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  • 151.
    Lozano, Rodrigo
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Ceulemans, Kim
    Alonso-Almeida, Mar
    Huisingh, Donald
    Lozano, Francisco J.
    Waas, Tom
    Lambrechts, Wim
    Lukman, Rebeka
    Hugé, Jean
    Commitment and implementation of Sustainable Development in Higher Education2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 152.
    Lozano, Rodrigo
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Findler, Florian
    Schönherr, Norma
    Stacherl, Barbara
    Making the Invisible Visible: Impact Assessment in Higher Education2018In: Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: Proceedings of the Twenty-Ninth Annual Meeting, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 153.
    Lozano, Rodrigo
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production. Organisational Sustainability Ltd., Cardiff, UK.
    Fobbe, Lea
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Carpenter, Angela
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production. School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK.
    Sammalisto, Kaisu
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Analysing sustainability changes in seaports: experiences from the Gävle Port Authority2019In: Sustainable Development, ISSN 0968-0802, E-ISSN 1099-1719, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 409-418Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ports are under increasing pressure to become more sustainable. Although some ports have been including sustainability into their operations, this has been mainly done from economic and environmental perspectives and technological or policy‐related approaches, while there has been little research on organisational change management for sustainability. This paper analyses organisational change efforts for sustainability at the Port of Gävle, Sweden. Twenty‐three face‐to‐face interviews were conducted with various stakeholders. The findings show that there were differences in perception of sustainability; but similarities in the drivers for and the barriers to sustainability (with some key differences between the internal and external stakeholders). This research shows that, in their journey towards becoming more sustainable, ports have to take a holistic approach encompassing the four dimensions of sustainability (economic, environmental, social, and time); their stakeholders (internal and external); and legislative, technological, financial, cultural/social, voluntary initiatives, and organisational change management approaches.

  • 154.
    Lozano, Rodrigo
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Merrill, Michelle
    Lozano, Francisco
    Ceulemans, Kim
    Sammalisto, Kaisu
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Bridging aims and delivery of higher education for sustainable development: Using pedagogical approaches to fulfil competences2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 155.
    Lozano, Rodrigo
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production. Organisational Sustainability, Ltd., Cardiff, UK.
    Merrill, Michelle Y.
    Independent Researcher and Consultant, Capitola, CA, USA.
    Sammalisto, Kaisu
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Ceulemans, Kim
    Toulouse Business School, University of Toulouse, Toulouse, France.
    Lozano, Francisco J.
    Escuela de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Tecnologico de Monterrey, Monterrey, Mexico.
    Connecting Competences and Pedagogical Approaches for Sustainable Development in Higher Education: A Literature Review and Framework Proposal2017In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 9, no 10, article id 1889Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research into and practice of Higher Education for Sustainable Development (HESD) have been increasing during the last two decades. These have focused on providing sustainability education to future generations of professionals. In this context, there has been considerable progress in the incorporation of SD in universities’ curricula. Most of these efforts have focussed on the design and delivery of sustainability-oriented competences. Some peer-reviewed articles have proposed different pedagogical approaches to better deliver SD in these courses; however, there has been limited research on the connection between how courses are delivered (pedagogical approaches) and how they may affect sustainability competences. This paper analyses competences and pedagogical approaches, using hermeneutics to connect these in a framework based on twelve competences and twelve pedagogical approaches found in the literature. The framework connects the course aims to delivery in HESD by highlighting the connections between pedagogical approaches and competences in a matrix structure. The framework is aimed at helping educators in creating and updating their courses to provide a more complete, holistic, and systemic sustainability education to future leaders, decision makers, educators, and change agents. To better develop mind-sets and actions of future generations, we must provide students with a complete set of sustainability competences.

  • 156.
    Lozano, Rodrigo
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Management. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Muñoz Torres, Maria Jesus
    University of Jaume I, Castellón de la Plana, Spain.
    Typologies of Sustainable Business2019In: Decent Work and Economic Growth / [ed] Walter Leal Filho, Anabela Marisa Azul, Luciana Brandli, Pinar Gökcin Özuyar, Tony Wall, Cham: Springer, 2019Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 157.
    Lozano, Rodrigo
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Pettersen, Sigrid
    Jonsall, Anette
    Niss, Camilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Moving to a quadruple/quintuple helix in Sustainable Public Procurement2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 158.
    Lozano, Rodrigo
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Reid, Angus
    Investors, Electricity Utility Companies, and Transformative Change in Europe2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 159.
    Lozano, Rodrigo
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production. Organisational Sustainability, Ltd., Cardiff, Wales.
    Reid, Angus
    Organisational Sustainability, Ltd., Cardiff, Wales.
    Socially responsible or reprehensible? Investors, electricity utility companies, and transformative change in Europe2018In: Energy Research & Social Science, ISSN 2214-6296, E-ISSN 2214-6326, Vol. 37, p. 37-43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The overwhelming reliance of modern society based fossil-based non-renewable sources of energy productionrepresent a major challenge to sustainability. Moving towards a new more sustainable generation mix affectsinvestments on electricity utility companies. This presents a dual challenge for companies: 1) the electricitygeneration mix decision; and 2) their future access to and cost of capital. This research focuses on the role thatinvestors have in developing new more sustainable generation mix models. Five semi-structured interviews wereconducted with investors working at a major European asset manager company. The interviewees highlightedthe integration of renewable technologies as a key challenge to the viability of the utilities in the future. Otherkey challenges included a rising carbon price, greater decoupling of energy use and GDP growth, policy constraintsand uncertain regulatory frameworks, lack of relevant core competencies to innovate in their businessmodels, the integration of renewable energy into their own generation mixes and the grid, the role of newtechnologies, and a lack of urgency from top management. The findings indicate that investors play a key role inshaping electricity generation mixes, where the principal, agents, and clients must be willing to develop andadopt more sustainable generation mix models.

  • 160.
    Lozano, Rodrigo
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production. Organisational Sustainability Ltd., Cardiff, UK.
    Suzuki, Masachika
    Graduate School of Global Environmental Studies, Sophia University, Tokyo, Japan.
    Carpenter, Angela
    Organisational Sustainability Ltd., Cardiff, UK; School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK.
    Tyunina, Olga
    Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Chiba, Japan.
    An analysis of the contribution of Japanese Business terms to Corporate Sustainability: learnings from the ‘looking-glasses’ of the East to the West and vice versa2017In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 9, no 2, article id 188Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decade, there has been increasing research on Corporate Sustainability, whereby most of such research was undertaken in the Western world. This paper is aimed at analysing the contribution of Japanese Business terms to Corporate Sustainability. The paper analyses, using Grounded Theory, 28 Japanese business terms through a Corporate Sustainability framework based on the four dimensions of sustainability (economic, environmental, social, and time), the company system (operations and processes, strategy and management, organisational systems, procurement and marketing, and assessment and communication), and stakeholders (internal, interconnecting, and external). The underpinning principles of the Japanese business terms provide complementary approaches to Western views on corporate sustainability by offering a more holistic perspective by linking the company system and its stakeholders to the four dimensions of sustainability. The paper proposes that Corporate Sustainability can learn from Japanese business approaches through: (1) the interaction and alignment of the factory, the firm, and inter-firm network; (2) the relationships between management and employees; (3) the inter-linkages between the company system elements; and (4) how Japanese companies remained competitive, even under the stress of a long-term major economic crisis. However, the analysis indicates that the relationship with external stakeholders and communicating with them through assessment and reporting is lacking in Japanese business management practice. Japanese businesses and their management can also learn from the Corporate Sustainability of the West by: (1) considering the four dimensions of sustainability and how they interact; (2) taking a holistic and systemic approach to Corporate Sustainability; (3) engaging in more Corporate Sustainability research; and (4) making Corporate Sustainability part of a company’s culture and activities. Businesses in the East and the West need to recognise that they can both contribute to making the world more sustainable by learning from each other’s approaches on Corporate Sustainability and adapting them to their own contexts. 

  • 161.
    Lozano, Rodrigo
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production. Organisational Sustainability Ltd, Cardiff, UK.
    von Haartman, Robin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Reinforcing the Holistic Perspective of Sustainability: Analysis of the Importance of Sustainability Drivers in Organizations2018In: Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, ISSN 1535-3958, E-ISSN 1535-3966, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 508-522Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although several sustainability drivers have been recognized for different organizations, there has been limited research on analyzing which are considered to be the most important. A survey was sent to more than 1,502 organizations, of which 108 completed all the questions. The survey responses were analyzed using descriptive statistics, rankings in order of importance, comparison between types of organizations, and analyses of the interlinkages between drivers. This paper provides depth to the sustainability drivers’ discussion by: (1) expanding it to the three types of organizations; (2) providing the importance of each driver; (3) offering a ranking of the drivers; (4) analyzing the relations between drivers to categorize them; and (5) assessing the relations between the drivers’ categories. This research highlights the importance of recognizing the drivers that have the highest importance and influence for each type of organization, in order to foster them and make organizations more sustainable.

  • 162.
    Lozano, Rodrigo
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    von Haartman, Robin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Resistance to sustainability in organisations: Analyses of the importance of sustainability barriers to change2018In: EurOMA 2018 Proceedings, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organisations in civil society, companies, and governments contexts have been instrumental in driving sustainability. Organisational change for sustainability aims to move an organisation from the current state to a more desirable one. An increasing body of literature has been focussed on organisational changes, including drivers for and barriers to sustainability. This paper focusses on analysing factors of sustainability resistance in organisations. A survey was sent to more than 1500 organisations to analyse sustainability barriers to change, of which 73 completed all the questions. The survey responses were analysed using descriptive statistics, rankings in order of importance, comparison between types of organisations, and analyses of the interlinkages between drivers. The statistical methods and tests used were Friedman, Kruskall-Wallis, Mann Whitney U, principal component analysis, and network analysis. The barriers to sustainability were ranked in order of importance within their category: individual-, group- and organisational. Most important barriers we found to be lack of information and awareness, sustainability not being prioritised highly, and simple cynicism. On a group level, the most important barrier was ‘ignoring group institutions’ . On the organisation level, barriers such as financial issues, and a lack of resources, incentives and accountability were considered very important. Although a very higher number of barriers were included in the survey, they numbers were reduced to 20 using a principal component analysis. The analysis shows that many barriers are highly interlinked within their categories. Further analysis shows that many of the barriers are highly interlinked across categories, indicating that efforts at overcoming the barriers should be done in a holistic way. This paper shows that barriers to change will affect organisations in different ways depending on their goals and contexts. This paper provides depth to the sustainability barriers to change discussion by: 1) expanding it to the three types of organisations; 2) providing the importance of each barrier; 3) offering a ranking of the barriers in general and for each type of organisation; 4) analysing the relations between barriers and grouping them according to their correlations; and 5) showing the relations between the barriers’ groups. This research highlights that it is important to recognise which barriers have the highest importance and influence for each type of organisation, in order to overcome them and make organisations more sustainable. Identifying the barriers to change can help to apply appropriate strategies to overcome them, thus helping to better incorporate and institutionalise sustainability in organisations.

  • 163. Luzzini, Davide
    et al.
    Caniato, Federico
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    A proposal for research in Purchasing and Supply Management2009In: Proceedings of the 18th IPSERA conference in Oestrich-Winkel, Germany, 5 – 8 April., 2009, p. 1328-1346Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 164.
    Löfqvist, Lars
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Design processes and novelty in small companies: a multiple case study2009In: ICED 09 - THE 17TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ENGINEERING DESIGN: Proceedings, Vol. 1, Design processes, 2009, p. 265-278Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the design processes in small established companies and investigates how these design processes are executed. How two different kinds of novelty influence the design processes is further examined: the relative novelty of the product being developed and the relative novelty of design processes. The relative novelty of the product is high if it is a radically new product to develop.

    High relative novelty for design processes typically means no experience or knowledge about design processes. Based on an embedded multiple case study of three small established companies in Sweden, eight different design processes are described and analyzed. The results show that the design processes differ, even within the same company. The results also show that relative novelty affects the design process. If the relative novelty of both the product to be developed and of design processes is low, a linear, structured, and systematic design process was found to work. A design process that is cyclical, experimental, and knowledge-creating seems to work no matter the relative novelty.

  • 165.
    Löfqvist, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    How small enterprises manage resource scarcity in their product innovation processes2011In: Proceedings of the 6th European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship / [ed] H. Fulford, Reading: Academic Conferences Limited, 2011, p. 583-592Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Small enterprises have scarce resources, which is the main factor hindering their innovation of new products. Despite this resource scarcity, some small enterprises do innovate. The research question is: how do small enterprises manage resource scarcity in their product innovation processes? A multiple case study of three different small enterprises was used to answer the research question. The enterprises implement several approaches to use existing resources more efficiently or increase existing resources, such as reducing formality and including customers and users in the innovation processes, intertwining innovation processes, working concurrently on innovation and operational processes, adopting lead-user inventions, and only starting innovation processes when a current customer asks for or needs the potential new product. The efficiency of these approaches is found to be explained by common small enterprise characteristics. One conclusion from this study is that resource scarcity can be managed and small enterprises’ specific characteristics can facilitate innovation if these are recognized and used as strengths. 

  • 166.
    Löfqvist, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Initiation of innovation in small companies2010In: Proceedings of the 11th CINet conference, 5-7 September, Zürich, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 167.
    Löfqvist, Lars
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Innovation and Design Processes in Small Established Companies2009Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines innovation and design processes in small established companies. There is a great interest in this area yet paradoxically the area is under-researched, since most innovation research is done on large companies. The research questions are: How do small established companies carry out their innovation and design processes? and How does the context and novelty of the process and product affect the same processes?

    The thesis is built on three research papers that used the research method of multiple case studies of different small established companies. The innovation and design processes found were highly context dependent and were facilitated by committed resources, a creative climate, vision, low family involvement, delegated power and authority, and linkages to external actors such as customers and users. Both experimental cyclical and linear structured design processes were found. The choice of structure is explained by the relative product and process novelty experienced by those developing the product innovation. Linear design processes worked within a low relative novelty situation and cyclical design processes worked no matter the relative novelty. The innovation and design processes found were informal, with a low usage of formal systematic design methods, except in the case of design processes for software. The use of formal systematic methods in small companies seems not always to be efficient, because many of the problems the methods are designed to solve are not present. Customers and users were found to play a large and important role in the innovation and design processes found and gave continuous feedback during the design processes. Innovation processes were found to be intertwined, yielding synergy effects, but it was common that resources were taken from the innovation processes for acute problems that threatened the cash flow. In sum, small established companies have the natural prerequisites to take advantage of lead-user inventions and cyclical design processes. Scarce resources were found to be the main factor hindering innovation, but the examined companies practiced several approaches to increase their resources or use existing scarce resources more efficiently in their innovation and design processes. Examples of these approaches include adopting lead-user inventions and reducing formality in the innovation and design processes.

  • 168.
    Löfqvist, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Managing Resource Scarcity in Small Enterprises’ Design Processes2011In: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Engineering Design (ICED 11): Impacting Society Through Engineering Design: Vol. 3: Design Organisation and Management / [ed] Steve. Culley et al., Glasgow: The Design Society, 2011, p. 164-175Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Small enterprises have scarce resources, which is the main factor hindering their innovation and design of new products. Despite this resource scarcity, some small enterprises do innovate and design new products. The research question is: how do small enterprises manage resource scarcity in their design processes? A multiple case study of three different small enterprises was used to answer the research question. The enterprises implement several approaches to use existing resources more efficiently or increase existing resources, such as reducing formality and including customers and users in the design processes, intertwining design processes, working concurrently on design and operational processes, adopting lead-user inventions, and only starting design processes when a current customer asks for or needs the potential new product. The efficiency of these approaches is found to be explained by common small enterprise characteristics. One conclusion from this study is that resource scarcity can be managed and small enterprises’ specific characteristics can facilitate innovation and design if these are recognized and used as strengths.

  • 169.
    Löfqvist, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Motivation for innovation in small enterprises2012In: International Journal of Technology Management, ISSN 0267-5730, E-ISSN 1741-5276, Vol. 60, no 3-4, p. 242-265Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines which factors motivate small enterprises to realise product innovations and how these factors affect their innovation processes. In a multiple embedded case study of three small enterprises, 11 different innovation processes, both realised and unrealised, were discovered and analysed. Strategy, competition, profit, growth, source of innovation idea, innovation process size and novelty were not found to explain the motivation to innovate, but ten interdependent motivating factors did, of which four externally oriented factors were found conclusive for innovation to occur. The factors found, dealing with resource scarcity, technology and market uncertainty and risk, and cash flow, highly affected how the innovation processes were carried out. The findings further show that the need to maintain steady cash flow seems to be the overall motive for product innovation in small enterprises.

  • 170.
    Löfqvist, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Product and Process Novelty in Small Companies' Design Processes2010In: Creativity and Innovation Management, ISSN 0963-1690, E-ISSN 1467-8691, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 405-416Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores the design processes in small companies and investigates how these design processes are executed. The influence of two different kinds of novelty on the design processes is further examined: the relative novelty of the product being developed and the relative novelty of design processes. The relative novelty of the product is high if it is a radically new product to develop. High relative novelty for design processes typically means no experience or knowledge about design processes. Based on an embedded multiple case study of three small companies in Sweden, eight different design processes are described and analysed. The results show that the design processes differ, even within the same company, and that relative novelty affects the design process. If the relative novelty of both the product to be developed and of the design processes is low, a formalized and linear design process was found to work. A design process that is cyclical, iterative and knowledge-creating was found to work irrespective of the relative novelty. Customers and users were found to play a large and important role in the design processes.

  • 171.
    Löfqvist, Lars
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Product and process novelty in small companies´design processes: A multiple case study2009In: 10th International CINet Conference: Enhancing the innovation environment, Brisbane, Australia, 6-8 September 2009, 2009, p. 1-16Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the design processes in small established companies and investigates how these design processes are executed. How two different kinds of novelty influence the design processes is further examined: the relative novelty of the product being developed and the relative novelty of design processes. The relative novelty of the product is high if it is a radically new product to develop. High relative novelty for design processes typically means no experience or knowledge about design processes. Based on an embedded multiple case study of three small established companies in Sweden, eight different design processes are described and analyzed. The results show that the design processes differ, even within the same company. The results also show that relative novelty affects the design process. If the relative novelty of both the product to be developed and of design processes is low, a linear, structured, and systematic design process was found to work. A design process that is cyclical, experimental, and knowledge-creating seems to work no matter the relative novelty.

  • 172.
    Löfqvist, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Product innovation in small companies: managing resource scarcity through financial bootstrapping2017In: International Journal of Innovation Management, ISSN 1363-9196, E-ISSN 1757-5877, Vol. 21, no 2, article id UNSP 1750020Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Researchers have proposed that scarce resources are the main factor hindering product innovation in small companies. However, despite scarce resources, small companies do innovate, so the research question is: How do small companies manage resource scarcity in product innovation? To answer the research question a multiple case study of three small established companies and their product innovation was used, including interviews and observations over a period of five months. The small companies were found to use many different bootstrapping methods in combination within their product innovation. The methods can be classified into three different functional categories: bootstrapping methods for increasing resources, for using existing resources more efficiently, and those for securing a fast payback on resources put into product innovation. Due to their resource scarcity, the studied companies also favoured an innovation strategy only involving new products done with known technology and targeting existing markets. This strategy seems to avoid unsuccessful innovation but at the same time exclude technologically radical innovation.

  • 173.
    Löfqvist, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production. KTH, Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.).
    Product innovation in small established enterprises: Managing processes and resource scarcity2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines product innovation processes in small established enterprises. The research questions are: (1) what motivates small established enterprises to innovate, (2) how do small established enterprises perform product innovation, and (3) how do small established enterprises manage resource scarcity in their product innovation processes? To answer the research questions, a multiple case study approach was chosen with three small established enterprises as cases and different product innovation processes as embedded units of study. The data collection method used was observation during a period of five months, complemented by interviews and secondary data. Product innovation in small established enterprises seems to be motivated by solving existing customers’ problems and the need for a sustained steady cash flow. A steady cash flow is also found to be a prerequisite during the product innovation processes. Product innovation seems to occur when there is a risk of decreased cash flow and/or when existing customers can be satisfied with new products that increase their loyalty so as to secure future sales, cash flow, and the enterprise’s survival in the long run. Promising innovation ideas alone do not result in product innovation. An innovation idea must also have supportive existing customers for product innovation to occur.

    Product innovation processes in the studied small established enterprises are found highly context dependent, intertwined in operational processes and made possible by a small organic organization and closeness to existing customers. The product innovation processes are further found to follow a flexible and informal overall scheme optimized for decreasing market and technology uncertainty and risk, dealing with resource scarcity, and facilitating fast and easy commercialization to avoid or moderate dips in cash flow. The design processes within the innovation processes can be linearly structured or cyclical and experimental, depending on the experienced novelty.

    To manage resource scarcity during the product innovation processes, the studied small enterprises used many different bootstrapping methods in combination. These methods can be divided into three categories according to their overall functions: for using existing resources more efficiently, for increasing resources and to secure a fast payback on resources invested in NPD. The studied small enterprises were due to their resource scarcity further found to favor an innovation strategy, only involving new products done with known technology and targeting existing markets. This way to innovate, which creates new products in a resource-efficient way that are accepted by the enterprises’ existing markets, seems to prevent unsuccessful product innovation, while at the same time excluding technologically radical innovation and innovation targeting new markets. 

  • 174.
    Löfqvist, Lars
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Renngård, Ivar
    Movexum AB.
    The creation of mutual benefit within innovation management research on small companies2015In: 16th International CINet Conference: Pursuing Innovation Leadership, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research and small company practice have a different logic. It is difficult to bring these two greatly differing activities together to create mutual benefit within a research project on innovation management. This is a problem especially if the researcher wishes to make a direct practical contribution to the companies involved in the research. This research aims to explore the difficulties in collaboration for mutual benefit, but also provides an example of a research approach which created mutual benefit for all involved. The conclusions build on an earlier PhD project on product innovation processes in small companies together with extensive reflections and discussions with the strategic manager at one of the involved companies. The study presents several major differences between research and small company practice and gives arguments for why more traditional research approaches in the innovation management field by themselves, such as survey and interview research, seem to be less suitable if mutual benefit is a goal. Finally, the study illustrates a research approach creating mutual benefit, knowledge creation, and knowledge transfer from academia to business practice and vice versa. This research approach includes concurrently giving the involved company valuable input and flexibility so as not to disturb the company’s cash flow.

  • 175.
    Manzini, Raffaella
    et al.
    LIUC University Cattaneo.
    Lazzarotti, Valentina
    LIUC University Cattaneo.
    Pellegrini, Luisa
    University of Pisa.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Lakemond, Nicolette
    Linköpings universitet.
    Tell, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet.
    Öhrwall-Rönnbäck, Anna
    Ölundh, Gunilla
    Garcia Matrinez, Marian
    Kianto, Aino
    Pikko, Harri
    Sanchez, Mercedes
    Are we actually in the open innovation era?: Current practices of Europeanmanufacturing companies2013In: Proceedings of the 14th international CINetconference, 9-11 September, 2013, Nijmegen, Netherlands, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 176.
    Moreira e Silva Bernardes, Maurício
    et al.
    Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Allegre, Brazil.
    Brunhari Kauling, Graziela
    Federal Institute of Santa Catarina, Araranguá, Brazil.
    Chang Chain, Milena
    University of Quebec at Trois-Rivieres, Trois - Rivières, Canada.
    Löfqvist, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Original Design in a Copying-Intensive Industry2017In: International Journal of Computer Applications, ISSN 0975-8887, E-ISSN 0975-8887, Vol. 159, no 7, p. 29-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In some industries, copying is common and extensive. Most literature on the topic focuses on legal issues and interprets copying as a problem. To better understand the copying phenomenon, this study investigates the relationship between copying and design processes in five case companies in a copying-intensive industry. The findings reveal that unlike design processes, copying processes lack early conceptual activities. Furthermore, resources and contact with the end market are found to be prerequisites for professional and strategic design processes, whereas a lack of these better suits copying processes, especially in industries with low product variety and limited design problems.

  • 177.
    Niesten, Eva
    et al.
    Alliance Manchester Business School, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom.
    Stefan, Ioana
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Management. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production. Department of Industrial Economics and Management, School of Industrial Engineering and Management, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Embracing the Paradox of Interorganizational Value Co-creation–Value Capture: A Literature Review towards Paradox Resolution2019In: International journal of management reviews (Print), ISSN 1460-8545, E-ISSN 1468-2370, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 231-255Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study reviews literature on paradoxical tensions between value co-creation and capture in interorganizational relationships (IORs). The purpose of this review is to make a re-evaluation of the literature by engaging a paradox theory lens, thereby identifying factors that render tensions salient and factors that lead to virtuous or vicious cycles. This review of 143 articles reveals factors that make tensions salient; these relate to plurality (e.g. coopetition), scarcity (e.g. lack of experience with IORs), change (e.g. changes in collaboration scope) or combinations thereof (e.g. IORs in weak appropriability regimes). Results also uncover factors that resolve paradoxical tensions of value co-creation and capture, thus spurring virtuous cycles (e.g. carefully mixing trust and contracts), as well as factors that promote vicious cycles, owing to the emphasis on either value co-creation or capture (e.g. myopia of learning). This review also uncovers a new category of factors that may stimulate either virtuous or vicious cycles, depending on the extent to which they are enforced. This finding expands the value co-creation–capture paradox resolution, and brings to light new dynamics in the paradox framework of dynamic equilibrium. The authors thus contribute by: (1) reassessing the existing literature and applying paradox theory to the well-known hazard of value co-creation and capture; (2) highlighting factors that amplify paradoxical tensions related to this hazard; and (3) outlining factors that solve the paradox by embracing its contradictory poles and factors that hinder paradox resolution by emphasizing either value co-creation or appropriation. 

  • 178.
    Niss, Camilla
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Project Becoming and Knowing Trajectories: An Epistemological Perspective on Human and Non-human Project Making2009Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 179.
    Panova, Y.
    et al.
    Department of E-Commerce, Luoyang Normal University, Luoyang City, Henan Province, China.
    Hilletofth, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production. Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, School of Engineering, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Krasinskaya, J.
    Department of Logistics and Commerce, Faculty of Railway Operation and Logistics, Emperor Alexander i St. Petersburg State Transport University, Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation.
    Mitigating the break-of-gauge problem in international transportation corridors2018In: World Review of Intermodal Transportation Research (WRITR), ISSN 1749-4729, E-ISSN 1749-4737, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 124-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate technologies for mitigating the break-of-gauge problem at the border crossing points in international transportation corridors. This issue has been examined through a literature review. The research revealed three technologies for mitigating the break-of-gauge problem, including trans-shipment operations, removable coach bogies and variable bogie axles. The medium-term solution would be more rapid trans-shipment operations in the railway container terminals while the long-term solution would be adjustable bogie axles. This could reduce lead-time and improve the overall productivity and competitiveness of international corridors and in turn lead to reduced logistics costs for companies using this transportation alternative.

  • 180.
    Panova, Yulia
    et al.
    Department of E-Commerce, Luoyang Normal University, Luoyang, China; Department of Logistics and Supply Chain Management, National Research University Higher School of Economics, St Petersburg, Russia.
    Hilletofth, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production. Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, School of Engineering, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Managing supply chain risks and delays in construction project2018In: Industrial management + data systems, ISSN 0263-5577, E-ISSN 1758-5783, Vol. 118, no 7 (SI), p. 1413-1431Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate models and methods for managing supply chain risks and delays in construction projects.

    Design/methodology/approach

    The study mainly employs quantitative analysis in order to identify disruptions in construction supply chains. It also uses paradigms of simulation modeling, which are suitable for risk assessment and management. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected through a literature review and details of specific construction projects, respectively. A dynamic modeling method was used, and the model was provided with an event-based simulation. Simulation modeling was used to measure the performance of the system.

    Findings

    The study shows the benefits of applying the dynamic modeling method to a construction project. Using event-based simulation, it was found that construction delays influence both the magnitude and the probability of disruption. This method contributes to the existing theoretical foundations of risk management practices, since it also considers the time factor. This method supplements the Monte Carlo statistical simulation method, which has no time representation. Using empirical analysis, the study proposes increasing the safety stock of construction materials at the distribution center, so as to mitigate risks in the construction supply chain.

    Research limitations/implications

    The research considers a single case of a hypothetical construction project. The simulation models represent a simple supply chain with only one supplier. The calculations are based on the current economic scenario, which will of course change over time.

    Practical implications

    The outcomes of the study show that the introduction of a safety stock of construction materials at the distribution center can prevent supply chain disruption. Since the consideration of risks at all stages of construction supply chain is essential to investors, entrepreneurs and regulatory bodies, the adoption of new approaches for their management during strategic planning of the investment projects is essential.

    Originality/value

    This dynamic modeling method is used in combination with the Monte Carlo simulation, thus, providing an explicit cause-and-effect dependency over time, as well as a distributed value of outcomes.

  • 181.
    Reitsma, Ewout
    et al.
    Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, School of Engineering, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Hilletofth, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production. Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, School of Engineering, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Mukhtar, Umer
    Department of Management Sciences, GIFT University, Punjab, Pakistan.
    Enterprise resource planning system implementation: A user perspective2018In: Operations and Supply Chain Management, ISSN 1979-3561, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 110-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate critical success factors (CSFs) for the implementation of an enterprise resource planning (ERP) system from a user perspective. Users play a vital role when implementing an ERP system, but their perspective has been neglected in the literature. A better understanding of their perspective promises to contribute to the design of more effective ERP systems, its implementation, and management. In order to identify the user perspective, a survey was conducted within three organizations from Pakistan that have recently implemented an ERP system. The questionnaire was developed based on thirteen CSFs deduced from literature. Based on each CSF’s level of importance, they are ranked in order of importance and divided into three groups: most important, important and not important. Findings reveal that users of the three organizations in Pakistan believe that the implementing organization should prioritize the following four CSFs when implementing an ERP system: education and training, strategic decision-making, communication, and business process alignment.

  • 182.
    Renström, Jonas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production. KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Hälso- och systemvetenskap, Ergonomi.
    Senior Managers and Lean: The importance of becoming a practitioner2014Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Considered to be one of the most influential paradigms in manufacturing, Lean has developed and expanded beyond the shop floor and manufacturing environment of the auto industry. Lean is considered to be applicable throughout organizations and other industries besides manufacturing. Interest in both research and implementation of the Lean concept, heavily influenced by Toyota Motor Company, is said to continue to increase despite the fact that the concept is said to be both ambiguous and difficult to implement. Two main traditions of Lean are said to exist: “toolboxLean” and “Lean thinking.” The particular translation of the concept that is accepted will influence management’s approach in implementing a Lean way of working. The Toyota Motor Company, where Lean originates, is described as a learning organization. Therefore, a management approach and leader behavior supporting organizational learning would be required to successfully implement an enterprise system inspired by both the Toyota Production System and Lean. This thesis approaches the Lean concept through an organizational learning perspective, thereby highlighting the importance of knowledge of organizational learning in a Lean development effort. Difficulties regarding Lean implementations have been shown to often occur due to the overlooked but crucial differences in approach in management. There is, however a stated gap in the literature on Lean production regarding management. The purpose of this thesis is to explore senior management’s ability to implement and sustain a Lean-based enterprise system. Three studies are included in the thesis. The first study focuses on how the view on Lean among managers implementing Lean affects its implementation. The study was performed as a case study and conducted at a larger, international manufacturing company. The study covered management levels from shop floor manager to the president of the company. Findings show that all management levels had a similar view of Lean and that this influenced the implementation. The first study further showed that the view on Lean may develop and change during an implementation, revealing unforeseen managerial and organizational challenges and obstacles.The second study focused on how management of Lean is described in the existing literature. The results revealed a dualistic complementarity between leadership and management, which can be seen as reflected in the two foundational Toyota principles of continuous improvement and respect for people. This duality can also be found in descriptions of prerequisites for organizational learning where the ability to combine transactional and transformational leadership is considered a success factor. The third study focused on implications for senior management and aimed to research senior managers’ ability to support a Lean implementation process. The study is based on interviews with eight senior managers. The study revealed four main managerial obstacles to Lean implementation. Lack of initial competence evaluation and ensuing competence development for senior management was found to be a central obstacle to Lean implementation. Main conclusions in the thesis are that initial understanding of the aims of a Lean implementation, and the ensuing implications for the organization is central in order to be able to support the development. Additionally, initial senior management competence development is indicated to be vital in order to ensure the ability to understand the organizational and managerial implications brought on by a Lean implementation. Leading with action is indicated as providing an opportunity for senior management competence development.

  • 183.
    Renström, Jonas
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production. KTH.
    Halling, Bengt
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production. KTH.
    Cross-functional Alignment for Lean Development Obstacles and Facilitators for Organizational Learning2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To see and understand Lean as a management system, as well as a willingness within management to practice the desired approach, are often described as central for Lean implementation and development. To achieve this, a strategic, system-wide approach to Lean development may be required. Such an approach would require cross-functional cooperation in driving improvements that affect organizational interdependencies. Cross-functional operation is a key factor for organizational learning, where learning is said to require individuals interacting for a specific purpose, learning together by trying to solve tasks and to improve performance. This goes beyond “team learning,” since by its organizational focus it addresses the management of interdependencies between organizational functions as well as among departments and hierarchical levels. Toyota, a company linked to the Lean concept, can often be found described as a learning organization. Its success is said to be closely linked to its ability to generate and manage organizational learning. Organizational learning emphasizes cross-functional social practice as the way to learn and develop. This paper, based on an explorative case study at a global manufacturing company, assesses prerequisites for cross-functional alignment and cooperation within a larger international production company. The question for the study was how managers describe obstacles and facilitators for cross-functional interaction for Lean development. Descriptions of obstacles and facilitators for cross-functional interaction given by managers point to the importance of a controlled management turnover and induction training, as well as formally established target conditions and collective performance management. Further conclusions are that organizational learning theory can be used to further understand requirements for Lean management by highlighting the importance of how and by whom daily steering or performance management and deviation handling is set up and performed. The results stress the importance of routines and composition of local management teams and their approach to shared responsibility and target achievement.

  • 184.
    Renström, Jonas
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production. School of Techonology and Health, KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Niss, Camilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Senior managers’ perspectives on obstacles to Lean implementation2016In: International Journal of Lean Enterprise Research, ISSN 1754-2294, E-ISSN 1754-2308, Vol. 1, no 4, p. 317-328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many lean implementations fail; previous research suggests an important reason is that senior managers are unable to support the implementation. We investigate this problem by exploring senior managers' perspectives on lean implementation, aiming to identify possible obstacles to their support of implementation processes. The paper is based on an explorative case study at a global manufacturing company implementing lean. Interviews were performed with senior managers at the top two hierarchical levels, the president and area presidents. The analysis revealed four main obstacles: 1) competence development needs of senior management were not addressed; 2) the lean development initiative was not connected to company strategy; 3) key players within the organisation were initially not involved or tasked; 4) the initiative was not system wide. The results stress the importance of initial competence evaluation and development of senior management in lean development.

  • 185.
    Rosell, David
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Lakemond, Nicolette
    Linköping University.
    Dabhilkar, Mandar
    KTH.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Purchasing Capabilities for Supplier Innovation in New Product Development2011In: Proceedings of the 18th International Product Development Management Conference, Delft, 5-7 June, 2011, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 186.
    Sammalisto, Kaisu
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Sustainability in the University of Gävle for a sustainable future2017In: A good life for all: Essays on sustainability celebrating 60 years of making life better / [ed] Fagerström, Arne and Cunningham, Gary M., Mjölby: Atremi AB , 2017, 1, p. 3-8Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been interesting to follow the journey of the University of Gävle on its way towards sustainability during the pas quarter foa decade. The University has led the way as an example for other universities in Sweden and internationally in many ways. It is good to see the change that has taken place and that it continues.

  • 187.
    Sammalisto, Kaisu
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Lozano, Rodrigo
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    von Haartman, Robin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Institutionalising sustainability in HEIs: Experiences from the University of Gävle2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 188.
    Sammalisto, Kaisu
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Sundström, Agneta
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Utmaningar vid implementering av CSR i globala försörjningskedjor2013In: Innovation eller kvartalskapitalism?: Utmaningar för global svensk produktion / [ed] Lind, J. and Bengtsson, L., Stockholm: Liber, 2013, p. 91-108Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 189.
    Sammalisto, Kaisu
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Sundström, Agneta
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Holm, Tove
    Novia University of Applied Sciences, Vaasa, Finland.
    Implementation of sustainability in universities as perceived by faculty and staff: a model from a Swedish university2015In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 106, p. 45-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Education for sustainable development creates new challenges for universities where faculty and staff are expected to prepare students to meet complexities in society and take responsibility for sustainability, which scientists are urgently calling for today. Few studies exist on how faculty and staff perceive sustainability in their functions at the university based on long-term sustainability implementation and training within a 14001 certified environmental management system. This university case study with data collected by open-ended survey questions explores how faculty and staff express their role in sustainability work within a Swedish university.The authors developed a model to illustrate development of sustainability competence and its institutionalization. Results show a large variation in perceptions of sustainability from waste separation to a complex understanding and integration of issues into education. Integration of sustainable development as a university core competence is difficult for a whole university to reach. Interpretational flexibility provides opportunities for discussing the sustainability concept in diverse academic traditions in different disciplines. Top management inspiration on different university levels is essential for integration. Continuous training and routines contribute to movement towards institutionalization of sustainability activities and to following up the process in universities.

  • 190.
    Sammalisto, Kaisu
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Sundström, Agneta
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Holm, Tove
    University of Turku, Department of Biology.
    Perceptions of sustainability among faculty and staff in a Swedish University2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Education for sustainable development creates new challenges for universities expected to prepare students to meet the complexities and take their responsibility in promoting sustainability, which is urgently called for by scientist today. The concept of sustainability and the difficulty in defining it is not just a problem, but also opportunity for the different academic traditions in different disciplines. Environmental management systems like ISO 14001 have been used to institutionalizing the activities for sustainable development in organizations.  

    This single empirical case study explores with a survey how faculty and staff have perceive their role in university sustainability work at the University of Gävle in Swede, which was certified according to ISO 14001 in July 2004. In 2010 the faculty and staff were asked in open questions how they in their activities at a university contribute to sustainable development. The answers indicate their perceptions of sustainable development in a university context and show that both faculty and staff perceive that their activities in university contribute to sustainable development in many ways. Examples from the answers reveal that contribution to sustainable development is becoming as a more natural part in academic activities and the institutions are becoming more aware of their role in educating academics to meet the complexities in society.

  • 191.
    Sammalisto, Kaisu
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Sundström, Agneta
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Holm, Tove
    Sykli Environmental School of Finland, Finland; Department of Biology, University of Turku, Finland; Novia University of Applied Sciences, Finland .
    Yao, Zhilei
    Development of students´ sustainability knowledge, awareness and actions during university education2015In: : , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 192.
    Sammalisto, Kaisu
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Sundström, Agneta
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    von Haartman, Robin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Holm, Tove
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management. Sykli Environmental School of Finland, Finland.
    Yao, Zhilei
    Learning about sustainability: what influences students’ self-perceived sustainability actions after undergraduate education?2016In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 8, no 6, article id 510Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Changing societies’ minds about sustainability requires knowledge about the situation, awareness of what needs to be done and actions to change today’s unsustainable behaviors. Universities are challenged to develop students’ ability to appreciate the complexities of sustainability and translate sustainability knowledge of education into systemic, anticipatory and critical thinking and actions. To meet this challenge, universities provide specific study programs and courses and integrate sustainability in education and activities. There is limited research on the results of such efforts from a student perspective. The study focused on an identical cohort of 108 undergraduate students who answered a survey about their self-perceived knowledge, awareness and actions before and after their studies in a Swedish university. All 108 students had sustainability integrated into their study programs; forty-eight also attended specific sustainability courses. The test model explains variations in students’ self-perceived sustainability actions at the end of their studies. There were differences already in students’ initial self-perceived knowledge between the groups. The students’ female gender, self-perceived initial actions, studying sustainability courses as well as the increase in self-perceived sustainability knowledge contribute significantly to the later sustainability actions. The results show student development, which can encourage those working with education for sustainable development in universities.

  • 193.
    Sergienko, Olga I.
    et al.
    ITMO University, St. Petersburg, Russia.
    Dinkelaker, N. V.
    ITMO University, St. Petersburg, Russia.
    Arrevaara, Eeva
    Lahti University of Applied Sciences, Lahti, Finland.
    Kärnä, Päivi
    Lahti University of Applied Sciences, Lahti, Finland.
    Sammalisto, Kaisu
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Jonsson, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Sorvari, Jaana
    Aalto University, Aalto, Finland.
    Serkkola, Ari
    Aalto University, Aalto, Finland.
    The concepts of resource efficiency and corporate environmental responsibility: a brief overview of the ERREC intensive week in St. Petersburg [Концепции ресурсной эффективности и корпоративной экологической ответственности: краткий обзор интенсивной недели по проекту ERREC в Санкт-Петербурге]2016In: Scientific journal NRU ITMO, ISSN 2310-1172, Vol. 4, p. 95-101Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Over 40 participants from five universities and four companies attended and actively contributed to the Intensive week «Sustainable Product Design & Resource Efficiency» organized at the ITMO University in St. Petersburg, 10–14 October, 2016 as a part of the ERREC «Environmental Responsibility and Resource Efficiency in companies» project, funded by the Nordic-Russian Cooperation in Education and Research program (SIU) and the Nordic Council of Ministers. Representatives of universities, including students, and business exchanged their views on how resourceefficiency could be achieved and the environmental impact of current consumption and production patterns decreased. A number of key tools and recommendations were formulated for companies under the new educational paradigm of blended learning, which is introducing a mix of traditional and modern educational methods. The trainees obtained a comprehensive experience for solving specific industry-related problems from the viewpoint of resource efficiency on the basis of pre-course assignments, lectures, teamwork, round-table discussions and an excursion. Particularly the waste management problems in Russia and abroad were highlighted. This paper summarizes the lectures and results from the case studies focusing on technical, managerial, and new information and communication technology applications for improving resource efficiency, and developing environmental responsibility in companies.

  • 194.
    Stefan, Ioana
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production. KTH, Industriell ekonomi och organisation.
    Disentangling the nature of tensions in Arrow’s paradox of disclosureManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 195.
    Stefan, Ioana
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production. KTH, Industriell ekonomi och organisation.
    Exploring Tensions between Appropriability and Openness to Collaboration in Innovation2017Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Researchers, policy makers and practitioners alike have in recent years acknowledged a growing tendency towards opening up the innovation process by combining internal organizational assets with external actors’ resources. However, opening up the innovation process usually also entails revealing ideas, which may result in misappropriation. The purpose of this thesis is to investigate tensions related to the openness-appropriability relationship; this is done in three studies. The first study concerns a specific contextual factor that is likely to stress the openness-appropriability tensions: the location of external partners in innovation. The second study relates to the way managing openness-appropriability tensions affects performance, and the third study involves a theoretical discussion about the nature of the tensions occurring in the openness-appropriability relationship, i.e. paradoxical, dilemmatic, or dialectical. The first two studies apply quantitative methods, using survey data, while the third is a conceptual paper. The findings from the first study indicate that the use of different groups of appropriability mechanisms varies across various types of openness and that the location of external partners in innovation refines these linkages even more. The second study’s main takeaway is that the higher appropriability intensity, i.e. the extent to which appropriability mechanisms are put into practice, explains higher performance outcomes. The third study suggests that the tensions between openness and appropriability are more likely of paradoxical nature. From a theoretical perspective, findings indicate that paradoxical tensions between openness and appropriability may have a spatial dimension, and that these tensions should also be investigated in regards to performance. Managerial implications point out that opening up to innovation partners located abroad is likely to require more costly appropriability mechanisms.

  • 196.
    Stefan, Ioana
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    If it looks like a paradox and walks like a paradox: an attempt to disentangle openness- and appropriability-related tensions2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 197.
    Stefan, Ioana
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Illustrating and managing paradoxical tensions between openness and appropriability2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 198.
    Stefan, Ioana
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production. KTH, Industriell ekonomi och organisation .
    Knowing the Ropes in Open Innovation: Understanding Tensions through a Paradox Lens2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The fundamental paradox of disclosure suggested by Kenneth Arrow represents a challenge in contemporary open innovation settings. Potential negative outcomes of this paradox – e.g. misappropriation of ideas – are still not fully avertable. Researchers, practitioners and policy makers strive to untangle tensions related to this paradox, because failure to manage such tensions might entail lost jobs and hampered economic and technological growth.The purpose of this thesis is to provide a deeper understanding of this paradox by combining three perspectives on tensions in open innovation and applying a paradox lens. The overarching perspective is of value co-creation–value capture. The thesis comprises of five papers that are based on quantitative, qualitative and conceptual studies. The findings reveal: 1) characteristics of tensions; 2) factors that create tensions; and 3) possible solutions and pitfalls to managing said tensions. Findings show that tensions may be managed as paradoxical, dilemmatic or dialectical, depending e.g. on the need to be open or on the overlap between a product’s solution and its characteristics. Moreover, tensions could be spurred by a variety of factors, which may be categorized as: plurality of views, scarcity of resources, change, and combinations thereof (compound factors).Possible solutions to managing tensions include e.g. increasing staff awareness about intellectual property issues or improving collaboration contracts. Possible pitfalls are linked to over-focusing on either co-creating or on capturing value, and also to subsequent tensions. Findings also reveal a category of factors with dual role, which depending on their intensity, may lead to either solutions or to pitfalls. This hints towards additional layers of complexity concerning the paradox of disclosure. The findings contribute to theory on open innovation, appropriability and organizational paradox, and have important implications for practitioners and policy makers.

  • 199.
    Stefan, Ioana
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production. KTH royal Institute of Technology.
    Through paradox lens: Disentangling paradoxical tensions between appropriability and openness2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 200.
    Stefan, Ioana
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Appropriability: a key to opening innovation internationally?2016In: International Journal of Technology Management, ISSN 0267-5730, E-ISSN 1741-5276, Vol. 71, no 3-4, p. 232-252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on the tense appropriability-openness relationship, defined by some as paradox. Based on an international survey of 415 manufacturing firms, we investigate how the use of different kinds of intellectual property protection mechanisms (IPPMs) affects interfirm R&D collaboration while considering partner location in the analysis as well. Our results show that the use of formal, semi-formal or informal IPPMs has different effects on openness in terms of partner variety and depth of collaboration with academic partners, value chain partners and competitors. Moreover, when considering location we uncover previously hidden appropriability-openness liaisons showing that semi-formal or informal IPPMs are mainly valid in relation to national partners, whereas formal appropriability explains international collaborations. One implication of the study is that to better understand the appropriability-openness relationship it is imperative to differentiate between national and international settings. We further suggest that the potential paradox delineating this relationship has a geographical dimension.

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