Europa och i världen, har visat att eleverna i Sverige genom åren har uppnått allt sämre resultat på lästester. Att kunna läsa är något som är nödvändigt för att kunna fungera i vårt samhälle, både i skolan, senare i yrkeslivet och i privatlivet.

    Examensarbetets övergripande syfte är att undersöka vilka faktorer i skolan som kan ha del i den sjunkande läs- och skrivförmågan hos eleverna. Examensarbetet förtydligar begreppet literacy närmare och redogör för de faktorer som vi, genom en avgränsad sökning, funnit kan ha påverkan på elevernas studieresultat. Då läroplanen är det dokument som skolan ska förhålla sig till, finns det i examensarbetet en jämförelse om vad som skrivs om undervisning och ämnet svenska mellan Lgr 80, Lpo 94 och Lgr 11.

    Metoden som används i denna uppsats är kvalitativ intervju. I studien deltog tre lärare som arbetat i ca 15 år inom läs- och skrivundervisning.  

    Resultaten i examensarbetet har visat att majoriteten av de intervjuade lärarna anser att elevernas läskunnighet blivit bättre, snarare än sämre, vilket är vad de internationella undersökningarna visat. Resultaten visar också att läs- och skrivundervisningen har förändrats till att mer fokus läggs på innehåll än form, jämfört med tidigare. Enligt de intervjuade lärarna är det viktigt att både lärare och föräldrar har en positiv attityd till läsning, för att även eleverna ska få en positiv attityd. 

  • 1535.
    Bergel, Johanna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Lindh, Karolina
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Information till föräldrar som får barn med Downs syndrom-en litteraturstudie-2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Enligt Svenska Downföreningen finns brister i hur föräldrar som får ett barn med Downs syndrom blir informerade om barnets diagnos. Vårdpersonal upplevs ibland som osäkra av föräldrarna och informationen de ger kan vara otillräcklig. Syftet med denna litteraturstudie var att beskriva hur information om att barnet har Downs syndrom ges till föräldrarna samt hur föräldrarna upplever informationen och om de saknar något. Vetenskapliga artiklar till denna studie har hämtats ur databaserna CINAHL och Medline. Sökorden var Down syndrome, disclosure, adaptation, nursing care, psychology och parents. Resultatet visade att vårdpersonal, i huvudsak läkare, får någon form av utbildning i att lämna svåra besked under sin studietid. Deras självskattade förmåga i dessa situationer var i genomsnitt hög. Mot det kan ställas att ungefär hälften av de föräldrar som fått beskedet att deras barn har Downs syndrom var nöjda med informationstillfället. De som var nöjda uppger att vårdpersonalen haft en positiv inställning till deras barn, att de fått informationen så snart som möjligt efter förlossningen och att detta skett på en avskild plats. De föräldrar som upplevt informationstillfället negativt har fått lite information, ibland utan att deras partner varit närvarande. Vårdpersonalen har haft en negativ attityd till sjukdomen samt att obehöriga personer har kunnat befinna sig i samma rum under informationen. Det skriftliga materialet föräldrarna fått i samband med barnets diagnos var ofta dåligt uppdaterad där omoderna ord och gamla attityder fanns med. Tidigare ansågs att personer med Downs syndrom var efterblivna och skulle därför institutionaliseras. Detta synsätt har i många kulturer förändrats över tid och idag kan personer med Downs syndrom leva relativt självständigt.

  • 1536.
    Bergelin, Johanna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies.
    Sjölander, Cim
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies.
    Våld i nära relation: Vilka kunskaper sjuksköterskan behöver för att identifiera och bemöta den utsatta kvinnan- En litteraturstudie2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med litteraturstudien var att beskriva vilka kunskaper sjuksköterskan behöver för att kunna identifiera och bemöta kvinnor som utsatts för våld i nära relation. Metod: Studien genomfördes som en beskrivande litteraturstudie och baserades på sexton vetenskapliga artiklar som söktes på databaserna Cinahl och PubMed. Huvudresultat: Synliga symtom på fysiska skador är oftast inte orsaken till varför våldsutsatta kvinnor söker vård. Det har visat sig att de är mer benägna att söka för somatiska problem som buksmärta, ryggsmärta och sexuellt överförbara sjukdomar. Även psykisk ohälsa är vanligt förekommande. För att upptäcka att kvinnan är våldsutsatt är det viktigt att sjuksköterskan ställer frågor om våld i nära relation. I mötet med kvinnan är det betydelsefullt att som sjuksköterska inge förtroende, ge stöd och främja kvinnans säkerhet. För att sjuksköterskan ska kunna hantera situationen och bemöta kvinnan professionellt behövs utbildning samt riktlinjer inom vården. Slutsats: Sjuksköterskor behöver mer kunskaper för att kunna se tecken och symtom som tyder på att kvinnan utsatts för våld. För att sjuksköterskan ska kunna hantera mötet på ett professionellt sätt och veta hur frågor om våld i nära relation ska ställas har ett flertal studier påvisat att specifik utbildning behövs.

  • 1537.
    Bergendahl, Henrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Johansson, Stina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Märkning av leveranser: En fallstudie utförd på Sandvik Materials Technology2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 1538.
    Bergenheim, Mikael
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Belastningsskadecentrum.
    Ribot-Ciscar, E
    Roll, J-P
    Thunberg, Johan
    University of Gävle, Belastningsskadecentrum.
    Spontaneous bursting neuronal discharges recorded from peripheral nerve in human: injury discharges or not?2004In: Neuroscience Letters, ISSN 0304-3940, E-ISSN 1872-7972, Vol. 359, no 1-2, p. 1-4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with a spontaneous, bursting neuronal activity which can not be altered by any stimulation in the periphery or voluntary actions or by cognitive tasks. An initial description of such units led to the conclusion that this activity was generated ectopically at the site of a previous or present impalement of a nerve fibre. The aim of the current study was to record a larger number of these units by using microneurography, in order to characterise their firing properties and particularly, see if any subtypes of units could be identified. In conclusion, this paper suggests that some of these discharges could be related to an injury of the nerve fibre, however most of them could not. Some hypothesis regarding the nature of these bursting activities are suggested.

  • 1539.
    Berger, Frida
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Nilsson, Kim
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Betydande aspekter för sjuksköterska och patient i det preventiva arbetet mot venösa bensår: En litteraturstudie2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background; 3 % of the world’s population suffers from venous leg ulcers. Women and elderly are most affected. Compression therapy and physical activity is the most common self-care treatment for patients with venous leg ulcers and the nurse has a great responsibility to motivate patients to self-care. Aim; The aim of this study was to describe difficulties venous leg ulcer patients’ may experience performing self-care, to describe the nurses essential factors to motivate patients to adhere to self-care and to examine the quality of sampling methods in the studies included. Methods; A descriptive design was used and this study included four qualitative studies, three quantitative studies and three studies with both qualitative and quantitative design and was published between 2004-2014. The scientific articles were found in the database PubMed and the content of the articles was examined of their resemblance. Quality, similarities and differences were examined in the methodological aspect selection method. Results; Seven themes were identified and three of them described patients difficulties to adhere to self-care. Knowledge and belief in the treatment and themselves was found to be essential and the next two themes described patients’ difficulties to adhere to compression therapy and physical activity. The residual themes described the nurses’ essential factors to motivate patients to adhere to self-care, knowledge and information, the patients’ attitude towards self-care, organizational problems and the relationship between the nurse and patient. Regarding the review of the articles selection method, a varying quality was found. Conclusions; There are many factors influencing venous leg ulcer patients’ adherence to self-care. The nurses’ and the patients’ knowledge and attitude towards self-care activities is an important part of a functional self-care needed to reduce the prevalence of venous leg ulcers.

  • 1540. Bergfors, M
    et al.
    Barnekow-Bergkvist, Margareta
    University of Gävle, Belastningsskadecentrum.
    Kalezic, Nebojsa
    University of Gävle, Belastningsskadecentrum.
    Lyskov, Eugene
    University of Gävle, Belastningsskadecentrum.
    Eriksson, J W
    Short-term effects of repetitive arm work and dynamic exercise on glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity.2005In: Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6772, E-ISSN 1365-201X, Vol. 183, no 4, p. 345-356Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To detennine whether repetitive ann work, with a large component of static muscle contraction alters glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity.

    Methad: Euglycemic clamps (2h) were started in ten healthy individuals 15 minutes after 37 minute periods of: 1) repetitive ann work in a simulated occupational setting; 2) dynamic concentric exercise on a cycle ergometer at 60% OfVO2 max and 3) a resting regime as a control. During the experimental periods, blood samples were collected, blood pressure was measured repeatedly and electrocardiogram (ECG) wasrecorded continuously. During the clamps, euglycemia was maintained at 5 mmo1/l and insulin was infused at 56 mU/m2/min for 120 min.

    Results: The insulin-mediated glucose disposal rate (M-value) for the steady state period (60- 120 min) of the clamp, tended to be lower following ann work than for both cycling and resting regimes. When dividing the steady state period into 20-minute intervals, the insulin sensitivity index, (ISI) was significantly lower for ann work compared with the resting control situation between 60-80 minutes (p=0.04) and 80-100 minutes (p=0.01) respectively.

    Catecholamines increased significantly for ann work and cycling compared with resting regime. .Data from heart rate variability (HRV) me asurements indicated significant sympathetic activation during repetitive ann work test.

    Canelusian: The results indicate that repetitive ann work might acutely promote insulin resistance, whereas no such effect on insulin resistance was produced by dynamic concentric exercise.

  • 1541.
    Berggren, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Öberg, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Eutanasi: vad anser sjuksköterskor?2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Eutanasi är idag en förbjuden handling i de flesta länder. Frågan debatteras ofta och är ett omtvistat ämne. En utmaning för många sjuksköterskor är att bemöta patienter som efterfrågar eutanasi. Att besitta kunskap inom detta område kan följaktligen bidra till att sjuksköterskor lättare kan förhålla sig till de moraliska problem som kan uppstå i samband med arbetet både före och efter en patients bortgång. Syfte: Att beskriva vad sjuksköterskor anser om eutanasi, samt beskriva metodologiska aspekter i de artiklar som ligger till grund för resultatet. Metod: En beskrivande litteraturstudie har genomförts där elva artiklar, funna i databaserna PubMed och Cinahl, har granskats. Artiklarna, som var av både kvalitativ och kvantitativ ansats, analyserades och resultatet presenterades i tre subkategorier. Resultat: Eutanasi uppfattades som en sista utväg, och att en god palliativ vård skall vara det primära alternativet. Olika faktorer har har betydelse för sjuksköterskornas åsikter angående eutanasi, bland annat utbildningsnivå, religion och moraliska inställningar. Genomgående ansåg sjuksköterskor att legalisering av eutanasi kan medverka till ett öppnare klimat, där frågor vid livets slut kan få en större plats. Slutsats: Sjuksköterskornas känslor inför eutanasi var ambivalenta, dock ansåg de överlag att patienter som uttrycker en önskan om att få avlida ofta gick att behandla på andra sätt. Exempelvis genom bra smärtlindring.

  • 1542.
    Berggren, Benny
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    IMPLEMENTING BUSINESS ETHICS IN SALES ORGANIZATIONS2015In: Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Sustainable Value Chain in a Dynamic Environment / [ed] D. Vrontis, Y. Weber, E. Tsoukatos, EuroMed Press , 2015, p. 2482-2484Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1543.
    Berggren, Benny
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Erenlöf, Sofie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Irriterande TV-reklam: Vad det är i TV-reklam som är irriterande och hur påverkar det konsumenternas köpbeteende? 2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT

    Title: Annoying television advertising - What is it about television (TV) commercials that are perceived as annoying and how does it affect the viewer’s purchasing behavior?

    Level: Final assignment for Bachelor Degree in Business Administration

    Authors: Benny Berggren and Sofie Erenlöf

    Supervisor: Jonas Kågström

    Date: 2012 – May

    Aim:

    Advertising can be found in many shapes and forms such as on: billboards, radio stations, public transport and of course on television. The last form of advertising is possibly one of the most effective and widely used methods of advertising due to the wide percentage of households with a TV in this technological age. One of the problems TV viewers have to face is the wide variety of TV advertisements which are repetitive and can be seen on numerous occasions throughout the day. This is only one of many factors that may cause irritation to the viewer if being executed wrong. Irritation leads to animosity. Animosity leads to a negative attitude. A negative attitude, may lead to difficult decision making for the consumer whether he or she should make that purchase or or go to a competitor. There are two purposes of this thesis. The first is to explore what general factors create irritation and the second is to explore if enough irritation has the effect of making the consumer choose a competitor brand over the proffered advertised brand as witnessed on TV.

    Method:

    This thesis is of the abductive kind. The first part of this thesis consists of a theoretical part. The theoretical part consists of secondary (scientific articles and models). The third part consists of empirical research. In order to collect the opinions of the TV-audience in Sweden, an electronic survey was conducted where the respondents were asked about demographic questions, causes of irritation toward selected Swedish advertising commercials.

    Result & Conclusions:

    The results from this thesis indicated that consumers perceive TV-advertising very differently. Results showed that the respondents found a commercial from electronic media giant Siba to be the most annoying one. The main factors deemed to be of great annoyance in a TV commercial were as follows; volume, tempo, characters of the commercial, a confusing message and the TV commercial being too repetitive. Furthermore, there were no indications that the consumer would rather go to a competitor due to the irritating commercial and no significant correlations were found.

    Suggestions for future research:

    Not once did the respondents suggest that commercials from multibillion dollar corporations, such as Coca Cola and McDonalds were being perceived as annoying. Could it be that those companies are too afraid to be different by standing out too much during commercials in fear of losing market share, or do they simply know which of the irritating factors to stay away? Further research regarding this matter is suggested.

    Contribution of the thesis:

    Our goals for this thesis is to make a difference, so that future marketers will have an even greater success when marketing their products due to them being more aware of what to include and what not to include in their commercials.

    Key words:

    TV-commercials, irritation, consumer behavior, message and volume.

  • 1544.
    Berggren, Benny
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Nasser Fouda, Mai
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    According to Swedish Citizens - Sweden has the Safest and Best Food in the World: -Really?2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: According to Swedish Citizens – Sweden has the Safest and Best food in the world – Really?

    Level: Thesis for Master’s Degree in Business Administration

    Authors: Benny Berggren and Mai Nasser Fouda

    Supervisor: Jonas Kågström, Ph.D.

    Date: May 20, 2013

    Aim: The aim of this thesis is to fill the research gap on whether there are differences in how Swedish consumers remember publicized scandals in regards to the Country of Origin (COO), focusing on age, gender and time. Furthermore, this paper will also aim to look at how different scandals have affected the consumers trust based on whether foreign food scandals have a higher impact.

    Methodology: Since this thesis tested different relationships a deductive approach was taken with a conclusive research design. Quantitative data was collected via a VAS-scale questionnaire to 187 individuals via random sampling at train stations which had a response rate of 75,9%. By using SPSS, the primary data was analyzed via a Correlation and Factor analysis in accordance with scientific articles from within the fields of Purchasing Decision theory, the COO and Consumer Memory. A semi-open telephone interview with an expert from within the food industry was conducted as additional explanations to the findings were needed.

    Result & Conclusions: It was found that Swedish consumers remembered scandals differently depending on origin, and were according to themselves more affected by the foreign scandals. Gender did not have a preference depending on the COO of the product and consumer memory while age did. It was also found that trusting food was the essential theme throughout the empirical findings where the Swedish consumers valued cues such as food quality and food safety. This played a significant role on impacting the consumer’s long-term memory. Three different types of trust was found and divided by their characteristics; High-level-involvement products, the COO of the product or the company which the scandal was involved with, and finally, the size, positioning and equity of the brand involved.

    Business implications: Media can be seen as a key source of spreading negative publicity regarding scandals. It is therefore extra important for companies to act immediately, especially if they have any of the three characteristics of trust since it influences the consumer’s long-term memory in a negative way. These three characteristics combined could have strong more negative impact on the companies, where there is a risk of losing potential & current business partners, decreased brand equity & image and risk of facing legal aspects. This can be very costly both financially and time-wise which ultimately could lead to a negative turnover.

    Research Implications: future research is suggested to study why the results in this thesis differ from the other scientific findings when it comes to gender. Also suggested is that studies should be conducted similar to this, but based on specific types of food products since this thesis only studied food in general. Furthermore, studies comparing the effect of the consumer memory in regards to food scandals based on different companies are also suggested.

    Key words: Country of Origin, Scandals, Memory, Trust, Purchasing behavior.

  • 1545.
    Berggren, Christian
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi.
    Kunskapsfabriken2000Report (Other academic)
  • 1546.
    Berggren, Christian
    et al.
    Linköpings Unbiversitet.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi.
    The integrator´s new advantage: Reassessing outsourcing and production competence in the global telecom industry2006In: Challenges and opportunities in R&D management: new directions for research, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1547.
    Berggren, Christian
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Karabag, Solmas Filiz
    Linköpings universitet.
    Wang, Weihong
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Stefan, Ioana
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Responses from established firms to rapid innovator challenges in emerging economies2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1548.
    Berggren, Christian
    et al.
    Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Bergek, Anna
    Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Söderlund, Jonas
    Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Sweden; Department of Leadership and Management, BI Norwegian School of Management, Norway.
    Exploring Knowledge Integration and Innovation2011In: Knowledge integration and innovation: Critical Challenges Facing International Technology-Based Firms / [ed] Christian Berggren, Anna Bergek, Lars Bengtsson, Michael Hobday, and Jonas Söderlund, Oxford: Oxford University Press , 2011, 1Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This introduction relates the principal idea behind the book - that knowledge integration is a vital part of the dynamics of the innovation process to previous literature on knowledge integration, with its focus on companies' 'routine' activities. It presents the book's main empirical focus: internationally competing technology-based firms in, for example, the automotive, heavy electrical equipment, packaging machinery, telecom, tooling, and aerospace industries. It also introduces three major trends that affect conditions for innovation and knowledge integration: internationalization of R&D and production, transformation of markets, and changes in the character of developments in science and technology. In contrast to most definitions, the introduction emphasizes that knowledge integration is more than combining, sharing, or transferring different knowledge bases; it is also a process of creating new knowledge. The introduction concludes with an overview of the twelve chapters, describing how they provide an understanding of knowledge integration as a multilevel process.

  • 1549.
    Berggren, Christian
    et al.
    Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Bergek, AnnaDepartment of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Sweden.Bengtsson, LarsUniversity of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.Söderlund, JonasDepartment of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Sweden; Department of Leadership and Management, BI Norwegian School of Management, Norway.Hobday, MichaelCentre for Research in Innovation Management (CENTRIM), University of Brighton, United Kingdom.
    Knowledge Integration and Innovation: Critical Challenges Facing International Technology-Based Firms2011Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Technology-based firms continue to compete primarily on innovation, and are continuously required to present new solutions to an exacting market. As technological complexity and specialization intensifies, firms increasingly need to integrate and co-ordinate knowledge by means of project groups, diversified organizations, inter-organizational partnerships, and strategic alliances. Innovation processes have progressively become interdisciplinary, collaborative, inter-organizational, and international, and a firm's ability to synthesize knowledge across disciplines, organizations, and geographical locations has a major influence on its viability and success. This book demonstrates how knowledge integration is crucial in facilitating innovation within modern firms. This book provides original, detailed empirical studies of prerequisites, mechanisms, and outcomes of knowledge integration processes on several organizational levels, from key individuals, projects, and internal organizations, to collaboration between firms. It stresses the need to understand knowledge integration as a multi-level phenomenon, which requires a broad repertoire of organizational and technical means. It further clarifies the need for strong internal capabilities for exploiting external knowledge, reveals how costs of knowledge integration affect outcomes and strategic decisions, and discusses the managerial implications of fostering knowledge integration, providing practical guidance and support for managers of knowledge integration in high technology enterprises.

  • 1550.
    Berggren, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Förnyelselagen, möjlighet eller hot?: Förnyelse av äldre inskrivna avtalsrättigheter, Gävle kommuns hantering av förnyelsekravet2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    According to the so-called ”förnyelselagen”, the Renewal Act, all title registration of contractual rights registered before 1 July 1968 will be de-registered from the Real Property Register, unless renewal is applied for the right no later than 31 December 2018. The aim of the degree project is to pay attention to the renewal requirement. The objective is partly to investigate how the municipality of Gävle will handle the renewal requirement, and partly to facilitate the municipality to determine for which registered rights renewal needs to be sought.

    Unnecessary registered rights cause additional work and costs at cadastral procedures and the Renewal Act is considered to be an effective tool to de-register unnecessary registered rights. At the same time, concerns have been expressed that right holders will apply for renewal for all registered rights that are affected, without investigate which of them are unnecessary. In addition, there is also a concern that the renewal requirement may be overlooked by right holders for rights that are still relevant, which can lead to legal loss.

    Three methods were used in the study. Juridical method was used to investigate the legal situation regarding what happens with registered rights that are de-registered from the Real Property Register. To study how a major right holder acts, an investigation of registered rights was made in the Real Property Register regarding the municipality of Gävle. Furthermore, interviews were conducted with representatives of the municipality concerning the work with the renewal requirement.

    A result of the juridical method is that there are four different situations when an unregistered right may end. The result of the inventory in the Real Property Register, shows that there are about 1 400 registered rights that affect the properties of the municipality. The interviews resulted in that the municipality is informed about the renewal requirement and the municipality in most cases will investigate which registered rights should be renewed.

    The first conclusion is that unregistered contractual rights currently remain valid in the same manner as registered rights, but they may end in four situations if they are not monitored by the right holder. Such protection of unregistered rights is found to be practically impossible in most cases regarding the municipality of Gävle. The other conclusion is that the municipality will investigate which registered rights that need to be renewed, therefore the risk of legal loss can be assessed as low. Finally, it can be concluded that the Renewal Act is an opportunity rather than a threat for the municipality of Gävle.

28293031323334 1501 - 1550 of 19759
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