hig.sePublikasjoner
Endre søk
Begrens søket
123456 151 - 200 of 270
RefereraExporteraLink til resultatlisten
Permanent link
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • harvard-cite-them-right
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annet format
Fler format
Språk
  • sv-SE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • de-DE
  • Annet språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Treff pr side
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sortering
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Forfatter A-Ø
  • Forfatter Ø-A
  • Tittel A-Ø
  • Tittel Ø-A
  • Type publikasjon A-Ø
  • Type publikasjon Ø-A
  • Eldste først
  • Nyeste først
  • Skapad (Eldste først)
  • Skapad (Nyeste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Eldste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyeste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidligste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (siste først)
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Forfatter A-Ø
  • Forfatter Ø-A
  • Tittel A-Ø
  • Tittel Ø-A
  • Type publikasjon A-Ø
  • Type publikasjon Ø-A
  • Eldste først
  • Nyeste først
  • Skapad (Eldste først)
  • Skapad (Nyeste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Eldste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyeste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidligste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (siste først)
Merk
Maxantalet träffar du kan exportera från sökgränssnittet är 250. Vid större uttag använd dig av utsökningar.
  • 151.
    Macassa, Gloria
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Burström, Bo
    Poverty and child mortality in different contexts: Can Mozambique Learn from the Decline in Mortality at the Turn of the 19th Century in Stockholm?2005Inngår i: African Journal of Health Sciences, ISSN 1022-9272, E-ISSN 2306-1987, Vol. 12, nr 1-2, s. 31-36Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Child mortality has declined in many low-income countries. However, in Sub-Saharan Africa, childhood mortality is still a major public health problem, which is worsening with some countries experiencing new increases in mortality due to HIV/AIDS. This lack of success in reducing child mortality is not only due to HIV/AIDS, but also to high numbers of deaths in other causes of death such as diarrhoea, pneumonia and neonatal causes, for which there are effective curative and preventative interventions. One problem seems to be in the access, coverage and implementation of these interventions, particularly among the poorer sections of the population. A related problem is the interventions that sometimes, when implemented, take place in environments in which they can only be expected to have limited effects. On the other hand in many developed countries infant and child mortality declined as social and economic changes of modernisation took place. However, the mechanisms that did bring about the decline are still not well understood. This paper discuss whether analyses of the historical decline of mortality in industrialised countries could contribute to knowledge in reducing the high child mortality in poor countries today, based on studies of child mortality in different social contexts in Mozambique 1973-1997 and Stockholm 1878-1925.

  • 152.
    Macassa, Gloria
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Folkhälsovetenskap. Epidemiology Unit (EPIUnit) – Instituto de Saúde Pública, Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal.
    Francisco, Jose
    Universidade Eduardo Mondlane, Maputo, Moçambique.
    Mcgrath, Cormac
    Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Education, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Corporate Social Responsibility and Population Health2017Inngår i: Health Science Journal, ISSN 1791-809X, Vol. 11, nr 5, artikkel-id 528Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent decades, corporate social responsibility (CSR) aspart of socially sustainable business organizations operations has become a common practice across developed and developing countries. The objective of this mini review is to reflect on the potential role that CSRmight have on the health of stakeholders (employees and society in general). We suggest that there is an opportunity for business to become agents of change and contribute to improved population health. Therefore, public health researchers need to explore how business organizations can, through CSR impact population health currently and in years to come. This would occur through helping to address global challenges in the workplace and immediate local communities, but above all through identifying the role businesses play in contributing to sustainable development and sustainable population health/health promotion across entire societies regardless of their stage of economic development.

  • 153.
    Macassa, Gloria
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Folkhälsovetenskap. Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Ghilagaber, Gebreneus
    Stockholm university.
    Charsmar, Harry
    Stockholm university.
    Walander, A
    Sundin, Örjan
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Soares, Joaquim
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Geographic differentials in mortality of children in Mozambique: their implications for achievement of millenium development goal 42012Inngår i: Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition, ISSN 1606-0997, E-ISSN 2072-1315, Vol. 30, nr 3, s. 331-345Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the light of Mozambique's progress towards the achievement of Millennium Development Goal 4 of reducing mortality of children aged less than five years (under-five mortality) by two-thirds within 2015, this study investigated the relationship between the province of mother's residence and under-five mortality in Mozambique, using data from the 2003 Mozambican Demographic and Health Survey. The analyses included 10,326 children born within 10 years before the survey. Results of univariate and multivariate analyses showed a significant association between under-five mortality and province (region) of mother's residence. Children of mothers living in the North provinces (Niassa, Cabo Delgado, and Nampula) and the Central provinces (Zambezia, Sofala, Manica, and Tete) had higher risks of mortality than children whose mothers lived in the South provinces, especially Maputo province and Maputo city. However, controlling for the demographic, socioeconomic and environmental variables, the significance found between the place of mother's residence and under-five mortality reduced slightly. This suggests that other variables (income distribution and trade, density of population, distribution of the basic infrastructure, including healthcare services, climatic and ecologic factors), which were not included in the study, may have confounding effects. This study supports the thought that interventions aimed at reducing under-five mortality should be tailored to take into account the subnational/regional variation in economic development. However, research is warranted to further investigate the potential determinants behind the observed differences in under-five mortality.

  • 154.
    Macassa, Gloria
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Folkhälsovetenskap. Division of Social Medicine, Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutetet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hallqvist, Johan
    Division of Social Medicine, Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutetet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lynch, John William
    Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health, McGill University.
    Inequalities in Child Mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa: a Social Epidemiologic Framework2011Inngår i: African Journal of Health Sciences, ISSN 1022-9272, E-ISSN 2306-1987, Vol. 18, nr 1-2, s. 14-26Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the past twenty years or so, the study of the determinants of child survival in low-income countries has been based on demographic conceptual frameworks. The most widely known has been the Mosley and Chen framework (1). In that framework, the key concept was a set of proximate determinants, or intermediate variables, that directly influence the risk of morbidity and mortality. It assumes that all the more distal social and economic determinants must operate through these variables to affect child survival. However the Mosley and Chen framework has failed to directly incorporate the complex social dimension of health.The objective of this paper is to link more distal causes for child health by describing a framework that conceptualises the relation between distal and proximal factors and how they operate to cause inequalities in child mortality within sub-Saharan Africa. Additionally the framework defines policy entry points needing support of empirical evidence. Furthermore the paper acknowledges that the social context plays an important role for inequalities in children’s chances of survival. However, the relative importance of the mechanisms presented in the proposed framework may vary among the different countries of sub-Saharan Africa, thus researchers should empirically adapt the framework to their specific context.

  • 155.
    Macassa, Gloria
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Folkhälsovetenskap. Epidemiology Unit - ISPUP, University of Porto Medical School, Porto, Portugal.
    Hiswåls, Anne-Sofie
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Folkhälsovetenskap.
    Ahmadi, Nader
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för socialt arbete och psykologi, Socialt arbete.
    McGrath, Cormac
    Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Educating Public Health Professionals for an Unknown Future: Insight from a New Bachelor Programme Linking Health Promotion and Sustainable Development2017Inngår i: Research in Health Science, ISSN 2470-6205, Vol. 2, nr 2, s. 70-78Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to provide a description of the new bachelor programme “Health Promotion through Sustainable Development”, which started in autumn 2016 at the University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Working Life. The programme was built integrating public health and biology through a thread of health promotion and sustainable development across the three years of study. In the era of sustainable development and more complex health threats, future public health professionals need to be equipped with the right knowledge and skills that will enable them to promote a sustainable population health.

  • 156.
    Macassa, Gloria
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Folkhälsovetenskap. Department of Health Science, Section of Public Health, Mid-Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Olofsson, Niclas
    Center for Public Health, Västernorrland County Council, Härnösand, Sweden.
    Soares, Joaquim J. F.
    Department of Health Science, Section of Public Health, Mid-Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Ahmadi, Nader
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för socialt arbete och psykologi, Socialt arbete.
    Socioeconomic Position and Suicidal Ideation: Going Beyond Education, Occupation and Income2016Inngår i: Mid-Sweden Journal of Public Health, artikkel-id 150Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Suicidal ideation have been found to be a strong predictor of suicide attempt as well as completed suicide. Currently, there is  an on-going debate on the impact of the recent economic recession on mental health outcomes, including suicide behaviours. Northern Sweden continues to bear the consequences of the recent recession which started in 2008.Thus, this study investigates differentials in twelve months suicidal ideation by socio-economic position (SEP) among economically active persons residing in Västernorland County. In addition, the study discusses the importance of employment status as a fourth measure of socio-economic position in the context of economic hardship.

     Method: The study uses cross-sectional data from the 2010 Västernorrland in 2010 “Health on Equal Terms Survey”, which consisted of 5,050 in economically active persons aged 16-65 years. Descriptive and weighted regression analyses were performed and results are presented as OR´s (with 95% confidence intervals).

    Results: Suicidal ideation was statistically significantly associated with SEP as measured by education, occupation, income and employment status. Respondents who had primary education, were manual workers, or had lower income and  were out of work had odds ratios of 2.19 (CI 1.51-3.16); 2.95 (CI 2.04-4.27); 3.40 (CI 2.41-4.79) and 3.24 (CI 2.84-4.21), respectively. Controlling for demographic, socio-economic and health-related variables only eliminated the statistical significance for education and income.

    Conclusion: SEP as measured by education, occupation, income and employment was associated with suicide ideation in Västernorrland County. Also, employment status was found to be an important measure of SEP within the context of economic recession. There is a need for social protective policies for the less privileged in the population at all times, but especially during times of economic crises.

  • 157.
    Macassa, Gloria
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ponce de Leon, Antonio
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Burström, Bo
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The impact of water supply and sanitation on area differentials in the decline of diarrhoeal disease mortality among infants in Stockholm 1878—19252006Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 34, nr 5, s. 526-533Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyses the impact of improved water supply and sanitation on the level and rate of decline of child diarrhoea mortality in Stockholm 1878—1925. Previous studies have failed to demonstrate an effect of improved water supply on the risk of diarrhoea mortality at the individual level. Using data on access to water and sanitation from a household survey in 1895 and mortality rates and sociodemographic information from individual data 1878—1925 to analyse area differentials in diarrhoea mortality, it was found that the proportion having their own latrine in the household was associated with lower mortality risk in 1895—1900, while the proportion having water in the household was associated with lower diarrhoea mortality risk during the mortality decline until 1925. Population effects of improved water and sanitation on diarrhoea mortality may be better measured at area level than at individual level.

  • 158.
    Macassa, Gloria
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Folkhälsovetenskap.
    Salvador, Elsa Maria
    Eduardo Mondlane University, Maputo, Moçambique.
    da Cruz Francisco, Jose
    Eduardo Mondlane University, Maputo, Moçambique.
    Food Insecurity in Mozambique: What Do We Know? And what Can Be Done?2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Household food insecurity is defined as inadequate or insecure access to food because of financial constraints. The objective of this short article is to highlight the prevalence and determinants of food insecurity in Mozambique during the past three years. Food insecurity is an important societal and public health problem in Mozambique, and its main determinants are climate change, transportation, and poverty. There is a urgent need for research that can provide a deeper understanding of the determinants of food insecurity in the country and disentangle potential relationships with physical and psychological health outcomes.

  • 159.
    Macassa, Gloria
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Folkhälsovetenskap.
    Walander, Anders
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Hiswåls, Anne-Sofie
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Folkhälsovetenskap.
    Living in the Municipality of Gävle: Report on the Gävle Household, Labour Market Dynamics and Health Outcomes Survey - Wave 12013Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In many industrialized countries including those in Europe, there is an established relationship between work conditions and health. For instance employment status and conditions have been reported to influence physical health (self-assessed health, pain and various somatic conditions), as well as mental health outcomes such as anxiety and depression, even if debate is still ongoing. Employment conditions have been suggested to be a key determinant of health inequalities, although this factor has been less researched than have education and income. Therefore, a study of the role played by employment status/conditions in a small geographical area such as Gävle Municipality (with its pattern of industries, plant and services closures, and high levels of unemployment) could contribute to knowledge on ways to reduce ill health related to labour market. 

     The overall aim of this study was to examine the relationship between employment status, household income and physical and psychological health outcomes among economically active people residing in Gävle Municipality, using data from Wave 1 of the Gävle Household, Labour Market Dynamics and Health Outcomes (GHOLDH) survey, a household panel survey carried out between April and June 2012. Data analysis was conducted using descriptive statistics and mixed multivariate models.

    There were differences in physical and psychological health by employment status. Individuals who were outside the labour market were more likely to report poor health, body pain and exhaustion than were individuals who were employed. In addition, those individuals who were outside work had a higher prevalence and risk of anxiety and depression. Data on household income also showed associations with physical and psychological health, with a concentration of poor self-reported health, somatic complaints, anxiety and depression in lower income households.

    Interestingly, the study findings revealed that anxiety was also prevalent among employed people, suggesting that people with insecure jobs might also be at risk of poor mental health. This finding requires further research to discern the role of precarious employment conditions on inequalities in physical and mental health outcomes. In addition, studies on the impact of gender on the relationship between employment status/conditions and physical and psychological health outcomes are warranted. To this end, the follow-up survey to be carried out in 2014 might provide additional knowledge pertaining to ways to reduce employment-related health inequalities within the municipality.

  • 160.
    Macassa, Gloria
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Folkhälsovetenskap. Epidemiology Unit-ISPUP, University of Porto, Portugal.
    Winersjö, Rocio
    Swedish Board of Health and Social Welfare, Sweden.
    Wijk, Katarina
    Department of Research, Gävleborg Region, Sweden.
    MacGrath, Cormac
    LIME, Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Ahmadi, Nader
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för socialt arbete och psykologi, Socialt arbete.
    Soares, Joaquim
    Department of Public Health, Mid-Sweden University, Sweden.
    Fear of crime and its relationships to self-reported health and stress among men2017Inngår i: Journal of Public Health Research, ISSN 2279-9028, E-ISSN 2279-9036, Vol. 6, nr 3, s. 169-174, artikkel-id 1010Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Fear of crime is a growing social and public health problem globally, including in developed countries such as Sweden. This study investigated the impact of fear of crime on self-reported health and stress among men living in Gävleborg County.Design and Methods: The study used data collected from 2993 men through a cross sectional survey in the 2014 Health in Equal Terms survey. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were carried out to study the relationship between fear of crime and self-reported health and stress. Results: There was a statistically significant association between fear of crime and self-reported poor health and stress among men residing in Gävleborg County. In the bivariate analysis, men who reported fear of crime had odds of 1.98 (CI 1.47- 2.66) and 2.23 (CI 1.45-3.41) respectively. Adjusting for demographic, social and economic variables in the multivariate analysis only reduced the odds ratio for self-reported poor health to 1.52 (CI 1.05-2.21) but not for self-reported stress with odds of 2.22 (1.27-3.86). Conclusions: Fear of crime among men was statistically significantly associated with self-reported poor health and stress in Gävleborg County. However, the statistically significant relationship remained even after accounting for demographic, social and economic factors, which warrants further research to better understand the role played by other variables.

  • 161.
    Macassa, Gloria
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Öberg, Lisa
    Södertörn University College, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Bernhardt, Eva
    Stockholms Universitet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Burström, Bo
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Differentials in overall and cause-specific mortality among infants born in and out of wedlock, Stockholm 1878–19252006Inngår i: The History of the Family, ISSN 1081-602X, E-ISSN 1873-5398, Vol. 11, nr 1, s. 19-26Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates differentials in the decline of cause-specific infant mortality by marital status of the mother in Stockholm (1878 –1925) and factors contributing to the explanation of these differentials using computerized records of individual entries from the Roteman Archives. Included in the analysis were 120,094 children less than 1 year of age who lived in Södermalm during this period. Cause-specific mortality rates were calculated for three time periods. Cox's regression analysis was used to study the relationship between overall and cause-specific risk of infant death and of being born in and out of wedlock in relation to a set of variables. Infant mortality rates and mortality risks were higher among children born out of rather than in wedlock. The most pronounced differentials in cause-specific mortality rates between these groups of children were seen in cases of diarrhea. The socioeconomic status of the household head and number of children in the household were statistically significant with infant mortality, but explain only part of the excess mortality risk of children born out of wedlock. In Stockholm at the turn of the 19th century being born out of wedlock was strongly associated with poor health outcomes, particularly in diarrheal diseases, pneumonia/bronchitis, and immaturity/congenital causes.

  • 162.
    Magnusson, Jonas
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Social Class and Elderly Abuse in Europe2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion/Bakgrund:

    Enligt ett flertal vetenskapliga rapporter är misshandel och utnyttjande av äldre ett växande problem i Europa och övriga världen. Det kommer att ställas högre krav på vårdgivare både inom familjen och inom välfärden på grund av en åldrande europeisk befolkning. Det förutses att en tredjedel av den europeiska befolkningen kommer att vara 60 år eller äldre år 2050. Tillförlitliga data och forskning är dock en bristvara när det kommer till misshandel och utnyttjande av äldre.

    Syfte:

    Att granska den tillgängliga forskningen om vilken effekt olika socioekonomiska faktorer (utbildning, yrke och förmögenhet) har huruvida äldre människor (60 år eller äldre) riskerar att utsättas för fysisk och/eller psykisk misshandel. Metod: En litteraturstudie valdes som arbetsmetod. Vetenskapliga artiklar och relevant litteratur har granskats och valts ut via olika databaser.

    Resultat:

    Studien kom fram till att olika socioekonomiska faktorer (utbildning, yrke och förmögenhet) påverkar huruvida äldre människor riskerar att utsättas för fysisk och/eller psykisk misshandel. Av de studerade faktorerna var utbildning den socioekonomiska faktor som främst påverkade huruvida en äldre människa riskerade att bli utsatt för misshandel eller inte. De andra faktorerna, yrke och förmögenhet/inkomst, var inte representerade i samma utsträckning som utbildning i studiens resultat. En annan påverkande faktor som hänger ihop med socioekonomiska faktorer visade sig vara könstilhörighet. Majoriteten av den granskade litteraturen bekräftar att det finns ett mönster som innebär att äldre kvinnor löper en större risk än män att utsättas för psykisk och/eller fysisk misshandel. Det var svårt att identifiera likheter eller skillnader mellan olika europeiska regioner på grund av att studiemetod och studiedesign skiljde sig allt för mycket åt mellan de olika vetenskapliga artiklarna.

    Slutsats:

    Resultatet från litteraturgranskningen visade att utbildning har en större påverkan än yrke och förmögenhet huruvida en äldre människa riskerar att bli utsatt för psykisk och/eller fysisk misshandel eller inte. Studien fann även att könsskillnader var tydliga och innebär äldre kvinnor löper större risk än män att bli utsatta. Något som också måste tas i beaktning i framtida forskning. Bristen på forskning och litteratur inom ämnet vittnar om att det finns ett stort behov av mer forskning. En bättre förståelse för relationen mellan socioekonomisk position och misshandel av äldre är viktigt för framtiden.

  • 163.
    Magnusson, Madeleine
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Upplevd arbetsrelaterad stress hos bankanställda män: en intervjuundersökning2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis was to look at the relationship between the experiences of work related stress among male bank employees and how they dealt with potential stress. The thesis focused on male bank employee’s experiences and management of work related stress with the control requirements and support model as a starting point. Work related stress is a phenomenon that has become a serious problem with economic impact for both the individual and organizations. Increased absence from work due to medical issues is one example of such consequences. The study is based on a field survey at a bank office located in a municipality in the middle part of Sweden. Four male bank employees were interviewed. The result of the study showed that working conditions affected how the men experienced and dealt with work related stress. The conclusion was that a lack of demands, control and support in the workplace affected the personal life, and this imbalance could lead to stress. In order to deal with the work related stress, the bank employees tried to take control over their work situation and after work they dealt with the stress by exercising and dog-walks to name a few examples.

  • 164.
    Magnusson, Malin
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Hinder och problem med metoden Fysisk aktivitet på recept (FaR) inom primärvården i Bollnäs och Söderhamns kommun. Föreskrivarens perspektiv. - En kvalitativ intervjustudie2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine the obstacles and problems prescribers of exercise on prescription (EoP) in primary care in Bollnäs and Söderhamn experience when using the method. It also aimed at examining if the barriers identified in previous studies also will be found in Bollnäs and Söderhamns municipalities. A qualitative study was made and four interviews with the managers of health centers in Bollnäs and Söderhamns municipalities were completed. The only inclusion criteria was that it would be a licensed health care professional at the clinic who work with, and prescribe the EoP. A content analysis was performed, which categorized the statements made according to their content. The results of the study showed that prescribers experienced obstacles and problems with the method. The main reason was lack of time, particularly insufficient time to provide information on adequate physical activity. Another obstacle was difficulties to motivate patients to become more physically active, as well as interoperability issues with politicians and complicated prescription forms. The study confirmed previous research regarding the barriers identified. The basis for the study was small and it is therefore not possible to generalize from the results obtained.

  • 165.
    Majuri, Linda
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Pilotprojektet Unga, Makt och Hälsa: En kvalitativ uppföljning av implementering av en hälsoinsats inom arenan skola2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    School has been identified as an important arena for health interventions among adolescents. One such intervention is “Young, Empowerment and Health”, which is currently in its pilot phase. The intervention encourages primarily upper secondary school students to form health councils that will initiate, plan and implement health activities. The health councils are autonomous but act with the aid of the student health body and physical educational staff involved in the project.

     

    Aim: the purpose of this study was to investigate the experience of an intervention in the school arena from the perspective of adult stakeholders by using a formative assessment. The information that was collected during the study described what was most beneficial for adult stakeholders in maintaining the change and reaching the project goals. The information could be used in the development of the project.

    Method: the study was qualitative using inductive content analysis. Interviews were conducted with key adult stakeholders involved in the implementation of the project. The interviews were then transcribed and analysed with a semantic approach.

    Result: a clearly described plan and goals for the project was perceived as necessary for maintaining the intervention. A distinct connection relating to the educational plan and communication among participants was described as important to the participants.

  • 166.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Assessment of time patterns in long-term recordings of physical activity2011Inngår i: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Ambulatory Monitoring of Physical Activity and Moverment (ICAMPAM) / [ed] Granat, M H, 2011, s. 64-Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 167.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Bolin, Kristian
    Department of Economics, Lund University.
    Optimizing cost-efficiency in mean exposure assessment – cost functions reconsidered2011Inngår i: BMC Medical Research Methodology, ISSN 1471-2288, E-ISSN 1471-2288, Vol. 11, nr 76Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Reliable exposure data is a vital concern in medical epidemiology and intervention studies. The present study addresses the needs of the medical researcher to spend monetary resources devoted to exposure assessment with an optimal cost-efficiency, i.e. obtain the best possible statistical performance at a specified budget. A few previous studies have suggested mathematical optimization procedures based on very simple cost models; this study extends the methodology to cover even non-linear cost scenarios.

    Methods. Statistical performance, i.e. efficiency, was assessed in terms of the precision of an exposure mean value, as determined in a hierarchical, nested measurement model with three stages. Total costs were assessed using a corresponding three-stage cost model, allowing costs at each stage to vary non-linearly with the number of measurements, according to a power function. Using these models, procedures for identifying the optimally cost-efficient allocation of measurements under a constrained budget were developed, and applied on 225 scenarios combining different sizes of unit costs, cost function exponents, and exposure variance components.

    Results. Explicit mathematical rules for identifying optimal allocation could be developed when cost functions were linear, while non-linear cost functions implied that parts of or the entire optimization procedure had to be carried out using numerical methods.

    For many of the 225 scenarios, the optimal strategy consisted in measuring on one occasion from each of as many subjects as allowed by the budget. Significant deviations from this principle occurred if costs for recruiting subjects were large compared to costs for setting up measurement occasions, and, at the same time, the between-subjects to within-subject variance ratio was small. In these cases, non-linearities had a profound influence on the optimal allocation and on the eventual size of the exposure data set.

    Conclusions. The analysis procedures developed in the present study can be used for informed design of exposure assessment strategies, provided that data are available on exposure variability and the costs of collecting and processing data.  The present shortage of empirical evidence on costs and appropriate cost functions however impedes general conclusions on optimal exposure measurement strategies in different epidemiologic scenarios.

  • 168.
    Mattsson, Gustaf
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Alkoholkonsumtion bland unga idrottare: En jämförande studie mellan lag- och individuella idrottare2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Alkohol är en av de främsta orsakerna till ohälsa och för tidig död. Problem associerade till alkoholkonsumtion kostar årligen miljarder för det svenska samhället. Organiserad idrott har föreslagits som en arena för att förebygga alkoholkonsumtion bland ungdomar, men mer kunskap behövs om var insatser gör bäst nytta, exempelvis inom lag- eller individuell idrott.Syftet med studien var att undersöka eventuella skillnader i alkoholkonsumtion bland 16- till 18-åriga ungdomar som är aktiva i lagidrott respektive individuell idrott.Studien hade en tvärsnittsdesign där grupper jämfördes. Urvalet bestod av 44 ungdomar, 28 pojkar och 16 kvinnor, mellan 16 och 18 år och som var aktiva inom lag- eller individuell idrott. Ett strategiskt urval användes för att göra grupperna så lika som möjligt med avseende på viktiga förväxlingsfaktorer. Totalt deltog 24 lagidrottare och 20 individuella idrottare. Insamling av data genomfördes genom enkätundersökning som respondenterna besvarade i samband med ett av deras träningstillfällen. Frågeformulären framställdes från redan befintliga formulär och omfattade frågor om alkoholkonsumtion, idrottsaktivitet och potentiella förväxlingsfaktorer. Gruppskillnader mellan lag- och individuella idrottare för alkoholkonsumtion och potentiella förväxlingsfaktorer analyserades med Chi 2-test och t-test.Resultatet visade inga signifikanta skillnader mellan grupperna. Prevalensen av alkoholkonsumenter var 75 procent bland lagidrottarna, motsvarande andel av de individuella idrottarna var 60 procent. Prevalensen av intensivkonsumenter bland lagidrottare var 25 procent och bland de individuella idrottarna 10 procent. Den variabeln där signifikant skillnad fanns var den mellan föräldrarnas utbildningsnivå och deltagande i lag- eller individuell idrott (p-värde 0,019), vilket var en av studiens förväxlingsvariabler. Det visade sig att de som var aktiva med individuell idrott hade större andel föräldrar med eftergymnasial utbildning (60 %) än de som var aktiva i lagidrott (25 %).Resultaten indikerar att det inte finns skillnader och stöder därför inte att typen av idrott, det vill säga lag- eller individuell idrott påverkar alkoholkonsumtionen. Då urvalet skiljde sig åt rörande en förväxlingsvariabel och var relativt litet för att vara en epidemiologisk studie så ska resultatet tolkas med försiktighet. Det kan därför snarare ses som en indikation än en slutsats.

  • 169.
    Melchiorre, Maria Gabriella
    et al.
    Centre for Socio-Economic Research on Ageing, Italian National Institute of Health and Science on Aging, Ancona, Italy.
    Di Rosa, Mirko
    Scientific Direction, Italian National Institute of Health and Science on Aging, Ancona, Italy.
    Lamura, Giovanni
    Centre for Socio-Economic Research on Ageing, Italian National Institute of Health and Science on Aging, Ancona, Italy.
    Torres-Gonzales, Francisco
    Centro de Investigaciones Biomedicas en Red de Salud Mental (CIBERSAM), University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Lindert, Jutta
    Department of Public Health, University of Emden, Emden, Germany; Women's Studies Research Center, Brandeis University, Waltham, Massachusetts, USA.
    Stankunas, Mindaugas
    Department of Health Management, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania; Health Service Management Department, Centre for Health Innovation, School of Medicine, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia.
    Ioannidi-Kapolou, Elisabeth
    Department of Sociology, National School of Public Health, Athens, Greece.
    Barros, Henrique
    Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Medical School, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal.
    Macassa, Gloria
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Folkhälsovetenskap. Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Soares, Joaquim J F
    Department of Health Sciences, Section of Public Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall.
    Abuse of older men in seven European countries: a multilevel approach in the framework of an ecological model2016Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, nr 1, artikkel-id e0146425Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Several studies on elder abuse indicate that a large number of victims are women, but others report that men in later life are also significantly abused, especially when they show symptoms of disability and poor health, and require help for their daily activities as a result. This study focused on the prevalence of different types of abuse experienced by men and on a comparison of male victims and non-victims concerning demographic/socio-economic characteristics, lifestyle/health variables, social support and quality of life. Additionally, the study identified factors associated with different types of abuse experienced by men and characteristics associated with the victims.

    METHODS: The cross-sectional data concerning abuse in the past 12 months were collected by means of interviews and self-response during January-July 2009, from a sample of 4,467 not demented individuals aged between 60-84 years living in seven European countries (Germany, Greece, Italy, Lithuania, Portugal, Spain and Sweden). We used a multilevel approach, within the framework of an Ecological Model, to explore the phenomenon of abuse against males as the complex result of factors from multiple levels: individual, relational, community and societal.

    RESULTS: Multivariate analyses showed that older men educated to higher levels, blue-collar workers and men living in a rented accommodation were more often victims than those educated to lower levels, low-rank white-collar workers and home owners, respectively. In addition, high scores for factors such as somatic and anxiety symptoms seemed linked with an increased probability of being abused. Conversely, factors such as increased age, worries about daily expenses (financial strain) and greater social support seemed linked with a decreased probability of being abused.

    CONCLUSIONS: Male elder abuse is under-recognized, under-detected and under-reported, mainly due to the vulnerability of older men and to social/cultural norms supporting traditional male characteristics of stoicism and strength. Further specific research on the topic is necessary in the light of the present findings. Such research should focus, in particular, on societal/community aspects, as well as individual and family ones, as allowed by the framework of the Ecological Model, which in turn could represent a useful method also for developing prevention strategies for elder abuse.

  • 170.
    Meller, Louise
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv.
    Måltidens betydelse på arbetsplatsen: Enstudie av ett sjukhus, ett regemente och en industri2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    De flesta människor tillbringar idag en stor del av sitt liv på arbetet. Eftersom ett av dagens huvudmål intas på arbetsplatsen är det av stor betydelse för individens hälsa att denna uppfyller önskemål och riktlinjer för en god och hälsosam måltid. Arbetsmåltiden är en möjlig återhämtande paus under arbetet och det är viktigt att den fyller flera viktiga funktioner både sociala och fysiologiska. Arbetsmåltidens kvalitativa helhet är angelägen för både arbetsgivare och individ då den troligtvis påverkar både prestation och arbetshälsa. Genom att prioritera attraktiva och näringsriktiga måltider på arbetet ökar förmodligen tillfredsställelsen hos de anställda. Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka de anställdas inställning och hur de värderade sin måltid på arbetet. I undersökningen deltog anställda från tre olika arbetsplatser i Skaraborgs län: ett sjukhus, en industri och ett regemente. Data samlades in från en tidigare enkätstudie som innehöll flervalsfrågor, skalfrågor och öppna frågor. Det var totalt 940 enkäter med 20 frågeområden som delades ut till samtliga tre arbetsplatser. Bortfallet på sjukhuset var 21%, på industrin 16% och på regementet 29%. Denna studie behandlar endast innehållet i svaren på de två öppna frågorna. Totalt var det 182 svar och innehållet sammanställdes genom innehållsanalys. Resultatet i studien visade att personalen var relativt missnöjd med sin arbetsmåltid och efterfrågade en mer hälsosam och varierad kost samt bättre kvalitet och kunskap från matleverantörens sida. Några exempel var att personalen önskade ett bättre utbud av sallad och grönsaker, de önskade också att måltidspersonalen hade mer kunskaper kring hälsosam mat. De tyckte också att det saknades inspiration och nytänkande då de upplevde maten ensidig, smaklös och ohälsosam. Ett annat problem var miljön i matsalen, det skapades irritation över att köer till kassor var långa och resulterade i att lunchrasten blev kort. Ljudnivån var ofta hög och oacceptabel och det skapade otrivsel i matrummet.

  • 171.
    Mentsen Ness, Tove
    et al.
    Department of Nursing, Mid-Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden; Department of Health Sciences, Nord-Trøndelag University College, Namsos, Norway.
    Hellzén, Ove
    Department of Nursing, Mid-Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Enmarker, Ingela
    Department of Health Sciences, Nord-Trøndelag University College, Namsos, Norway; Centre of Care Research, Steinkjer, Mid-Norway.
    "Embracing the present and fearing the future": The meaning of being an oldest old woman in a rural area2014Inngår i: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 9, artikkel-id 25217Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In Western countries, the number of older people receiving home nursing care is increasing, and in rural areas they are at additional risk because of the distance between people and health care facilities. The aim of this study was therefore to illuminate the meaning of being an oldest old woman living alone in a rural area and receiving home nursing care. A sample of 11 oldest old women living in rural areas in the middle of Norway was chosen for this study. Narrative interviews were conducted, and the data were analyzed using the phenomenological hermeneutic method. After a naïve reading and a structural analysis of the text, we identified four themes: being satisfied with life, being thankful, feeling vulnerable, and feeling secure. The comprehensive understanding implied that being an oldest old woman living alone in a rural area meant living in the intersection between embracing the present in solitude and fearing the future with additional declining health. Living in this complex situation meant to enjoy the present, but still fear the future, as the oldest old women knew their present life situations were limited. This challenging emotional situation meant using their inner strength by trying to be optimistic and seeing opportunities in present life, even if losses were many and extensive. By using their inner strength in facing losses and declining health, the oldest old women managed to appreciate aloneness as solitude, and find new meaning in life.

  • 172.
    Mentsen Ness, Tove
    et al.
    Department of Nursing, Mid-Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden; Department of Health Sciences, Nord-Trøndelag University College, Namsos, Norway.
    Hellzén, Ove
    Department of Nursing, Mid-Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden; Department of Health Sciences, Nord-Trøndelag University College, Namsos, Norway.
    Enmarker, Ingela
    Department of Health Sciences, Nord-Trøndelag University College, Namsos, Norway; Centre of Care Research, Steinkjer, Mid-Norway.
    ‘Struggling for independence’; the meanings of being an oldest old man in rural areas. Interpretation of oldest old men’s narrations2014Inngår i: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 9, nr 1, artikkel-id 23088Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The amount of older people receiving home nursing care is increasing; in rural areas, they are at additional risk because of the distance between people and health care facilities. No specific studies have been found about oldest old men living alone and receiving home nursing care and the meaning of living alone in one's own home. The aim of this study was therefore to illuminate the meaning of being an oldest old man living alone in a rural area and receiving home nursing care. A sample of 12 oldest old men living in rural areas in the middle of Norway was chosen for this study. Narrative interviews were conducted, and data were analyzed using the phenomenological hermeneutical method. After a naïve reading and a structural analysis of the text, we identified three themes: feelings of insufficiency in everyday life, finding hope in life, and feeling reconciliation with life. The comprehensive understanding suggested that being an oldest old man living alone in a rural area means a struggle between a dependent existence and a desire to be independent. Living in the tension between independence and dependency is a complex emotional situation where one is trying to accept the consequences of life and loss—reconciling the wish to live with the fact that life will come to an end.

  • 173.
    Mild, Elina
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Kvinnors upplevelser av kosthållning och kostrådgivning under graviditeten: En intervjustudie2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 174.
    Mäki, Sami
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Har rock en roll för hälsan?: En fokusgruppsstudie på hur musicerande i grupp inverkar på vuxna deltagarnas välbefinnande och empowerment2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this qualitative study was to contribute to the understanding of how musical activities affect the participants' well-being and empowerment and to investigate which fac-tors contribute to that effect. Invitations were sent to 13 adult participants in a rock music school in the middle part of Sweden. 7 persons (4 men, 3 women) participated in the study. 4 themes were discussed in focus groups to highlight how informants were affected by the ac-tivity and what factors were important in the context. Results showed that music activities impact on participants' well-being and empowerment through several factors.Themes that appeared were: 1) focus on the present through music, 2) personal development, 3) meaningful leisure activity 4) the group properties. The group properties theme had four underlying themes: participation, equality, tolerance, cooperation toward common goals and leadership. The study has led to a greater understanding of how musical activities affect indi-vidual well-being and empowerment. A visualization of the participating forces that play a role in this effect has started and extended research with more suitable methods is needed to illuminate the individual factors and how they contribute to individual well-being and em-powerment.

  • 175.
    Mälstam, Emelie
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Folkhälsovetenskap.
    Bensing, S.
    Karolinska Institute, Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Asaba, E.
    Karolinska Institute, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Focusing on everyday life with Addison’s disease: Health promotion and secondary prevention2017Inngår i: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 27, nr Suppl. 3, s. 334-334Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The overal laim of this study was to generate knowledge about everyday life among people living with rare Addison’s disease (AD). Understanding experiences in contexts of everyday life are important for public health, equity in healthcare, and in order to design tailored health promotion programs, which are in line with EU policy. Addison’s disease is a rare disease and people with AD face challenges due to limited existing knowledge about the disease and often encounters health care providers who are not familiar with best practices in the area. Treatment and follow up of AD also vary greatly within Europe even though a European consensus exists and few reports of secondary and tertiary prevention have been published. AD is also usually monitored and treated in the specialist health care where individually delivered health care is dominant. In Sweden, it has been argued that all health care should integrate disease prevention and health promotion and that group-based self-management approaches could be compliments to traditional caring and curative health care. This study was conducted with qualitative methods and a participatory approach, engaging five participants with AD. Under seven weeks the participants photographed their everyday life and participated in weekly group-discussions. Preliminary results show that everyday life with AD can be more complex than previously thought and that extended information and self-management education about the disease and everyday life is perceived as important to maintain wellbeing. Also, participants perceived that health care could play a bigger role regarding health promotion and preventive actions through extended pharmacological and non-pharmacologica lparts of group-based interventions.

    Key messages:

    • Specialist health care can play a role regarding preventive self-management schooling for persons with rare Addison’s disease to improve wellbeing in everyday life.
    • Specialist health care can play a role regarding health promotion and disease prevention through extended self-management education for persons with rare Addison’s diseas.
  • 176.
    Mälstam, Emelie
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Folkhälsovetenskap.
    Bensing, Sophie
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm; Department of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes , Karolinska University Hospital Solna, Stockholm, Sweden, Sweden; .
    Asaba, Eric
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society (NVS), Division of Occupational Therapy, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Unit for Research, Development, and Education, Stockholms Sjukhem Foundation, Stockholm, Sweden; Graduate School of Health Sciences, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo, Japan.
    Everyday managing and living with autoimmune Addison's disease: Exploring experiences using photovoice methods2018Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 25, nr 5, s. 358-370Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    People with rare diseases are a minority group that faces risks for healthcare and work inequities because knowledge and resources on how to systematically support health or working life are limited. Integrating voices of persons living with rare diseases are an important aspect in inclusive and relevant healthcare practices. This study sought to actively involve persons with autoimmune Addison's disease (AAD), a rare condition, in exploring challenges and possibilities situated in everyday life. Photovoice methods were utilized to incorporate experiences through photographic documentation and group discussions with five persons over seven weeks. Data generated from group sessions were visually analyzed or transcribed and analyzed with thematic analysis. Five themes emerged: Individual and fine tuning in everyday life; It is not how it was; The power of knowledge and support; Becoming the expert in an uncertain context; and, Finding balance and paving new ways. The findings showed that everyday life with AAD was more complex than earlier portrayed; entailing several barriers and negotiations. In order to meet the needs of persons with AAD, more extensive and relevant information, support and self-management education is needed. Moreover, a complementary focus on everyday life to promote their health and wellbeing is also important.

  • 177.
    Mårtensson, Emma
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Upplevelser av alkoholanvändningi en massajby i Tanzania2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Samtidigt som användningen av alkohol har minskat i den utvecklade delen av världenökar den i utvecklingsländerna. Alkoholanvändningen har både kulturell och social meningmen är samtidigt relaterad till flera hälsoskadliga- och sociala problem. Studiens syfte var attbeskriva hur personer med inflytelserika uppdrag i en massajby i Tanzania uppleveralkoholanvändningen samt dess följder för såväl invånarna som för byn. Vidare var syftet attbeskriva deras upplevelser av religion och traditions betydelse för alkoholanvändningen.Kvalitativa, semistrukturerade intervjuer genomfördes utifrån en intervjuguide med ettändamålsenligt urval av tio respondenter. Data analyserades med manifest innehållsanalys. Urdataanalysen framkom resultat två teman: faktorer som påverkar alkoholanvändningen; samtfaktorer som alkoholanvändningen påverkar. De största konsekvenserna avalkoholanvändning upplevdes vara kontrollförlust med oförmåga att ta hand om sig själv ochsin familj. Dessutom upplevdes alkoholanvändningen som en olägenhet för byn genombortfall av arbetskraft vilket respondenterna upplevde som påfrestande för hela bynsutveckling. För framtiden föreslås arbete som hjälp till alternativ inkomst föralkoholförsäljande kvinnor samt tydligt ställningstagande från byledningen.

  • 178.
    Mörth, Kristin
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Är kombination samtidiga höga krav och låg kontroll vid Informations- och KommunikationsTeknik mentalt stressande?2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka om samtidiga höga krav och låg kontroll vid användning av informations- och kommunikationsteknik (IKT) är associerat med en upplevelse av mental stress hos individer som arbetar i kontorsmiljö. Metoden som användes var en kvantitativ tvärsnittsstudie med ett deskriptivt förhållningssätt och undersökte 40 yrkesverksamma individer som mestadels arbetade stillasittande på kontor där arbetet innebär att de dagligen använde sig av IKT-verktyg. Resultaten bearbetades i statistikprogrammet SPSS med hjälp av en deskriptiv beskrivande statistik. Resultatet från studien visade att respondenter upplever mer stress vid samtidiga höga krav och låg kontroll vid användning av IKT än respondenter som inte upplever höga krav och låg kontroll när de använder IKT.

     

    Slutsats: Om resultat som framkommit i denna studie kan styrkas i framtida liknade studier bör insatser syfta till att öka anställdas känsla av delaktighet och möjlighet till att styra över användningen samt inlärning av IKT-verktyg. Vidare forskning för att undersöka hur socialt stöd på arbetsplatsen påverkar upplevelsen av krav och kontroll kopplat till stress vid användning av IKT skulle vara av intresse.

  • 179.
    Nicklasson, Caroline
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Hälsopedagogers upplevda hinder och möjligheter i arbetet med fysisk aktivitet på recept.: En kvalitativ intervjustudie2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet; var att undersöka hälsopedagogers upplevda hinder och möjligheter i sitt arbete med fysisk aktivitet på recept, FaR. Metod: en kvalitativ ansats, med fyra halvstrukturerade intervjusamtal utfördes i omkring 60 minuter utifrån en intervjuguide. Urval: ett intensitetsurval genomfördes och består av informanter verksamma inom FaR en längre tid. Dataanalys: intervjumaterialet bearbetades med tematisk analys, där kodningsförfarande så småningom ledde fram till identifierande av teman, därefter framställdes berättelser. Resultat: resultatet visade att hälsopedagoger fungerar som en hjälp till självhjälp till personer som har fått FaR. Det visade sig att empowerment är inkluderat i hälsopedagogernas arbete och utgör en grund i deras förhållningssätt som möjliggör för individer att ta kontroll över sin situation. Det framkom att motiverande samtal och Transteoretiska modellen är användbara verktyg i deras arbete. Resultatet visade också att hälsopedagoger har en samordnande funktion i arbetet med FaR. Pedagogisk kompetens, helhetssyn och kritiskt tänkande utgör unika kompetensområden i hälsopedagogernas FaR- arbete. Dessa kompetenser visade sig fungera som möjligheter i deras arbete. Tidbrist hos förskrivare med ett medicinskt synsätt utgör hinder och försvårar FaR- arbetet. Slutsats: denna studie indikerar att hälsopedagogernas kompetens utgör stora möjligheter i FaR- arbetet. Hälso- och sjukvården bör anamma hälsofrämjande insatser i större utsträckning, för att få ett fungerande FaR- arbete. Med hälsopedagogernas pedagogiska kompetens kan FaR implementeras i vården. Studien indikerar att hälsopedagoger besitter kompetenser som annars saknas inom hälso- och sjukvården. Dessa kompetensområden blir nödvändiga att inkludera för att besegra den fysiska inaktiviteten som råder i samhället. Hälsopedagoger bör därmed tas tillvara och nyttjas i större grad för att bekämpa folkhälsoproblemet.

  • 180.
    Nilsson, Petra
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Främjande av fysisk aktivitet på lokal nivå: En studie av en lokal hälsokampanj2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Nilsson, P. (2014). Promoting physical activity at a local level, a study conducted at a local health campaign. Bachelor thesis in Public Health science. Department of work- and public health science. The academy of health and working life. University of Gävle.

     

    The aim: Physical activity is strongly associated to good health, both physically and mentally. In this study carried out at a local health campaign, the aim was to investigate whether the participants found the campaign motivating for physical activity.

    Method: This was examined through interviews in which 4 participants were asked to answer some questions about motivation and physical activity.

    Results: The results showed that the respondents experienced the local health campaign motivating to physical activity. The participants felt that they received social support from other participants, which seemed motivating to physical activity.

    Conclusion: Those who were interviewed in this study experienced the local health campaign as motivated for physical activity. Their participation has helped them find new ways to do their exercise. The inspiration the participants got during the campaign, they also had used for from a longer period of time after their participation.

     

    Keywords: Physical activity, motivation, health promotion, health campaign

  • 181.
    Nordin, Irma
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Konsumenters synsätt på ekologiska livsmedel avseende frukt, grönsaker & rotfrukter: - En tvärsnittsundersökning ur ett konsumentperspektiv2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Pesticides in conventional food may be related to morbidity and mortality. Furthermore pesticides have a negative impact on the whole ecosystem. Organic food can presume better health as they contain less chemicals and toxins and contribute to sustainable development efforts.

    Objective: The aim was to examine what attitudes consumers have regarding to purchase organic fruit, vegetables and root vegetables.

    Methods: The association between consumers’ views on conventional food and organic food was investigated using questionnaire given to a population sample of men and women aged by 23-65 (N=60) in grocery stores and in a fitness center. The study was based on a cross-sectional study in a municipality in central Sweden.

    Results: Consumers were interested to buy organic food. Environmental factors had a significant association to buy more organic food compared to health reasons. Price was not associated with purchasing organic food.

    Conclusion: Consumers indicated that they would buy more organic food if the number of products and brands would increase and if organic products were more noticeable in the grocery store. This emphasizes more information about organic food is needed so that consumers will be able to make wise choices.

  • 182.
    Nordlöf, Hasse
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Socialmedicin.
    Prerequisites and Possibilities for Manufacturing Companies to Prioritize and Manage Occupational Health and Safety2015Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Legislation demands that health and safety of humans at work must be secured. Today, far from every company has a functioning systematic management of occupational health and safety (OHS) in place to fulfill its legal obligations. Instead, other day-to-day tasks appear to have greater priority.

    The overall aim of this thesis was to investigate prerequisites and possibilities for manufacturing companies to prioritize and manage OHS, with focus on professional roles, company size, safety culture, and financial performance.

    Four papers (I–IV) are included in this thesis, based on three data collections. A questionnaire measuring the priority accorded to work environment was completed by 249 representatives of 142 manufacturing companies (I & II). Focus group interviews were conducted with 66 workers at a large steel-manufacturing company, discussing their experiences and perceptions of safety and risks at work (III). A questionnaire measuring OHS management practices, safety culture, and priority given to work environment was completed by 280 representatives of 197 manufacturing companies (IV). Information regarding the companies’ financial performance was retrieved from a credit bureau database.

    The main findings of the four papers demonstrated that profitability was considered as the most prioritized interest in the companies (I), and that trade-offs between productivity and safety is an obstacle to working safely (III). Managers generally perceived their companies to prioritize work environment factors more than the safety delegates did (I & IV). Perceptions of work environment priority did, however, not differ depending on company size (II & IV). Responsibility for safety was perceived to rest on the individual to the largest extent, and risk-taking was believed to originate from a combination of individual factors and external circumstances in the work environment (III). Larger company size, positive safety culture, and low risk in creditworthiness were found to be associated with better OHS management practices in companies (IV). Correspondingly, smaller company size, negative safety culture, and high risk in creditworthiness were found to be associated with worse OHS management practices.

    In summary, structural, social, and financial aspects seem to be important in companies’ possibilities for prioritizing and managing OHS. Recommendations for industry and future research are discussed.

  • 183.
    Norin, Elvira
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Barnmorskors arbetsuppgifter mot gravida kvinnor: En intervjustudie om hur barnmorskor arbetar samt vilka frågor och funderingar kvinnorna har2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study is to investigate midwife's work towards pregnant women. 

    The method of the study had a qualitative approach and the data collection was done using semistructured interviews. Three phoneinterviewes and an interview face to face.   

    The method used had a qualitative approach and semi structured telephone interviews as well an interview with a personal meeting was the results implementation. The participants in the survey were four midwives recruited by telephone. The interviews were recorded, transcribed and analyzed with a manifest thematic content analysis, with a phenomenological element.  

    The Result gave four different themes: The health call - a good foundation for maternity health care, trust and trust, diet and exercise, insufficient knowledge and midwives experience of support. The result showed that midwives work on the same guidelines, that is the BAS program. They felt short of time and wished that the visits with the women could be a bit more flexible.  

    The conclusion is that more time for each visit would be necessary and that cooperation with other actors would make the work more efficient and fair.

  • 184.
    Norling, Christina
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för hälso- och vårdvetenskap.
    Diabetespatienters erfarenheter och reflektioner om stödet från distriktssköterskan för motivation till livsstilsförändring2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 185.
    Nylund, Johanna
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap.
    MediYoga som metod för ökat välbefinnande?: Självskattad stress och upplevd symptomförändring 5-12 månader efter avslutad kurs i MediYoga2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to investigate to which extent people exercise MediYoga after completed course, if any symptoms change had occurred, and investigate the level of self-rated stress. 

    Method A quantitative method was used and the data was collected through an online survey. The sample included people who had completed a course in MediYoga within primary healthcare some time during 2015. The survey contained a validate questionnaire (SEQ-LT) to investigate self-rated stress during leisure time the past week, as well as a number of questions specific for this study. The survey was distributed to 123 people and 56 responded.

    Result The majority of people participating (n=30, 65 %) had not exercised MediYoga for the past week, most (n=31, 67 %) indicated that their symptoms had improved, and most (n=29, 63 %) rated stress as medium. Statistically, the results revealed that there was no significant difference in perceived symptoms change among those who had/had not exercised MediYoga for the past week (p=0,24). Furthermore, there was no statistic significant difference in levels of self-rated stress among those who had/had not exercised MediYoga for the past week (p=0,66).

    Conclusion The complexity of this study topic means that the result can be explained in several ways and can be due to different factors. 

  • 186.
    Nyqvist, Angelica
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Svåra samtal? Hur sköterskor på barnavårdscentraler samtalar med föräldrar till överviktiga barn: En intervjustudie2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 187.
    Okenwa Emegwa, Leah
    Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Karolinska institutet, Stockholm.
    Intimate Partner Violence Among Women of Reproductive Age in Nigeria: Magnitude, Nature and Consequences For Reproductive Health2011Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) against women is now recognised as a problem of global magnitude, owing to its detrimental consequences on the health, social and economic welfare of women and their children. This scenario has prompted increased research to understand its risk factors and data has indicated contextual variation in this regard, warranting an assessment in each unique setting. A major constraint, however, on the detection and potential management of IPV lies in the poor disclosure of abuse by many women and their submission to abuse, particularly in Sub- Saharan Africa.

    Objective: We studied the magnitude and risk factors for IPV exposure among women in a community of Nigeria (paper 1), extent of and factors associated with the disclosure of IPV in the community sample (paper 2), the association between IPV and reproductive health outcomes in a nationally representative sample of Nigerian women (paper 3) and women and men‟s attitudes towards IPV in a nationally representative sample (paper 4).

    Methods: Structured interviews were conducted in a sample of over 900 women selected systematically from among visitors to a community health facility (papers 1 and 2). Women were probed on exposure to and disclosure of IPV, as well as demographic, social and empowerment measures. Secondary data was retrieved from the demographic and health surveys of Nigeria 2008, which utilised multi-stage sampling to gather demographic and health data on over 45,000 men and women, which was used to study the reproductive health outcomes in relation to IPV (paper 3) as well as model attitudes towards IPV using demographic, social and empowerment indicators (paper 4). Statistical analyses used included Chi-square tests and Logistic regressions.

    Results: The 1 year prevalence of IPV was 29%, with significant proportions reporting psychological (23%), physical (9%) and sexual (8%) abuse. Independent predictors of IPV included in-access to information, women‟s autonomy in decision making and contribution to household expenses (paper 1). Fifty four percent of the participating women would not disclose IPV on the hypothetical situation of exposure. Among those willing to disclose, 37% (n=103) would disclose to some form of institutions (i.e. religious leaders, law enforcement officers (only 1% would actually disclose to the police). This institutional disclosure is in contrast to 68% who opted to disclose to close family and relatives. Ethnicity, woman‟s own use of alcohol and autonomy in household decision (e.g. having a say on household purchases), increased the likelihood of disclose IPV (paper 2). Exposure to IPV was associated with using modern forms of contraception; have a history of miscarriages, induced abortions, stillbirths, or infant mortality; and having many children. These associations remained even after adjustment for potential confounders including demographic and socioeconomic factors (paper 3). Although justification of IPV was common among men and women, a higher proportion of women justified IPV compared to men. For both men and women, justification of wife beating was associated with low education, rural residency and ethnicity. Access to information was associated with justification of abuse, sometimes in the unexpected manner. While in-access to newspaper was associated with an increased likelihood of justifying abuse among women, in-access to radio/tv decreased the likelihood of endorsing wife abuse among the women. The direct opposite was observed among men. Finally, having a shared autonomy in household decisions was associated with a reduced likelihood of justifying wife abuse among both women and men (paper 4).

    Conclusion: IPV is rampant and is associated with detrimental reproductive health outcomes and contraception use among Nigerian women. Nigerian women justify IPV to a higher degree than men, with variations in gender regarding the determinants of such justification. Though many of the predictors of IPV exposure, disclosure and attitudes tend to corroborate previous work and theories, the association between empowerment indicator and these outcomes are sometimes contradictory to previous work, suggesting possible contextual differences. The thesis has important implications for prevention of IPV in Nigeria and further research.

  • 188.
    Okenwa Emegwa, Leah
    et al.
    Department of Public Health Sciences Stockholm, Division of Social Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Lawoko, S.
    Department of Public Health Sciences Stockholm, Division of Social Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Jansson, B.
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Exposure to intimate partner violence amongst women of reproductive age in lagos,nigeria : Prevalence and predictors.2009Inngår i: Journal of family Violence, ISSN 0885-7482, E-ISSN 1573-2851, Vol. 24, nr 7, s. 517-530Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on predictors of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) in Sub-Saharan Africa is contradictory, necessitating further investigation. This study sought the prevalence and predictors of IPV among women in Lagos, Nigeria. Questionnaire data from 934 women visiting an obstetrics and gynecology clinic in Lagos were analyzed using multivariable methods. The 1 year prevalence of IPV was 29%, with significant proportions reporting psychological (23%), physical (9%) and sexual (8%) abuse. In-access to information, women's autonomy and contribution to household expenses independently predicted IPV. The findings provide new incites for IPV prevention in Lagos with implications for further research.

  • 189.
    Okenwa-Emegwa, Leah
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Folkhälsovetenskap.
    Lawoko, Stephen
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jansson, Bjarne
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Attitudes Toward Physical Intimate Partner Violence Against Women in Nigeria2016Inngår i: SAGE Open, ISSN 2158-2440, E-ISSN 2158-2440, Vol. 6, nr 4, artikkel-id 2158244016667993Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Attitudes toward intimate partner violence (IPV) are known predictors of IPV victimization and perpetration with more women generally believed to justify IPV than men. An understanding of the determinants of justification of IPV may provide information necessary for holistic interventions. This study sought to examine the magnitude, extent, and predictors of justification of physical IPV against women among men and women in Nigeria. Data from 33,385 women and 15,486 men from the 2008 Nigerian demographic and health surveys were analyzed using chi-square test and multiple logistic regressions. Results show that although larger proportions of women justified physical IPV, certain categories of men such as poor, illiterate men, and men with secondary education justified abuse more than women. Contrary to expectations, access to radio/TV increased the odds of justifying abuse among women thus casting doubts on program content. The gender differences observed for predictors of attitudes to physical IPV suggest a need for gender-tailored interventions to change attitudes toward partner violence in Nigeria.

  • 190.
    Okenwa-Emegwa, Leah
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Folkhälsovetenskap. Swedish Red Cross University College, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Saboonchi, F.
    Swedish Red Cross University College, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tinghög, P.
    Swedish RedCross University; Division of Insurance Medicine, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Depression and Low Labour Market and Social Expectations among Resettled Syrian Refugees in Sweden2017Inngår i: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 27, nr Suppl. 3, s. 377-377Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Large numbers of refugees have come to Europe in search of safety. For non-refugee migrants, expectations and the extent to which they are met are shown to be integral components of adaptation and wellbeing. This study aims to explore the prevalence of low expectations for labour market, economic and social integration among Syrian refugees recently resettled in Sweden and whether depression is associated with these expectations.

    Methods

    Arandomsampleof1215Syrianrefugesofworkingage recently resettled in Sweden responded to a questionnaire in Arabic. Expectations were asse ssed by three items developed for this study. Average item score of >1.80 on the depressive symptoms  in  Hopkins  Symptom  Checklist  indicated depression. Logistic regressions adjusted for demographic factors and social support were conducted. Weighted data was used to produce socio-demographically representative prevalence rates and odds ratios (ORs). Robust standard errors were used to obtain 95% confidence intervals for all estimates.

    Results

    Prevalence  of  low  economic,  social  and  labour  market expectations were 14.1% (95% CI 12.0-16.1), 13.4% (11.3- 15.4) and 10.9% (9.1-12.6) respectively. Approximately 40.2% (36.9-43.3) of the participants had depression. Those with depression were about four times more likely to have low economic expectations (OR 3.89, 95% CI 2.66-5.92), three times more likely to have low social (OR 3.1, 2.30-5.24), and labour market (OR 2.83, 1.90-4.47) expectations.

    Conclusions

    Low expectations, while not widespread, exist among Syrian refugees in Sweden. Notable proportions had depression which was also significantly associated with low expectations. The association between depression and low expectations in keys areas necessary for adaptation and wellbeing in a new land, indicates the need to address mental health issues in current societal  level  efforts  aimed  at  boosting  labour  market participation and social inclusion.

    Key messages:

    • Notable proportions of Syrian refugees in Sweden have low expectations in domains vital for adaptation and wellbeing in a new land. Depression is significantly associated with low expectations.
    • Low expectation among Syrian refugees in domains vital for adaptation and wellbeing and the association with depres- sion indicate need to address mental health in social and labour market interventions.
  • 191.
    Okenwa-Emegwa, Leah
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Folkhälsovetenskap. epartment of Health Sciences, The Swedish Red Cross University College, Stockholm, Sweden.
    von Strauss, Eva
    Department of Health Sciences, The Swedish Red Cross University College, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Higher education as a platform for capacity building to address violence against women and promote gender equality: the Swedish example2018Inngår i: Public Health Reviews, ISSN 0301-0422, E-ISSN 2107-6952, Vol. 39, artikkel-id 31Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Violence against women is an acknowledged public and global health problem which has adverse consequences for women's health. Education, especially higher education, has long been identified as an important arena for addressing the problem and promoting gender equality. Two measures recently put in place in the Swedish higher education have brought the role of the sector into focus. The first is the inclusion of gender equality as a measurable outcome in quality assurance in higher education. The second measure is the amendment of the Swedish Higher Education Ordinance to include mandatory knowledge of VAW in the degree programme of seven selected relevant professional groups. The potentials of both measures to positively contribute to the gender equality discourse, as well as improving capacity building for the public health workforce who encounter VAW, are discussed.

  • 192.
    Olofsson, Niclas
    et al.
    Department of Research and Development, Västernorrland County Council, Sundsvall Hospital, Sweden.
    Rising Holmström, Malin
    Avdelningen för omvårdnad, Mittuniversitetet, Sundsvall.
    Kristiansen, Lisbeth
    Avdelningen för omvårdnad, Mittuniversitetet, Sundsvall.
    Assessing the Construct Validity and Reliability of School Health Records of the ‘Health Dialogue Questionnaire,’ in 7th Grade in Compulsory School2015Inngår i: MOJ Public Health, ISSN 2379-6383, Vol. 2, nr 1, artikkel-id 00010Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The aim for this study was to assess the construct validity and reliability of the Health Dialogue Questionnaire (HDQ), 7th grade in compulsory school through comparison of the HDQ, with Paediatric Quality Of Life Inventory (PedsQLTM), Local monitoring of youth policy questionnaire (LUPP®) and Health behaviour in Swedish school-aged children (HBSC).Design and methods: A sample was created from HDQ (n= 2008), PedsQLTM (n=477), LUPP (n=2648), HBSC, (n=1500) andan exploratory factor analysis was performed in order to evaluate the construct validity of HDQ of the school children´s health in school settings.Results: The results supported the HDQ as a valid 24 items factorial model, for girls a five factorial model and for boys a four factorial model for school children aged 13 years old (grade 7). The girls' model explained 63 % of the variance, while the boys' model explained 58 % of the variance. A majority of the questions showed an agreeable concurrent and discriminant validity.Conclusions: The HDQ questionnaire is a valid instrument for measuring 13-year-old school children's self-reported-health.

  • 193.
    Olsen, Rose Mari
    et al.
    Fakultet for sykepleie og helsevitenskap - Nord universitet, Norge.
    Enmarker, Ingela
    Fakultet for sykepleie og helsevitenskap - Nord universitet, Norge.
    The health care providers’ experiences during the introduction of an intermediate care unit in a nursing home2014Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 194.
    Olsen, Rose Mari
    et al.
    Faculty of Health and Science, Nord-Trøndelag University College, Namsos, Norway; Centre for Care Research Mid-Norway, Steinkjer, Norway.
    Hellzén, Ove
    Department of Health Sciences, Mid-Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Skotnes, Liv Heidi
    of Medicine, Division of Geriatrics, Nord-Trøndelag HealthTrust, Namsos, Norway.
    Enmarker, Ingela
    Faculty of Health and Science, Nord-Trøndelag University College, Namsos, Norway; Centre for Care Research Mid-Norway, Steinkjer, Norway.
    Breakdown in informational continuity of care during hospitalization of older home-living patients: A case study2014Inngår i: International Journal of Integrated Care, ISSN 1568-4156, E-ISSN 1568-4156, Vol. 14, nr 2Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The successful transfer of an older patient between health care organizations requires open communication between them that details relevant and necessary information about the patient's health status and individual needs. The objective of this study was to identify and describe the process and content of the patient information exchange between nurses in home care and hospital during hospitalization of older home-living patients.

    Methods: A multiple case study design was used. Using observations, qualitative interviews and document reviews, the total patient information exchange during each patient's episode of hospitalization (n = 9), from day of admission to return home, was captured.

    Results: Information exchange mainly occurred at discharge, including a discharge note sent from hospital to home care, and telephone reports from hospital nurse to home care nurse, and meetings between hospital nurse and patient coordinator from the municipal purchaser unit. No information was provided from the home care nurses to the hospital nurses at admission. Incompleteness in the content of both written and verbal information was found. Information regarding physical care was more frequently reported than other caring dimensions. Descriptions of the patients’ subjective experiences were almost absent and occurred only in the verbal communication.

    Conclusions: The gap in the information flow, as well as incompleteness in the content of written and verbal information exchanged, constitutes a challenge to the continuity of care for hospitalized home-living patients. In order to ensure appropriate nursing follow-up care, we emphasize the need for nurses to improve the information flow, as well as to use a more comprehensive approach to older patients, and that this must be reflected in the verbal and written information exchange.

  • 195.
    Owesson, Sofie
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Stress och energinivå hos kvinnor som arbetar på akutmottagning i en större och mindre stad i Sverige2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 196.
    Persson, Emelie
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Motivationens betydelse för användningen av Fysisk aktivitet på Recept: En intervjustudie med personer som fått FaR utskrivet2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to investigate the experiences of individuals who had received physical activity on prescription. The questions that were relevant for the study were what the method had contributed with, if physical activity on prescription had affected the motivation towards a physically active lifestyle and if motivation was sufficient to lead to permanent active action. The method used to collect data was through interviews. Two men and two women who had received a prescription of physical activity participated in the study. Data was analyzed using a manifest content analysis and four categories emerged. The results indicated that the prescription was a tool for becoming physically active and also receiving support from others proved to be important for all informants. The health effects that physical activity contributed with for the informants was increased self-esteem and well-being, improved quality of life and a stronger body. The results also showed that there were both positive and negative attitudes regarding the method. The conclusion of the study was that there existed both barriers and possibilities for the continuation of physical activity. Some informants also indicated that the motivation for a permanent physically active lifestyle was missing.

     

  • 197.
    Persson, Ida
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Arbetsrelaterad stress och socialt stöd i privatlivet bland sjuksköterskor: en enkätundersökning2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med föreliggande studie var att undersöka eventuella samband mellan upplevd stress på arbetsplatsen och socialt stöd i privatlivet bland yrkesaktiva sjuksköterskor. Även eventuella samband mellan stress, energi, ålder och socialt stöd på arbetet undersöktes.

    Datainsamling skedde genom enkätundersökning bland de anställda sjuksköterskorna på två olika avdelningar på ett sjukhus. Enkäten utformades i sin helhet av olika delar från redan existerande frågeformulär och innehöll tre olika delar; stress/energi, socialt stöd på arbetsplatsen och socialt stöd i privatlivet. Totalt bearbetades 48 enkäter.

    Inget samband mellan socialt stöd i privatlivet och stress kunde påvisas. En positiv korrelation mellan energi och socialt stöd privat, samt en negativ korrelation mellan ålder och stress kunde påvisas. Inga övriga korrelationer kunde påvisas.

    Studien visar att vidare undersökningar kring privatlivets sociala relationer och dess eventuella positiva effekter på den upplevda stressen på arbetsplatsen behöver genomföras.

  • 198.
    Persson, Jennie
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för hälso- och vårdvetenskap.
    Larshans, Madelene
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för hälso- och vårdvetenskap.
    Distriktssköterskans riskbedömning enligt Senior Alert: Äldre personers reflektioner om riskbedömningen samt upplevelser om risker och preventiva åtgärder2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 199.
    Persson, Karin
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv.
    Kostansvarigas uppfattningar om införandet av ekologiska livsmedel i skolmåltidsverksamheten2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine how food managers of Östergötland County disucss around their possibilities of reaching the government´s orientation towards 25 per cent of the food - procured, prepared and cooked in the school meal - coming from certified organic production. The study was a cross-sectional study in wich a qualitative approach was used. The sample consisted six food managers in Östergötland. Data processing was done through a semantic content analysis.  The result showed that involvment and intrest were significant factors for the introduction of organic food in the school meal. The three municipalities with the highest percentage of organic food used the SMART - concept. All food managers experienced a higher cost to purchase organic food. Half of the food managers felt that they did not have sufficient financial resources. The remaining three had somewhat differing opinions about  the resources that were available. There were no common barriers to the procurement of organic food.

  • 200.
    Persson, Katarina
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Medias påverkan på individers kostvanor och fysiska aktivitet: en kvalitativ studie om livsstilsbudskap och hälsa2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    I dagens samhälle sprids budskap om hälsa och en hälsosam livsstil genom en mängd olika informationskanaler, där kanske den största är media. Då mediavärlden kan ses som en stark trendsättare och då de flesta människor på ett eller annat sätt kommer i kontakt med media och dess budskap, var syftet med denna studie att undersöka hur individen upplever att medias budskap om hälsa påverkar livsstilen gällande kostvanor och fysisk aktivitet. Vilka mediabudskap rörande kost och fysisk aktivitet nås individen av? Hur stämmer dessa överens med officiella rekommendationer och hur upplever individen att livsstilsval påverkas av dessa budskap? Studiedesignen var empirisk, kvalitativ av deskriptiv karaktär. Sammanlagt har nitton semistrukturerade intervjuer genomförts, med tre män och sexton kvinnor. Åldersfördelningen varierade mellan arton och femtiosju år. Det insamlade intervjumaterialet analyserades genom en innehållsanalys som visade att mediabudskap påverkade informanterna olika beroende på ålder, intresse och livssituation samt yrke. Bland de yngre informanterna relaterades kost och fysisk aktivitet i hög grad till utseendet. Medias budskap kunde även upplevas som en press, där en smal kroppsbyggnad bland de yngre kvinnorna var förknippad med bättre självförtroende och psykiskt välbefinnande. Vad gällde kosthållning kunde stressen i vardagen vara en avgörande faktor, men där även media och samhället hade en avgörande roll och var viktiga trendsättare.

    Bland de äldre informanterna fick riskbudskap om livsmedel, livsmedels ursprung och innehåll större utrymme, och manade till eftertanke i högre utsträckning än andra mediabudskap. Kroppens åldrande och vikten av att hålla igång för att slippa värk var i högre grad motiverande för träning och fysisk aktivitet än medias budskap om ett vackrare utseende. Majoriteten av informanternas mål med hälsa och livsstil var att må bra, träna mer och ta hand om sig själva. Flertalet hävdade också att mediabudskap inte helt gick att lita på. Bland de yngre informanterna fanns en hög grad av medvetenhet kring hur media förvränger och omvandlar budskap om kroppsideal och utseende, varpå påverkan upplevdes ske medvetet, trots att full förståelse fanns för att budskapen varken var sanningsenliga eller verklighetstrogna.

123456 151 - 200 of 270
RefereraExporteraLink til resultatlisten
Permanent link
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • harvard-cite-them-right
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annet format
Fler format
Språk
  • sv-SE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • de-DE
  • Annet språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf