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  • 151.
    Heiden, Marina
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Garza, Jennifer
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Trask, Catherine
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Cost-efficient assessment of variation in arm posture during paper mill work2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Arm posture is a recognized risk factor for occupational upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders and thus often assessed in research and practice. Posture assessment methods differ in cost, feasibility and, perhaps, bias. An attractive approach could be to build statistical models for predicting results of expensive direct measurements of arm posture from cheaper or more accessible data, and apply them to large samples in which only the latter data are available. We aimed to build and assess the performance of such prediction models in a random sample of paper mill workers.

    Methods. 28 workers were recruited to the study, and their upper arm postures were measured during three full work shifts using inclinometers. Simultaneously, the workers were video filmed, and their arm posture and gross body posture were assessed by observing the video afterwards. Models for predicting the inclinometer-assessed duration (proportion of time) and frequency (number/min) of periods spent in neutral right arm posture (<20°) were fitted using subject and observer as random factors, measured shift (1, 2 or 3) as fixed factor, and either observed time in neutral right arm angle or observed gross body posture as predictor.

    Results. For the proportion of time spent in neutral arm posture, the best performance was achieved by using observed gross body posture as predictor (explained variance: R2=26%; standard error: SE=9.8). For the frequency of periods spent in neutral arm posture, the corresponding model fit was R2=60% and SE=5.6. Bootstrap resample validation of the latter model showed an expected performance in other samples of R2=59-60% and SE=5.5-5.6 (5th-95th percentile).

    Discussion. Surprisingly, we found that observed gross body posture was a better predictor of variation in arm posture than observed arm angles. The findings suggest that arm posture during paper mill work can be cost-efficiently assessed using simple observations.

  • 152.
    Heiden, Marina
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Garza, Jennifer
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, USA.
    Trask, Catherine
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Canadian Centre for Health and Safety in Agriculture, College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Predicting directly measured trunk and upper arm postures in paper mill work from administrative data, workers’ ratings and posture observations2017In: Annals of Work Exposures & Health, ISSN 2398-7308, Vol. 61, no 2, p. 207-217Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: A cost-efficient alternative to measuring working postures directly could be to build statistical models for predicting results of such measurements from cheaper data, and apply these models to samples in which only the latter data are available. The present study aimed to build and assess the performance of statistical models predicting inclinometer-assessed trunk and arm posture among paper mill workers. Separate models were built using administrative data, workers’ ratings of their exposure, and observations of the work from video recordings as predictors.

    Methods: Trunk and upper arm postures were measured using inclinometry on 28 paper mill workers during three work shifts each. Simultaneously, the workers were video filmed, and their postures were assessed by observation of the videos afterwards. Workers’ ratings of exposure, and administrative data on staff and production during the shifts were also collected. Linear mixed models were fitted for predicting inclinometer-assessed exposure variables (median trunk and upper arm angle, proportion of time with neutral trunk and upper arm posture, and frequency of periods in neutral trunk and upper arm inclination) from administrative data, workers’ ratings, and observations, respectively. Performance was evaluated in terms of Akaike information criterion, proportion of variance explained (R2), and standard error of the model estimate (SE). For models performing well, validity was assessed by bootstrap resampling.

    Results: Models based on administrative data performed poorly (R2≤15%) and would not be useful for assessing posture in this population. Models using workers’ ratings of exposure performed slightly better (8%≤R2≤27% for trunk posture; 14%≤R2≤36% for arm posture). The best model was obtained when using observational data for predicting frequency of periods with neutral arm inclination. It explained 56% of the variance in the postural exposure, and its SE was 5.6. Bootstrap validation of this model showed similar expected performance in other samples (5th-95th percentile: R2=45-63%; SE=5.1-6.2).

    Conclusions: Observational data had a better ability to predict inclinometer-assessed upper arm exposures than workers’ ratings or administrative data, but they are typically more expensive to obtain. The results encourage comparisons of the cost-efficiency of modeling based on administrative data, workers’ ratings, and observation.

  • 153.
    Heiden, Marina
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Prediction of trunk and upper arm postures in paper mill workers by statistical modelling: an empirical validation study2015In: Proceedings of the 19th Triennial Congress of the International Ergonomics Association, Melbourne 9-14 August 2015 / [ed] Gitte Lindgaard & Dave Moore, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 154.
    Heiden, Marina
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Garza, Jennifer
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, UConn Health, Farmington, CT, United States .
    Liv, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Centre for Research and Development, Uppsala University/County Council of Gävleborg.
    Wahlström, Jens
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    A comparison of two strategies for building an exposure prediction model2016In: Annals of Occupational Hygiene, ISSN 0003-4878, E-ISSN 1475-3162, Vol. 60, no 1, p. 74-89Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cost-efficient assessments of job exposures in large populations may be obtained from models in which “true” exposures assessed by expensive measurement methods are estimated from easily accessible and cheap predictors. Typically, the models are built on the basis of a validation study comprising “true” exposure data as well as an extensive collection of candidate predictors from questionnaires or company data, which cannot all be included in the models due to restrictions in the degrees of freedom available for modeling. In these situations, predictors need to be selected using procedures that can identify the best possible subset of predictors among the candidates. The present study compares two strategies for selecting a set of predictor variables. One strategy relies on stepwise hypothesis testing of associations between predictors and exposure, while the other uses cluster analysis to reduce the number of predictors without relying on empirical information about the measured exposure. Both strategies were applied to the same dataset on biomechanical exposure and candidate predictors among computer users, and they were compared in terms of identified predictors of exposure as well as the resulting model fit using bootstrapped resamples of the original data. The identified predictors were, to a large part, different between the two strategies, and the initial model fit was better for the stepwise testing strategy than for the clustering approach. Internal validation of the models using bootstrap resampling with fixed predictors revealed an equally reduced model fit in resampled datasets for both strategies. However, when predictor selection was incorporated in the validation procedure for the stepwise testing strategy, the model fit was reduced to the extent that both strategies showed similar model fit. Thus, the two strategies would both be expected to perform poorly with respect to predicting biomechanical exposure in other samples of computer users.

  • 155.
    Heiden, Marina
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Richardsson, Linda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Wiitavaara, Birgitta
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Boman, Eva
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Telecommuting in academia – Associations with staff’s health and well-being2018In: Proceedings of the 20th Congress of the International Ergonomics Association (IEA 2018): Volume IX: Aging, Gender and Work, Anthropometry, Ergonomics for Children and Educational Environments / [ed] Bagnara S., Tartaglia R., Albolino S., Alexander T., Fujita Y., Cham: Springer, 2018, p. 308-312Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to telecommute has changed working life for staff at universities and colleges. Although the opportunity to work away from the office at any time gives workers more freedom to manage their work, it also imposes higher demands on workers to set limits to their work. The aim of this ongoing study is to determine if there is an optimal amount of telecommuting for male and female academics with respect to perceived health, work stress, recovery, work-life balance, and work motivation. A web-based survey is currently being conducted among lecturers and professors at Swedish universities and colleges. Results so far show that perceived fatigue and stress associated with indistinct organization and conflicts are higher among academics that telecommute to a larger extent. The results also show that female academics are more fatigued and stressed at work than male academics, but this does not seem to be related to the extent of telecommuting performed.

  • 156.
    Heiden, Marina
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Widar, Linda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Wiitavaara, Birgitta
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Boman, Eva
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Telecommuting in academia – associations with health and well-being among staff2018In: Annals of Work Exposures and Health, ISSN 2398-7308Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 157.
    Hellström, Fredrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Gouveia-Figueira, Sandra
    Department of Chemistry, Umeå University, Umeå; Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Umeå University, Umeå.
    Nording, Malin
    Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Umeå University, Umeå.
    Björklund, Martin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Umeå University, Umeå.
    Fowler, Christopher John
    Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Umeå universitet, Umeå.
    Association between plasma concentrations of linoleic acid-derived oxylipins and the perceived pain scores in an exploratory study in women with chronic neck pain2016In: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, ISSN 1471-2474, E-ISSN 1471-2474, Vol. 17, no 1, article id 103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Chronic musculoskeletal pain may be associated with changes in the balance of algogenic and anti-nociceptive compounds, and that such changes may be visible in plasma samples. We have undertaken an exploratory study to measure the levels of endocannabinoids, related N-acylethanolamines and oxylipins (primarily those derived from linoleic acid) in plasma samples from women with chronic neck pain (NP) and chronic widespread pain (CWP), and to investigate whether the observed levels are associated with the pain experienced by these women.

    Methods: Blood samples from 35 women with NP, 15 with CWP and 27 age-matched controls were analysed for the lipids using an ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry method. Current pain ("NRSday") and the average pain during the last week ("NRSweek") were rated by the participants using a numerical rating scale.

    Results: There were no significant differences in the plasma concentrations of the fifteen lipids investigated between the pain subjects and the controls. However, significant correlations were seen for the NP group between the NRSday scores and the plasma concentrations of the linoleic acid derivatives 9- and 13- hydroxy-10E,12Zoctadecadienoic acid (Spearman's rho values 0.51 [P=0.0016]) and 0.53 [P=0.0011], respectively).

    Conclusions: The data obtained in this exploratory study are consistent with a model whereby the underlying inflammatory nature of the musculoskeletal disorders leads both to an increase in the NRSday scores and the hydroxy-10E,12Z-octadecadienoic acid levels, and these increases further influence the perceived pain of in the NP subjects.

  • 158.
    Hemphäla, Hillevi
    et al.
    Ergonomics, Design Sciences, Lund University, Lund.
    Zetterberg, Camilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Ergonomics, Design Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden .
    Lindberg, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Heiden, Marina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Nylén, Per
    Division of Ergonomics, School of Technology and Health, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Huddinge, Sweden; Swedish Work Environment Authority, Stockholm, Sweden.
    A method for assessing risks in visual ergonomics2015In: Creating Sustainable Work-environments: Proceedings of NES2015, NEHF , 2015, p. B1-1-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    A method for risk assessment in the field of visual ergonomics is under development. Insufficient visual ability can lead to increased workload and contribute to eyestrain and musculoskeletal discomfort. Although the relation between eyestrain and musculoskeletal discomfort is not fully understood, studies have shown that straining the eyes increases the musculoskeletal activity in the neck and shoulders (trapezius); associations between visually demanding work, eye problems, headaches and/or muscle problems have also been found (Aarås et al., 2001; IESNA, 2011; Zetterlund et al., 2009; Zetterberg et al., 2013; Toomingas et al., 2013; Richter et al., 2011; Richter et al., 2015). Problems due to insufficient visual ergonomics not only exist in computer intensive work, but in other professions as well, such as surgeons and postal workers (Hemphälä et al., 2011; Hemphälä et al.,2012).

    The aim of this project is to develop a practical, easy-to-use, and time efficient risk assessment method for visual ergonomics. With this method, risk factors in the visual environment can be detected, and interventions implemented to reduce the prevalence of symptoms related to poor visual ergonomics among workers.

    Methods

    A first version of the risk assessment method has already been developed. In the spring of 2015, 27 ergonomists were taught visual ergonomics and introduced to the method. After the course, each ergonomist used the method to assess 8-10 workplaces, providing data and practical experiences from approximately 250 risk assessments. These data will be used to further develop and improve the method. During the fall of 2015 and spring of 2016, two other groups, each consisting of 30 ergonomists, will be trained in using the revised version of the risk assessment method in approximately 10 workplaces each. Data from these assessments will be used to test the validity and reliability of the method.

    Results

    The first version of the risk assessment method for visual ergonomics will be presented at NES 2015 together with the results from the approximately 250 risk assessments made by the first group of ergonomists. So far, the factors included in the method are objective measurements of illuminance, luminance contrast, illuminance uniformity values, size of work object, visual angle; expert assessment of the risk for glare; and subjective ratings of visual ability, eyestrain and musculoskeletal discomfort. Some tendencies have been found of correlations between an objectively-rated high risk for glare and eyestrain/headache, as well as between a high contrast glare/luminance ratio and eyestrain.

    Conclusion

    Several factors in the visual environment contribute to wellbeing and the level of performance. In this risk assessment method for visual ergonomics, ergonomists have been trained to evaluate, for example, the risk for glare, as one of the major risks. The risk assessment method presented will be discussed in relation to its usefulness in the prevention of discomfort and work-related disorders at workplaces.

  • 159.
    Hemphälä, Hillevi
    et al.
    Ergonomics, Design Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Zetterberg, Camilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Ergonomics, Design Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Lindberg, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Heiden, Marina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Nylén, Per
    Division of Ergonomics, School of Technology and Health, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Huddinge, Sweden; Swedish Work Environment Authority, Stockholm, Sweden.
    A risk assessment method for visual ergonomics2016In: NES2016 - ERGONOMICS IN THEORY AND PRACTICE - Proceedings of 48th Annual Conference of Nordic Ergonomics and Human Factors Society / [ed] Susanna Järvelin-Pasanen, Kuopio: School of Medicine , Faculty of Health Sciences : University of Eastern Finland , 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The visual environment can affect our wellbeing in many ways. Insufficient visual ability can lead to increased workload and contribute to eyestrain and musculoskeletal discomfort that in turn could lead to sick leave. Non-visual effects, such as flicker from luminaires can cause eyestrain or headache/migraine. Glare from luminaires or windows within the visual field can cause disability glare or discomfort glare. Glare while performing computer tasks causes visual fatigue and leads to strabismus measured with fixation disparity (harder for the eyes to focus). Strabismus leads to eyestrain, and eyestrain can lead to musculoskeletal discomfort.Although the relation between eyestrain and musculoskeletal discomfort is not fully understood, studies have shown that straining the eyes increases the musculoskeletal activity in the neck and shoulders (muscle trapezius); associations between visually demanding work, eye problems, headaches and/or muscle problems have also been found.The aim of this project is to develop a practical, easy-to-use, and time efficient risk assessment method for visual ergonomics. With this method, risk factors in the visualenvironment can be detected, and interventions implemented to reduce the prevalence of symptoms related to poor visual ergonomics among workers.The developed visual ergonomics risk analysis method has been used at several work places by ergonomists that have been educated in visual ergonomics. The results from the subjective part of the method show that many individuals report eyestrain and headache. This can be caused by many different factors such as wrong power in lenses, glare, flickering lights etc. Therefore it is essential that if you have a visually demanding work (such as computer work) you have to do eye examinations every other year to make sure that your vision is at its best. But the lighting situation at workplaces is also a key factor to consider in a good visual environment, to increase the level of performance. To increase wellbeing at work and reduce sick leave the visual environment needs to be good, with sufficient illuminance, a good luminance ratio, no glare from luminaires or windows,no flicker, and a good visibility of the work task. Education in risk analysis of the visual environment is essential for many different occupations such as lighting designers, ergonomists, working life inspectors, optometrists, to ensure a better understanding of the impact on wellbeing that the visual environment have.The researchers behind this study will have a finished visual ergonomics risk analysis method by the year of 2017.

  • 160.
    Hemphälä, Hillevi
    et al.
    Ergonomics, Design Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Zetterberg, Camilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Lindberg, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Heiden, Marina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Nylén, Per
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Huddinge, Sweden; Swedish Work Environment Authority, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Odenrick, Per
    Ergonomics, Design Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    A method for risk assessment within Visual Ergonomics2015In: Proceedings of the 19th Triennial Congress of the International Ergonomics Association: Reaching Out / [ed] Gitte Lindgaard and Dave Moore, 2015, p. nr 1203-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Insufficient visual ability can lead to increased work load and contribute to eyestrain and musculoskeletal discomfort, since “the eye leads the body” (Anshel, 2005). It has been shown that visually demanding work, such as computer work, is associated with eye discomfort, headaches and muscle pains in mainly the neck and shoulders (Rosenfield, 2011).

    Although the relation between eyestrain and musculoskeletal discomfort is not fully understood, studies have shown that straining the eyes increases the musculoskeletal activity in neck and shoulders (trapezius), and an association between visually demanding work, eye problems, headache and/or muscle problems have been found (Aarås et al., 2001; IESNA, 2011, Richter et al., 2008; Zetterberg et al., 2013). Problems due to insufficient visual ergonomics not only exist in computer intensive jobs, but in other professions as well. For example, surgeons and other surgical personnel that report eyestrain also report twice as much musculoskeletal discomfort from the upper part of the body (Hemphälä et al., 2011). In an intervention study among postmen, both eyestrain and musculoskeletal discomfort decreased after a visual ergonomic intervention. The intervention included providing customized eyeglasses and optimal lighting conditions (Hemphälä et al., 2012). Apart from health and well-being being affected by a poor visual ergonomic work environment, quality and productivity may also be reduced (Eklund, 2009).

    The aim of this paper is to present the first version of a practical, easy-to-use, and time-efficient risk assessment method for visual ergonomics. The development of the method including the evaluation will also be described. With such a method, risk factors within the visual environment can hopefully be detected, and interventions implemented in order to reduce the prevalence of symptoms related to poor visual ergonomics among workers.

    Methods

    A first version of the method has been developed, mainly based on existing checklists and instruments (Colon et al. 1999; Børsting et al., 2008, Knave et al., 1985, Sheedy and Shaw-McMinn, 2002; Wilson & Corlett, 2005). During spring 2015, 30 ergonomists will be updated about visual ergonomics and introduced to the risk assessment method. Each ergonomist will thereafter use the method in 10 workplaces, yielding data and practical experiences from 300 risk assessments. These data will then be used to test the validity and reliability of the method, and if necessary to further develop it.

    Results

    The first version of the risk assessment method for Visual Ergonomics will be presented at IEA 2015, together with results from the approximately 300 risk assessments made by the ergonomists. So far, the factors included in the method are objective measurements such as illuminance, luminance contrast, uniformity values, expert assessment of the risk for glare, and subjective ratings of the visual ability, eyestrain and musculoskeletal discomfort.

    Discussion

    The presented method will be compared to other similar methods. The used method for development will be discussed in relation to validity and reliability. Finally the presented risk assessment method will be discussed in relation to usefulness in prevention of discomfort and work related disorders at work places.

  • 161.
    Hemphälä, Hillevi
    et al.
    Ergonomics, Design Sciences, Lund University, Lund.
    Zetterberg, Camilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Department of Medical Sciences, Section of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Lindberg, per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Nylén, Per
    Division of Ergonomics, School of Technology and Health, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Huddinge; Swedish Work Environment Authority, Stockholm.
    A method for assessing risks within visual ergonomics2014In: 11th International Symposium on Human Factors in Organisational Design and Management & 46th Annual Nordic Ergonomics Society Conference: Track: F - Tools & methods, Session: F1 - Risk management, Santa Monica, CA, USA: The IEA PRESS , 2014, p. 111-112Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1.  Introduction

    Insufficient visual ability can lead to strained work load for employees and can contribute to eyestrain and musculoskeletal discomfort, “the eye leads the body” (Anshel, 2005). An optimal visual environment provides physical conditions for work in the best possible way. Visually demanding work, such as computer work, is associated with eye discomfort, headaches and muscle pains in mainly the neck and shoulders (Rosenfield, 2011). For computer workers in North America studies show that 75-90 % of the workers reported subjective symptoms from the eyes (Anshel, 2005). The causality between eyestrain and musculoskeletal discomfort is not fully understood, but studies have shown that straining the eyes increases the musculoskeletal activity in neck and shoulders (trapezius), and a link between visually demanding work, eye problems, headache and/or muscle problems have been found (Aarås et al., 2001; Richter et al., 2008; Zetterlund et al., 2009; Zetterberg et al., 2013). A study of call-center workers in Sweden showed that 21% of workers have both eyes and neck problems (Wiholm et al., 2007). Ergonomic problems also exist for professions where computer work is not dominant. Surgeons and other surgical personnel, with subjective eye discomfort, reported twice the incidence of musculoskeletal disorders when compared with staff without eye symptoms (Hemphälä et al., 2011). In an intervention study among postmen the eyestrain and musculoskeletal discomfort decreased after visual ergonomic interventions including customized eyeglasses and optimal lighting conditions (Hemphälä et al., 2012). Apart from health and well-being being affected by a poor visual ergonomic work environment, the quality and productivity are also involved (Eklund, 2009).

    Lighting is an important factor; both the lighting quantity (strength) and quality (e.g. light distribution, direction, glare and contrast). Too low illumination makes it difficult to see clearly and may thus lower performance, high illuminance can cause glare and lead to increased eye fatigue and decreased productivity (IESNA, 2011).

    2.  Methods

    There are several factors to consider when developing a method for visual ergonomics risk assessment of subjective symptoms and discomfort of the eyes (Colon et al. 1999; Børsting et al., 2008, Knave et al., 1985). There are also checklists used in eye exams or medical appointments (Sheedy and Shaw-McMinn, 2002; Wilson & Corlett, 2005). These will be used as basis in the presents the project intended to develop a risk assessment instrument for visual ergonomics.

    3.  Results

    A preliminary version of a risk analysis method for Visual Ergonomics has been developed and will be presented, with a focus on discussing with the audience which factors should primarily be included. The factors included so far in the method are the objective measurements such as illuminance, luminance contrast, uniformity values, expert assessment of the risk for glare; indirect measurements such as subjective ratings of the visual ability, eyestrain and musculoskeletal discomfort. The goal is to develop a practical time efficient method that is easy to use. With such a tool, actions needed to reduce the visual load among the workers, the companies and the society’s negative consequences induced by work-related eyestrain and musculoskeletal discomfort can hopefully be identified.

  • 162.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    et al.
    National Research Institute for the Working Environment (NRCWE), Copenhagen.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Pinder, Andrew
    Health and Safety Executive, United Kingdom.
    Punakallio, Anne
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health (FIOH), Helsinki.
    Veiersted, Bo
    National Institute of Occupational Health (STAMI), Oslo.
    Weber, Britta
    Institute for Occupational Safety and Health of the German Social Accident Insurance (IFA), Sankt Augustin.
    Ditchen, Dirk
    Institute for Occupational Safety and Health of the German Social Accident Insurance (IFA), Sankt Augustin.
    Takala, Esa-Pekka
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health (FIOH), Helsinki.
    Draicchio, Francesco
    National Institute for Insurance against Accidents at Work (INAIL), Rome.
    Enquist, Henrik
    Lund University.
    Desbrosses, Kevin
    French National Research and Safety Institute for the prevention of occupational accidents and diseases (INRS), Vandoeuvre Les Nancy.
    Garcia Sanz, Maria
    Spanish National Institute for Safety and Hygiene at Work (INSHT), Madrid.
    Villar, Maria
    Spanish National Institute for Safety and Hygiene at Work (INSHT), Madrid.
    Malinska, Marzena
    Central Institute for Labour Protection - National Research Institute (CIOP-PIB), Warszawa.
    Wichtl, Michael
    Austrian Workers Compensation Board (AUVA), Wien.
    Strebl, Michaela
    Austrian Workers Compensation Board (AUVA), Wien.
    Forsman, Michael
    Karolinska Institutet (KI), Stockholm.
    Gupta, Nidhi
    National Research Institute for the Working Environment (NRCWE), Copenhagen.
    Hendriksen, Peter
    National Research Institute for the Working Environment (NRCWE), Copenhagen.
    Lusa, Sirpa
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health (FIOH), Helsinki.
    Tokarski, Tomasz
    Central Institute for Labour Protection - National Research Institute (CIOP-PIB), Warszawa.
    Schellewald, Vera
    Institute for Occupational Safety and Health of the German Social Accident Insurance (IFA), Sankt Augustin.
    Ellegast, Rolf
    Institute for Occupational Safety and Health of the German Social Accident Insurance (IFA), Sankt Augustin.
    Assessing sedentary behaviour at work with technical assessment systems2017Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well documented that spending large amounts of time each day in sedentary behaviour is associated with increased risks of a variety of health impairments. The time engaged in sedentary behaviours is generally high in Europe, and has increased over recent decades during both work and leisure. This has resulted in considerable research and societal attention over the last decade.

    Sedentary behaviour in the workplace varies between occupations. It is high among office workers, and is likely to be high for job groups with lower education with constrained sittingbased working tasks like long-haul drivers and surveillance work in manufacturing. However, the question of whether spending large amounts of time in occupational sedentary behaviour is a causal risk factor for health impairments remains to be settled.

    An important reason for this could be the poor validity and reliability of many of the methods used to assess sedentary behaviour such as self-report and interviews. Another reason might be that the sedentary behaviour is often not measured in accordance with its proposed definition "

    any waking behaviour characterised by a low energy expenditure (≤1.5 METs) while in a sitting or reclining posture". Measurements of sedentary behaviour should therefore capture its two main components, namely posture and energy expenditure.

    Observational methods are also used to assess sedentary behaviour, but they are costly, time-consuming, and may lead to observational-bias. Measurements using wearable devices ("wearables") are thus recommended due to their objective nature, and their ability to be relatively low cost and to have little impact on the daily life of the participant.

    Numerous suitable small wearables, with long battery life and high data storage capacity, have become commercially available in recent years. However, none of the commercially available wearables can independently assess occupational sedentary behaviour in accordance with its definition (i.e. a sitting or lying posture with low energy expenditure). Therefore, deciding on how to assess sedentary behaviour is currently not easy.

    The wide variety of devices with the potential to assess sedentary behaviour is likely to leave practitioners and researchers wondering - "How can I choose the measurement system bestsuited to my aim, preferences, funding, and skills?" However, no practically useful guidance for researchers and practitioners exists on how to assess occupational sedentary behaviour.

    This report provides an overview of relevant technical systems and their general capabilities and gives examples of their appropriate use when assessing occupational sedentary behaviour. The report emphasises factors such as the target population, the need for accuracy, data accessibility, wearing comfort, expert knowledge for analyses, assessment duration, the number of participants needed, budget available, and the need for information on time patterns of sedentary and non-sedentary behaviour, including moderate and vigorous physical activity. Importantly, the need for assessing body posture, energy expenditure, or both, should be critically evaluated based on the work tasks undertaken by the target population and the aim of the project.

    The report highlights needs for developing of cheap, feasible wearables combining precise posture and energy assessments for a valid and reliable assessment of sedentary behaviour at work, which fulfils the current needs of both researchers and practitioners alike.

  • 163.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    et al.
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Straker, Leon
    School of Physiotherapy and Exercise Science, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Promoting health and physical capacity during productive work: the Goldilocks Principle2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 45, no 1, p. 90-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives

    In spite of preventive efforts, organizations and employees face several challenges related to working life and occupational health, such as a substantial prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders, social inequality in health and physical capacity, multi-morbidity, an obesity epidemic and an aging workforce. We argue that a new approach for occupational ergonomics and health is required, going beyond prevention of harm caused by work. We propose the ´Goldilocks Principle´ as a new approach of how productive work can be designed to literally promote health and physical capacity.

    Methods                 

    Physical (in)activity profoundly influences health and physical capacity, with effects depending on the extent and temporal structure of the (in)activity. Like the porridge, chair and bed that needed to be ‘just right’ for Goldilocks in the fairy-tale of ´The Three Bears´, physical activity during productive work needs to be ‘just right’ for promoting rather than deteriorating health and capacity. In many jobs, physical activity is, however, either ’too much/high/frequent’ or ’too little/low/infrequent’ to give positive biomechanical and cardiometabolic stimuli.

    Results

    The paper presents the rationale, concept, development, application and prospects of the Goldilocks Principle for how productive work can be designed to promote health and physical capacity.

    Conclusions

    We envision a great potential to promote health and physical capacity by designing productive work according to the Goldilocks Principle, thus leading to benefits with respect to the current challenges related to working life and occupational health for society, organizations and employees.

  • 164.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    et al.
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment (NRCWE), Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Schellewald, Vera
    German Sport University Cologne (DSHS), Köln, Germany; Institute for Occupational Safety and Health of the German Social Accident Insurance (IFA), Sankt Augustin, Germany.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Gupta, Nidhi
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment (NRCWE), Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Pinder, Andrew
    HSE's Health & Safety Laboratory (HSL), Buxton, Derbyshire, United Kingdom.
    Punakallio, Anne
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health (FIOH), Helsinki, Finland.
    Veiersted, Kaj Bo
    National Institute of Occupational Health (STAMI), Oslo, Norway.
    Weber, Britta
    Institute for Occupational Safety and Health of the German Social Accident Insurance (IFA), Sankt Augustin, Germany.
    Takala, Esa-Pekka
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health (FIOH), Helsinki, Finland.
    Draicchio, Francesco
    National Institute for Insurance Against Accidents at Work (INAIL), Rome, Italy.
    Enquist, Henrik
    Lund University, Skane Medical Services, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund, Sweden.
    Desbrosses, Kevin
    French National Research and Safety Institute for the Prevention of Occupational Accidents and Diseases (INRS), Vandoeuvre Les Nancy, France.
    Garcia Sanz, Maria Penahora
    Spanish National Institute for Safety and Hygiene at Work (INSHT), Madrid, Spain.
    Malinska, Marzena
    Central Institute for Labour Protection - National Research Institute (CIOP-PIB), Warszawa, Poland.
    Villar, Maria
    Spanish National Institute for Safety and Hygiene at Work (INSHT), Madrid, Spain.
    Wichtl, Michael
    Austrian Workers' Compensation Board (AUVA), Wien, Austria.
    Strebl, Michaela
    Austrian Workers' Compensation Board (AUVA), Wien, Austria.
    Forsman, Mikael
    Karolinska Institutet (KI), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lusa, Sirpa
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health (FIOH), Helsinki, Finland.
    Tokarski, Tomasz
    Central Institute for Labour Protection - National Research Institute (CIOP-PIB), Warszawa, Poland.
    Hendriksen, Peter
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment (NRCWE), Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Ellegast, Rolf
    Institute for Occupational Safety and Health of the German Social Accident Insurance (IFA), Sankt Augustin, Germany.
    A practical guidance for assessments of sedentary behavior at work: a PEROSH initiative2017In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 63, p. 41-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sedentary behavior is defined as sitting or lying with low energy expenditure. Humans in industrialized societies spend an increasing amount of time in sedentary behaviors every day. This has been associated with detrimental health outcomes. Despite a growing interest in the industrialized world in the health effects of sedentary behavior at work, associations remain unclear, plausibly due to poor and diverse methods for assessing sedentary behavior. Thus, good practice guidance for researchers and practitioners on how to assess occupational sedentary behavior are needed.

    The aim of this paper is to provide a practical guidance for practitioners and researchers on how to assess occupational sedentary behavior.

    Ambulatory systems for use in field applications (wearables) are a promising approach for sedentary behavior assessment. Many different small-size consumer wearables, with long battery life and high data storage capacity are commercially available today. However, no stand-alone commercial system is able to assess sedentary behavior in accordance with its definition. The present paper offers decision support for practitioners and researchers in selecting wearables and data collection strategies for their purpose of study on sedentary behavior.

    Valid and reliable assessment of occupational sedentary behavior is currently not easy. Several aspects need to be considered in the decision process of how to assess sedentary behavior. There is a need for development of a cheap and easily useable wearable for assessment of occupational sedentary behavior by researchers and practitioners.

  • 165.
    Hulsegge, Gerben
    et al.
    Department of Public and Occupational Health, Amsterdam Public Health research institute, VU University Medical Center, the Netherlands.
    Gupta, Nidhi
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Proper, Karin
    Centre for Nutrition, Prevention and Health Services, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, the Netherlands.
    von Lobenstein, Natasja
    Department of Public and Occupational Health, Amsterdam Public Health research institute, VU University Medical Center, the Netherlands.
    IJzelenberg, Wilhelmina
    Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Earth & Life Sciences, VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdam Public Health research institute, the Netherlands.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    van der Beek, Allard
    Department of Public and Occupational Health, Amsterdam Public Health research institute, the Netherlands.
    Shift work is associated with reduced heart rate variability among men but not women2018In: International Journal of Cardiology, ISSN 0167-5273, E-ISSN 1874-1754, Vol. 258, p. 109-114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Imbalance in the autonomic nervous system due to a disrupted circadian rhythm may be a cause of shift work-related cardiovascular diseases.

    Objective

    We aimed to determine the association between shift work and cardiac autonomic activity in blue-collar workers.

    Methods

    The study included 665 blue-collar workers aged 18–68 years in different occupations from two Danish cohort studies. Time and frequency domain parameters of heart rate variability (HRV) were measured during sleep using the Actiheart monitor, and used as markers of cardiac autonomic function. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to investigate differences in HRV between day and shift workers.

    Results

    Shift workers had no significantly different HRV parameters than day workers, except for a lower VLF (B: 0.21; 95% CI: −0.36–0.05). The lower VLF was only present among non-night shift workers (p < 0.05) and not among night shift workers (p > 0.05). Results differed significantly by gender (p for interaction < 0.10): among men, shift work was negatively associated with RMSSD (B: −7.83; 95% CI: −14.28–1.38), SDNN (B: −7.0; 95% CI: −12.27–1.78), VLF (B: −0.27; 95% CI: −0.46–0.09) and Total Power (B: −0.61; 95% CI: −1.20–0.03), while among women, shift work was only associated with the LF/HF ratio (B: −0.29; 95% CI: −0.54–0.03).

    Conclusion

    Shift work was particularly associated with lower HRV during sleep among men. This indicates that shift work causes imbalance in the autonomic nervous system among men, which might increase their risk of cardiovascular diseases.

  • 166.
    Huysmans, Maaike
    et al.
    Department of Public and Occupational Health and the EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Commissaris, Dianne
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. BTR coaching & consultancy, Helvoirt, The Netherlands.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Koppes, Lando
    NIVEL, Netherlands Institute for Health Services Research, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Hendriksen, Ingrid
    Body@Work Research Center Physical Activity, Work and Health TNO-VU/VUmc, Amsterdam; Expertise Centre Life Style, TNO, Leiden, The Netherlands .
    Interventions to reduce sedentary behaviour and increase physical activity during productive work: Preliminary results of a systematic review2015In: Proceedings of the 19th Triennial Congress of the International Ergonomics Association, Melbourne 9-14 August 2015, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 167.
    Huysmans, Maaike
    et al.
    EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam.
    Commissaris, Dianne
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Koppes, Lando
    Netherlands Institute for Health Services Research, Utrecht.
    Hendriksen, Ingrid
    TNO Leiden.
    Interventions to reduce sedentary behaviour and increase physical activity during productive work time : Effects on work performance and metabolic and physiological outcomes2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. In a systematic literature review, we investigated the effect on work performance and metabolic and physiological outcomes of interventions aimed at reducing sedentary behaviour (SB) and/or increasing physical activity (PA) during productive work time.

    Methods. Scopus was searched for articles published from 1992 until March 12, 2015. We included studies: (1) addressing interventions aimed at reducing SB and/or increasing PA at the workplace, during productive work; (2) using a design including a control group or control condition; (3) being published as a full-length paper in a peer-reviewed journal in English; (4) reporting on work performance outcomes and metabolic and physiological outcomes (i.e. lipid and metabolic profiles, hemodynamic and cardiorespiratory measures and anthropometric measures). Relevant studies were evaluated using the Quality Assess-ment Tool for Quantitative Studies and summarized in a best evidence synthesis.

    Results. 18 interventions were included and organized into two categories: (1) alternative workstation interventions (n=15), i.e. sit-stand workstations or “active” workstations; and (2) personalized behavioural interventions (n=3), i.e. interventions involving personalized goals and/or giving behavioural feedback using prompts or messages.There was moderate evidence for alternative workstations not influencing hemodynamics and cardiorespiratory fitness as well as personalized behavioural interventions notinfluencing anthropometric measures. Evidence was insufficient (alternative workstations) or conflicting (personalized behavioral interventions) on lipid and metabolic profiles. For work performance, there was insufficient evidence for personalized behavioural interven-tions and conflicting evidence for alternative workstations. But for the latter, only one out of 11 studies showed a negative effect.

    Discussion. Current evidence suggests that work performance is not negatively affected by alternative workstations. Furthermore, there is no strong case for introducing interven-tions aimed at reducing SB and/or increasing PA during productive work time in the hope of getting a positive effect on metabolic and physiological outcomes. However, large-scale, high quality studies with long-term follow-ups are needed before more definite conclusions on this topic can be drawn.

  • 168.
    Hämphälä, Hillevi
    et al.
    Ergonomi och aerosolteknologi, Lunds universitet, Lund, Sweden.
    Zetterberg, Camilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Lindberg, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Heiden, Marina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Nylén, Per
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, Stockholm.
    A risk assessment method for visual ergonomics, VERAM2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A valid, reliable, practical and easy-to-use risk assessment method for visual ergonomics named VERAM (Visual Ergonomics Risk Analysis Method) has been developed. With this method, risk factors in the visual environment can be detected, and interventions implemented to reduce the prevalence of symptoms related to poor visual ergonomics among workers can be evaluated.

    The visual environment can affect our wellbeing in many ways. Glare from luminaires or windows within the visual field can cause disability glare or discomfort glare. Glare while performing computer tasks causes visual fatigue and leads to strabismus measured with fixation disparity (harder for the eyes to focus). Strabismus leads to eyestrain, and eyestrain can lead to musculoskeletal discomfort.  Non-visual effects, such as flicker from luminaires can cause eyestrain or headache/migraine. Insufficient visual ability can lead to increased workload and contribute to eyestrain and musculoskeletal discomfort that in turn could lead to sick leave. As human beings, we need daylight to get a normal circadian rhythm. The visual environment needs to be designed to allow daylight entering, but have a possibility to prevent disturbing daylight.

    No method for evaluating the visual environment together with the individual’s subjective strain has previously existed. Personnel from occupational health departments (75 individuals) have used the developed visual ergonomics risk analysis method at several work places. Before using the method they were given a course in visual ergonomics and taught how to use the method.

    VERAM consists of two main parts. The first part is a subjective questionnaire with questions regarding the individual’s problem such as eyestrain and headache, but also their rating of the visual environment.

    The second objective part is performed by the assessors and consists of:

    • measuring the illuminance and luminance
    • rating of the visual environment and different risks (risk for glare, flicker, work task, daylight, work posture etc.)
    • Feedback from the subjective part, the light measurements and the ratings
    • Recommendations

    To increase wellbeing at work and reduce sick leave, the visual environment needs to be good. This includes sufficient illuminance, a good luminance ratio, no glare from luminaires or windows, no flicker, and a good visibility of the work task. Education in risk analysis of the visual environment is essential for many different occupations such as lighting designers, ergonomists, working life inspectors, optometrists, to ensure a better understanding of the impact on wellbeing that the visual environment have. The main purposes of this study is to develop a visual environment risk analysis method and to increase the awareness and knowledge visual ergonomics.

  • 169.
    Jackson, Jennie A.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Uppsala universitet.
    Bias and Precision in Biomechanical Exposure Assessment: Making the Most of our Methods2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Insufficient exposure assessment is a suggested contributing factor to the current lack of clearly characterised relationships between occupational biomechanical risk factors and musculoskeletal disorders. Minimal attention has been paid to the potential bias of measurement tools from expected true values (i.e. accuracy) or between measurement tools, and empirical data on the magnitudes of variance contributed by methodological factors for measurement tool precision are lacking.

    Aim: The aim of this thesis was to quantify aspects of bias and precision in three commonly employed biomechanical risk factor assessment tools - inclinometry, observation, and electromyography (EMG) - and provide recommendations guiding their use. Methods: Upper arm elevation angles (UAEAs) were assessed using inclinometers (INC) and by computer-based posture-matching observation, and bias relative to true angles was calculated. Calibration models were developed for INC data, and their efficacy in correcting measurement bias was evaluated. The total variance of trapezius and erector spinae (ES) EMG recordings during cyclic occupational work was partitioned into biological and methodological sources, including the variance uniquely attributable to sub-maximal normalisation. Using algorithms to estimate the precision of a group mean, the efficacy of different trapezius EMG study designs was evaluated. Using precision criteria, the efficacy of different normalisation methods was assessed for ES EMG recordings.

    Results and Discussion: Inclinometer measured UAEAs were biased from true angles, with increasing bias at higher angles. In contrast, computer based posture-matching observations were not biased from true angles. Calibration models proved effective at minimizing INC data bias. The dispersion of estimates between- and within- observers at any given set angle underlined the importance of repeated observations when estimating UAEAs. For EMG, a unique but relatively small component of the total variance was attributable to the methodological process of normalisation. Performing three repeats of the trapezius EMG normalisation task proved optimal at minimizing variance for one-day EMG studies, while two repeats sufficed for multi-day EMG studies. A prone normalisation task proved superior for maximizing normalised lumbar ES EMG precision.

    Conclusion: Key aspects of measurement tool accuracy, bias between tools, and tool precision were quantified, and recommendations were made to guide future research study design.

  • 170.
    Jackson, Jennie A.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Callaghan, Jack
    Department of Kinesiology, University of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.
    Dempsey, Patrick
    National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Pittsburgh, USA.
    Precision based guidelines for sub-maximal normalisation task selection for trunk extensor EMG2017In: Journal of Electromyography & Kinesiology, ISSN 1050-6411, E-ISSN 1873-5711, Vol. 37, p. 41-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The object of this study was to quantify the contribution of sub-maximal normalisation to the overall variance of exposure parameters describing erector spinae (ES) activity, and to provide guidelines for task selection which minimize methodological variance. Methods: ES EMG was measured from three locations (T9, L1 and L5 levels) on fifteen men performing a manual materials handling task in the laboratory on three separate days. Four repeats of each of eleven sub-maximal normalisation tasks (eight static, three dynamic) were collected, work data were normalised to each task and repeat, and exposure parameters calculated. The unique contribution of normalisation to the overall variance was determined for each task and exposure parameter using variance component analyses. Normalisation tasks were scored according to their relative contributions to the overall variance and coefficients of variation.

    Results: A prone task, similar to the Biering-Sørensen test posture, was the most repeatable for all electrode locations and across all exposure parameters. Thoracic level normalisation typically showed poorer repeatability than lumbar normalisation.

    Discussion: We recommend that future ES EMG studies employing sub-maximal normalisation utilise said prone task. An alternate normalisation task specific to thoracic level ES muscles may be warranted.

  • 171.
    Jackson, Jennie A.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Liv, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Centre for Research and Development, Uppsala University/Region Gävleborg, Gävle.
    Observer performance in estimating upper arm elevation angles under ideal viewing conditions when assisted by posture matching software2016In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 55, p. 208-215Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Selecting a suitable body posture measurement method requires performance indices of candidate tools. Such data are lacking for observational assessments made at a high degree of resolution. The aim of this study was to determine the performance (bias and between- and within-observer variance) of novice observers estimating upper arm elevation postures assisted by posture matching software to the nearest degree from still images taken under ideal conditions. Estimates were minimally biased from true angles: the mean error across observers was less than 2°. Variance between observers was minimal. Considerable variance within observers, however, underlined the risk of relying on single observations. Observers were more proficient at estimating 0°and 90° postures, and less proficient at 60°. Thus, under ideal visual conditions observers, on average, proved proficient at high resolution posture estimates; further investigation is required to determine how non-optimal image conditions, as would be expected from occupational data, impact proficiency.

  • 172.
    Jackson, Jennie A.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    Grado Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
    Identification of individual working styles in a long-cycle assembly task using kinematic and EMG variables2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background.Increased motor variability while performing repetitive tasks has been suggested to decrease the risk of developing musculoskeletal disorders. However, support for this positive effect is lacking outside of short, simple, highly controlled tasks. It is also currently unknown whether or not existing motor variability metrics are viable for characterising occupational tasks. The purpose of this study was to assess motor variability during a long-cycle simulated occupational task. Using metrics previously validated for short-cycle tasks, this study aimed to determine the extent to which: (1) individuals dif-fered in motor variability with respect to kinematics and/or EMG activation; (2) individual motor variability was consistent across days; and (3) kinematics and EMG motor variability were correlated.

    Methods.Following a stringent, three-day training regime, 15 females proved sufficiently proficient to participate. On two occasions, participants performed 36 cycles of an assembly task (combining gross and fine motor skills) at 110 MTM pacing (51 s per cycle). For each cycle, multiple upper arm kinematic and trapezius EMG summary mean and SD variables were calculated; for each variable, the variability across the 36 cycles was assessed. The relative size of variability across individuals, and the consistency of each individual’s motor behaviour across days were assessed using kinematic and EMG vari-ables. The correlation between kinematic and EMG variables was also assessed.

    Results.Distinct individual behaviours were observed across days: some participants were clearly more consistent in their motor behaviour than others. Further, a high correlation was found between some kinematic and muscle activation variables.

    Discussion. Using previously validated upper arm assessment metrics, we were able to differentiate between individuals performing a long-cycle assembly task based on their degree of motor variability. Given the nature of our study task, we believe the metrics that we found to be successful at identifying individual behaviours could be used for assessing field tasks.

  • 173.
    Jackson, Jennie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Uppsala University.
    Banerjee-Guénette, Priyanka
    University of Waterloo, Department of Kinesiology, Faculty of Applied Health Sciences.
    Gregory, Diane
    Wilfrid Laurier University, Health Sciences Program and Department of Kinesiology.
    Callaghan, Jack
    University of Waterloo, Department of Kinesiology, Faculty of Applied Health Sciences.
    Should we be more on the ball?: The efficacy of accommodation training on lumbar spine posture, muscle activity, and perceived discomfort during stability ball sitting2013In: Human Factors, ISSN 0018-7208, E-ISSN 1547-8181, Vol. 55, no 6, p. 1064-1076Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of a nine-day accommodation protocol on reducing perceived discomfort while sitting on a stability ball (SB); trunk muscle activity levels and lumbar spinal postures were also considered.

    Background: Previous studies have compared SB sitting to office chair sitting with few observed differences in muscle activity or posture; however, greater discomfort during SB sitting has been reported.  These findings may indicate an accommodation period is necessary to acclimate to SB sitting.

    Methods: Six males and six females completed two separate, two-hour sitting sessions on an SB.  Half the participants completed a nine-day accommodation period between the visits while the other half did not use an SB during the time. On both occasions, self-reported perceived discomfort ratings were collected along with erector spinae and abdominal muscle activity and lumbar spinal postures.

    Results: Discomfort ratings were reduced in female participants following the accommodation; no effects on muscle activation or lumbar spine postures were observed.

    Conclusion: Accommodation training may reduce perceived low back discomfort in females. Trunk muscle activity and lumbar spine postures during seated office work on an SB did not differ between groups; however, greater sample power was required to conclusively address these variables.

    Application: When deciding whether to use an SB in place of a standard office chair, this study indicates females electing to use an SB can decrease discomfort by following an accommodation protocol; no evidence was found to indicate SB chair use will improve trunk strength or posture, even following an accommodation period. 

  • 174.
    Jackson, Jennie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Forsman, Mikael
    Institutet för miljömedicin, Karolinska institutet, Stockholm.
    Heiden, Marina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Waleh Åström, Amanda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Symposium: Measuring posture in working life: Observation or inclinometry? [Mätning av arbetsställningar: observation eller inklinometri?]2018In: FALF KONFERENS 2018 Arbetet – problem eller potential för en hållbar livsmiljö?   10-12 juni 2018 Gävle: Program och abstracts / [ed] Lindberg, Per, Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2018, p. 38-40Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quantifying postures during work is a key aspect of understanding the physical loads experienced by the body at work. Two commonly used tools to assess posture are observation and inclinometry. Observation can be performed in many ways, from real-time observations made at the worksite assessing gross body postures, to estimates of individual joint angles made by observers assessing still images taken from video recorded at the work site. Inclinometry is a direct technical measurement tool which typically uses tri-axial accelerometers to determine angles of specific body segments with respect to the line of gravity. Regardless of which tool is used, it will introduce some variability between repeated measurements of a same posture – this is called method-logical variability. Over the past ten years we have worked extensively in our Cost-efficient measurement of physical exposures research program to quantify the magnitude of error resulting from different measurement strategies – both in terms of bias (that is, the difference between the truth and the measured values) and precision (that is, how different repeated estimates of a same posture are). Further, we have compared the monetary costs and relative performances (in terms of measurement quality) of different measurement strategies. From these studies we have developed a set of recommendations to guide effective posture assessment.

    We assessed bias in both observation and inclinometry to determine how close posture estimates were to the true body segment angles. Under ideal observation conditions, observers were not biased in estimating upper arm elevation angles (1). Conversely, we found a systematic underestimation of upper arm elevation angles made using inclino-metry, particularly for angles at or above 60° (2). We developed a simple, on-body incli-nometry calibration procedure, and determined it was effective at reducing inclinometer bias (2).

    We investigated how data sampling should be distributed within and across days, and how much data was required to obtain a specific level of precision. Regardless of the tool, we found that efficiency was improved by distributing shorter sampling periods using a fixed-interval strategy across an entire day or days rather than collecting one longer period (3,4). Precision of inclinometer data is high and thus a single measurement of an event is sufficient. In contrast, observation requires repeated estimates of an image, even under ideal conditions (1, 5). For observation of still images from videos, we determined that efficiency was improved by assessing images extracted at set intervals across the recorded data (i.e. a work sampling approach) rather than making estimates based on continuously viewed intervals of video data (5). Further, repeated observations by one or more observers of a smaller number of frames of data improved the precision of angle estimates compared with a single observer rating a larger number of frames (6). In the case that a worker is obstructed from the camera view, additional frame analysis may be required and the uncertainty of the angle estimate may increase (7).

    We developed models to assess the net cost of each method, including equipment acquisition, data collection and data analysis. While the initial expense may seem higher for inclinometers, cost gains are made during collection and analysis stages compared to the work-intensive post-collection efforts required for observation. We found that inclinometry was more cost efficient than observation in certain settings (8), but that uncertainty exists even in cost assessment models and thus that cost-efficiency is situation-dependent (9).

    There are strengths and weaknesses to both tools and one must evaluate the goals of each data collection and the relative merits of each tool when determining the appropriate assessment method. Observation may be preferable for studies seeking a general impression of a working day, identifying the tasks comprising a working day, assessing twisting during work, or assessing whether anatomical segments are loaded or supported during work. Inclinometers may be preferred for studies requiring full day or multi-day assessments, a high degree of accuracy and precision in angle estimates, information on segmental movement velocities, and/or studies where workers cannot be adequately filmed. Rapid advances in inclinometer technology and smart phone analogues will serve to further minimise set-up times and acquisition costs, making direct technical measurement increasingly feasible.

    1. Jackson, J. A., Mathiassen, S. E. & Liv, P. Observer performance in estimating upper arm elevation angles under ideal viewing conditions when assisted by posture matching software. Appl. Ergon. 55, 208–215 (2016).

    2. Jackson, J. A., Mathiassen, S. E., Wahlström, J., Liv, P. & Forsman, M. Is what you see what you get? Standard inclinometry of set upper arm elevation angles. Appl. Ergon. 47, 242–252 (2015).

    3. Liv, P., Mathiassen, S. E. & Svendsen, S. W. Theoretical and empirical efficiency of sampling strategies for estimating upper arm elevation. Ann. Occup. Hyg. 55, 436–449 (2011).

    4. Liv, P., Mathiassen, S. E. & Svendsen, S. W. Accuracy and precision of variance components in occupational posture recordings: A simulation study of different data collection strategies. BMC Med. Res. Methodol. 12, 58–68 (2012).

    5. Rezagholi, M., Mathiassen, S. E. & Liv, P. Cost efficiency comparison of four video-based techniques for assessing upper arm postures. Ergonomics 55, 350–360 (2012).

    6. Liv, P., Mathiassen, S. E. & Wahlström, J. Statistical power and measurement requirements in studies comparing observed postures between groups. (PhD Thesis, Umeå University, 2012).

    7. Trask, C., Mathiassen, S. E., Rostami, M. & Heiden, M. Observer variability in posture assessment from video recordings: The effect of partly visible periods. Appl. Ergon. 60, 275–281 (2017).

    8. Trask, C., Mathiassen, S. E., Jackson, J.A. & Wahlström, J. Data processing costs for three posture assessment methods. BMC Med. Res. Methodol. 13, 124–137 (2013).

    9. Waleh Åström, A., Heiden, M., Mathiassen, S. E. & Strömberg, A. Uncertainty in monetary cost estimates for assessing working postures using inclinometry, observation or self-report. in review, (2018).

  • 175.
    Jackson, Jennie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Wahlström, Jens
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden .
    Liv, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Centre for Research and Development, Uppsala University/County Council of Gävleborg, Gävle, Sweden .
    Forsman, Mikael
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Digging deeper into the assessment of upper arm elevation angles using standard inclinometry2015In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 51, p. 102-103Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 176.
    Jackson, Jennie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Wahlström, Jens
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University.
    Liv, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Centre for Research and Development, Uppsala University/County Council of Gävleborg.
    Forsman, Mikael
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet.
    Is what you see what you get? Standard inclinometry of set upper arm elevation angles2015In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 47, p. 242-252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research suggests inclinometers (INC) underestimate upper arm elevation. This study was designed to quantify possible bias in occupationally relevant postures, and test whether INC performance could be improved using calibration.

    Participants were meticulously positioned in set arm flexion and abduction angles between 0° and 150°. Different subject-specific and group-level regression models comprising linear and quadratic components describing the relationship between set and INC-registered elevation were developed using subsets of data, and validated using additional data.

    INC measured arm elevation showed a downward bias, particularly above 60°.  INC data adjusted using the regression models were superior to un-adjusted data; a subject-specific, two-point calibration based on measurements at 0° and 90° gave results closest to the ‘true’ set angles.

    Thus, inclinometer measured arm elevation data required calibration to arrive at ‘true’ elevation angles. Calibration to a common measurement scale should be considered when comparing arm elevation data collected using different methods.

  • 177.
    Jackson, Jennie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Is movement variability a consistent personal trait? Kinematic evidence from long-cycle assembly work2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 178.
    Jahncke, Helena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    How much does irrelevant speech impair employees' work performance in open-plan offices?2013In: Noise & Vibration Worldwide, ISSN 0957-4565, E-ISSN 2048-4062, Vol. 44, no 9, p. 10-15Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    When people are talking in the background of an open-plan office it can be experienced as disturbing. However, it is not well specified how much irrelevant speech actually disrupts performance. The aims of the present study were, first, to investigate how much cognitive performance is impaired by irrelevant background speech with varying degrees of speech intelligibility, and second, to determine whether some office-related tasks are more susceptible than others. The results showed that cognitive performance decreased as a function of background speech intelligibility, the higher the intelligibility depicted by the Speech Transmission Index (STI), the worse the performance. The results indicated that the STI-value should be less than 0.50 (between the speaker and the listener), to avoid a negative influence on performance. Further, performance was more impaired by background speech if the focal task required episodic memory and rehearsal — such as word memory and information search. Interestingly, some tasks were insensitive for speech. This study also shows that the efforts to minimize speech intelligibility will yield increases in cognitive performance with a varying degree, depending on the type of focal task.

  • 179.
    Jahncke, Helena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Omväxlande fysiska och mentala arbetsuppgifter i detaljhandel och industri – hur mycket förekommer det, och vad önskar de anställda? 2018In: FALF KONFERENS 2018. Arbetet - problem eller potential för en hållbar livsmiljö? Gävle 10-12 juni 2018: Program och Abstracts / [ed] Lindberg, Per, Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2018, p. 56-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 180.
    Jahncke, Helena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    The effects of office noise on cognitive performance2014In: INTER-NOISE and NOISE-CON Congress and Conference Proceedings: NoiseCon14, Fort Lauderdale, Florida, pages 539-1128, 2014, p. 1096-1103(8)Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 181.
    Jahncke, Helena
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Björkeholm, Patrik
    Uppsala University, Department of Psychology.
    Marsh, John E.
    University of Central Lancashire, School of Psychology.
    Odelius, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental, and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Office noise: can headphones and masking sound attenuate distraction by background speech?2016In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 55, no 3, p. 505-513Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Background speech is one of the most disturbing noise sources at shared workplaces in terms of both annoyance and performance-related disruption. Therefore, it is important to identify techniques that can efficiently protect performance against distraction. It is also important that the techniques are perceived as satisfactory and are subjectively evaluated as effective in their capacity to reduce distraction.

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the current study was to compare three methods of attenuating distraction from background speech: masking a background voice with nature sound through headphones, masking a background voice with other voices through headphones and merely wearing headphones (without masking) as a way to attenuate the background sound. Quiet was deployed as a baseline condition.

    METHODS: Thirty students participated in an experiment employing a repeated measures design.

    RESULTS: Performance (serial short-term memory) was impaired by background speech (1 voice), but this impairment was attenuated when the speech was masked – and in particular when it was masked by nature sound. Furthermore, perceived workload was lowest in the quiet condition and significantly higher in all other sound conditions. Notably, the headphones tested as a sound-attenuating device (i.e. without masking) did not protect against the effects of background speech on performance and subjective work load.

    CONCLUSIONS: Nature sound was the only masking condition that worked as a protector of performance, at least in the context of the serial recall task. However, despite the attenuation of distraction by nature sound, perceived workload was still high – suggesting that it is difficult to find a masker that is both effective and perceived as satisfactory.

  • 182.
    Jahncke, Helena
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Edvinsson, Johanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Bjärntoft, Sofie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Bergsten, Eva
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Larsson, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Zetterberg, Camilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Flexibelt arbete - Hälsofrämjande interventioner för en hållbar digitalisering: Delområde Centrala funktioner2017Report (Other academic)
  • 183.
    Jahncke, Helena
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Edvinsson, Johanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Bjärntoft, Sofie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Bergsten, Eva
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Larsson, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Zetterberg, Camilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Flexibelt arbete - Hälsofrämjande interventioner för en hållbar digitalisering: Delområde Investering2017Report (Other academic)
  • 184.
    Jahncke, Helena
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Edvinsson, Johanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Bjärntoft, Sofie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Bergsten, Eva
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Larsson, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Zetterberg, Camilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Flexibelt arbete - Hälsofrämjande interventioner för en hållbar digitalisering: Delområde IT2017Report (Other academic)
  • 185.
    Jahncke, Helena
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Edvinsson, Johanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Bjärntoft, Sofie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Bergsten, Eva
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Larsson, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Zetterberg, Camilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Flexibelt arbete - Hälsofrämjande interventioner för en hållbar digitalisering: Delområde Planering2017Report (Other academic)
  • 186.
    Jahncke, Helena
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Edvinsson, Johanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Bjärntoft, Sofie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Bergsten, Eva
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Larsson, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Zetterberg, Camilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Flexibelt arbete - Hälsofrämjande interventioner för en hållbar digitalisering: Delområde Resultatenheterna Färjerederiet, Trafikverksskolan, Fordonsresurser och Förarprov2017Report (Other academic)
  • 187.
    Jahncke, Helena
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Edvinsson, Johanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Bjärntoft, Sofie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Bergsten, Eva
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Larsson, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Zetterberg, Camilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Flexibelt arbete - Hälsofrämjande interventioner för en hållbar digitalisering: Delområde Stora projekt2017Report (Other academic)
  • 188.
    Jahncke, Helena
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Edvinsson, Johanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Bjärntoft, Sofie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Bergsten, Eva
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Larsson, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Zetterberg, Camilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Flexibelt arbete - Hälsofrämjande interventioner för en hållbar digitalisering: Delområde Trafikledning2017Report (Other academic)
  • 189.
    Jahncke, Helena
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Edvinsson, Johanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Bjärntoft, Sofie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Bergsten, Eva
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Larsson, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Zetterberg, Camilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Flexibelt arbete - Hälsofrämjande interventioner för en hållbar digitalisering: Delområde Underhåll2017Report (Other academic)
  • 190.
    Jahncke, Helena
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Edvinsson, Johanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Bjärntoft, Sofie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Bergsten, Eva
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Larsson, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Zetterberg, Camilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Uppsala universitet, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Flexibelt arbete: Hälsofrämjande interventioner för en hållbar digitalisering: Kartlägning hösten 20162017Report (Other academic)
  • 191.
    Jahncke, Helena
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Edvinsson, Johanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Bjärntoft, Sofie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Larsson, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Zetterberg, Camilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Symposium: Återhämtning och ledarskap i flexibla arbeten: resultat från ett forskningsprojekt på Trafikverket2018In: FALF KONFERENS 2018 Arbetet – problem eller potential för en hållbar livsmiljö?   10-12 juni 2018 Gävle: Program och abstracts / [ed] Lindberg, Per, Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2018, p. 78-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion

    Den stressrelaterade ohälsan ökar i samhället i stort och det är möjligt att bristande återhämtning kan vara bidragande. Det finns dock ännu inte några tydliga svar på hur ett gynnsamt mönster av arbete och återhämtning bör se ut. Frågan om balansen mellan krav i arbetet och möjligheter till återhämtning är särskilt aktuell i yrken där digital teknik möjliggör flexibelt arbete, dvs. ett arbete där de anställda till stor del själva kan styra över sin arbetstid, sitt arbetsställe och/eller sitt arbetssätt. Möjligheten att arbeta flexibelt kan innebära både för- och nackdelar för såväl individen som organisationen och medföra nya utmaningar för chefer när det gäller hur de ska leda sina medarbetare på ett hälsofrämjande sätt. Samtidigt kan flexibiliteten underlätta för medarbetare att få ihop livspusslet och att anpassa arbetsinsatsen utifrån arbetstoppar, vilket kan gynna organisationens produktivitet. Risken är dock att den stressrelaterade ohälsan ökar om balansen mellan arbete och återhämtning rubbas genom t.ex. övertidsarbete och ständig tillgänglighet till arbetet på ogynnsamma tider.

    Det här symposiet presenterar resultat från ett forskningsprojekt som undersökt flexibelt arbete på Trafikverket. I ett första steg genomfördes en kartläggning av arbetsvillkor, återhämtning och hälsa med hjälp av en webbaserad enkät till 4926 anställda. Resultaten från kartläggningen har sedan legat till grund för fokusgruppsdiskussioner med chefer och medarbetare, där åtgärdsförslag har tagits fram i syfte att förstärka fördelarna och reducera riskerna med flexibelt arbete. Även åtgärdsförslagen från fokusgrupperna kommer att presenteras vid symposiet.

  • 192.
    Jahncke, Helena
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Edvinsson, Johanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Delrapport kontor A: Effekter av aktivitetsbaserade kontor på stillasittande, koncentration och hälsa i jämförelse med traditionella kontor2016Report (Other academic)
  • 193.
    Jahncke, Helena
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Edvinsson, Johanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Delrapport kontor B: Effekter av aktivitetsbaserade kontor på stillasittande, koncentration och hälsa i jämförelse med traditionella kontor2016Report (Other academic)
  • 194.
    Jahncke, Helena
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Edvinsson, Johanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Delrapport kontor C: Effekter av aktivitetsbaserade kontor på stillasittande, koncentration och hälsa i jämförelse med traditionella kontor2016Report (Other academic)
  • 195.
    Jahncke, Helena
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Edvinsson, Johanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Delrapport kontor D: Effekter av aktivitetsbaserade kontor på stillasittande, koncentration och hälsa i jämförelse med traditionella kontor2016Report (Other academic)
  • 196.
    Jahncke, Helena
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Edvinsson, Johanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Delrapport kontor E: Effekter av aktivitetsbaserade kontor på stillasittande, koncentration och hälsa i jämförelse med traditionella kontor2016Report (Other academic)
  • 197.
    Jahncke, Helena
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Eriksson, Karolina
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Naula, Sanna
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    The effects of auditive and visual settings on perceived restoration likelihood2015In: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, E-ISSN 1998-4030, Vol. 17, no 74, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has so far paid little attention to how environmental sounds might affect restorative processes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of auditive and visual stimuli on perceived restoration likelihood and attitudes towards varying environmental resting conditions. Assuming a condition of cognitive fatigue, all participants (N = 40) were presented with images of an open plan office and urban nature, each under four sound conditions (nature sound, quiet, broadband noise, office noise). After the presentation of each setting/sound combination, the participants assessed it according to restorative qualities, restoration likelihood and attitude. The results mainly showed predicted effects of the sound manipulations on the perceived restorative qualities of the settings. Further, significant interactions between auditive and visual stimuli were found for all measures. Both nature sounds and quiet more positively influenced evaluations of the nature setting compared to the office setting. When office noise was present, both settings received poor evaluations. The results agree with expectations that nature sounds and quiet areas support restoration, while office noise and broadband noise (e.g. ventilation, traffic noise) do not. The findings illustrate the significance of environmental sound for restorative experience.

  • 198.
    Jahncke, Helena
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Hygge, Staffan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mixter, Susanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Lyskov, Eugene
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    A cross-sectional study of alternations between physical and mental tasks2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Health and well-being at work is generally assumed to be associated with sufficient physical and mental variation. Job rotation, where workers typically alternate between different physical tasks, is a popular initiative. Controlled experiments suggest that favourable effects are associated with alternations between mental and physical tasks, but little is known about this intervention in real work. The aims of this study were (1) to describe the occurrence of alternations between mental and physical tasks, and (2) to identify key determinants of such alternations.

    Method. We developed a questionnaire combining established questions with specific questions about alternations. Workers from two occupations (industrial and non-industrial blue-collar work), in jobs containing both physical and mental tasks, were included in the study. 122 (55 females) out of 293 workers approached at four companies answered the questionnaire.

    Results. On average, the workers alternated 3.5 times per day between mental and physical tasks. In the non-industrial companies, workers reported wanting more alternations than they had, while desired and actual alternations did not differ in the industrial companies. This effect of occupation on the difference between the number of alternations wanted and the actual alternations available was significant (p < 0.001). Furthermore, there was a general preference for performing a physical task after a mental task, and vice versa. This main effect of primarily performed task type (i.e. either physical or mental) on preferred subsequent task type was significant (p < 0.001). In a univariate analysis, gender appeared to be a strong determinant of the occurrence of alternations, but the effect was absorbed when adding the occupation variable.

    Discussion. Within the studied companies, work offered alternations between mental and physical tasks and there was a preference among workers to alternate between tasks. Occupation rather than gender was a key determinant of the number of alternations reported.

  • 199.
    Jahncke, Helena
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Hygge, Staffan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mixter, Susanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Lyskov, Eugene
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Variation at work: alternations between physically and mentally demanding tasks in blue-collar occupations2017In: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 60, no 9, p. 1218-1227Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aims of this questionnaire study were to describe the occurrence and desired number of alternations between mental and physical tasks in industrial and non-industrial blue-collar work, and determine to which extent selected personal and occupational factors influence these conditions. On average, the 122 participating workers (55 females) reported to have close to four alternations per day between mental and physical tasks, and to desire more alternations than they actually had. They also expressed a general preference for performing a physical task after a mental task and vice versa. In univariate regression models, the desired change in task alternations was significantly associated with Gender, Age, Occupation, Years with current work tasks, and Perceived job control, while Occupation was the only significant determinant in a multiple regression model including all factors. Our results suggest that alternations between productive physical and mental tasks could be a viable option in future job rotation.

  • 200.
    Jahncke, Helena
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Edvinsson, Johanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Persson, Lina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Activity-based workplaces: changes in cognitive performance among workers previously employed at cellular offices or open-plan offices2017Conference paper (Refereed)
1234567 151 - 200 of 420
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