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  • 151.
    Hallman, David
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Jørgensen, Marie Birk
    Holtermann, Andreas
    Har fysisk aktivitet på arbete och fritid betydelse för återhämtning från nacksmärta hos arbetare?: En prospektiv studie med objektiva mätningar2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Syfte

    Kunskapen om vilka faktorer som påverkar förloppet av smärta i nacke/skuldra hos personer med manuella arbeten är mycket begränsad. Syftet med föreliggande prospektiva studie var att undersöka sambandet mellan objektivt registrerad fysisk aktivitet på arbetet och fritiden med förloppet av smärta över ett år hos kvinnor och män med manuellt arbete.

    Metod

    Data samlades in från 625 arbetare inom industri, städning och transport sektorerna från den Danska kohorten DPHACTO. Fysisk aktivitet mättes objektivt vid baslinje med 4 accelerometrar (Actigraph GT3X+) under 1-5 arbetsdagar. Mjukvaran Acti4 användes för att klassificera olika typer av fysisk aktivitet (gå, gå i trapport, cykla, springa). Andel tid i fysisk aktivitet beräknades separat för arbete och fritid. Textmeddelanden (SMS) med frågor om smärtintensitet i nacke/skuldra (skala 0-10) sändes ut till deltagarna med fyra veckors intervall under 12 månader. Linear mixed models användes för att fastställa samband mellan fysisk aktivitet på arbete och fritid med nivå och förändring av smärta över tid, med justering för potentiella konfounders.

    Resultat

    Fysisk aktivitet på arbetet var inte associerat med genomsnittlig smärtnivå, men fysisk aktivitet på fritiden var associerat med lägre smärta både hos kvinnor (B=-0.71, 95 % CI -1.31‒-0.11) och män (B=-0.85, 95 % CI -1.57‒-0.13). Vi fann en signifikant interaktion mellan fysisk aktivitet och kön på förändring av smärta. Fysisk aktivitet på arbetet var relaterat till långsammare återhämtning av smärta hos män (B=0.03, 95 % CI 0.01‒0.05), medan fysisk aktivitet på fritiden var associerat med långsammare återhämtning hos kvinnor.

    Slutsatser

    Resultaten indikerar att fysisk aktivitet på fritiden har en skyddande effekt på smärta i nacke/skuldra hos personer med manuellt arbete. Betydelsen av fysisk aktivitet på arbetet och fritiden för återhämtning av smärta tycks skilja sig mellan kvinnor och män, vilket kan bero på skillnader i exponering, vila och återhämtning. 

  • 152.
    Hallman, David
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Lindberg, Lars-Göran
    Dept of biomedical engineering, Linköping University.
    Arnetz, Bengt
    division of public health and caring sciences, Uppsala university.
    Lyskov, Eugene
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Effects of static contraction and cold stimulation on cardiovascular autonomic indices, trapezius blood flow and muscle activity in chronic neck-shoulder pain2011Inngår i: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 111, nr 8, s. 1725-1735Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to investigate reactions in trapezius muscle blood flow (MBF), muscle activity, heart rate variability (HRV) and systemic blood pressure (BP) to autonomic tests in subjects with chronic neck-shoulder pain and healthy controls. Changes in muscle activity and blood flow due to stress and unfavourable muscle loads are known underlying factors of work-related muscle pain. Aberration of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) is considered a possible mechanism. In the present study, participants (n = 23 Pain, n = 22 Control) performed autonomic tests which included a resting condition, static hand grip test (HGT) at 30% of maximal voluntary contraction, a cold pressor test (CPT) and a deep breathing test (DBT). HRV was analysed in time and frequency domains. MBF and muscle activity were recorded from the upper trapezius muscles using photoplethysmography and electromyography (EMG). The pain group showed reduced low frequency-HRV (LF) and SDNN during rest, as well as a blunted BP response and increased LF-HRV during HGT (∆systolic 22 mm Hg; ∆LF(nu) 27%) compared with controls (∆systolic 27; ∆LF(nu) 6%). Locally, the pain group had attenuated trapezius MBF in response to HGT (Pain 122% Control 140%) with elevated trapezius EMG following HGT and during CPT. In conclusion, only HGT showed differences between groups in systemic BP and HRV and alterations in local trapezius MBF and EMG in the pain group. Findings support the hypothesis of ANS involvement at systemic and local levels in chronic neck-shoulder pain.

  • 153.
    Hallman, David M.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Birk Jørgensen, Marie
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark; University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Objectively measured physical activity and 12-month trajectories of neck-shoulder pain in workers: a prospective study in DPHACTO2017Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 45, nr 3, s. 288-298Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: This study aimed to investigate the association between objectively measured physical activity at work and leisure and the intensity (mean level and time course) of neck–shoulder pain (NSP) over 12 months among male and female blue collar workers. Methods: Data were obtained from 625 blue collar workers from the Danish cohort DPHACTO. Physical activity was measured objectively at baseline using accelerometers. The percentage of time spent in physical activity (walking, climbing stairs, running and cycling) was calculated for both work and leisure time. Longitudinal data on the intensity of NSP (numerical rating scale 0–10) were collected using text messages every fourth week over 12 months. Linear mixed models were used to investigate the associations between occupational physical activity (OPA) and leisure time physical activity (LTPA) and the trajectories of the intensity of NSP, adjusted for individual, biomechanical and psychosocial factors, and baseline pain. Results: OPA was not associated with the mean intensity of NSP over 12 months. LTPA was negatively associated with the mean intensity of NSP both among men (B=−0.71, 95% CI −1.31 to −0.11) and women (B=−0.85, 95% CI −1.57 to −0.13). Sex interactions on the 12-month trajectories of NSP showed that higher physical activity was associated with a slower reduction in NSP among men for OPA only (B=0.03, 95% CI 0.01-0.05) and women for LTPA only (B=0.05, 95% CI 0.00-0.09). Conclusions: We found that more time in LTPA was associated with a lower overall intensity of NSP over 12 months among blue collar workers. However, depending on sex and domain, high physical activity had an unfavourable effect on the course of NSP over 12 months.

  • 154.
    Hallman, David M.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Heiden, Marina
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Gupta, Nidhi
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Birk Jørgensen, Marie
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Temporal patterns of sitting at work are associated with neck-shoulder pain in blue-collar workers: a cross-sectional analysis of accelerometer data in the DPHACTO study2016Inngår i: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 89, nr 5, s. 823-833Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Our aim was to examine the extent to which temporal patterns of sitting during occupational work and during leisure-time, assessed using accelerometry, are associated with intense neck–shoulder pain (NSP) in blue-collar workers.

    Methods

    The population consisted of 659 Danish blue-collar workers. Accelerometers were attached to the thigh, hip, trunk and upper dominant arm to measure sitting time and physical activity across four consecutive days. Temporal sitting patterns were expressed separately for work and leisure by the proportion of total time spent sitting in brief bursts (0–5 min), moderate (>5–20 min) and prolonged (>20 min) periods. The peak NSP intensity during the previous 3 months was assessed using a numerical rating scale (range 0–10) and dichotomized into a lower (≤4) and higher (>4) NSP score. Logistic regression analyses with multiple adjustments for individual and occupational factors were performed to determine the association between brief, moderate and prolonged sitting periods, and NSP intensity.

    Results

    Time in brief bursts of occupational sitting was negatively associated with NSP intensity (adjusted OR 0.68, 95 % CI 0.48–0.98), while time in moderate periods of occupational sitting showed a positive association with NSP (adjusted OR 1.32, 95 % CI 1.04–1.69). Time in prolonged periods of occupational sitting was not associated with NSP (adjusted OR 0.78, 95 % CI 0.78–1.09). We found no significant association between brief, moderate or prolonged sitting periods during leisure, and NSP.

    Conclusion

    Our findings indicate that the association between occupational sitting time and intense NSP among blue-collar workers is sensitive to the temporal pattern of sitting.

  • 155.
    Hallman, David M.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Lyskov, Eugene
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Long-term monitoring of physical behavior reveals different cardiac responses to physical activity among subjects with and without chronic neck pain2015Inngår i: BioMed Research International, ISSN 2314-6133, E-ISSN 2314-6141, Vol. 2015, artikkel-id 907482Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background We determined the extent to which heart rate variability (HRV) responses to daily physical activity differ between subjects with and without chronic neck pain.

    Method Twenty-nine subjects (13 women) with chronic neck pain and 27 age- and gender-matched healthy controls participated. Physical activity (accelerometry), HRV (heart rate monitor) and spatial location (Global Positioning System (GPS)) were recorded for 74 hours. GPS data were combined with a diary to identify periods of work, and of leisure at home and elsewhere. Time- and frequency-domain HRV indices were calculated, and stratified by period and activity type (lying/sitting, standing, or walking). ANCOVAs with multiple adjustments were used to disclose possible group differences in HRV.

    Results The pain group showed a reduced HRV response to physical activity compared with controls (p=.001), according to the sympathetic-baroreceptor HRV index (LF/HF, ratio between low and high frequency power), even after adjustment for leisure time physical activity, work stress, sleep quality, mental health, and aerobic capacity (p=.02). The parasympathetic response to physical activity did not differ between groups.

    Conclusions Relying on long-term monitoring of physical behavior and heart rate variability, we found an aberrant sympathetic-baroreceptor response to daily physical activity among subjects with chronic neck pain.

  • 156.
    Hallman, David M.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Nørregaard Rasmussen, Charlotte D.
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Jørgensen, Marie Birk
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark; Department of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Time course of neck-shoulder pain among workers: A longitudinal latent class growth analysis.2018Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 44, nr 1, s. 47-57, artikkel-id 3690Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives

    The aims of this study were to (i) identify trajectories of neck-shoulder pain (NSP) over one year in an occupational population and (ii) determine whether these trajectories are predicted by NSP characteristics as well as personal and occupational factors at baseline.

    Methods

    This longitudinal study was conducted among Danish workers (N=748) from 2012-2014. Text messages were used to collect frequent data on NSP over one year (14 waves in total). Peak NSP intensity in the past month was rated on a 0-10 numeric scale. A baseline questionnaire covered NSP characteristics (pain intensity, duration, comorbidity, pain medication, and pain interference) as well as personal (age, gender, body mass index) and occupational (seniority, work type, physical strain at work) factors. Latent class growth analysis was used to distinguish trajectories of NSP. Multivariate regression models with odds ratios (OR) were constructed to predict trajectories of NSP.

    Results

    Six distinct trajectories of NSP were identified (asymptomatic 11%, very low NSP 10%, low recovering NSP 18%, moderate recovering NSP 28%, strong fluctuating NSP 24% and severe persistent NSP 9% of the workers). Female gender, age, physical strain at work, NSP intensity and duration, pain medication, and pain interference in daily work at baseline were positively associated with severe persistent NSP and strong fluctuating NSP (all P<0.05). Altogether, personal and occupational factors accounted for 14% of the variance, while NSP characteristics accounted for 54%.

    Conclusions

    In an occupational sample, six distinct trajectories of NSP were identified. Physical strain at work appears to be a pertinent occupational factor predicting strong fluctuating and severe persistent NSP.

  • 157.
    Hallman, David
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Gupta, Nidhi
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Korshøj, Mette
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Differences between work and leisure in temporal patterns of objectively measured physical activity among blue-collar workers2015Inngår i: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 15, nr 1, artikkel-id 976Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Leisure time physical activity (LTPA) is generally associated with favorable cardiovascular health outcomes, while occupational physical activity (OPA) shows less clear, or even opposite, cardiovascular effects. This apparent paradox is not sufficiently understood, but differences in temporal patterns of OPA and LTPA have been suggested as one explanation. Our aim was to investigate the extent to which work and leisure (non-occupational time) differ in temporal activity patterns among blue-collar workers, and to assess the modification of these patterns by age and gender.

    Methods

    This study was conducted on a cross-sectional sample of male (n = 108) and female (n = 83) blue-collar workers, aged between 21 and 65 years. Physical activity and sedentary behavior were assessed using accelerometers (Actigraph GT3X+) worn on the thigh and trunk for four consecutive days. Temporal patterns of OPA and LTPA were retrieved using Exposure Variation Analysis (EVA), and expressed in terms of percentage of work and leisure time spent in uninterrupted periods of different durations (<1 min, 1–5 min, 5–10 min, 10–30 min, 30–60 min and > 60 min) of sitting, standing, and walking. Repeated measures ANOVA and linear regression analyses were used to test a) possible differences between OPA and LTPA in selected EVA derivatives, and b) the modification of these differences by age and gender.

    Results

    OPA showed a larger percentage time walking in brief (<5 min) periods [mean (SD): 33.4 % (12.2)], and less time in prolonged (>30 min) sitting [7.0 % (9.3)] than LTPA [walking 15.4 % (5.0); sitting 31.9 % (15.3)], even after adjustment for the difference between work and leisure in total time spent in each activity type. These marked differences in the temporal pattern of OPA and LTPA were modified by gender, but not age.

    Conclusion

    We found that the temporal patterns of OPA and LTPA among blue-collar workers were markedly different even after adjustment for total physical activity time, and that this difference was modified by gender. We recommend using EVA derivatives in future studies striving to disentangle the apparent paradoxical cardiovascular effect of physical activity at work and during leisure.

  • 158.
    Hallman, David
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Heiden, Marina
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Birk Jørgensen, Marie
    Holtermann, Andreas
    Rudolfsson, Thomas
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Björklund, Martin
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Svedmark, Åsa
    Djupsjöbacka, Mats
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Hellström, Fredrik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Rönnlund Borg, Tina
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Häger, Charlotte
    Sommar, Johan
    Wahlström, Jens
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Symposium: Arbete, individ och nacksmärta: Forskning vid Forte-centret “Kroppen i arbete – från problem till potential”2018Inngår i: FALF KONFERENS 2018 Arbetet - problem eller potential för en hållbar livsmiljö? 10-12 juni 2018 i Gävle: Program och Abstracts / [ed] Per Lindberg, Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2018, s. 102-Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [sv]

    Besvär ifrån kroppens muskler och leder såsom nack- och ryggbesvär är fortfarande ett stort problem inom arbetslivet. Muskuloskeletal diagnos är den vanligaste orsaken till lång sjukfrånvaro inom privat sektor och näst vanligast inom kommuner och landsting. Orsakerna till dessa besvär kan vara relaterade till exponering både under arbete och på fritid, men även till individfaktorer. Vår forskargrupp har en bred ansats för att fylla kunskapsluckor inom detta område och kommer att presentera resultat från flera forskningsprojekt i symposiet Arbete, individ och nacksmärta.

    Långvarigt sittande har blivit alltmer vanligt förekommande i många yrkesgrupper. Långvarigt sittande och låg fysisk aktivitet har också uppmärksammats som ett betydande hälsoproblem i dagens arbetsliv och även som en möjlig riskfaktor för smärta i nacke-skuldra. Men forskningen om betydelsen av långvarigt sittande för smärta i nacke-skuldra är fortfarande begränsad. Likaså är det oklart om huvudets hållning vid sittandet och nackens funktion, exempelvis nackens rörelsefunktion och styrka, har betydelse för besvärsutveckling. Statiskt arbete med nacken i vridna och böjda positioner misstänks vara en riskfaktor för nack-skuldersmärta i yrken såsom tandläkare, men det är oklart varför vissa exponerade individer drabbas medan andra inte får ont. För de med långvarig smärta krävs ofta rehabiliterande åtgärder, och hur väl dessa åtgärder lyckas kan även det vara beroende av individens fysiska och psykosociala arbetsmiljö. Individens arbetsmiljö påverkar således inte bara risken för om man får besvär utan kan också ha betydelse för hur rehabiliteringen av besvären lyckas.

    Syftet med detta symposium är att presentera studier från Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning som handlar om nacksmärta i arbetslivet, sammanfatta kunskapsläget inom området och diskutera hur arbetet kan utformas för att bli hållbart och inkluderande. De forskningsexempel som presenteras berör stillasittande och hållning i arbetslivet och dess tänkbara konsekvenser för nacksmärta och hälsa, riskfaktorer för nacksmärta i tandläkaryrket och arbetsmiljöns betydelse för resultatet av rehabilitering vid nacksmärta. Symposiet avslutas med en frågestund och gemensam diskussion.

  • 159.
    Hallman, David
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Jahncke, Helena
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Sitting patterns after relocation to activity-based offices: a controlled study of a natural intervention2018Inngår i: Preventive Medicine, ISSN 0091-7435, E-ISSN 1096-0260, Vol. 111, s. 384-390Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study determined the effect of relocating workers from traditional to activity-based offices on objectively measured sitting patterns. Office workers (n=493) from five office-sites within a large Swedish government agency were included in a controlled study of a natural intervention (2015-2017). At four sites, traditional offices were replaced by activity-based offices, while workers at one site with no relocation acted as controls. Sitting, standing and walking were measured objectively for 5-8days in a sub-sample (n=110) using accelerometry (Actigraph). Total sitting time (% of working time) and time spent in short (<5min), moderate (5-30min) and prolonged (>30min) uninterrupted periods in sitting were determined. Intervention effects were determined at 3- and 12-month follow-ups using linear mixed models adjusted for baseline age, gender and office type, and stratified by office-site (referencing controls). The relocation to activity-based offices did not result in an overall effect (across sites) on occupational sitting time (all p>0.05), while walking time had increased significantly by 1.4% of the working time at 12months compared with controls. Heterogeneous results were found across offices after 12months on total sitting time compared with controls (estimated change -18.3% time-1.4% time), prolonged sitting (change -18.3% to -3.8%), walking (change 0.5%-3.5%) and standing (change -1.4%-13.9%). In conclusion, relocation to activity-based offices had a limited overall effect on occupational sitting patterns in the studied organization, but differed considerably between office sites. Site-specific determinants of sitting behavior in activity-based offices need be identified.

  • 160.
    Hallman, David
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    van der Beek, Allard
    Department of Public and Occupational Health, Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
    Jackson, Jennie
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Coenen, Pieter
    Department of Public and Occupational Health, Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
    Calibration of self-reported time spent sitting, standing and walking among office workers: a compositional data analysis2019Inngår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 16, nr 17, artikkel-id 3111Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We developed and evaluated calibration models predicting objectively measured sitting, standing and walking time from self-reported data using a compositional data analysis (CoDA) approach. A total of 98 office workers (48 women) at the Swedish Transport Administration participated. At baseline and three-months follow-up, time spent sitting, standing and walking at work was assessed for five working days using a thigh-worn accelerometer (Actigraph), as well as by self-report (IPAQ). Individual compositions of time spent in the three behaviors were expressed by isometric log-ratios (ILR). Calibration models predicting objectively measured ILRs from self-reported ILRs were constructed using baseline data, and then validated using follow-up data. Un-calibrated self-reports were inaccurate; root-mean-square (RMS) errors of ILRs for sitting, standing and walking were 1.21, 1.24 and 1.03, respectively. Calibration reduced these errors to 36% (sitting), 40% (standing), and 24% (walking) of those prior to calibration. Calibration models remained effective for follow-up data, reducing RMS errors to 33% (sitting), 51% (standing), and 31% (walking). Thus, compositional calibration models were effective in reducing errors in self-reported physical behaviors during office work. Calibration of self-reports may present a cost-e_ective method for obtaining physical behavior data with satisfying accuracy in large-scale cohort and intervention studies.

  • 161.
    Hallman, David
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Niklas, Krause
    Departments of Epidemiology and Environmental Health Sciences, Fielding School of Public Health, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA.
    Jensen, Magnus Thorsten
    Department of Cardiology, Copenhagen University Hospital, Gentofte, Denmark.
    Gupta, Nidhi
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Birk Jørgensen, Marie
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Objectively measured sitting and standing in workers: Cross-sectional relationship with autonomic cardiac modulation2019Inngår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 16, nr 4, artikkel-id 650Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Excessive sitting and standing are proposed risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), possibly due to autonomic imbalance. This study examines the association of objectively measured sitting and standing with nocturnal autonomic cardiac modulation. The cross-sectional study examined 490 blue-collar workers in three Danish occupational sectors. Sitting and standing during work and leisure were assessed during 1–5 days using accelerometers. Heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) were obtained during nocturnal sleep as markers of resting autonomic modulation. The associations of sitting and standing still (h/day) with HR and HRV were assessed with linear regression models, adjusted for age, gender, body mass index, smoking, and physical activity. More sitting time during leisure was associated with elevated HR (p = 0.02), and showed a trend towards reduced HRV. More standing time at work was associated with lower HR (p = 0.02), and with increased parasympathetic indices of HRV (root mean squared successive differences of R-R intervals p = 0.05; high-frequency power p = 0.07). These findings, while cross-sectional and restricted to blue-collar workers, suggest that sitting at leisure is detrimental to autonomic cardiac modulation, but standing at work is beneficial. However, the small effect size is likely insufficient to mitigate the previously shown detrimental effects of prolonged standing on CVD.

  • 162.
    Hallman, David
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi.
    Nørregaard Rasmussen, Charlotte
    National research centre for the working environment, Denmark.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National research centre for the working environment, Denmark.
    Time-use composition of physical behaviors at work and sick-leave trajectories due to musculoskeletal pain2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    There is limited knowledge on the influence of physical behaviors at work such as sitting, standing, low- (LIPA) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) on sick leave due to pain. Studies addressing this relationship using valid objective measures of physical behaviors are scarce. The aim was to determine the prospective association between time-use compositions of physical behavior at work with sick leave trajectories due to musculoskeletal pain.

    Methods

    Data on 981 workers were analyzed in the DPHACTO cohort (2012-2014). Physical behaviors at work were assessed objectively at baseline using accelerometers, and the resulting time-line of exposure at work was classified as sitting, standing, low- (LIPA) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). The number of days on sick leave due to musculoskeletal pain was reported using text messages at 4-week intervals across 1 year (14 waves in total). Latent class growth analysis was used to distinguish sub-groups with different trajectories of sick leave. Associations between time-use in physical behaviors and sick leave trajectories were determined using multinomial regression analysis with adjustment for age and gender. Compositional data analysis was used to account for the co-dependency of different behaviors.

    Results

    We identified four distinct trajectories of sick leave due to pain over one year as follows: no days (prevalence 76%), few days-increasing (19%), some days-decreasing (3%), and some days-increasing (2%). Spending more time in sitting relative to the other behaviors was associated with a reduced likelihood of few days-increasing sick leave (class 2 p<0.001), while time in LIPA was associated with an increased likelihood of some days-increasing sick leave (class 4 p=0.001).

    Conclusion

    We found that the time-use composition of physical behaviors at work was associated with sick leave trajectories due to pain over 1 year. Reducing time in occupational physical activities in favor of sitting may be useful for preventing sick leave due to musculoskeletal pain.

  • 163.
    Hallman, David
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Short- and long-term reliability of heart rate variability indices during repetitive low-force work2015Inngår i: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 115, s. 803-812Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose Heart rate variability (HRV) is often monitored in occupational studies as a measure of cardiac autonomic activation, but the reliability of commonly used HRV indices is poorly understood. In the present study, we determined the variability between and within subjects of common HRV indices during a repetitive low-force occupational task, i.e. pipetting, and interpreted the results in terms of necessary sample sizes in studies comparing HRV between conditions or groups.

    Methods Fourteen healthy female subjects performed a standardized pipetting task in the laboratory on three separate days within a short time-span (<2 weeks), and on one additional occasion six months later. A number of standard HRV indices were calculated in both time and frequency domains. For each HRV index, variance components were estimated between subjects, within subjects between occasions far apart in time, and within subjects between days within a two-week period.

    Results We found that the time interval between repeated measurements did not influence the extent of HRV variability, and that the reliability of most HRV indices was sufficient for even small study samples (30 subjects or less) to be able to detect, with satisfying power (>0.80), a significant 10% to 20% difference in HRV between groups, and between conditions within individuals.

    Conclusions We conclude that HRV can be used as a reliable and feasible marker of autonomic activity in occupational studies of repetitive low-force work.

  • 164.
    Hansson, Gert-Åke
    et al.
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
    Arvidsson, Inger
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
    Ohlsson, Kerstina
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
    Nordander, Catarina
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap.
    Skerfving, Staffan
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
    Balogh, Istvan
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
    Precision of measurements of physical workload during standardised manual handling: Part II : Inclinometry of head, upper back, neck and upper arms2006Inngår i: Journal of Electromyography & Kinesiology, ISSN 1050-6411, E-ISSN 1873-5711, Vol. 16, nr 2, s. 125-136Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    For measuring the physical exposure/workload in studies of work-related musculoskeletal disorders, direct measurements are valuable. However, the between-days and between-subjects variability, as well as the precision of the method per se, are not well known. In a laboratory, six women performed three standardised assembly tasks, all of them repeated on three different days. Triaxial inclinometers were applied to the head, upper back and upper arms. Between-days (within subjects) and between-subjects (within tasks) variance components were derived for the 10th, 50th and 90th percentiles of the angular and the angular velocity distributions, and for the proportion of time spent in predefined angular sectors. For percentiles of the angular distributions, the average between-days variability was 3.4 degrees , and the between-subjects variability 4.0 degrees . For proportion of time spent in angular sectors, the variability depended on the percentage of time spent in the sector; the relative variability was scattered and large, on average 103% between days and 56% between subjects. For the angular velocity percentiles, the average between-days variability was 7.9%, and the average between-subjects variability was 22%. The contribution of the measurement procedure per se to the between-days variability, i.e., the imprecision of the method, was small: less than 2 degrees for angles and 3% for angular velocity.

  • 165.
    Hassler, Sven
    et al.
    Southern Lapland Research Departement, Vilhelmina, Sweden; Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, University West, Trollhattan, Sweden.
    Sjölander, Per
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Grönberg, Henrik
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Johansson, Robert
    Department of Radiation Sciences/Oncology, University of Umeå, Umeå, Sweden.
    Damber, Lena
    Department of Radiation Sciences/Oncology, University of Umeå, Umeå, Sweden.
    Cancer in the Sami population of Sweden in relation to lifestyle and genetic factors2008Inngår i: European Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0393-2990, E-ISSN 1573-7284, Vol. 23, nr 4, s. 273-280Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The reindeer herding Sami of Sweden have low incidences of cancer. The aim of the present study was to investigate the cancer risk in a large cohort of Swedish Sami, containing Sami with different lifestyle and genetic Sami heritage. A cohort of 41,721 Sami identified in official national registers between 1960 and 1997, was divided into two sub-populations - reindeer herding Sami (RS) and non-reindeer herding Sami (NRS). A demographically matched non-Sami reference population (NS) was used as standard when incidence and mortality ratios were calculated. Incidence and mortality data were obtained from the Swedish Cancer and Cause of Death Registers for the period 1961–2003. For Sami men, lower risks were found for cancers of the colon and prostate, and for malignant melanoma and non-Hodkins lymphoma, but higher for stomach cancer. The Sami women showed higher risks for cancers of the stomach and the ovaries, but lower risk for cancer of the bladder. The RS demonstrated lower relative cancer risks compared with the NRS. The lowest relative risk was found among the RS men, while the highest were observed among the NRS women. The RS men who had adopted a more westernized lifestyle showed a similar relative risk for prostate cancer as that of the NS living in the same region. Most of these differences in cancer risks could probably be ascribed to differences in lifestyle. It is concluded that the traditional Sami lifestyle contains elements, e.g. dietary contents and physical activity that may protect them from developing cancer.

  • 166.
    Hed Ekman, Annika
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Effects of an intervention to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary time in workers with neck pain: A randomized controlled study2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Chronic neck pain is a problem that may be prevented and treated by physical activity. Little is known about effective interventions to increase physical activity in workers with neck pain.

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of an intervention aimed at increasing physical activity among workers with chronic neck pain.

    Design: A 10-week randomized controlled study in a population of 35 (intervention n= 19, control n= 16) workers. Physical activity was assessed using a tri-axial accelerometer pre and post the intervention.

    Outcomes: Daily steps, metabolic equivalent, proportions of time spent sitting/lying, standing and walking, and sit-to stand transitions. Linear mixed model was used to analyze the intervention effect (group × time) adjusted for the baseline value for each outcome.

    Results: There was no significant intervention effect on steps, metabolic equivalent, walking or sit-to stand transitions. There were significant intervention effects on decreased time spent sitting/lying (p=0.010) and increased standing (p=0.017).

     

    Conclusion: No differences between intervention and control groups were found in parameters of total physical activity. However sedentary time decreased substantially in intervention group and was replaced by standing time. Larger studies using objective assessments of physical activity and sedentary behavior, investigating the effects of changes in PA and sedentary behavior on pain and health outcomes, in a working population with chronic neck pain are recommended.

  • 167.
    Heiden, Marina
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Belastningsskadecentrum.
    Barnekow-Bergkvist, Margareta
    Högskolan i Gävle, Belastningsskadecentrum.
    Nakata, Minori
    Högskolan i Gävle, Belastningsskadecentrum.
    Lyskov, Eugene
    Högskolan i Gävle, Belastningsskadecentrum.
    Autonomic activity, pain, and perceived health in patients on sick leave due to stress-related illnesses2005Inngår i: Integrative Physiological & Behavioral Science, ISSN 1053-881X, E-ISSN 2168-7846, Vol. 40, nr 1, s. 3-16Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to compare autonomic activity, pressure-pain thresholds, and subjective assessments of health and behavior between patients with stress-related illnesses and healthy control subjects. Methods: Twenty sick-listed patients with stress-related disorders and 20 age- and gender-matched healthy subjects performed tests of autonomic regulation and algometric tests, and completed questionnaires about physical and mental health and behavioral patterns. Results: Patients exhibited higher autonomic reactivity to cognitive and physical laboratory tasks (p<0.05), and had lower pressure-pain thresholds in the shoulders and lower back than healthy control subjects (p<0.05). Furthermore, the patients rated considerably poorer health and health behavior than the control subjects (p<0.05). Conclusions: The results indicate an engagement of the autonomic nervous system in stress-related illnesses. Furthermore, they show that patients with stress-related illnesses experience strong symptoms of musculoskeletal pain, and it is therefore recommended that assessments of musculoskeletal pain be incorporated in the clinical examinations and the rehabilitation of patients with stress-related illnesses.

  • 168.
    Heiden, Marina
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Garza, Jennifer
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Trask, Catherine
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Cost-efficient assessment of variation in arm posture during paper mill work2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Arm posture is a recognized risk factor for occupational upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders and thus often assessed in research and practice. Posture assessment methods differ in cost, feasibility and, perhaps, bias. An attractive approach could be to build statistical models for predicting results of expensive direct measurements of arm posture from cheaper or more accessible data, and apply them to large samples in which only the latter data are available. We aimed to build and assess the performance of such prediction models in a random sample of paper mill workers.

    Methods. 28 workers were recruited to the study, and their upper arm postures were measured during three full work shifts using inclinometers. Simultaneously, the workers were video filmed, and their arm posture and gross body posture were assessed by observing the video afterwards. Models for predicting the inclinometer-assessed duration (proportion of time) and frequency (number/min) of periods spent in neutral right arm posture (<20°) were fitted using subject and observer as random factors, measured shift (1, 2 or 3) as fixed factor, and either observed time in neutral right arm angle or observed gross body posture as predictor.

    Results. For the proportion of time spent in neutral arm posture, the best performance was achieved by using observed gross body posture as predictor (explained variance: R2=26%; standard error: SE=9.8). For the frequency of periods spent in neutral arm posture, the corresponding model fit was R2=60% and SE=5.6. Bootstrap resample validation of the latter model showed an expected performance in other samples of R2=59-60% and SE=5.5-5.6 (5th-95th percentile).

    Discussion. Surprisingly, we found that observed gross body posture was a better predictor of variation in arm posture than observed arm angles. The findings suggest that arm posture during paper mill work can be cost-efficiently assessed using simple observations.

  • 169.
    Heiden, Marina
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Garza, Jennifer
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, USA.
    Trask, Catherine
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Canadian Centre for Health and Safety in Agriculture, College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Predicting directly measured trunk and upper arm postures in paper mill work from administrative data, workers’ ratings and posture observations2017Inngår i: Annals of Work Exposures & Health, ISSN 2398-7308, Vol. 61, nr 2, s. 207-217Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: A cost-efficient alternative to measuring working postures directly could be to build statistical models for predicting results of such measurements from cheaper data, and apply these models to samples in which only the latter data are available. The present study aimed to build and assess the performance of statistical models predicting inclinometer-assessed trunk and arm posture among paper mill workers. Separate models were built using administrative data, workers’ ratings of their exposure, and observations of the work from video recordings as predictors.

    Methods: Trunk and upper arm postures were measured using inclinometry on 28 paper mill workers during three work shifts each. Simultaneously, the workers were video filmed, and their postures were assessed by observation of the videos afterwards. Workers’ ratings of exposure, and administrative data on staff and production during the shifts were also collected. Linear mixed models were fitted for predicting inclinometer-assessed exposure variables (median trunk and upper arm angle, proportion of time with neutral trunk and upper arm posture, and frequency of periods in neutral trunk and upper arm inclination) from administrative data, workers’ ratings, and observations, respectively. Performance was evaluated in terms of Akaike information criterion, proportion of variance explained (R2), and standard error of the model estimate (SE). For models performing well, validity was assessed by bootstrap resampling.

    Results: Models based on administrative data performed poorly (R2≤15%) and would not be useful for assessing posture in this population. Models using workers’ ratings of exposure performed slightly better (8%≤R2≤27% for trunk posture; 14%≤R2≤36% for arm posture). The best model was obtained when using observational data for predicting frequency of periods with neutral arm inclination. It explained 56% of the variance in the postural exposure, and its SE was 5.6. Bootstrap validation of this model showed similar expected performance in other samples (5th-95th percentile: R2=45-63%; SE=5.1-6.2).

    Conclusions: Observational data had a better ability to predict inclinometer-assessed upper arm exposures than workers’ ratings or administrative data, but they are typically more expensive to obtain. The results encourage comparisons of the cost-efficiency of modeling based on administrative data, workers’ ratings, and observation.

  • 170.
    Heiden, Marina
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Lyskov, Eugene
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Nakata, Minori
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Sahlin, Karin
    Curomed Utbildning, Umeå, Sweden.
    Sahlin, Tore
    Curomed Utbildning, Umeå, Sweden.
    Barnekow-Bergkvist, Margareta
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Evaluation of cognitive behavioural training and physical activity for patients with stress-related illnesses: a randomized controlled study2007Inngår i: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, ISSN 1650-1977, E-ISSN 1651-2081, Vol. 39, nr 5, s. 366-373Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of a cognitive behavioural training programme and a physical activity programme for patients with stress-related illnesses. DESIGN: In a randomized controlled study, patients were allocated randomly to 1 of 3 groups, where group 1 participated in a cognitive behavioural training programme, group 2 participated in a physical activity programme, and group 3, the control group, was offered usual care for the course of the study. SUBJECTS: A total of 75 patients participated in the study. They had been on sick leave for at least 50% of the time for between 1 month and 2 years due to stress-related illnesses. METHODS: Measurements of autonomic activity, pressure-pain thresholds and subjective ratings of health and behaviour were made before and after a 10-week intervention period, and at 6 and 12 months after the intervention. RESULTS: Minor differences in autonomic activity and pressure-pain thresholds were found between the groups immediately after the intervention. At the 6- and 12-month follow-up assessments, the differences were no longer present. Patients in the cognitive behavioural training group improved their ratings of general health compared with the physical activity group throughout the study. CONCLUSION: The study showed little difference in the effect of cognitive behavioural training and physical activity, compared with usual care, for patients with stress-related illnesses.

  • 171.
    Heiden, Marina
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Prediction of trunk and upper arm postures in paper mill workers by statistical modelling: an empirical validation study2015Inngår i: Proceedings of the 19th Triennial Congress of the International Ergonomics Association, Melbourne 9-14 August 2015 / [ed] Gitte Lindgaard & Dave Moore, 2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 172.
    Heiden, Marina
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Garza, Jennifer
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, UConn Health, Farmington, CT, United States .
    Liv, Per
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Centre for Research and Development, Uppsala University/County Council of Gävleborg.
    Wahlström, Jens
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    A comparison of two strategies for building an exposure prediction model2016Inngår i: Annals of Occupational Hygiene, ISSN 0003-4878, E-ISSN 1475-3162, Vol. 60, nr 1, s. 74-89Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cost-efficient assessments of job exposures in large populations may be obtained from models in which “true” exposures assessed by expensive measurement methods are estimated from easily accessible and cheap predictors. Typically, the models are built on the basis of a validation study comprising “true” exposure data as well as an extensive collection of candidate predictors from questionnaires or company data, which cannot all be included in the models due to restrictions in the degrees of freedom available for modeling. In these situations, predictors need to be selected using procedures that can identify the best possible subset of predictors among the candidates. The present study compares two strategies for selecting a set of predictor variables. One strategy relies on stepwise hypothesis testing of associations between predictors and exposure, while the other uses cluster analysis to reduce the number of predictors without relying on empirical information about the measured exposure. Both strategies were applied to the same dataset on biomechanical exposure and candidate predictors among computer users, and they were compared in terms of identified predictors of exposure as well as the resulting model fit using bootstrapped resamples of the original data. The identified predictors were, to a large part, different between the two strategies, and the initial model fit was better for the stepwise testing strategy than for the clustering approach. Internal validation of the models using bootstrap resampling with fixed predictors revealed an equally reduced model fit in resampled datasets for both strategies. However, when predictor selection was incorporated in the validation procedure for the stepwise testing strategy, the model fit was reduced to the extent that both strategies showed similar model fit. Thus, the two strategies would both be expected to perform poorly with respect to predicting biomechanical exposure in other samples of computer users.

  • 173.
    Heiden, Marina
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Richardsson, Linda
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Wiitavaara, Birgitta
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Boman, Eva
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för socialt arbete och psykologi, Psykologi.
    Telecommuting in academia – Associations with staff’s health and well-being2018Inngår i: Proceedings of the 20th Congress of the International Ergonomics Association (IEA 2018): Volume IX: Aging, Gender and Work, Anthropometry, Ergonomics for Children and Educational Environments / [ed] Bagnara S., Tartaglia R., Albolino S., Alexander T., Fujita Y., Cham: Springer, 2018, s. 308-312Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to telecommute has changed working life for staff at universities and colleges. Although the opportunity to work away from the office at any time gives workers more freedom to manage their work, it also imposes higher demands on workers to set limits to their work. The aim of this ongoing study is to determine if there is an optimal amount of telecommuting for male and female academics with respect to perceived health, work stress, recovery, work-life balance, and work motivation. A web-based survey is currently being conducted among lecturers and professors at Swedish universities and colleges. Results so far show that perceived fatigue and stress associated with indistinct organization and conflicts are higher among academics that telecommute to a larger extent. The results also show that female academics are more fatigued and stressed at work than male academics, but this does not seem to be related to the extent of telecommuting performed.

  • 174.
    Heiden, Marina
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Zetterberg, Camilla
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Lindberg, Per
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Nylén, Per
    Swedish Work Environment Authority, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hemphälä, Hillevi
    Division of Ergonomics and Aerosoltechnology, Design Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Validity of a computer-based risk assessment method for visual ergonomics2019Inngår i: International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, ISSN 0169-8141, E-ISSN 1872-8219, Vol. 72, s. 180-187Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    To describe the development of a computer-based risk assessment method for visual ergonomics, and assess its face validity, content validity, and internal consistency.

    Methods

    The risk assessment method contained a questionnaire for the worker, an evaluation form for the evaluator, a section of follow-up questions based on the worker's responses, and a section for recommended changes, including an overall risk assessment with respect to daylight, lighting, illuminance, glare, flicker, work space, work object and work postures, respectively. Forty-eight trained evaluators used the method to perform 224 workplace evaluations. Content validity of the method was assessed by the completeness and distribution of responses, and internal consistency was assessed by Cronbach's alpha, Spearman's rank correlation between items and indices, and exploratory factor analysis.

    Results

    The proportion of missing values in items was generally low (questionnaire: 0–2.3%; evaluation form: 1.4–4.1%). In the questionnaire, items about double vision, migraine and corrective lenses had limited information content. Cronbach's alpha and item-index correlations for the indices frequency of eyestrain, intensity of eyestrain, visual symptoms, lighting conditions, frequency of musculoskeletal discomfort and intensity of musculoskeletal discomfort were satisfactory. Based on the factor analysis, suggestions for improving some of the indices were made.

    Conclusion

    Our findings suggest that this computer-based method is a valid instrument for assessing risks in the visual work environment. By incorporating subjective ratings by the worker as well as objective measurements of the work environment, it provides a good basis for recommendations with respect to daylight, lighting, work surfaces/material, and work object.

    Relevance to industry

    Visual environment factors, such as glare, can cause eyestrain, headache and musculoskeletal discomfort. This method satisfies the need of a valid tool for determining risks associated with the visual work environment. It contains both worker's ratings and objective measurements, and is designed to be used in different types of work.

  • 175.
    Helgadóttir, Björg
    et al.
    Division of Insurance Medicine, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Svedberg, Pia
    Division of Insurance Medicine, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mather, Lisa
    Division of Insurance Medicine, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Unit of Intervention and Implementation Research for Worker Health, The Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Blom, Victoria
    Division of Insurance Medicine, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The association between part-time and temporary employment and sickness absence: a prospective Swedish twin study2019Inngår i: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 29, nr 1, s. 147-153Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Sickness absence (SA) is becoming a major economic problem in many countries. Our aim was to investigate whether type of employment, including temporary employment or part-time employment, is associated with SA while controlling for familial factors (genetic and shared environment). Differences between men and women and across employment sectors were explored.

    Methods: This is a prospective twin study based on 21 105 twins born in Sweden 1959-85. The participants completed a survey in 2005 with follow-up of SA (≥15 days), using register data, until end of 2013. The data were analyzed with logistic regression, with results presented as odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI).

    Results: Temporary employment involved higher odds of SA (OR=1.21 95% CI=1.04-1.40) compared to full-time employment. Both part-time workers (OR=0.84 95% CI=0.74-0.95) and the self-employed (OR=0.77 95%CI=0.62-0.94) had lower odds of SA. Stratifying by sex showed lower odds for part-timers (OR=0.82 95% CI=0.73-0.94) and self-employed women (OR=0.65 95% CI=0.47-0.90), but higher odds for men in temporary employment (OR=1.33 95% CI=1.03-1.72). Temporary employees in county councils (OR=1.73 95% CI=1.01-2.99) and municipalities (OR=1.41 95% CI=1.02-1.96) had higher odds while part-timers employed in the private sector had lower odds (OR=0.77 95% CI=0.64-0.93). Familial factors did not confound the association between employment type and SA.

    Conclusions: Employment type is associated with SA, with temporary employment involving a higher risk compared to permanent full-time employment while both part-time employment and self-employment involved a lower risk. The associations vary between women and men and across sectors.

  • 176.
    Hellström, Fredrik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Work with Highly Repetitive Movements2012Inngår i: Occupational Physiology / [ed] Allan Toomingas, Svend Erik Mathiassen, Ewa Wigaeus Tornqvist, Bosa Roca: Crc Press Inc , 2012, s. 117-139Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 177.
    Hellström, Fredrik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Djupsjöbacka, Mats
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Björklund, Martin
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Metabolic profiles and inflammatory cytokines in people with generalized or local muscle pain2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 178.
    Hemphäla, Hillevi
    et al.
    Ergonomics, Design Sciences, Lund University, Lund.
    Zetterberg, Camilla
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Ergonomics, Design Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden .
    Lindberg, Per
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Heiden, Marina
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Nylén, Per
    Division of Ergonomics, School of Technology and Health, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Huddinge, Sweden; Swedish Work Environment Authority, Stockholm, Sweden.
    A method for assessing risks in visual ergonomics2015Inngår i: Creating Sustainable Work-environments: Proceedings of NES2015, NEHF , 2015, s. B1-1-Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    A method for risk assessment in the field of visual ergonomics is under development. Insufficient visual ability can lead to increased workload and contribute to eyestrain and musculoskeletal discomfort. Although the relation between eyestrain and musculoskeletal discomfort is not fully understood, studies have shown that straining the eyes increases the musculoskeletal activity in the neck and shoulders (trapezius); associations between visually demanding work, eye problems, headaches and/or muscle problems have also been found (Aarås et al., 2001; IESNA, 2011; Zetterlund et al., 2009; Zetterberg et al., 2013; Toomingas et al., 2013; Richter et al., 2011; Richter et al., 2015). Problems due to insufficient visual ergonomics not only exist in computer intensive work, but in other professions as well, such as surgeons and postal workers (Hemphälä et al., 2011; Hemphälä et al.,2012).

    The aim of this project is to develop a practical, easy-to-use, and time efficient risk assessment method for visual ergonomics. With this method, risk factors in the visual environment can be detected, and interventions implemented to reduce the prevalence of symptoms related to poor visual ergonomics among workers.

    Methods

    A first version of the risk assessment method has already been developed. In the spring of 2015, 27 ergonomists were taught visual ergonomics and introduced to the method. After the course, each ergonomist used the method to assess 8-10 workplaces, providing data and practical experiences from approximately 250 risk assessments. These data will be used to further develop and improve the method. During the fall of 2015 and spring of 2016, two other groups, each consisting of 30 ergonomists, will be trained in using the revised version of the risk assessment method in approximately 10 workplaces each. Data from these assessments will be used to test the validity and reliability of the method.

    Results

    The first version of the risk assessment method for visual ergonomics will be presented at NES 2015 together with the results from the approximately 250 risk assessments made by the first group of ergonomists. So far, the factors included in the method are objective measurements of illuminance, luminance contrast, illuminance uniformity values, size of work object, visual angle; expert assessment of the risk for glare; and subjective ratings of visual ability, eyestrain and musculoskeletal discomfort. Some tendencies have been found of correlations between an objectively-rated high risk for glare and eyestrain/headache, as well as between a high contrast glare/luminance ratio and eyestrain.

    Conclusion

    Several factors in the visual environment contribute to wellbeing and the level of performance. In this risk assessment method for visual ergonomics, ergonomists have been trained to evaluate, for example, the risk for glare, as one of the major risks. The risk assessment method presented will be discussed in relation to its usefulness in the prevention of discomfort and work-related disorders at workplaces.

  • 179.
    Hemphälä, Hillevi
    et al.
    Ergonomics, Design Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Zetterberg, Camilla
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Ergonomics, Design Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Lindberg, Per
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Heiden, Marina
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Nylén, Per
    Division of Ergonomics, School of Technology and Health, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Huddinge, Sweden; Swedish Work Environment Authority, Stockholm, Sweden.
    A risk assessment method for visual ergonomics2016Inngår i: NES2016 - ERGONOMICS IN THEORY AND PRACTICE - Proceedings of 48th Annual Conference of Nordic Ergonomics and Human Factors Society / [ed] Susanna Järvelin-Pasanen, Kuopio: School of Medicine , Faculty of Health Sciences : University of Eastern Finland , 2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The visual environment can affect our wellbeing in many ways. Insufficient visual ability can lead to increased workload and contribute to eyestrain and musculoskeletal discomfort that in turn could lead to sick leave. Non-visual effects, such as flicker from luminaires can cause eyestrain or headache/migraine. Glare from luminaires or windows within the visual field can cause disability glare or discomfort glare. Glare while performing computer tasks causes visual fatigue and leads to strabismus measured with fixation disparity (harder for the eyes to focus). Strabismus leads to eyestrain, and eyestrain can lead to musculoskeletal discomfort.Although the relation between eyestrain and musculoskeletal discomfort is not fully understood, studies have shown that straining the eyes increases the musculoskeletal activity in the neck and shoulders (muscle trapezius); associations between visually demanding work, eye problems, headaches and/or muscle problems have also been found.The aim of this project is to develop a practical, easy-to-use, and time efficient risk assessment method for visual ergonomics. With this method, risk factors in the visualenvironment can be detected, and interventions implemented to reduce the prevalence of symptoms related to poor visual ergonomics among workers.The developed visual ergonomics risk analysis method has been used at several work places by ergonomists that have been educated in visual ergonomics. The results from the subjective part of the method show that many individuals report eyestrain and headache. This can be caused by many different factors such as wrong power in lenses, glare, flickering lights etc. Therefore it is essential that if you have a visually demanding work (such as computer work) you have to do eye examinations every other year to make sure that your vision is at its best. But the lighting situation at workplaces is also a key factor to consider in a good visual environment, to increase the level of performance. To increase wellbeing at work and reduce sick leave the visual environment needs to be good, with sufficient illuminance, a good luminance ratio, no glare from luminaires or windows,no flicker, and a good visibility of the work task. Education in risk analysis of the visual environment is essential for many different occupations such as lighting designers, ergonomists, working life inspectors, optometrists, to ensure a better understanding of the impact on wellbeing that the visual environment have.The researchers behind this study will have a finished visual ergonomics risk analysis method by the year of 2017.

  • 180.
    Hemphälä, Hillevi
    et al.
    Ergonomics, Design Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Zetterberg, Camilla
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Lindberg, Per
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Heiden, Marina
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Nylén, Per
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Huddinge, Sweden; Swedish Work Environment Authority, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Odenrick, Per
    Ergonomics, Design Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    A method for risk assessment within Visual Ergonomics2015Inngår i: Proceedings of the 19th Triennial Congress of the International Ergonomics Association: Reaching Out / [ed] Gitte Lindgaard and Dave Moore, 2015, s. nr 1203-Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Insufficient visual ability can lead to increased work load and contribute to eyestrain and musculoskeletal discomfort, since “the eye leads the body” (Anshel, 2005). It has been shown that visually demanding work, such as computer work, is associated with eye discomfort, headaches and muscle pains in mainly the neck and shoulders (Rosenfield, 2011).

    Although the relation between eyestrain and musculoskeletal discomfort is not fully understood, studies have shown that straining the eyes increases the musculoskeletal activity in neck and shoulders (trapezius), and an association between visually demanding work, eye problems, headache and/or muscle problems have been found (Aarås et al., 2001; IESNA, 2011, Richter et al., 2008; Zetterberg et al., 2013). Problems due to insufficient visual ergonomics not only exist in computer intensive jobs, but in other professions as well. For example, surgeons and other surgical personnel that report eyestrain also report twice as much musculoskeletal discomfort from the upper part of the body (Hemphälä et al., 2011). In an intervention study among postmen, both eyestrain and musculoskeletal discomfort decreased after a visual ergonomic intervention. The intervention included providing customized eyeglasses and optimal lighting conditions (Hemphälä et al., 2012). Apart from health and well-being being affected by a poor visual ergonomic work environment, quality and productivity may also be reduced (Eklund, 2009).

    The aim of this paper is to present the first version of a practical, easy-to-use, and time-efficient risk assessment method for visual ergonomics. The development of the method including the evaluation will also be described. With such a method, risk factors within the visual environment can hopefully be detected, and interventions implemented in order to reduce the prevalence of symptoms related to poor visual ergonomics among workers.

    Methods

    A first version of the method has been developed, mainly based on existing checklists and instruments (Colon et al. 1999; Børsting et al., 2008, Knave et al., 1985, Sheedy and Shaw-McMinn, 2002; Wilson & Corlett, 2005). During spring 2015, 30 ergonomists will be updated about visual ergonomics and introduced to the risk assessment method. Each ergonomist will thereafter use the method in 10 workplaces, yielding data and practical experiences from 300 risk assessments. These data will then be used to test the validity and reliability of the method, and if necessary to further develop it.

    Results

    The first version of the risk assessment method for Visual Ergonomics will be presented at IEA 2015, together with results from the approximately 300 risk assessments made by the ergonomists. So far, the factors included in the method are objective measurements such as illuminance, luminance contrast, uniformity values, expert assessment of the risk for glare, and subjective ratings of the visual ability, eyestrain and musculoskeletal discomfort.

    Discussion

    The presented method will be compared to other similar methods. The used method for development will be discussed in relation to validity and reliability. Finally the presented risk assessment method will be discussed in relation to usefulness in prevention of discomfort and work related disorders at work places.

  • 181.
    Hemphälä, Hillevi
    et al.
    Ergonomics, Design Sciences, Lund University, Lund.
    Zetterberg, Camilla
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Department of Medical Sciences, Section of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Lindberg, per
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Nylén, Per
    Division of Ergonomics, School of Technology and Health, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Huddinge; Swedish Work Environment Authority, Stockholm.
    A method for assessing risks within visual ergonomics2014Inngår i: 11th International Symposium on Human Factors in Organisational Design and Management & 46th Annual Nordic Ergonomics Society Conference: Track: F - Tools & methods, Session: F1 - Risk management, Santa Monica, CA, USA: The IEA PRESS , 2014, s. 111-112Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    1.  Introduction

    Insufficient visual ability can lead to strained work load for employees and can contribute to eyestrain and musculoskeletal discomfort, “the eye leads the body” (Anshel, 2005). An optimal visual environment provides physical conditions for work in the best possible way. Visually demanding work, such as computer work, is associated with eye discomfort, headaches and muscle pains in mainly the neck and shoulders (Rosenfield, 2011). For computer workers in North America studies show that 75-90 % of the workers reported subjective symptoms from the eyes (Anshel, 2005). The causality between eyestrain and musculoskeletal discomfort is not fully understood, but studies have shown that straining the eyes increases the musculoskeletal activity in neck and shoulders (trapezius), and a link between visually demanding work, eye problems, headache and/or muscle problems have been found (Aarås et al., 2001; Richter et al., 2008; Zetterlund et al., 2009; Zetterberg et al., 2013). A study of call-center workers in Sweden showed that 21% of workers have both eyes and neck problems (Wiholm et al., 2007). Ergonomic problems also exist for professions where computer work is not dominant. Surgeons and other surgical personnel, with subjective eye discomfort, reported twice the incidence of musculoskeletal disorders when compared with staff without eye symptoms (Hemphälä et al., 2011). In an intervention study among postmen the eyestrain and musculoskeletal discomfort decreased after visual ergonomic interventions including customized eyeglasses and optimal lighting conditions (Hemphälä et al., 2012). Apart from health and well-being being affected by a poor visual ergonomic work environment, the quality and productivity are also involved (Eklund, 2009).

    Lighting is an important factor; both the lighting quantity (strength) and quality (e.g. light distribution, direction, glare and contrast). Too low illumination makes it difficult to see clearly and may thus lower performance, high illuminance can cause glare and lead to increased eye fatigue and decreased productivity (IESNA, 2011).

    2.  Methods

    There are several factors to consider when developing a method for visual ergonomics risk assessment of subjective symptoms and discomfort of the eyes (Colon et al. 1999; Børsting et al., 2008, Knave et al., 1985). There are also checklists used in eye exams or medical appointments (Sheedy and Shaw-McMinn, 2002; Wilson & Corlett, 2005). These will be used as basis in the presents the project intended to develop a risk assessment instrument for visual ergonomics.

    3.  Results

    A preliminary version of a risk analysis method for Visual Ergonomics has been developed and will be presented, with a focus on discussing with the audience which factors should primarily be included. The factors included so far in the method are the objective measurements such as illuminance, luminance contrast, uniformity values, expert assessment of the risk for glare; indirect measurements such as subjective ratings of the visual ability, eyestrain and musculoskeletal discomfort. The goal is to develop a practical time efficient method that is easy to use. With such a tool, actions needed to reduce the visual load among the workers, the companies and the society’s negative consequences induced by work-related eyestrain and musculoskeletal discomfort can hopefully be identified.

  • 182.
    Holmström, Stefan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Sweden.
    Molander, Bo
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Sweden.
    Jansson, John
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Sweden.
    Barnekow-Bergqvist, Margareta
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Evaluation of a Swedish version of the Job Stress Survey2008Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 49, nr 3, s. 277-286Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    he present study assesses and evaluates the psychometric properties of a Swedish version of the Job Stress Survey (JSS; Spielberger, 1991; Spielberger & Vagg, 1999). This instrument is constructed to measure generic sources of occupational stress encountered by employees in a wide variety of work settings, settings that often result in psychological strain. The JSS was administered to metal assembly industry workers and medical service personnel in northern Sweden (n= 1186). The exploratory factor analysis showed that there is a high similarity between the present Swedish version and the original American version. Internal reliabilities of the scales, as well as test-retest reliabilities were shown to be high, and concurrent validity, as examined by comparisons with the Perceived Stress Questionnaire Index (Levenstein et al., 1993) was found to be satisfactory. The consistency of these findings is discussed with particular focus on groups of employees, gender, and cross-cultural evaluations.

  • 183.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    et al.
    National Research Institute for the Working Environment (NRCWE), Copenhagen.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Pinder, Andrew
    Health and Safety Executive, United Kingdom.
    Punakallio, Anne
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health (FIOH), Helsinki.
    Veiersted, Bo
    National Institute of Occupational Health (STAMI), Oslo.
    Weber, Britta
    Institute for Occupational Safety and Health of the German Social Accident Insurance (IFA), Sankt Augustin.
    Ditchen, Dirk
    Institute for Occupational Safety and Health of the German Social Accident Insurance (IFA), Sankt Augustin.
    Takala, Esa-Pekka
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health (FIOH), Helsinki.
    Draicchio, Francesco
    National Institute for Insurance against Accidents at Work (INAIL), Rome.
    Enquist, Henrik
    Lund University.
    Desbrosses, Kevin
    French National Research and Safety Institute for the prevention of occupational accidents and diseases (INRS), Vandoeuvre Les Nancy.
    Garcia Sanz, Maria
    Spanish National Institute for Safety and Hygiene at Work (INSHT), Madrid.
    Villar, Maria
    Spanish National Institute for Safety and Hygiene at Work (INSHT), Madrid.
    Malinska, Marzena
    Central Institute for Labour Protection - National Research Institute (CIOP-PIB), Warszawa.
    Wichtl, Michael
    Austrian Workers Compensation Board (AUVA), Wien.
    Strebl, Michaela
    Austrian Workers Compensation Board (AUVA), Wien.
    Forsman, Michael
    Karolinska Institutet (KI), Stockholm.
    Gupta, Nidhi
    National Research Institute for the Working Environment (NRCWE), Copenhagen.
    Hendriksen, Peter
    National Research Institute for the Working Environment (NRCWE), Copenhagen.
    Lusa, Sirpa
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health (FIOH), Helsinki.
    Tokarski, Tomasz
    Central Institute for Labour Protection - National Research Institute (CIOP-PIB), Warszawa.
    Schellewald, Vera
    Institute for Occupational Safety and Health of the German Social Accident Insurance (IFA), Sankt Augustin.
    Ellegast, Rolf
    Institute for Occupational Safety and Health of the German Social Accident Insurance (IFA), Sankt Augustin.
    Assessing sedentary behaviour at work with technical assessment systems2017Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well documented that spending large amounts of time each day in sedentary behaviour is associated with increased risks of a variety of health impairments. The time engaged in sedentary behaviours is generally high in Europe, and has increased over recent decades during both work and leisure. This has resulted in considerable research and societal attention over the last decade.

    Sedentary behaviour in the workplace varies between occupations. It is high among office workers, and is likely to be high for job groups with lower education with constrained sittingbased working tasks like long-haul drivers and surveillance work in manufacturing. However, the question of whether spending large amounts of time in occupational sedentary behaviour is a causal risk factor for health impairments remains to be settled.

    An important reason for this could be the poor validity and reliability of many of the methods used to assess sedentary behaviour such as self-report and interviews. Another reason might be that the sedentary behaviour is often not measured in accordance with its proposed definition "

    any waking behaviour characterised by a low energy expenditure (≤1.5 METs) while in a sitting or reclining posture". Measurements of sedentary behaviour should therefore capture its two main components, namely posture and energy expenditure.

    Observational methods are also used to assess sedentary behaviour, but they are costly, time-consuming, and may lead to observational-bias. Measurements using wearable devices ("wearables") are thus recommended due to their objective nature, and their ability to be relatively low cost and to have little impact on the daily life of the participant.

    Numerous suitable small wearables, with long battery life and high data storage capacity, have become commercially available in recent years. However, none of the commercially available wearables can independently assess occupational sedentary behaviour in accordance with its definition (i.e. a sitting or lying posture with low energy expenditure). Therefore, deciding on how to assess sedentary behaviour is currently not easy.

    The wide variety of devices with the potential to assess sedentary behaviour is likely to leave practitioners and researchers wondering - "How can I choose the measurement system bestsuited to my aim, preferences, funding, and skills?" However, no practically useful guidance for researchers and practitioners exists on how to assess occupational sedentary behaviour.

    This report provides an overview of relevant technical systems and their general capabilities and gives examples of their appropriate use when assessing occupational sedentary behaviour. The report emphasises factors such as the target population, the need for accuracy, data accessibility, wearing comfort, expert knowledge for analyses, assessment duration, the number of participants needed, budget available, and the need for information on time patterns of sedentary and non-sedentary behaviour, including moderate and vigorous physical activity. Importantly, the need for assessing body posture, energy expenditure, or both, should be critically evaluated based on the work tasks undertaken by the target population and the aim of the project.

    The report highlights needs for developing of cheap, feasible wearables combining precise posture and energy assessments for a valid and reliable assessment of sedentary behaviour at work, which fulfils the current needs of both researchers and practitioners alike.

  • 184.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    et al.
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Straker, Leon
    School of Physiotherapy and Exercise Science, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Promoting health and physical capacity during productive work: the Goldilocks Principle2019Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 45, nr 1, s. 90-97Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives

    In spite of preventive efforts, organizations and employees face several challenges related to working life and occupational health, such as a substantial prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders, social inequality in health and physical capacity, multi-morbidity, an obesity epidemic and an aging workforce. We argue that a new approach for occupational ergonomics and health is required, going beyond prevention of harm caused by work. We propose the ´Goldilocks Principle´ as a new approach of how productive work can be designed to literally promote health and physical capacity.

    Methods                 

    Physical (in)activity profoundly influences health and physical capacity, with effects depending on the extent and temporal structure of the (in)activity. Like the porridge, chair and bed that needed to be ‘just right’ for Goldilocks in the fairy-tale of ´The Three Bears´, physical activity during productive work needs to be ‘just right’ for promoting rather than deteriorating health and capacity. In many jobs, physical activity is, however, either ’too much/high/frequent’ or ’too little/low/infrequent’ to give positive biomechanical and cardiometabolic stimuli.

    Results

    The paper presents the rationale, concept, development, application and prospects of the Goldilocks Principle for how productive work can be designed to promote health and physical capacity.

    Conclusions

    We envision a great potential to promote health and physical capacity by designing productive work according to the Goldilocks Principle, thus leading to benefits with respect to the current challenges related to working life and occupational health for society, organizations and employees.

  • 185.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    et al.
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment (NRCWE), Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Schellewald, Vera
    German Sport University Cologne (DSHS), Köln, Germany; Institute for Occupational Safety and Health of the German Social Accident Insurance (IFA), Sankt Augustin, Germany.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Gupta, Nidhi
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment (NRCWE), Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Pinder, Andrew
    HSE's Health & Safety Laboratory (HSL), Buxton, Derbyshire, United Kingdom.
    Punakallio, Anne
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health (FIOH), Helsinki, Finland.
    Veiersted, Kaj Bo
    National Institute of Occupational Health (STAMI), Oslo, Norway.
    Weber, Britta
    Institute for Occupational Safety and Health of the German Social Accident Insurance (IFA), Sankt Augustin, Germany.
    Takala, Esa-Pekka
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health (FIOH), Helsinki, Finland.
    Draicchio, Francesco
    National Institute for Insurance Against Accidents at Work (INAIL), Rome, Italy.
    Enquist, Henrik
    Lund University, Skane Medical Services, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund, Sweden.
    Desbrosses, Kevin
    French National Research and Safety Institute for the Prevention of Occupational Accidents and Diseases (INRS), Vandoeuvre Les Nancy, France.
    Garcia Sanz, Maria Penahora
    Spanish National Institute for Safety and Hygiene at Work (INSHT), Madrid, Spain.
    Malinska, Marzena
    Central Institute for Labour Protection - National Research Institute (CIOP-PIB), Warszawa, Poland.
    Villar, Maria
    Spanish National Institute for Safety and Hygiene at Work (INSHT), Madrid, Spain.
    Wichtl, Michael
    Austrian Workers' Compensation Board (AUVA), Wien, Austria.
    Strebl, Michaela
    Austrian Workers' Compensation Board (AUVA), Wien, Austria.
    Forsman, Mikael
    Karolinska Institutet (KI), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lusa, Sirpa
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health (FIOH), Helsinki, Finland.
    Tokarski, Tomasz
    Central Institute for Labour Protection - National Research Institute (CIOP-PIB), Warszawa, Poland.
    Hendriksen, Peter
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment (NRCWE), Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Ellegast, Rolf
    Institute for Occupational Safety and Health of the German Social Accident Insurance (IFA), Sankt Augustin, Germany.
    A practical guidance for assessments of sedentary behavior at work: a PEROSH initiative2017Inngår i: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 63, s. 41-52Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sedentary behavior is defined as sitting or lying with low energy expenditure. Humans in industrialized societies spend an increasing amount of time in sedentary behaviors every day. This has been associated with detrimental health outcomes. Despite a growing interest in the industrialized world in the health effects of sedentary behavior at work, associations remain unclear, plausibly due to poor and diverse methods for assessing sedentary behavior. Thus, good practice guidance for researchers and practitioners on how to assess occupational sedentary behavior are needed.

    The aim of this paper is to provide a practical guidance for practitioners and researchers on how to assess occupational sedentary behavior.

    Ambulatory systems for use in field applications (wearables) are a promising approach for sedentary behavior assessment. Many different small-size consumer wearables, with long battery life and high data storage capacity are commercially available today. However, no stand-alone commercial system is able to assess sedentary behavior in accordance with its definition. The present paper offers decision support for practitioners and researchers in selecting wearables and data collection strategies for their purpose of study on sedentary behavior.

    Valid and reliable assessment of occupational sedentary behavior is currently not easy. Several aspects need to be considered in the decision process of how to assess sedentary behavior. There is a need for development of a cheap and easily useable wearable for assessment of occupational sedentary behavior by researchers and practitioners.

  • 186.
    Hovelius, Lennart
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Department of Orthopedics, Gävle Hospital, Gävle, Sweden.
    Sandström, Björn
    Department of Orthopedics, Gävle Hospital, Gävle, Sweden.
    Saebö, Modolv
    Department of Radiology, Gävle Hospital, Gävle, Sweden.
    One hundred eighteen Bristow-Latarjet repairs for recurrent anterior dislocation of the shoulder prospectively followed for fifteen years: Study II - the evolution of dislocation arthropathy2006Inngår i: Journal of shoulder and elbow surgery, ISSN 1058-2746, E-ISSN 1532-6500, Vol. 15, nr 3, s. 279-289Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Dislocation arthropathy after surgical treatment of recurrent anterior dislocation of the shoulder has been a subject of discussion over the years. The objective of this prospective study was to evaluate the Bristow-Latarjet repair at 2 and 15 years after surgery with respect to arthropathy and to evaluate factors responsible for this development. At 2 and 15 years after a Bristow-Latarjet repair for recurrent anterior dislocation, we prospectively analyzed the radiographs of 115 of 118 shoulders. The majority of the patients also had radiography of the nonindex shoulder (111/118). Dislocation arthropathy was found on ordinary anteroposterior views in 46 of 115 shoulders (mild in 39, moderate in 5, and severe in 2). The anteroposterior view angulated 45 degrees from above gave the best visualization of the humeral osteophyte and, together with the axial view, doubled the incidence of moderate and severe arthropathy at follow-up (mild in 40, moderate in 11, and severe in 5). Of 38 shoulders with a postoperative position of the transferred coracoid process 2 to 4 mm medial to the glenoid rim and the screw and transplant parallel to the glenoid, 3 had moderate arthropathy (8%) compared with 8 shoulders with moderate arthropathy and 5 with severe arthropathy out of 77 shoulders with a nonoptimal position of the coracoid (17%) (P = not significant). The degree of restriction of outward rotation at 2 years did not influence the degree of arthropathy after 15 years. Global assessment of the operative result was not related to arthropathy at follow-up. When the first dislocation occurred before age 23 years, the incidence of arthropathy was significantly lower than when it occurred in age 23 years or older (P = .006). When all views were included, moderate or severe dislocation arthropathy was found in 14% of the shoulders, and a further 35% had mild arthropathy. When follow-up studies of operated series of shoulder dislocations with the Bristow-Latarjet method are done, it is important to have the same radiologic views to compare the incidence of dislocation arthropathy correctly.

  • 187.
    Hulsegge, Gerben
    et al.
    Department of Public and Occupational Health, Amsterdam Public Health research institute, VU University Medical Center, the Netherlands.
    Gupta, Nidhi
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Proper, Karin
    Centre for Nutrition, Prevention and Health Services, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, the Netherlands.
    von Lobenstein, Natasja
    Department of Public and Occupational Health, Amsterdam Public Health research institute, VU University Medical Center, the Netherlands.
    IJzelenberg, Wilhelmina
    Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Earth & Life Sciences, VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdam Public Health research institute, the Netherlands.
    Hallman, David
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    van der Beek, Allard
    Department of Public and Occupational Health, Amsterdam Public Health research institute, the Netherlands.
    Shift work is associated with reduced heart rate variability among men but not women2018Inngår i: International Journal of Cardiology, ISSN 0167-5273, E-ISSN 1874-1754, Vol. 258, s. 109-114Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Imbalance in the autonomic nervous system due to a disrupted circadian rhythm may be a cause of shift work-related cardiovascular diseases.

    Objective

    We aimed to determine the association between shift work and cardiac autonomic activity in blue-collar workers.

    Methods

    The study included 665 blue-collar workers aged 18–68 years in different occupations from two Danish cohort studies. Time and frequency domain parameters of heart rate variability (HRV) were measured during sleep using the Actiheart monitor, and used as markers of cardiac autonomic function. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to investigate differences in HRV between day and shift workers.

    Results

    Shift workers had no significantly different HRV parameters than day workers, except for a lower VLF (B: 0.21; 95% CI: −0.36–0.05). The lower VLF was only present among non-night shift workers (p < 0.05) and not among night shift workers (p > 0.05). Results differed significantly by gender (p for interaction < 0.10): among men, shift work was negatively associated with RMSSD (B: −7.83; 95% CI: −14.28–1.38), SDNN (B: −7.0; 95% CI: −12.27–1.78), VLF (B: −0.27; 95% CI: −0.46–0.09) and Total Power (B: −0.61; 95% CI: −1.20–0.03), while among women, shift work was only associated with the LF/HF ratio (B: −0.29; 95% CI: −0.54–0.03).

    Conclusion

    Shift work was particularly associated with lower HRV during sleep among men. This indicates that shift work causes imbalance in the autonomic nervous system among men, which might increase their risk of cardiovascular diseases.

  • 188.
    Huysmans, Maaike A.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Department of Public and Occupational Health, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam; Research Center for Insurance Medicine, AMC-UMCG-UWV-VUmc, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, USA.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Consistency of sedentary behavior patterns among office workers with long-term access to sit-stand workstations2019Inngår i: Annals of Work Exposures and Health, ISSN 2398-7308, Vol. 63, nr 5, s. 583-591Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: Sit-stand workstations are a popular intervention to reduce sedentary behavior (SB) in office settings. However, the extent and distribution of SB in office workers long-term accustomed to using sit-stand workstations as a natural part of their work environment are largely unknown. In the present study, we aimed to describe patterns of SB in office workers with long-term access to sit-stand workstations and to determine the extent to which these patterns vary between days and workers. METHODS: SB was objectively monitored using thigh-worn accelerometers for a full week in 24 office workers who had been equipped with a sit-stand workstation for at least 10 months. A comprehensive set of variables describing SB was calculated for each workday and worker, and distributions of these variables between days and workers were examined. RESULTS: On average, workers spent 68% work time sitting [standard deviation (SD) between workers and between days (within worker): 10.4 and 18.2%]; workers changed from sitting to standing/walking 3.2 times per hour (SDs 0.6 and 1.2 h-1); with bouts of sitting being 14.9 min long (SDs 4.2 and 8.5 min). About one-third of the workers spent >75% of their workday sitting. Between-workers variability was significantly different from zero only for percent work time sitting, while between-days (within-worker) variability was substantial for all SB variables. CONCLUSIONS: Office workers accustomed to using sit-stand workstations showed homogeneous patterns of SB when averaged across several days, except for percent work time seated. However, SB differed substantially between days for any individual worker. The finding that many workers were extensively sedentary suggests that just access to sit-stand workstations may not be a sufficient remedy against SB; additional personalized interventions reinforcing use may be needed. To this end, differences in SB between days should be acknowledged as a potentially valuable source of variation.

  • 189.
    Huysmans, Maaike
    et al.
    Department of Public and Occupational Health and the EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Commissaris, Dianne
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. BTR coaching & consultancy, Helvoirt, The Netherlands.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Koppes, Lando
    NIVEL, Netherlands Institute for Health Services Research, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Hendriksen, Ingrid
    Body@Work Research Center Physical Activity, Work and Health TNO-VU/VUmc, Amsterdam; Expertise Centre Life Style, TNO, Leiden, The Netherlands .
    Interventions to reduce sedentary behaviour and increase physical activity during productive work: Preliminary results of a systematic review2015Inngår i: Proceedings of the 19th Triennial Congress of the International Ergonomics Association, Melbourne 9-14 August 2015, 2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 190.
    Huysmans, Maaike
    et al.
    EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam.
    Commissaris, Dianne
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Koppes, Lando
    Netherlands Institute for Health Services Research, Utrecht.
    Hendriksen, Ingrid
    TNO Leiden.
    Interventions to reduce sedentary behaviour and increase physical activity during productive work time : Effects on work performance and metabolic and physiological outcomes2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. In a systematic literature review, we investigated the effect on work performance and metabolic and physiological outcomes of interventions aimed at reducing sedentary behaviour (SB) and/or increasing physical activity (PA) during productive work time.

    Methods. Scopus was searched for articles published from 1992 until March 12, 2015. We included studies: (1) addressing interventions aimed at reducing SB and/or increasing PA at the workplace, during productive work; (2) using a design including a control group or control condition; (3) being published as a full-length paper in a peer-reviewed journal in English; (4) reporting on work performance outcomes and metabolic and physiological outcomes (i.e. lipid and metabolic profiles, hemodynamic and cardiorespiratory measures and anthropometric measures). Relevant studies were evaluated using the Quality Assess-ment Tool for Quantitative Studies and summarized in a best evidence synthesis.

    Results. 18 interventions were included and organized into two categories: (1) alternative workstation interventions (n=15), i.e. sit-stand workstations or “active” workstations; and (2) personalized behavioural interventions (n=3), i.e. interventions involving personalized goals and/or giving behavioural feedback using prompts or messages.There was moderate evidence for alternative workstations not influencing hemodynamics and cardiorespiratory fitness as well as personalized behavioural interventions notinfluencing anthropometric measures. Evidence was insufficient (alternative workstations) or conflicting (personalized behavioral interventions) on lipid and metabolic profiles. For work performance, there was insufficient evidence for personalized behavioural interven-tions and conflicting evidence for alternative workstations. But for the latter, only one out of 11 studies showed a negative effect.

    Discussion. Current evidence suggests that work performance is not negatively affected by alternative workstations. Furthermore, there is no strong case for introducing interven-tions aimed at reducing SB and/or increasing PA during productive work time in the hope of getting a positive effect on metabolic and physiological outcomes. However, large-scale, high quality studies with long-term follow-ups are needed before more definite conclusions on this topic can be drawn.

  • 191.
    Hygge, Staffan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Byggvetenskap - tillämpad psykologi.
    Noise and cognition in children2011Inngår i: Encyclopedia of Environmental Health, Volume 4 / [ed] J.O. Nriagu, Burlington: Elsevier, 2011, s. 146-151Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 192.
    Hägg Green, Karin
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Hur chefer som ansvarar för arbetsmiljöåtgärder upplever förutsättningar för kunskapsspridning inom organisationer2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Problem definition: There must be a knowledge transfer within the organisation to prevent illness and accidents at work. 

    Aim: Is to examine and describe how opportunities to share knowledge with other organisational members experienced by managers with occupational health and safety responsibilities.

    Method: A qualitative case study with semi-structured interviews from N=10 informants. 

    Main results: Managers' experience are perceived to be the possession of a superior power and that they need to bring in non-relational resources to dissemination knowledge.

    Conclusion: Theory suggests that by creating relationships by using communication and interaction to access trust and reciprocity, there are great opportunities for knowledge transfer. We have taken part of the informants' experiences, we have come to the conclusion it's not the easy to implement relationships in the work environment because it does not always precondition for this. Because of cultural differences, experience-and competence differences and organisational characteristics.

  • 193.
    Häggman-Henrikson, Birgitta
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Department of Odontology, Clinical Oral Physiology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Nordh, E.
    Clinical Neurophysiology, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Umeå University, Sweden.
    Zafar, Hamayun
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Department of Odontology, Clinical Oral Physiology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Per-Olof
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Department of Odontology, Clinical Oral Physiology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Head immobilization can impair jaw function2006Inngår i: Journal of Dental Research, ISSN 0022-0345, E-ISSN 1544-0591, Vol. 85, nr 11, s. 1001-1005Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Findings that jaw-opening/-closing relies on both mandibular and head movements suggest that jaw and neck muscles are jointly activated in jaw function. This study tested the hypothesis that rhythmic jaw activities involve an active repositioning of the head, and that head fixation can impair jaw function. Concomitant mandibular and head-neck movements were recorded during rhythmic jaw activities in 12 healthy adults, with and without fixation of the head. In four participants, the movement recording was combined with simultaneous registration of myoelectric activity in jaw and neck muscles. The results showed neck muscle activity during jaw opening with and without head fixation. Notably, head fixation led to reduced mandibular movements and shorter duration of jaw-opening/-closing cycles. The findings suggest recruitment of neck muscles in jaw activities, and that head fixation can impair jaw function. The results underline the jaw and neck neuromuscular relationship in jaw function.

  • 194.
    Hämphälä, Hillevi
    et al.
    Ergonomi och aerosolteknologi, Lunds universitet, Lund, Sweden.
    Zetterberg, Camilla
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Lindberg, Per
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Heiden, Marina
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Nylén, Per
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, Stockholm.
    A risk assessment method for visual ergonomics, VERAM2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A valid, reliable, practical and easy-to-use risk assessment method for visual ergonomics named VERAM (Visual Ergonomics Risk Analysis Method) has been developed. With this method, risk factors in the visual environment can be detected, and interventions implemented to reduce the prevalence of symptoms related to poor visual ergonomics among workers can be evaluated.

    The visual environment can affect our wellbeing in many ways. Glare from luminaires or windows within the visual field can cause disability glare or discomfort glare. Glare while performing computer tasks causes visual fatigue and leads to strabismus measured with fixation disparity (harder for the eyes to focus). Strabismus leads to eyestrain, and eyestrain can lead to musculoskeletal discomfort.  Non-visual effects, such as flicker from luminaires can cause eyestrain or headache/migraine. Insufficient visual ability can lead to increased workload and contribute to eyestrain and musculoskeletal discomfort that in turn could lead to sick leave. As human beings, we need daylight to get a normal circadian rhythm. The visual environment needs to be designed to allow daylight entering, but have a possibility to prevent disturbing daylight.

    No method for evaluating the visual environment together with the individual’s subjective strain has previously existed. Personnel from occupational health departments (75 individuals) have used the developed visual ergonomics risk analysis method at several work places. Before using the method they were given a course in visual ergonomics and taught how to use the method.

    VERAM consists of two main parts. The first part is a subjective questionnaire with questions regarding the individual’s problem such as eyestrain and headache, but also their rating of the visual environment.

    The second objective part is performed by the assessors and consists of:

    • measuring the illuminance and luminance
    • rating of the visual environment and different risks (risk for glare, flicker, work task, daylight, work posture etc.)
    • Feedback from the subjective part, the light measurements and the ratings
    • Recommendations

    To increase wellbeing at work and reduce sick leave, the visual environment needs to be good. This includes sufficient illuminance, a good luminance ratio, no glare from luminaires or windows, no flicker, and a good visibility of the work task. Education in risk analysis of the visual environment is essential for many different occupations such as lighting designers, ergonomists, working life inspectors, optometrists, to ensure a better understanding of the impact on wellbeing that the visual environment have. The main purposes of this study is to develop a visual environment risk analysis method and to increase the awareness and knowledge visual ergonomics.

  • 195.
    Jackson, Jennie A.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Uppsala universitet.
    Bias and Precision in Biomechanical Exposure Assessment: Making the Most of our Methods2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Insufficient exposure assessment is a suggested contributing factor to the current lack of clearly characterised relationships between occupational biomechanical risk factors and musculoskeletal disorders. Minimal attention has been paid to the potential bias of measurement tools from expected true values (i.e. accuracy) or between measurement tools, and empirical data on the magnitudes of variance contributed by methodological factors for measurement tool precision are lacking.

    Aim: The aim of this thesis was to quantify aspects of bias and precision in three commonly employed biomechanical risk factor assessment tools - inclinometry, observation, and electromyography (EMG) - and provide recommendations guiding their use. Methods: Upper arm elevation angles (UAEAs) were assessed using inclinometers (INC) and by computer-based posture-matching observation, and bias relative to true angles was calculated. Calibration models were developed for INC data, and their efficacy in correcting measurement bias was evaluated. The total variance of trapezius and erector spinae (ES) EMG recordings during cyclic occupational work was partitioned into biological and methodological sources, including the variance uniquely attributable to sub-maximal normalisation. Using algorithms to estimate the precision of a group mean, the efficacy of different trapezius EMG study designs was evaluated. Using precision criteria, the efficacy of different normalisation methods was assessed for ES EMG recordings.

    Results and Discussion: Inclinometer measured UAEAs were biased from true angles, with increasing bias at higher angles. In contrast, computer based posture-matching observations were not biased from true angles. Calibration models proved effective at minimizing INC data bias. The dispersion of estimates between- and within- observers at any given set angle underlined the importance of repeated observations when estimating UAEAs. For EMG, a unique but relatively small component of the total variance was attributable to the methodological process of normalisation. Performing three repeats of the trapezius EMG normalisation task proved optimal at minimizing variance for one-day EMG studies, while two repeats sufficed for multi-day EMG studies. A prone normalisation task proved superior for maximizing normalised lumbar ES EMG precision.

    Conclusion: Key aspects of measurement tool accuracy, bias between tools, and tool precision were quantified, and recommendations were made to guide future research study design.

  • 196.
    Jackson, Jennie A.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Callaghan, Jack
    Department of Kinesiology, University of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.
    Dempsey, Patrick
    National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Pittsburgh, USA.
    Precision based guidelines for sub-maximal normalisation task selection for trunk extensor EMG2017Inngår i: Journal of Electromyography & Kinesiology, ISSN 1050-6411, E-ISSN 1873-5711, Vol. 37, s. 41-51Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The object of this study was to quantify the contribution of sub-maximal normalisation to the overall variance of exposure parameters describing erector spinae (ES) activity, and to provide guidelines for task selection which minimize methodological variance. Methods: ES EMG was measured from three locations (T9, L1 and L5 levels) on fifteen men performing a manual materials handling task in the laboratory on three separate days. Four repeats of each of eleven sub-maximal normalisation tasks (eight static, three dynamic) were collected, work data were normalised to each task and repeat, and exposure parameters calculated. The unique contribution of normalisation to the overall variance was determined for each task and exposure parameter using variance component analyses. Normalisation tasks were scored according to their relative contributions to the overall variance and coefficients of variation.

    Results: A prone task, similar to the Biering-Sørensen test posture, was the most repeatable for all electrode locations and across all exposure parameters. Thoracic level normalisation typically showed poorer repeatability than lumbar normalisation.

    Discussion: We recommend that future ES EMG studies employing sub-maximal normalisation utilise said prone task. An alternate normalisation task specific to thoracic level ES muscles may be warranted.

  • 197.
    Jackson, Jennie A
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Department of Kinesiology, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada ; Liberty Mutual Research Institute for Safety, Hopkinton, USA.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Dempsey, Patrick G.
    Liberty Mutual Research Institute for Safety, Hopkinton, USA.
    Methodological variance associated with normalization of occupational upper trapezius EMG using submaximal reference contractions2009Inngår i: Journal of Electromyography & Kinesiology, ISSN 1050-6411, E-ISSN 1873-5711, Vol. 19, nr 3, s. 416-427Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To quantify the variance introduced to trapezius electromyography (EMG) through normalization by submaximal reference voluntary exertions (RVE), and to investigate the effect of increased normalization efforts as compared to other changes in data collection strategy on the precision of occupational EMG estimates. Methods: Women performed four RVE contractions followed by 30 minutes of light, cyclic assembly work on each of two days. Work cycle EMG was normalized to each of the RVE trials and seven exposure parameters calculated. The proportions of exposure variance attributable to subject, day within subject, and cycle and normalization trial within day were determined. Using this data, the effect on the precision of the exposure mean of altering the number of subjects, days, cycles and RVEs during data collection was simulated. Results: For all exposure parameters a unique component of variance due to normalization was present, yet small: less than 4.4% of the total variance. The resource allocation simulations indicated that marginal improvements in the precision of a group exposure mean would occur above three RVE repeats for EMG collected on one day, or beyond two RVEs for EMG collected on two or more days.

  • 198.
    Jackson, Jennie A.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Liv, Per
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Centre for Research and Development, Uppsala University/Region Gävleborg, Gävle.
    Observer performance in estimating upper arm elevation angles under ideal viewing conditions when assisted by posture matching software2016Inngår i: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 55, s. 208-215Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Selecting a suitable body posture measurement method requires performance indices of candidate tools. Such data are lacking for observational assessments made at a high degree of resolution. The aim of this study was to determine the performance (bias and between- and within-observer variance) of novice observers estimating upper arm elevation postures assisted by posture matching software to the nearest degree from still images taken under ideal conditions. Estimates were minimally biased from true angles: the mean error across observers was less than 2°. Variance between observers was minimal. Considerable variance within observers, however, underlined the risk of relying on single observations. Observers were more proficient at estimating 0°and 90° postures, and less proficient at 60°. Thus, under ideal visual conditions observers, on average, proved proficient at high resolution posture estimates; further investigation is required to determine how non-optimal image conditions, as would be expected from occupational data, impact proficiency.

  • 199.
    Jackson, Jennie A.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    Grado Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
    Identification of individual working styles in a long-cycle assembly task using kinematic and EMG variables2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background.Increased motor variability while performing repetitive tasks has been suggested to decrease the risk of developing musculoskeletal disorders. However, support for this positive effect is lacking outside of short, simple, highly controlled tasks. It is also currently unknown whether or not existing motor variability metrics are viable for characterising occupational tasks. The purpose of this study was to assess motor variability during a long-cycle simulated occupational task. Using metrics previously validated for short-cycle tasks, this study aimed to determine the extent to which: (1) individuals dif-fered in motor variability with respect to kinematics and/or EMG activation; (2) individual motor variability was consistent across days; and (3) kinematics and EMG motor variability were correlated.

    Methods.Following a stringent, three-day training regime, 15 females proved sufficiently proficient to participate. On two occasions, participants performed 36 cycles of an assembly task (combining gross and fine motor skills) at 110 MTM pacing (51 s per cycle). For each cycle, multiple upper arm kinematic and trapezius EMG summary mean and SD variables were calculated; for each variable, the variability across the 36 cycles was assessed. The relative size of variability across individuals, and the consistency of each individual’s motor behaviour across days were assessed using kinematic and EMG vari-ables. The correlation between kinematic and EMG variables was also assessed.

    Results.Distinct individual behaviours were observed across days: some participants were clearly more consistent in their motor behaviour than others. Further, a high correlation was found between some kinematic and muscle activation variables.

    Discussion. Using previously validated upper arm assessment metrics, we were able to differentiate between individuals performing a long-cycle assembly task based on their degree of motor variability. Given the nature of our study task, we believe the metrics that we found to be successful at identifying individual behaviours could be used for assessing field tasks.

  • 200.
    Jackson, Jennie
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Uppsala University.
    Banerjee-Guénette, Priyanka
    University of Waterloo, Department of Kinesiology, Faculty of Applied Health Sciences.
    Gregory, Diane
    Wilfrid Laurier University, Health Sciences Program and Department of Kinesiology.
    Callaghan, Jack
    University of Waterloo, Department of Kinesiology, Faculty of Applied Health Sciences.
    Should we be more on the ball?: The efficacy of accommodation training on lumbar spine posture, muscle activity, and perceived discomfort during stability ball sitting2013Inngår i: Human Factors, ISSN 0018-7208, E-ISSN 1547-8181, Vol. 55, nr 6, s. 1064-1076Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of a nine-day accommodation protocol on reducing perceived discomfort while sitting on a stability ball (SB); trunk muscle activity levels and lumbar spinal postures were also considered.

    Background: Previous studies have compared SB sitting to office chair sitting with few observed differences in muscle activity or posture; however, greater discomfort during SB sitting has been reported.  These findings may indicate an accommodation period is necessary to acclimate to SB sitting.

    Methods: Six males and six females completed two separate, two-hour sitting sessions on an SB.  Half the participants completed a nine-day accommodation period between the visits while the other half did not use an SB during the time. On both occasions, self-reported perceived discomfort ratings were collected along with erector spinae and abdominal muscle activity and lumbar spinal postures.

    Results: Discomfort ratings were reduced in female participants following the accommodation; no effects on muscle activation or lumbar spine postures were observed.

    Conclusion: Accommodation training may reduce perceived low back discomfort in females. Trunk muscle activity and lumbar spine postures during seated office work on an SB did not differ between groups; however, greater sample power was required to conclusively address these variables.

    Application: When deciding whether to use an SB in place of a standard office chair, this study indicates females electing to use an SB can decrease discomfort by following an accommodation protocol; no evidence was found to indicate SB chair use will improve trunk strength or posture, even following an accommodation period. 

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