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  • 151.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Wholeness as a hierarchical graph to capture the nature of space2015In: International Journal of Geographical Information Science, ISSN 1365-8816, E-ISSN 1365-8824, Vol. 29, no 9, p. 1632-1648Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to Christopher Alexander’s theory of centers, a whole comprises numerous, recursively defined centers for things or spaces surrounding us. Wholeness is a type of global structure or life-giving order emerging from the whole as a field of the centers. The wholeness is an essential part of any complex system and exists, to some degree or other, in spaces. This paper defines wholeness as a hierarchical graph, in which individual centers are represented as the nodes and their relationships as the directed links. The hierarchical graph gets its name from the inherent scaling hierarchy revealed by the head/tail breaks, which is a classification scheme and visualization tool for data with a heavy-tailed distribution. We suggest that (1) the degrees of wholeness for individual centers should be measured by PageRank (PR) scores based on the notion that high-degree-of-life centers are those to which many high-degree-of-life centers point, and (2) that the hierarchical levels, or the ht-index of the PR scores induced by the head/tail breaks, can characterize the degree of wholeness for the whole: the higher the ht-index, the more life or wholeness in the whole. Three case studies applied to the Alhambra building complex and the street networks of Manhattan and Sweden illustrate that the defined wholeness captures fairly well human intuitions on the degree of life for the geographic spaces. We further suggest that the mathematical model of wholeness be an important model of geographic representation, because it is topological oriented, which enables us to see the underlying scaling structure. The model can guide geodesign, which should be considered as the wholeness-extending transformations that are essentially like the unfolding processes of seeds or embryos, for creating built and natural environments of beauty or with a high degree of wholeness.

  • 152.
    Jiang, Bin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Brandt, S. Anders
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    A Fractal Perspective on Scale in Geography2016In: ISPRS International Journal of Geo-information, ISSN 2220-9964, Vol. 5, no 6, article id 95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scale is a fundamental concept that has attracted persistent attention in geography literature over the past several decades. However, it creates enormous confusion and frustration, particularly in the context of geographic information science, because of scale-related issues such as image resolution and the modifiable areal unit problem (MAUP). This paper argues that the confusion and frustration arise from traditional Euclidean geometric thinking, in which locations, directions, and sizes are considered absolute, and it is now time to revise this conventional thinking. Hence, we review fractal geometry, together with its underlying way of thinking, and compare it to Euclidean geometry. Under the paradigm of Euclidean geometry, everything is measurable, no matter how big or small. However, most geographic features, due to their fractal nature, are essentially unmeasurable or their sizes depend on scale. For example, the length of a coastline, the area of a lake, and the slope of a topographic surface are all scale-dependent. Seen from the perspective of fractal geometry, many scale issues, such as the MAUP, are inevitable. They appear unsolvable, but can be dealt with. To effectively deal with scale-related issues, we present topological and scaling analyses illustrated by street-related concepts such as natural streets, street blocks, and natural cities. We further contend that one of the two spatial properties, spatial heterogeneity, is de facto the fractal nature of geographic features, and it should be considered the first effect among the two, because it is global and universal across all scales, which should receive more attention from practitioners of geography.

  • 153.
    Jiang, Bin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    Jia, Tao
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    Agent-based simulation of human movement shaped by the underlying street structure2011In: International Journal of Geographical Information Science, ISSN 1365-8816, E-ISSN 1365-8824, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 51-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Relying on random and purposive moving agents, we simulated human movement in large street networks. We found that aggregate flow, assigned to individual streets, is mainly shaped by the underlying street structure, and that human moving behavior (either random or purposive) has little effect on the aggregate flow. This finding implies that given a street network, the movement patterns generated by purposive walkers (mostly human beings) and by random walkers are the same. Based on the simulation and correlation analysis, we further found that the closeness centrality is not a good indicator for human movement, in contrast to a long-standing view held by space syntax researchers. Instead we suggest that Google's PageRank and its modified version (weighted PageRank), betweenness and degree centralities are all better indicators for predicting aggregate flow.

  • 154.
    Jiang, Bin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    Liu, Xintao
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    Automatic generation of the axial lines of urban environments to capture what we perceive2010In: International Journal of Geographical Information Science, ISSN 1365-8816, E-ISSN 1365-8824, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 545-558Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on the concepts of isovists and medial axes, we developed a set of algorithms that can automatically generate axial lines for representing individual linearly stretched parts of open space of an urban environment. Open space is the space between buildings where people can freely move around. The generation of the axial lines has been a key aspect of space syntax research, conventionally relying on hand-drawn axial lines of an urban environment, often called axial map, for urban morphological analysis. Although various attempts have been made towards an automatic solution, few of them can produce the axial map that consists of the least number of longest visibility lines, and none of them really works for different urban environments. Our algorithms provide a better solution than existing ones. Throughout this article, we have also argued and demonstrated that the axial lines constitute a true skeleton, superior to medial axes, in capturing what we perceive about the urban environment.

  • 155.
    Jiang, Bin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    Liu, Xintao
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    Computing the fewest-turn map directions based on the connectivity of natural roads2011In: International Journal of Geographical Information Science, ISSN 1365-8816, E-ISSN 1365-8824, Vol. 25, no 7, p. 1069-1082Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we introduce a novel approach to computing the fewest-turn map directions or routes based on the concept of natural roads. Natural roads are joined road segments that perceptually constitute good continuity. This approach relies on the connectivity of natural roads rather than that of road segments for computing routes or map directions. Because of this, the derived routes possess the fewest turns. However, what we intend to achieve are the routes that not only possess the fewest turns but are also as short as possible. This kind of map direction is more effective and favored by people because they bear less cognitive burden. Furthermore, the computation of the routes is more efficient because it is based on the graph encoding the connectivity of roads, which is substantially smaller than the graph of road segments. We experimented on eight urban street networks from North America and Europe to illustrate the above-stated advantages. The experimental results indicate that the fewest-turn routes possess fewer turns and shorter distances than the simplest paths and the routes provided by Google Maps. For example, the fewest-turn-and-shortest routes are on average 15% shorter than the routes suggested by Google Maps, whereas the number of turns is just half as much. This approach is a key technology behind FromToMap.org – a web mapping service using openstreetmap data.

  • 156.
    Jiang, Bin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    Yao, Xiaobai
    University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA.
    Geospatial analysis and modeling of urban structure and dynamics: an overview2010In: The GeoJournal Library, 2010, Volume 99, Part 1 / [ed] Bin Jiang and Xiaobai Yao, Berlin: Springer , 2010, p. 3-11Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 157.
    Jiang, Bin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Yin, Junjun
    Department of Geography and Geographic Information Science, University of Illinois at Urbana and Champaign, Champaign-Urbana, IL, USA.
    Liu, Qingling
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Zipf’s law for all the natural cities around the world2015In: International Journal of Geographical Information Science, ISSN 1365-8816, E-ISSN 1365-8824, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 498-522Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two fundamental issues surrounding research on Zipf’s law regarding city sizes are whether and why this law holds. This paper does not deal with the latter issue with respect to why, and instead investigates whether Zipf’s law holds in a global setting, thus involving all cities around the world. Unlike previous studies, which have mainly relied on conventional census data such as populations and census-bureau-imposed definitions of cities, we adopt naturally (in terms of data speak for itself) delineated cities, or natural cities, to be more precise, in order to examine Zipf’s law. We find that Zipf’s law holds remarkably well for all natural cities at the global level, and it remains almost valid at the continental level except for Africa at certain time instants. We further examine the law at the country level, and note that Zipf’s law is violated from country to country or from time to time. This violation is mainly due to our limitations; we are limited to individual countries, or to a static view on city-size distributions. The central argument of this paper is that Zipf’s law is universal, and we therefore must use the correct scope in order to observe it. We further find Zipf’s law applied to city numbers; the number of cities in the largest country is twice as many as that in the second largest country, three times as many as that in the third largest country, and so on. These findings have profound implications for big data and the science of cities. 

  • 158.
    Jiménez, Marcela
    et al.
    Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    Pérez-Belmont, Patricia
    Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    Schewenius, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science. Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University.
    Lerner, Amy M.
    Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM).
    Mazari-Hiriart, Marisa
    Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM).
    Assessing the historical adaptive cycles of an urban social-ecological system and its potential future resilience: the case of Xochimilco, Mexico City2020In: Regional Environmental Change, ISSN 1436-3798, E-ISSN 1436-378X, Vol. 20, no 1, article id 7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As the bulk of the world’s population becomes urban, maintaining urban ecosystem services for environmental and social well-being in cities is crucial. According to resilience theory, maintaining such services requires for a complex adaptive systems perspective that helps in identifying key elements and dynamics behind cross-scale social-ecological interactions. In this context, the objective of this article is to use a resilience “lens” to problematize the imminent loss of an urban wetland using the adaptive cycle model as a heuristic tool. Our case study focuses on the Xochimilco wetland, located in the southern periphery of Mexico City. Xochimilco is characterized by the presence of a complex system of raised bed wetland agriculture (the chinampa system), which was established over 1000 years ago; currently, despite having a recognized cultural and environmental value, it is threatened by increasing urban sprawl, over-exploitation of the aquifer, and water contamination. By conducting a historical analysis of the Xochimilco social-ecological system, we assess how it has gone through phases of the adaptive cycle. As a result, we identify critical elements of the system’s historically maintained resilience and main drivers of system change. From such findings, we present some insights on the possibilities of maintaining the system’s resilience and guidance for future management strategies for the Xochimilco wetland. Lastly, we reflect on the scope and limitations of using a resilience-based approach and an adaptive cycle analysis for addressing urban sustainability problems, especially in cities in the Global South.

  • 159.
    Jivall, Lotti
    et al.
    Geodata Division, Lantmäteriet, Gävle, Sweden.
    Nilfouroushan, Faramarz
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences. Geodata Division, Lantmäteriet, Gävle, Sweden.
    Al Munaizel, Naim
    Geodata Division, Lantmäteriet, Gävle, Sweden.
    Lilje, Christina
    Geodata Division, Lantmäteriet, Gävle, Sweden.
    Kempe, Christina
    Geodata Division, Lantmäteriet, Gävle, Sweden.
    Maintenance of the National Realization of ETRS89 in Sweden : re-analysis of 20 years’ GPS data for SWEREF stations2019In: EUREF 2019 Symposium: Abstracts, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The national geodetic reference frame of Sweden called SWEREF 99, was adopted in 2000 by EUREF as the realisation of ETRS89 in Sweden and was officially introduced in 2001 as a national reference frame, that eventually in 2007 replaced the former reference frame. The SWEREF 99 reference frame is defined by an active approach through the 21 fundamental SWEPOS permanent GNSS stations, hence relying on positioning services such as the network real time kinematic (NRTK) and post processing service. The SWEREF 99 coordinates are assumed to be fixed in time and no temporal variations are expected. However, the stability of the stations and their coordinates can be altered due to equipment change or software as well as local movements at the reference stations.

    To be able to check all alterations mentioned above and having a backup national network of GNSS stations, approximately 300 passive so-called consolidation stations are used. The consolidation stations are a subset (main part) of the so-called SWEREF stations established from 1996 and onwards. All 300 stations are remeasured with static GNSS for 2x24 hours using choke ring antennas on a yearly basis with 50 stations each year. The original processing was done with the Bernese GNSS software (here called Bernese original) and the reprocessing was carried out with both the Bernese and the GAMIT-GLOBK software packages during 2017-2018.

    The resulting coordinates in SWEREF 99 from GAMIT and Bernese processing are equal at 1.2 mm level for horizontal and 4 mm for vertical components (1 sigma) when using the same models and processing strategy. The original processing, which partly is based on other models and parameters, differs slightly more (rms 2.4mm) for the north component. Our analysis both from Bernese and GAMIT shows that the standard uncertainties for a single SWEREF 99 determination (2x24 hrs) is 2 mm for the horizontal components and 6-7 mm in height. However, since some stations are slowly moving they have slightly increased the estimated uncertainties. It is interesting to note that the repeatability is on the same level also for the original processing, where we have differences in models and parameters used during the years. This indicates that the SWEREF-concept of determining SWEREF 99 coordinates has worked well on the mentioned uncertainty level.

    We performed trend analysis and statistical tests to investigate the stability of the estimated SWEREF 99 coordinates. The analysed station time series (minimum three observations) showed that about 14% of the stations had significant trends at the 95%-level. The possible explanation for those trends can be either local deformation and/or residuals of uplift model and/or computational effects such as lack of good or enough close-by stations for Helmert transformations from ITRF to SWEREF 99.

    The outcomes of the new processing and analysis reported here, are used to analyse the stability of SWEREF99 after two decades. The results have also been used to define the SWEREF 99 component in the fit of theSWEN17_RH2000 new geoid model to SWEREF 99 and RH 2000 (Swedish realisation of EVRS).

  • 160.
    Johansson, Lisa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Miljöförutsättningar vid anläggande av snödeponi: Utvärdering av potentiella platser för ny snödeponi i Gävle2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In wintertime, a large amount of snow falls on roads, streets and parking lots in Gävle. Snow from urban areas may contain pollutants from sources such as atmospheric contamination, traffic emission and de-icing chemicals. These pollutants accumulate in the snow during the winter and are released when the snow melts in the spring and summer. Besides logistic and traffic safety, snow-handling strategies are an important issue for the municipal organization in terms of environmental effects from the melt water.

    Today, snow plowed in urban areas of Gävle are being transported to a snow deposit in the harbor of Gävle, Gävle hamn. In the future, the current location are going to be used by Gävle hamn. Therefore, the municipality of Gävle are looking at five different alternatives for localization of snow deposit.

    To determine which of the five alternative locations are suitable for construction of snow deposit in terms of environmental conditions, this study examines the different locations in terms of recipient, geology, biological consequences, land use and surroundings.

    If one large snow deposit, designed similar to the current one in Gävle hamn, is chosen to solve the snow handling in the future, location number 3 Ersbo syd would be the best option. Location 1 Fredriksskans, 2 Duvbacken and 5 Kungsbäck, has god potential to alone and/or in combination with another location, serve as area for snow deposit. Location number 4, Ersbo telepylon, should not be considered as an alternative location for a snow deposit.

    There are possibilities for unconventional solutions, such as district cooling or even use the snow to infiltrate in the ridge, the chance to reverse the snow-handling problem to a resource is great. Creative solutions could be a possibility to cover and prepare for the eventual environmental challenges the future may bring.      

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  • 161.
    Jongerden, Joost
    et al.
    Sociology and Anthropology of Development Department, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Swagemakers, Paul
    Department of Applied Economics, University of Vigo, Vigo, Pontevedra, Spain.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Connective storylines: A relational approach to initiatives in food provisioning and green infrastructures2014In: Spanish journal of rural development, ISSN 2171-1216, E-ISSN 2172-2277, Vol. 5, no 1 (Extra), p. 7-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Debates about the design and management of ecosystem services and interweaving of rural and urban spaces in metropolitan regions raise questions about how to conceptualize “the local”. Rather than presupposing spatial settings or identities as rural-urban or local global, attention here shifts to the immediacy of connections and relations. Conceptualized in terms of activity space, this paperpresents a relational analysis and a practice oriented approach. To illustrate the approach, we overview three case studies in food provisioning and show how an analysis in terms of a set of spatially organized activities can generate new insights.

  • 162.
    Joud S., Mehdi
    et al.
    KTH.
    Sjöberg, Lars E.
    KTH.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS. 1Division of Geodesy and Satellite Positioning, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Use of GRACE Data to Detect the Present Land Uplift Rate in Fennoscandia2017In: Geophysical Journal International, ISSN 0956-540X, E-ISSN 1365-246X, Vol. 209, no 2, p. 909-922Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    After more than 13 years of GRACE monthly data, the determined secular trend of gravity field variation can be used to study the regions of glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA). Here we focus on Fennoscandia where long-term terrestrial and high-quality GPS data are available, and we study the monthly GRACE data from three analysis centres. We present a new approximate formula to convert the secular trend of the GRACE gravity change to the land uplift rate without making assumptions of the ice load history. The question is whether the GRACE-derived land uplift rate by our method is related to GIA. A suitable post-processing method for the GRACE data is selected based on weighted RMS differences with the GPS data. The study reveals that none of the assumed periodic changes of the GRACE gravity field is significant in the estimation of the secular trend, and they can, therefore, be neglected. Finally, the GRACE-derived land uplift rates are obtained using the selected post-processing method, and they are compared with GPS land uplift rate data. The GPS stations with significant differences were marked using a statistical significance test. The smallest RMS difference (1.0 mm/a) was obtained by using GRACE data from the University of Texas.

  • 163.
    Joudaki, Masoud
    et al.
    Univ Isfahan, Dept Geol, Esfahan, Iran.
    Farzipour-Saein, Ali
    Univ Isfahan, Dept Geol, Esfahan, Iran.
    Nilfouroushan, Faramarz
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Berggrundsgeologi.
    Kinematics and surface fracture pattern of the Anaran basement fault zone in NW of the Zagros Fold-Thrust Belt2016In: International journal of earth sciences, ISSN 1437-3254, E-ISSN 1437-3262, Vol. 105, no 3, p. 869-883Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The preexisting north-south trending basement faults and their reactivation played an important role during the evolution of the Zagros fold-thrust belt. The Anaran basement fault in the Lurestan region, NW of the Zagros, has been considered as a N-S trending basement lineament, although its surface structural expression is still debated. In this study, we use satellite images and field observations to identify and analyze the fractures in the sedimentary cover above the Anaran basement fault. Fracture analysis demonstrates that approaching the Anaran basement fault, the fracture pattern changes. The fractures association with reactivation of the deep-seated preexisting Anaran basement fault can be categorized in 4 sets based on their directions. The mean direction for maximum compressional stress is different between the fault- and fold-related fractures within and around the ABF shear zone. We estimated an orientation of N30±5° for the fault-related fractures and N45±5° for the fold-related fracture sets outside of the ABF shear zone. This difference suggests that the fold-related and fault-related fracture sets have been formed in different two stages of deformation throughout the area. The axial traces of some folds, especially the Anaran anticline, demonstrate a right-lateral offset along the ABF, such that, in central part of the Anaran anticline, the fold axis of this anticline is changed from its original NW–SE trend to approximately north-south trend of the ABF.

  • 164.
    Jönsson, Petra
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Mattsson, Julia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    "Jag har inget emot kollektivtrafiken om jag säger så, men...": En kvalitativ studie om män och kvinnors resvanor och inställningar till arbetspendling2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The traffic sector is responsible for the greatest amount of greenhouse emissions in Sweden because of its combustion of fossil fuels. Sandviken is the municipality in Gävleborg county that uses the least amount of public transportation in form of bus traffic. The aim of this study is to gain an understanding through qualitative research how the individual looks and reflects upon their own commuting, and to identify which factors that mostly affects the individuals commuting habits. The study is geo-graphically delimited to look to Sandbacka Park. The amount of interview partici-pants was in total 18, seven women and eleven men. The main themes that could be identified from the interviews was stress, environmental awareness, flexibility, effi-ciency and control. The average distance to the workplace was about 19,25 km. In total stated 73% of men and 57% of women that car was the main mode of transport to the workplace. This means that more men than women travelled by car to the workplace, and also show more positive feeling to car use. Many of the par-ticipants of the interview had knowledge of climate change and the connection it has to transportation but could still defend their own individual car use. Some of the men that were interviewed claimed to have a greater need of flexibility and maintain status, which can be an explanation as to why the need of car use is greater with men than women. 42% of women and 27% of men commutes which more sustainable modes of transportation, such as public transportation and walking or bicycling. Two of the women who commuted with public transportation expressed content with their mode of transportation. They had also during the interviews mentioned an environmental awareness, which shows that there is a connection between mak-ing sustainable choices and being content with the chosen more sustainable mode of transportation. The results from Sandbacka Park is generalizable to other work-places with the same kind of prerequisites. This study shows that men have more positive emotions connected to car use and uses the car more as a mode of commut-ing to work. During future studies it may be of importance to focus more on longer interviews timewise to create an even greater understanding of the individuals need and prerequisites when commuting. With a greater sample size a more generalisable result could have been achieved.Key words: Commuting, stress, public transportation, commute mode, travel mode choice, gender

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  • 165. Kaviani, A.
    et al.
    Mahmoodabadi, M.
    Rümpker, G.
    Yamini-Fard, F.
    Tatar, M.
    Motavalli-Anbaran, J.
    Rahimzadeh, S.
    Moradi, A.
    Nilfouroushan, Faramarz
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Complex pattern of seismic anisotropy beneath the Iranian plateau and Zagros2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We performed shear wave splitting analyses on core-refracted teleseismic shear waveforms from 150 broad-bandstations across the Iranian plateau and Zagros to investigate seismic anisotropy in the region. Seismic anisotropyis quantified by shear-wave splitting parameters, i.e. fast polarization direction and split delay time.Our measurements revealed a complex pattern of splitting parameters with variations in the trend and strength ofanisotropy across the tectonic boundaries. This complex pattern implies that a system of simple asthenosphericflow related to the absolute plate motion cannot alone explain our observations and that the lithosphere also hasa significant contribution in many parts. We compare our results to the surface deformation and velocity fieldsinferred from geodetic measurements to assess the role of the mantle in continental deformation. The rotationalpattern of the fast directions around the collision zone in Central Zagros may indicate the presence of a mantleflow around a continental keel beneath the Zagros. The agreement between the crustal and mantle deformationfield in Central Iran implies a vertically coherent deformation in this region, whereas the azimuthal variations insplitting parameters in the collision zone may suggest multi-layered anisotropy with different contributions fromthe crust and mantle.

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  • 166.
    Kaviani, Ayoub
    et al.
    Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Germany.
    Mahmoodabadi, Meysam
    Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Germany; International Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Seismology, Tehran, Iran.
    Rümpker, Georg
    Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Germany.
    Yamini-Fard, Farzam
    International Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Seismology, Tehran, Iran.
    Tatar, Mohammad
    International Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Seismology, Tehran, Iran.
    Moradi, Ali
    University of Tehran, Iran.
    Nilfouroushan, Faramarz
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences. Lantmäteriet.
    SKS splitting observations across the Iranian plateau and Zagros: the role of lithosphere deformation and mantle flow2020Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We used more than one decade of core-refracted teleseismic shear (SKS) waveforms recorded atmore than 160 broadband seismic stations across the Iranian plateau and Zagros to investigateseismic anisotropy beneath the region. Splitting analysis of SKS waveforms provides two mainparameters, i.e., fast polarization direction and split delay time, which serve as proxies for thetrend and strength of seismic anisotropy beneath the stations. Our observation revealed acomplex pattern of splitting parameters with variations in the trend and strength of anisotropyacross the tectonic boundaries. We also verified the presence of multiple layers of anisotropy inconjunction with the lithosphere deformation and mantle flow field. Our observation andmodeling imply that a combined system of lithosphere deformation and asthenospheric flow islikely responsible for the observed pattern of anisotropy across the Iranian Plateau and Zagros.The rotational pattern of the fast polarization directions observed locally in Central Zagros mayindicate the diversion of mantle flow around a continental keel beneath the Zagros. Thecorrelation between the variation in lithosphere thickness and the trend of anisotropy in the studyarea implies that the topography of the base of lithosphere is also a determining factor for thepattern of mantle flow inferred from the observations.

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  • 167.
    Khorrami, F.
    et al.
    National Cartographic Center, Geodesy and Land Surveying, Tehran, Iran (Islamic Republic of).
    Vernant, P.
    Géosciences Montpellier- CNRS, Geosciences, Montpeliier, France.
    Masson, F.
    IPGS/EOST CNRS/University Strasbourg, Earth Sciences, Strasbourg, France.
    Nilfouroushan, Faramarz
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences. Lantmäteriet, Gävle, Sweden.
    Mousavi, Z.
    Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences IASBS.
    Nankali, H.
    National Cartographic Center, Geodesy and Land Surveying, Tehran, Iran (Islamic Republic of).
    Saadat, S.A.
    National Cartographic Center, Geodesy and Land Surveying, Tehran, Iran (Islamic Republic of).
    Walpersdorf, A.
    University Grenoble Alpes- CNRS, ISTerre, Grenoble, France.
    Hosseini, S.
    National Cartographic Center, Geodesy and Land Surveying, Tehran, Iran (Islamic Republic of).
    Tavakoli, P.
    National Cartographic Center, Geodesy and Land Surveying, Tehran, Iran (Islamic Republic of).
    Aghamohammadi, A.
    National Cartographic Center, Geodesy and Land Surveying, Tehran, Iran (Islamic Republic of).
    Alijanzade, M.
    National Cartographic Center, Geodesy and Land Surveying, Tehran, Iran (Islamic Republic of).
    An up-to-date block model and strain rate map of Iran using integrated campaign-mode and permanent GPS velocities2019In: 27th IUGG General Assembly: G06 - Posters - Monitoring and Understanding the Dynamic Earth With Geodetic Observations, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Iran accommodates a large part of the ongoing Arabia-Eurasia collision deformation. Because of such active tectonics, the country suffers from intensive seismicity and frequent destructive earthquakes in different locations.To study further the crustal deformation in Iran, we processed the data collected during 10 years (2006-2015) from the Iranian Permanent GNSS Network and combined them with previously published velocity solutions from GPS survey measurements during 1997–2013. We analysed this velocity field using a continuum approach to compute a new strain rate map for this region and we designed a block model based on the main geological, morphological, and seismic structures. Comparison between both approaches suggests similar results and allow us to present the first comprehensive first order fault slip rate estimates for the whole of Iran. Our results confirm most of the results from previous geodetic studies. Moreover, we also show a trade-off between the coupling ratio of the Iranian Makran subduction interface and the kinematic of the faults north of the Makran in the Jazmurian depression. Although too scarce to accurately estimate a coupling ratio, we show that coupling higher than 0.4 on the plate interface down to a depth of 25 km will induce extension on the E-W faults in the Jazmurian region. However, the sites close to the shoreline suggest a low coupling ratio, hence the coupling on this plate interface is probably more complicated than previously described and the Iranian Makran subduction interface mechanical behaviour might be similar to that on the Hellenic subduction zone.

  • 168. Khorrami, Fateme
    et al.
    Masson, Frederic
    Nilfouroushan, Faramarz
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Vernant, Philippe
    Saadat, Seyed Abdoreza
    Nankali, Hamidreza
    Hosseini, Sedigheh
    Aghamohamadi, Azadeh
    An up-to-date GPS velocity field of Iran2017In: Geophysical Research Abstracts, 2017, Vol. 19, article id EGU2017-7268Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we present an up-to-date velocity field of Iran, including the largest number of data ever presentedon this region. It includes both a synthesis of all previously published campaign data (Raeesi et al., 2016) andall data from the Iranian Permanent GNSS Network (IPGN). The IPGN data cover some parts of Iran whichwere previously scarcely documented. These stations have been measured for 7 years. In total, more than 400instrumented sites are presented. From this velocity field, we calculated the strain rate.In this paper, we will show the contribution of this very dense velocity field to the detailed understanding of theactive tectonics of the various regions of Iran (Makran, Zagros, Alborz, ...).

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  • 169.
    Khorrami, Fatemeh
    et al.
    National Cartographic Center, Tehran, Iran.
    Vernant, Philippe
    Géosciences Montpellier, CNRS/University Montpellier, Montpellier, France.
    Masson, Frederic
    IPGS/EOST CNRS/University Strasbourg, Strasbourg Cedex, France.
    Nilfouroushan, Faramarz
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences. Lantmäteriet, Gävle, Sweden.
    Mousavi, Zahra
    Department of Earth Sciences, Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences (IASBS), Zanjan, Iran.
    Nankali, Hamidreza
    National Cartographic Center, Tehran, Iran.
    Saadat, Seyed Abdolreza
    National Cartographic Center, Tehran, Iran.
    Walpersdorf, Andrea
    University Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IRD, IFSTTAR, ISTerre, Grenoble, France.
    Hosseini, Sedighe
    National Cartographic Center, Tehran, Iran.
    Tavakoli, Parastoo
    National Cartographic Center, Tehran, Iran.
    Aghamohammadi, Azade
    National Cartographic Center, Tehran, Iran.
    Alijanzade, Mahnaz
    National Cartographic Center, Tehran, Iran.
    An up-to-date crustal deformation map of Iran using integrated campaign-mode and permanent GPS velocities2019In: Geophysical Journal International, ISSN 0956-540X, E-ISSN 1365-246X, Vol. 217, no 2, p. 832-843Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the most extensive and up-to-date unified GPS velocity field for Iran. We processed the data collected during 10 years (2006–2015) from the Iranian Permanent GNSS Network (IPGN) and combined them with previously published velocity solutions from GPS survey measurements during 1997–2013. We analysed this velocity field using a continuum approach to compute a new strain rate map for this region and we designed a block model based on the main geological, morphological, and seismic structures. Comparison between both approaches suggests similar results and allow us to present the first comprehensive first order fault slip rate estimates for the whole of Iran. Our results confirm most of the results from previous geodetic studies. But we also show a trade-off between the coupling ratio of the Iranian Makran subduction interface and the kinematic of the faults north of the Makran in the Jazmurian depression. Indeed, although too scarce to accurately estimate a coupling ratio, we show that coupling higher than 0.4 on the plate interface down to a depth of 25 km will induce extension on the E-W faults in the Jazmurian region. However, the sites close to the shoreline suggest a low coupling ratio, hence the coupling on this plate interface is probably more complicated than previously described and the Iranian Makran subduction interface mechanical behaviour might be similar to that on the Hellenic subduction zone.

  • 170.
    Knez, Igor
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Eliasson, Ingegärd
    Department of Conservation, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Relationships between Personal and Collective Place Identity and Well-Being in Mountain Communities2017In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 8, no JAN, article id 79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to investigate the relationships between landscape-related personal and collective identity and well-being of residents living in a Swedish mountain county (N = 850). It was shown that their most valued mountain activities were viewing and experiencing nature and landscape, outdoor recreation, rest and leisure, and socializing with friends/family. Qualitative analyses showed that the most valued aspects of the sites were landscape and outdoor restoration for personal favorite sites, and tourism and alpine for collective favorite sites. According to quantitative analyses the stronger the attachment/closeness/belonging (emotional component of place identity) residents felt to favorite personal and collective sites the more well-being they perceived when visiting these places. Similarly, the more remembrance, thinking and mental travel (cognitive component of place identity) residents directed to these sites the more well-being they perceived in these places. In both types of sites well-being was more strongly predicted by emotional than cognitive component of place-identity. All this indicates the importance of person-place bonds in beneficial experiences of the outdoors, over and above simply being in outdoor environments.

  • 171.
    Knez, Igor
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Thorsson, Sofia
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö. Physical Geography, Department of Earth Sciences, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Influences of culture and environmental attitude on thermal, emotional and perceptual evaluations of a public square2006In: International journal of biometeorology, ISSN 0020-7128, E-ISSN 1432-1254, Vol. 50, no 5, p. 258-268Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of the present quasi-experimental study was to examine the influence of culture (Swedish vs Japanese) and environmental attitude (urban vs open-air person) on participants' thermal, emotional and perceptual assessments of a square, within the PET (physiological equivalent temperature) comfortable interval of 18-23 degrees C. It was predicted that persons living in different cultures with different environmental attitudes would psychologically evaluate a square differently despite similar thermal conditions. Consistent with this prediction, Japanese participants estimated the current weather as warmer than did Swedish participants and, consistent with this, they felt less thermally comfortable on the site, although participants in both countries perceived similar comfortable thermal outdoor conditions according to the PET index. Compared to the Japanese, the Swedes estimated both the current weather and the site as windier and colder, indicating a consistency in weather assessment on calm-windy and warm-cold scales in participants in both cultures. Furthermore, Swedish participants felt more glad and calm on the site and, in line with their character (more glad than gloomy), they estimated the square as more beautiful and pleasant than did Japanese participants. All this indicates that thermal, emotional and perceptual assessments of a physical place may be intertwined with psychological schema-based and socio-cultural processes, rather than fixed by general thermal indices developed in line with physiological heat balance models. In consequence, this implies that thermal comfort indices may not be applicable in different cultural/climate zones without modifications, and that they may not be appropriate if we do not take into account the psychological processes involved in environmental assessment.

  • 172.
    Knez, Igor
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för psykologi.
    Thorsson, Sofia
    hysical Geography, Department of Earth Sciences, Göteborg University, Sweden.
    Thermal, emotional and perceptual evaluations of a park: Cross-cultural and environmental attitude comparisons2008In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 43, no 9, p. 1483-1490Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of the present study was to examine the influence of culture (Sweden vs. Japan) and environmental attitude (urban vs. open-air person) on participants' thermal, emotional and perceptual assessments of a park, within the physiological equivalent temperature (PET) comfortable interval of 18-23 degrees C. It was predicted that persons sharing different cultures and environmental attitudes might psychologically differently evaluate a Swedish and a Japanese park despite similar thermal conditions. Consistent with this prediction, Japanese were shown to evaluate the weather as warmer and less good for out-door activity than did Swedes, although and according to the PET index participants in both cultures experienced similar comfortable thermal conditions. Japanese were also shown to evaluate the park as more pleasant and warmer place than did Swedes. However, the Japanese felt emotionally less pleasant at the site than did Swedes. An interaction between culture and environmental attitude indicated tentatively a difference in environmental attitude (urban vs. open-air person) between the two countries as regards the place-related wind sensitivity. All these findings are discussed in terms of culture and environmental attitude suggesting that thermal, emotional and perceptual assessments of a physical place may be intertwined with psychological and cultural processes, rather than fixed by general thermal indices developed in line with the physiological heat balance models. (C) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 173.
    Knez, Igor
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för psykologi.
    Thorsson, Sofia
    Urban Climate Group, Physical Geography, Earth Sciences Centre, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Eliasson, Ingegärd
    Urban Climate Group, Physical Geography, Earth Sciences Centre, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Lindberg, Fredrik
    Urban Climate Group, Physical Geography, Earth Sciences Centre, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Psychological mechanisms in outdoor place and weather assessment: Towards a conceptual model2009In: International journal of biometeorology, ISSN 0020-7128, E-ISSN 1432-1254, Vol. 53, no 1, p. 101-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The general aim has been to illuminate the psychological mechanisms involved in outdoor place and weather assessment. This reasoning was conceptualized in a model, tentatively proposing direct and indirect links of influence in an outdoor place-human relationship. The model was subsequently tested by an empirical study, performed in a Nordic city, on the impact of weather and personal factors on participants' perceptual and emotional estimations of outdoor urban places. In line with our predictions, we report significant influences of weather parameters (air temperature, wind, and cloudlessness) and personal factors (environmental attitude and age) on participants' perceptual and emotional estimations of outdoor urban places. All this is a modest, yet significant, step towards an understanding of the psychology of outdoor place and weather assessment.

  • 174.
    Kordi, Maryam
    et al.
    National University of Ireland, National Centre for Geocomputation.
    Brandt, Anders
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    Effects of increasing fuzziness on analytic hierarchy process for spatial multicriteria decision analysis2012In: Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, ISSN 0198-9715, E-ISSN 1873-7587, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 43-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) involves techniques which relatively recently have received great increase in interest for their capabilities of solving spatial decision problems. One of the most frequently used techniques of MCDA is Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). In the AHP, decision-makers make pairwise comparisons between different criteria to obtain values of their relative importance. The AHP initially only dealt with crisp numbers or exact values in the pairwise comparisons, but later it has been modified and adapted to also consider fuzzy values. It is necessary to empirically validate the ability of the fuzzified AHP for solving spatial problems. Further, the effects of different levels of fuzzification on the method have to be studied. In the context of a hypothetical GIS-based decision-making problem of locating a dam in Costa Rica using real-world data, this paper illustrates and compares the effects of increasing levels of uncertainty exemplified through different levels of fuzzification of the AHP. Practical comparison of the methods in this work, in accordance with the theoretical research, revealed that by increasing the level of uncertainty or fuzziness in the fuzzy AHP, differences between results of the conventional and fuzzy AHPs become more significant. These differences in the results of the methods may affect the final decisions in decision-making processes. This study concludes that the AHP is sensitive to the level of fuzzification and decision-makers should be aware of this sensitivity while using the fuzzy AHP. Furthermore, the methodology described may serve as a guideline on how to perform a sensitivity analysis in spatial MCDA. Depending on the character of criteria weights, i.e. the degree of fuzzification, and its impact on the results of a selected decision rule (e.g. AHP), the results from a fuzzy analysis may be used to produce sensitivity estimates for crisp AHP MCDA methods.

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    Kordi_and_Brandt_Effects of increasing fuzziness on analytic hierarchy process for spatial multicriteria decision analysis
  • 175.
    Koyi, Hemin
    et al.
    Hans Ramberg Tectonic Laboratory, Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Nilfouroushan, Faramarz
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS. Hans Ramberg Tectonic Laboratory, Deptartment of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hessami, Khaled
    International Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Seismology (IIEES), Tehran, Iran.
    Modelling role of basement block rotation and strike-slip faulting on structural pattern in cover units of fold-and-thrust belts2016In: Geological Magazine, ISSN 0016-7568, E-ISSN 1469-5081, Vol. 153, no 5-6, p. 827-844Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A series of scaled analogue models are used to study (de)coupling between basement and cover deformation. Rigid basal blocks were rotated about a vertical axis in a 'bookshelf'€™ fashion, which caused strike-slip faulting along the blocks and in the overlying cover units of loose sand. Three different combinations of cover–basement deformations are modelled: (i) cover shortening before basement fault movement; (ii) basement fault movement before cover shortening; and (iii) simultaneous cover shortening with basement fault movement. Results show that the effect of the basement faults depends on the timing of their reactivation. Pre- and syn-orogenic basement fault movements have a significant impact on the structural pattern of the cover units, whereas post-orogenic basement fault movement has less influence on the thickened hinterland of the overlying belt. The interaction of basement faulting and cover shortening results in the formation of rhombic structures. In models with pre- and syn-orogenic basement strike-slip faults, rhombic blocks develop as a result of shortening of the overlying cover during basement faulting. These rhombic blocks are similar in appearance to flower structures, but are different in kinematics, genesis and structural extent. We compare these model results to both the Zagros fold-and-thrust belt in southwestern Iran and the Alborz Mountains in northern Iran. Based on the model results, we conclude that the traces of basement faults in cover units rotate and migrate towards the foreland during regional shortening. As such, these traces do not necessarily indicate the actual location or orientation of the basement faults which created them.

  • 176.
    Lacombe, Olivier
    et al.
    Institut des Sciences de la Terre de Paris (iSTeP), Sorbonne Universités, Paris, France.
    Ruh, Jonas
    Institut des Sciences de la Terre de Paris (iSTeP), Sorbonne Universités, Paris, France; Instituto de Ciencias de la Tierra “Jaume Almera”, CSIC, Barcelona, Spain.
    Brown, Dennis
    Instituto de Ciencias de la Tierra “Jaume Almera”, CSIC, Barcelona, Spain.
    Nilfouroushan, Faramarz
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS. Geodetic infrastructure Department, Lantmäteriet, Gävle, Sweden.
    Introduction: tectonic evolution and mechanics of basement-involved fold-and-thrust belts2016In: Geological Magazine, ISSN 0016-7568, E-ISSN 1469-5081, Vol. 153, no 5-6, p. 759-762Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Defining the structural style of fold-and-thrust belts is an important step for understanding the factors that control their long- and short-term dynamics, for comprehending seismic hazard associated with them, and for assessing their economic potential. While the thin-skinned model (no basement involvement) has long been the driving methodology for cross section construction and restoration of foreland fold-and-thrustbelts, a wealth of new geological and geophysical studies have shown that they are often thick-skinned, that is, basement-involved.

  • 177.
    Larsson, Josefine
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Miljövetenskap.
    Lind, E. E.
    SLU.
    Corell, H.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Grahn, Mats
    Södertörns högskola, Biologi.
    Smolarz, K.
    University of Gdańsk, Gdynia, Poland.
    Lönn, Mikael
    Södertörns högskola, Biologi.
    Regional genetic differentiation in the blue mussel from the Baltic Sea area2017In: Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, ISSN 0272-7714, E-ISSN 1096-0015, Vol. 195, p. 98-109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Connectivity plays an important role in shaping the genetic structure and in evolution of local adaptation. In the marine environment barriers to gene flow are in most cases caused by gradients in environmental factors, ocean circulation and/or larval behavior. Despite the long pelagic larval stages, with high potential for dispersal many marine organisms have been shown to have a fine scale genetic structuring. In this study, by using a combination of high-resolution genetic markers, species hybridization data and biophysical modeling we can present a comprehensive picture of the evolutionary landscape for a keystone species in the Baltic Sea, the blue mussel. We identified distinct genetic differentiation between the West Coast, Baltic Proper and Bothnian Sea regions, with lower gene diversity in the Bothnian Sea. Oceanographic connectivity together with salinity and to some extent species identity provides explanations for the genetic differentiation between the West Coast and the Baltic Sea (Baltic Proper and Bothnian Sea). The genetic differentiation between the Baltic Proper and Bothnian Sea cannot be directly explained by oceanographic connectivity, species identity or salinity, while the lower connectivity to the Bothnian Sea may explain the lower gene diversity. © 2016.

  • 178.
    Larsson, Josefine
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Miljövetenskap.
    Lönn, Mikael
    Södertörns högskola, Biologi.
    Lind, Emma E
    SLU.
    Świeżak, Justyna
    University of Gdansk, Gdynia , Poland.
    Smolarz, Katarzyna
    University of Gdansk, Gdynia , Poland.
    Grahn, Mats
    Södertörns högskola, Biologi.
    Sewage treatment plant associated genetic differentiation in the blue mussel from the Baltic Sea and Swedish west coast2016In: PeerJ, ISSN 2167-8359, E-ISSN 2167-8359, Vol. 4, article id e2628Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human-derived environmental pollutants and nutrients that reach the aquatic environment through sewage effluents, agricultural and industrial processes are constantly contributing to environmental changes that serve as drivers for adaptive responses and evolutionary changes in many taxa. In this study, we examined how two types of point sources of aquatic environmental pollution, harbors and sewage treatment plants, affect gene diversity and genetic differentiation in the blue mussel in the Baltic Sea area and off the Swedish west coast (Skagerrak). Reference sites (REF) were geographically paired with sites from sewage treatments plant (STP) and harbors (HAR) with a nested sampling scheme, and genetic differentiation was evaluated using a high-resolution marker amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). This study showed that genetic composition in the Baltic Sea blue mussel was associated with exposure to sewage treatment plant effluents. In addition, mussel populations from harbors were genetically divergent, in contrast to the sewage treatment plant populations, suggesting that there is an effect of pollution from harbors but that the direction is divergent and site specific, while the pollution effect from sewage treatment plants on the genetic composition of blue mussel populations acts in the same direction in the investigated sites.

  • 179.
    Larsson, Karolina
    et al.
    Stockholms Stad.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Paulsson, Jenny
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Representation of 3D cadastral boundaries: From analogue to digital2019In: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses problems and challenges concerning the process of conversion of 2D analogue cadastral boundary plans into 3D digital information and is based on experiences from a research project on visualization of 3D property boundaries in Sweden. An area next to a newly constructed sports– and event arena in Stockholm, where 3D properties are formed, is used as a case study in the project to illustrate the process and the problems related to it. Focus lies on legal issues, although other aspects are mentioned as well. The rights, restrictions and responsibilities (RRRs) are registered in the national Real Property Register, which also includes registration in the two–dimensional Digital Cadastral Index Map. 

    A description of the process of forming 3D property is included in the paper regarding the documents and parties involved. The result of the study is that it is necessary to interpret two–dimensional cadastral data and textual descriptions in order for it to be used in a digital 3D environment, e.g. BIM.

    The study shows that current legislation has to be investigated and interpreted in detail to be able to add or transform into using 3D models as part of cadastral decisions in Sweden. The current cadastral process is also analysed and suggestions for further development are provided.

  • 180.
    Li, Tao
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment.
    Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) in China: Some potentials and shortcomings2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) is required to make the spatial data be fully used and well shared by the society. In China, SDI’s has also been established progressively. A thorough understanding of the potentials and shortcomings about SDI in China has a positive significance to clearly identify the future direction and actions.In order to find out the potentials and shortcomings of SDI in China, the current situation of SDI and SDI in China have been assessed through literature review and interview. Then a Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) analysis has been developed. Based on the current experiences of SDI development in China, the thesis concludes that China have a good potential to develop its SDI function. It also points out that there still are some weaknesses needed to be surmounted, such as: lacking advanced technology, data duplication, and lack of skilled workforce. There is a big room and capability to improve the development of Chinese SDI well in the future.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 181.
    Lim, Nancy J.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Brandt, S. Anders
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Are Feature Agreement Statistics Alone Sufficient to Validate Modelled Flood Extent Quality?: A Study on Three Swedish Rivers Using Different Digital Elevation Model Resolutions2019In: Mathematical problems in engineering (Print), ISSN 1024-123X, E-ISSN 1563-5147, Vol. 2019, article id 9816098Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydraulic modelling is now, at increasing rates, used all over the world to provide flood risk maps for spatial planning, flood insurance, etc. This puts heavy pressure on the modellers and analysts to not only produce the maps but also information on the accuracy and uncertainty of these maps. A common means to deliver this is through performance measures or feature statistics. These look at the global agreement between the modelled flood area and the reference flood that is used. Previous studies have shown that the feature agreement statistics do not differ much between models that have been based on digital elevation models (DEMs) of different resolutions, which is somewhat surprising since most researchers agree that high-resolution DEMs are to be preferred over poor resolution DEMs. Hence, the aim of this study was to look into how and under which conditions the different feature agreement statistics differ, in order to see when the full potential of high-resolution DEMs can be utilised. The results show that although poor resolution DEMs might produce high feature agreement scores (around F > 0.80), they may fail to provide good flood extent estimations locally, particularly when the terrain is flat. Therefore, when high-resolution DEMs (1 to 5 m) are used, it is important to carefully calibrate the models by the use of the roughness parameter. Furthermore, to get better estimates on the accuracy of the models, other performance measures such as distance disparities should be considered.

  • 182.
    Lim, Nancy Joy
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Modelling, mapping and visualisation of flood inundation uncertainties2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Flood maps showing extents of predicted flooding for a given extreme event have wide usage in all types of spatial planning tasks, as well as serving as information material for the public. However, the production processes that these maps undergo (including the different data, methods, models and decisions from the persons generating them), which include both Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and hydraulic modelling, affect the map’s content, and will be reflected in the final map. A crisp flood boundary, which is a common way of representing the boundary in flood maps, may therefore not be the best representation to be used. They provide a false implication that these maps are correct and that the flood extents are absolute, despite the effects of the entire modelling in the prediction output. Hence, this research attempts to determine how flood prediction outputs can be affected by uncertainties in the modelling process. In addition, it tries to evaluate how users understand, utilise and perceive flood uncertainty information. 

    Three main methods were employed in the entire research: uncertainty modelling and analyses; map and geovisualisation development; and user assessment. The studies in this work showed that flood extents produced were influenced by the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) resolution and the Manning’s  used. This effect was further increased by the topographic characteristic of the floodplain. However, the performance measure used, which quantify how well a model produces result in relation to a reference floor boundary, had also biases in quantifying outputs. Determining the optimal model output, therefore, depended on outcomes of the goodness-of-fit measures used.

     In this research, several ways were suggested on how uncertainties can be visualised based on the data derived from the uncertainty assessment and by characterising the uncertainty information. These can be through: dual-ended maps; flood probability maps; sequential maps either highlighting the degrees of certainty (certainty map) or degrees of uncertainty (uncertainty map) in the data; binary maps; overlain flood boundaries from different calibration results; and performance bars. Different mapping techniques and visual variables were used for their representation. These mapping techniques employed, as well as the design of graphical representation, helped facilitate understanding the information by the users, especially when tested during the evaluations. Note though that there were visualisations, which the user found easier to comprehend depending on the task given. Each of these visualisations had also its advantages and disadvantages in communicating flood uncertainty information, as shown in the assessments conducted. Another important aspect that came out in the study was how the users’ background influence decision-making when using these maps. Users’ willingness to take risks depended not only on the map, but their perceptions on the risk itself. However, overall, users found the uncertainty maps to be useful to be incorporated in planning tasks.

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  • 183.
    Lim, Nancy Joy
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Brandt, S. Anders
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Seipel, Stefan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Computer science. Division of Visual Information and Interaction, Department of Information Technology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Visualisation and evaluation of flood uncertainties based on ensemble modelling2016In: International Journal of Geographical Information Science, ISSN 1365-8816, E-ISSN 1365-8824, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 240-262Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study evaluates how users incorporate visualisation of flood uncertainty information in decision-making. An experiment was conducted where participants were given the task to decide building locations, taking into account homeowners’ preferences as well as dilemmas imposed by flood risks at the site. Two general types of visualisations for presenting uncertainties from ensemble modelling were evaluated: (1) uncertainty maps, which used aggregated ensemble results; and (2) performance bars showing all individual simulation outputs from the ensemble. Both were supplemented with either two-dimensional (2D) or three-dimensional (3D) contextual information, to give an overview of the area.The results showed that the type of uncertainty visualisation was highly influential on users’ decisions, whereas the representation of the contextual information (2D or 3D) was not. Visualisation with performance bars was more intuitive and effective for the task performed than the uncertainty map. It clearly affected users’ decisions in avoiding certain-to-be-flooded areas. Patterns to which the distances were decided from the homeowners’ preferred positions and the uncertainties were similar, when the 2D and 3D map models were used side by side with the uncertainty map. On the other hand, contextual information affected the time to solve the task. With the 3D map, it took the participants longer time to decide the locations, compared with the other combinations using the 2D model.Designing the visualisation so as to provide more detailed information made respondents avoid dangerous decisions. This has also led to less variation in their overall responses.

  • 184.
    Lin, Xiangyi
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Zu, Yuanyuan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Multi-criteria GIS-based procedure for coffee shop location decision2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The location selection of a coffee shop is crucial for its success or failure. It should be decided in a strategical and comprehensive way. Geographic Information System (GIS) technology has rapidly become a popular tool for complicated location decision problems, because of its remarkable function for handling spatial and non-spatial data. In this particular project, based on GIS softwares, a spatial interaction model, the Huff model, and a decision making model, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), a multi-criteria model, were used to determine the most promising area for opening a new coffee shop in San Francisco, United States. By using two GIS softwares, ArcMap and ERDAS, to analyze different kinds of criteria, which can be classified as socioeconomic and demographic, three customized optimizing location maps, the optimized location for Huff capture, the optimized location for AHP-based multi-criteria model and the optimized location map for both Huff and AHP, were obtained. When these three maps were compared with the actual situation, the commercial district and the area that was surrounded by a university and parks were evaluated as the most suitable location for establishing a new coffee shop in San Francisco. The result shows that visitor flow rate was a primary factor that influences the operation of coffee shops.

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  • 185.
    Lin, Yue
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    A Comparison Study on Head/tail Breaks and Topfer’s Method for Model-based Map Generalization on Geographic Features in Country and City Levels2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Map generalization is a traditional cartographical issue which should be particularly considered in today’sinformation age. The aim of this study is to find some characteristics about head/tail breaks which worksas generalization method compared with the well known Topfer’s method. A questionnaire survey wasconducted to let 30 users choose either of the series maps of both methods and the reason(s) for thatchoice. Also to test their understanding of the series maps histograms were added for them to match.Afterwards the sample results were analyzed using both univariate and bivariate analysis approaches. Itshows that the head/tail breaks method was selected by 58%, compared with 38.7% of Topfer’s method,because of its simplicity. By checking the correctness of histogram question it also shows that those whowell understood answers choose the head/tail breaks rather than the Topfer’s method. However in somecases, where the amount of geographical features is relatively small, Topfer’s method is more selectedbecause of its informative characteristic and similar structure to the original map. It was also found that inthe comparison the head/tail breaks is more advantageous in line feature type generalization than in arealfeature type. This is probably because Topfer’s method changes its minority selection rule to half selectionin line feature type, whereas the head/tail breaks keeps the scaling property. Any difference between thetwo tested scales, Finland level and Helsinki level, is not found in this comparison study. However, futurework should explore more regarding this and other issues.

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  • 186.
    Lin, Yue
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    A Comparison Study on Natural and Head/tail Breaks Involving Digital Elevation Models2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The most widely used classification method for statistical mapping is Jenks’s natural breaks. However, it has been found that natural breaks is not good at classifying data which have scaling property. Scaling property is ubiquitous in many societal and natural phenomena. It can be explained as there are far more smaller things than larger ones. For example, there are far more shorter streets than longer ones, far more smaller street blocks than bigger ones, and far more smaller cities than larger ones. Head/tail breaks is a new classification scheme that is designed for values that exhibit scaling property. In Digital Elevation Models (DEMs), there are far more lower elevation points than higher elevation points. This study performs both head/tail breaks and natural breaks for values from five resolutions of DEMs. The aim of this study is to examine advantages and disadvantages of head/tail breaks classification scheme compared with natural breaks. One of the five resolutions of DEMs is given as an example to illustrate the principle behind the head/tail breaks in the case study.The results of head/tail breaks for five resolutions are slightly different from each other in number of classes or level of details. The similar results of comparisons support the previous finding that head/tail breaks is advantaged over natural breaks in reflecting the hierarchy of data. But the number of classes could be reduced for better statistical mapping. Otherwise the top values, which are very little, would be nearly invisible in the map.A main conclusion to be drawn from this study is that head/tail breaks classification scheme is advantaged over natural breaks in presenting hierarchy or scaling of elevation data, with the top classes gathered into one. Another conclusion is when the resolution gets higher; the scaling property gets more striking.

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  • 187.
    Lindberg, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Utomhuspedagogik: Möjligheter till lärande utomhus2011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med det här arbetet var att undersöka om och hur barnen på förskolan kan utvecklas genom utomhuspedagogik. Det låg också i mitt intresse att undersöka i vilken utsträckning föräldrar uppfattar utomhuspedagogikens eventuella fördelar. Mina frågeställningar var därför: Vad kan utomhuspedagogik medföra för barns utveckling på förskolan? Vilken uppfattning har föräldrarna på den aktuella förskolan om utomhuspedagogikens inverkan? För att få svar på mina frågor har jag gjort en litteraturstudie på tidigare forskning och en enkätundersökning bland föräldrarna på den förskola där jag jobbar. Jag har sen jämfört svaren för att få fram en bild av föräldrarnas uppfattning. Resultatet visade att det finns en mängd fördelar med utomhuspedagogik för barnens utveckling och lärande. Det visade också att föräldrarna hade en bristande kunskap om detta

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  • 188.
    Lindman, Mattias
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Geofysik.
    Lund, Björn
    Uppsala universitet, Geofysik.
    Roberts, Roland
    Uppsala universitet, Geofysik.
    Spatiotemporal characteristics of aftershock sequences in the south Iceland seismic zone: Interpretation in terms of pore pressure diffusion and poroelasticity2010In: Geophysical Journal International, ISSN 0956-540X, E-ISSN 1365-246X, Vol. 183, no 3, p. 1104-1118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In seismology numerous observations indicate a relationship between pore pressure in the Earth's crust and the occurrence of earthquakes. In this paper we study aftershock sequences in the South Iceland Seismic Zone (SISZ), where poroelastic rebound has been observed in the post-seismic period of two M 6.5 earthquakes in 2000 June. We analyse characteristic features in the spatiotemporal distribution of aftershocks following the two M 6.5 2000 June 17 and 21 earthquakes and a M 4.5 earthquake on 1999 September 27. These features include an initial pre-power-law decay period characterized by an initially finite aftershock rate, a subsequent power-law decay interrupted by distinct and temporary rate increases and decreases as well as increased clustering of aftershocks with time in the main shock fault zones. Extending the analysis to a M 3.2 aftershock sequence in the same region confirms an increase in the duration of the initial pre-power-law decay period with increasing main shock magnitude. We find, from the return time of aftershock magnitudes to the long-term completeness level, that the initial pre-power-law decay period and its durational dependence on main shock magnitude may not only represent incompleteness artefacts but may also reflect the physics of the aftershock process in the SISZ. Based on pore pressure diffusion modelling, we interpret the origin of the observed SISZ aftershock features in terms of a spatially non-linear coseismic influence of the main shock on stresses in the surrounding crust and poroelastic adjustment of stresses and pore pressures during main shock initiated diffusion processes. In a discussion of alternative interpretations, we find that rate and state friction and dynamically propagating crack models, the statistical ETAS model, afterslip models, viscoelastic relaxation of the lower crust and upper mantle and a recently proposed dependence on the crustal state of stress all appear inconsistent with at least one of the characteristic spatiotemporal features of the studied SISZ aftershock sequences. We conclude that these features constitute strong evidence for pore pressure effects in aftershock triggering within the SISZ and recommend that poroelastic adjustment of stresses is taken into account in modelling of main shock initiated pore pressure diffusion.

  • 189.
    Liu, Qingling
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Gong, Fanting
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Monitoring land use and land cover change: a combining approach of change detection to analyze urbanization in Shijiazhuang, China2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Detecting the changes of land use and land cover of the earth’s surface is extremely important to achieve continual and precise information about study area for any kinds of planning of the development. Geographic information system and remote sensing technologies have shown their great capabilities to solve the study issues like land use and land cover changes. The aim of this thesis is to produce maps of land use and land cover of Shijiazhuang on year 1993, 2000 and 2009 to monitor the possible changes that may occur particularly in agricultural land and urban or built-up land, and detect the process of urbanization in this city. Three multi-temporal satellite image data, Thematic Mapper image data from year 1993, Enhanced Thematic Mapper image data from 2000 and China Brazil Earth Resource Satellite image data from 2009 were used in this thesis. In this study, supervised classification was the major classification approach to provide classified maps, and five land use and land cover categories were identified and mapped. Post-classification approach was used to improve the qualities of the classified map. The noises in the classified maps will be removed after post-classification process. Normalized difference vegetation index was used to detect the changes of vegetated land and non-vegetated land. Change detection function in Erdas Imagine was used to detect the urban growth and the intensity of changes surrounding the urban areas. Cellular automata Markov was used to simulate the trends of land use and cover change during the period of 1993 to 2000 and 2000 to 2009, and a future land use map was simulated based on the land use maps of year 2000 and 2009. From this performance, the cross-tabulation matrices between different periods were produced to analyze the trends of land use and cover changes, and these statistic data directly expressed the change of land use and land cover. The results show that the agricultural land and urban or built-up land were changed a lot, approximately half of agricultural land was converted into urban or built-up land. This indicates that the loss of agricultural land is associated with the growth of urban or built-up land. Thus, the urbanization took place in Shijiazhuang, and the results of this urban expansion lead to the loss of agricultural land and environmental problems. During the process of detecting the land use and cover change, obtaining of high-precision classified maps was the main problem.

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  • 190.
    Liu, Zhina
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Berggrundsgeologi.
    Koyi, Hemin
    Uppsala universitet, Berggrundsgeologi.
    Nilfouroushan, Faramarz
    Uppsala universitet, Berggrundsgeologi.
    Kinematics and internal deformation within 3-D granular slopes: insights from analogue mdoels and natural slopes2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study uses results of a series of analogue models, scanned data of natural landslides, and sections of natural failed slopes to investigate the kinematics and internal deformation during the failure of an unstable slope. The models simulate collapse of granular slopes by focusing on the spatial and temporal distribution of their internal structures. Model results show that the collapse of granular slopes resulted in different-generation extensional normal faults at the back of the slope, and contractional structures such as overturned folds, shealth folds and thrusts at the toe of the slope. The failure surfaces and the volume of the failure mass changed both spatially and temporally. Our model results show also that the nature of runout base has a significant influence on the kinematics and internal deformational structures. The runout distance increased with decreasing basal friction of a rigid runout base, and the topography at the slope toe was much gentler in the model with lower basal friction along the rigid runout base. The runout distance was shortest in the granular slope with deformable runout base. More extensional normal faults occurred in the model with low-friction runout base, whereas more shortening structures formed in the model with high-friction runout base. Similar tomodel results, our field observations indicate the presence of at least two generations of failure surfaces where the older ones are steeper.

  • 191.
    Liu, Zhina
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för geovetenskaper.
    Koyi, Hemin
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för geovetenskaper.
    Nilfouroushan, Faramarz
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för geovetenskaper.
    Swantesson, Jan
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper, Avdelningen för hälsa och miljö.
    Reshetyuk, Yuriy
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    Internal deformation within an unstable granular slope: insights from physical modeling2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The collapses of granular materials frequently occur in nature in the form of, for example, rock avalanches, debrisavalanches and debris flow. In previous studies of collapses of a granular material, most of the focus has been onthe effect of initial geometry and mechanical properties of the granular materials, the run-out distance, and thetopography of final deposit. In this study, results of analogue models and scanned natural failed slopes are usedto outline the mode of failure of an unstable slope. Model results and field observations are used to argue that agranular mass moves downslope in a wavy pattern resulting in its intensive deformation.In the models, we mainly investigated the internal deformation of collapses of granular slopes in terms of theirinternal structures and the spatial and temporal distribution of the latter. Model results showed that a displacedmass of the granular slope has the following two features: (1) Initial collapse resulted in a series of normal faults,where hanging-wall blocks were slightly deformed, like the slump-shear structures in nature; (2) With furthercollapse, a set of secondary structures, such as deformed/folded fault surfaces, faulted folds, displaced inclinedfolds, and overturned folds formed near the slope surface. The occurrence of these structures reflects the failureprocess of the granular mass in space and time. In addition, our model results show that the nature of basal frictionhas a significant influence on the geometry and kinematics of these structures at the slope toe. Model results showalso that the mass does not glide downslope along only one surface, but includes several gliding surfaces each ofwhich take part of the sliding. These gliding surfaces become steeper deeper in the sliding mass. Some of thesefeatures observed in the models are also detected in the field. Scanned failed slope surfaces show a wavy patternsimilar to that in the models, reflecting the presence of normal faults at the head of the slope and folding at theslope toe.

  • 192.
    Liu, Zhina
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Berggrundsgeologi.
    Koyi, Hemin
    Uppsala universitet, Berggrundsgeologi.
    Swantesson, Jan
    Karlstad University.
    Nilfouroushan, Faramarz
    Uppsala universitet, Berggrundsgeologi.
    Reshetyuk, Yuriy
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    Kinematics and 3-D internal deformation of granular slopes: analogue models and natural landslides2013In: Journal of Structural Geology, ISSN 0191-8141, E-ISSN 1873-1201, Vol. 53, p. 27-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study uses results from a series of analogue models, and field observations, scanned data and sections of natural landslides to investigate the kinematics and internal deformation during the failure of an unstable slope. The models simulate collapse of granular slopes and focus on the spatial and temporal distribution of their internal structures. Using a series of systematically designed models, we have studied the effect of friction and deformability of the runout base on internal deformation within a granular slope. The results of these different models show that the collapse of granular slopes resulted in different-generation extensional faults at the back of the slope, and contractional structures (overturned folds, sheath folds and thrusts) at the toe of the slope. The failure surfaces and the volume of the failure mass changed both spatially and temporally. Younger failure surfaces formed in the back of the older ones by incorporating additional new material from the head of the slope. Our model results also show that the nature of the runout base has a significant influence on the runout distance, topography and internal deformation of a granular slope. Model results are compared with natural landslides where local profiles were dug in order to decipher the internal structures of the failure mass. The natural cases show similar structural distribution at the head and toe of the failure mass. As in model results, our field observations indicate the presence of at least two generations of failure surfaces where the older ones are steeper.

  • 193.
    Lozano, Rodrigo
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Management. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Bridging aims and delivery of higher education for sustainable development: Using pedagogical approaches to fulfil competences2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 194.
    Lozano, Rodrigo
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Management. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Drivers for and barriers to Corporate Sustainability2019Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 195.
    Lozano, Rodrigo
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Management. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Impulsores de la sostenibilidad corporativa [Corporate sustainability drivers]2019Conference paper (Other academic)
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  • 196.
    Lozano, Rodrigo
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Institutionalising sustainability in HEIs: Experiences from the University of Gävle2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 197.
    Lozano, Rodrigo
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Reinforcing the holistic perspective of sustainability: Analysis of the importance of sustainability drivers in organisations2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 198.
    Lozano, Rodrigo
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    State of the art on sustainable business models: A discussion on sustainable business models : Providing a more holistic perspective on sustainable business models2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 199.
    Lozano, Rodrigo
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Management. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production. Organisational Sustainability, Ltd, Cardiff, UK.
    Sustainable business models: providing a more holistic perspective2018In: Business Strategy and the Environment, ISSN 0964-4733, E-ISSN 1099-0836, Vol. 27, no 8, p. 1159-1166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Corporate sustainability has recently been challenging traditional business models that have been based on value proposition, creation and capture. There has been a steady increase in publications using the term “sustainable business models”; however, there have been few that have theoretically defined or characterized the term, and in most cases, they just apply the term. Seven peer‐reviewed papers were selected that aimed to define and explain sustainable business models and that have been widely cited. The papers were analyzed by assessing the elements and activities covered using the corporate sustainability framework, and by comparing them against four approaches to explain organizations. The paper proposes a definition and framework for more sustainable business models aimed at integrating organizational approaches, the company system, stakeholders, change and sustainability dimensions, thus providing a more holistic and systemic approach to discourses on sustainable business models.

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  • 200.
    Lozano, Rodrigo
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Management. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production. Organisational Sustainability, Cardiff, UK.
    Barreiro-Gen, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Management. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Analysing the incorporation of sustainable development into European Higher Education Institution's curricula2019In: Engineering Education towards Sustainability: Approaches for Institutionalization and Teaching Implementation: Second Internacional Conference on Engineering Education for the 21st Century – ICEE21C 2019 / [ed] Guraya, T., Cabedo, L., Bilbao: Universidad del País Vasco / Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea , 2019, p. 51-56Conference paper (Other academic)
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