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  • 151.
    Lim, Nancy Joy
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för Industriell utveckling, IT och Samhällsbyggnad, Samhällsbyggnad, GIS.
    Modelling, mapping and visualisation of flood inundation uncertainties2018Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Översvämningskartor som visar utbredningen av förutspådda översvämningar för vissa extrema händelser har stor användning i all typ av samhällsplanering, samt fungerar som informationsmaterial för allmänheten. Men, de produktionsprocesser som dessa kartor genomgår (inkluderande olika data, metoder, modeller och beslut från de personer som genererar dessa) och som innefattar både geografiska informationssystem (GIS) och hydraulisk modellering, påverkar kartornas innehåll, vilket även återspeglas i de slutliga kartornas utseende. En skarp översvämningsgräns, som är det vanliga sättet att visa gränsen i översvämningskartor, är därför antagligen inte det bästa sättet att representera utbredningen. Sådana gränser ger en falsk trygghet i att dessa kartor är korrekta och att översvämningsutbredningen är absolut, trots att hela processen att producera dem innebär osäkerheter. Denna studie försöker därför undersöka hur översvämningskartering påverkas av osäkerheter i modelleringsprocesser och hur dessa osäkerheter kan representeras, visualiseras och kommuniceras i kartorna. Dessutom försöker studien utvärdera hur olika användare förstår, använder och uppfattar översvämningskartor som innehåller osäkerhetsinformation.

    Tre huvudmetoder har använts i denna studie: osäkerhetsmodellering och analys, kart- och geovisualiseringsutveckling samt användarstudier. Resultaten visar att översvämningsgränserna påverkades både av de digitala höjdmodellernas upplösning (cellstorlek) och markens friktion, representerat av Mannings 𝑛, men också av markens topografi. För att kvantifiera skillnaderna mellan modell och referensöversvämningsyta och därefter kunna välja den mest optimala modellen användes olika valideringsmetoder. Dessa lider dock också av olika brister, vilket gör att resultaten varierar beroende på den valideringsmetod som används.

    I denna studie föreslås flera sätt att visualisera osäkerheter baserat på resultaten från osäkerhetsmodellering och karaktären av osäkerhetsinformation. Dessa utgörs av kartor med divergerande färgramp (sk. dual-ended colour maps), sekventiella kartor (som framhäver graden av säkerhet, respektive osäkerhet), binära kartor, överlagring av översvämningsgränser från olika modeller samt värdestaplar. Olika karteringsmetoder och visuella variabler användes för att representera informationen. Resultat från en användarstudie visade att dessa, samt utformningen av den grafiska representationen, underlättade förståelsen av informationen. Beroende på uppgiften finns det visualisering som är lättare eller svårare att förstå för kartanvändarna. Varje visualisering hade också för- och nackdelar med att kommunicera översvämningsosäkerhetsinformation. En annan viktig aspekt som kom fram i studien var hur användarnas bakgrund påverkar beslutsfattandet när de använde de olika kartorna. Användarnas vilja att ta risker berodde inte bara på kartan, utan också på deras uppfattning av risken i sig. Sammantaget visade det sig emellertid att osäkerhetskartorna är användbara för planeringsuppgifter.

  • 152.
    Lim, Nancy Joy
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för Industriell utveckling, IT och Samhällsbyggnad, Samhällsbyggnad, GIS.
    Brandt, S. Anders
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för Industriell utveckling, IT och Samhällsbyggnad, Samhällsbyggnad, GIS.
    Seipel, Stefan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för Industriell utveckling, IT och Samhällsbyggnad, Datavetenskap. Division of Visual Information and Interaction, Department of Information Technology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Visualisation and evaluation of flood uncertainties based on ensemble modelling2016Ingår i: International Journal of Geographical Information Science, ISSN 1365-8816, E-ISSN 1365-8824, Vol. 30, nr 2, s. 240-262Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study evaluates how users incorporate visualisation of flood uncertainty information in decision-making. An experiment was conducted where participants were given the task to decide building locations, taking into account homeowners’ preferences as well as dilemmas imposed by flood risks at the site. Two general types of visualisations for presenting uncertainties from ensemble modelling were evaluated: (1) uncertainty maps, which used aggregated ensemble results; and (2) performance bars showing all individual simulation outputs from the ensemble. Both were supplemented with either two-dimensional (2D) or three-dimensional (3D) contextual information, to give an overview of the area.The results showed that the type of uncertainty visualisation was highly influential on users’ decisions, whereas the representation of the contextual information (2D or 3D) was not. Visualisation with performance bars was more intuitive and effective for the task performed than the uncertainty map. It clearly affected users’ decisions in avoiding certain-to-be-flooded areas. Patterns to which the distances were decided from the homeowners’ preferred positions and the uncertainties were similar, when the 2D and 3D map models were used side by side with the uncertainty map. On the other hand, contextual information affected the time to solve the task. With the 3D map, it took the participants longer time to decide the locations, compared with the other combinations using the 2D model.Designing the visualisation so as to provide more detailed information made respondents avoid dangerous decisions. This has also led to less variation in their overall responses.

  • 153.
    Lin, Xiangyi
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för Industriell utveckling, IT och Samhällsbyggnad.
    Zu, Yuanyuan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för Industriell utveckling, IT och Samhällsbyggnad.
    Multi-criteria GIS-based procedure for coffee shop location decision2013Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The location selection of a coffee shop is crucial for its success or failure. It should be decided in a strategical and comprehensive way. Geographic Information System (GIS) technology has rapidly become a popular tool for complicated location decision problems, because of its remarkable function for handling spatial and non-spatial data. In this particular project, based on GIS softwares, a spatial interaction model, the Huff model, and a decision making model, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), a multi-criteria model, were used to determine the most promising area for opening a new coffee shop in San Francisco, United States. By using two GIS softwares, ArcMap and ERDAS, to analyze different kinds of criteria, which can be classified as socioeconomic and demographic, three customized optimizing location maps, the optimized location for Huff capture, the optimized location for AHP-based multi-criteria model and the optimized location map for both Huff and AHP, were obtained. When these three maps were compared with the actual situation, the commercial district and the area that was surrounded by a university and parks were evaluated as the most suitable location for establishing a new coffee shop in San Francisco. The result shows that visitor flow rate was a primary factor that influences the operation of coffee shops.

  • 154.
    Lin, Yue
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för Industriell utveckling, IT och Samhällsbyggnad.
    A Comparison Study on Head/tail Breaks and Topfer’s Method for Model-based Map Generalization on Geographic Features in Country and City Levels2015Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Map generalization is a traditional cartographical issue which should be particularly considered in today’sinformation age. The aim of this study is to find some characteristics about head/tail breaks which worksas generalization method compared with the well known Topfer’s method. A questionnaire survey wasconducted to let 30 users choose either of the series maps of both methods and the reason(s) for thatchoice. Also to test their understanding of the series maps histograms were added for them to match.Afterwards the sample results were analyzed using both univariate and bivariate analysis approaches. Itshows that the head/tail breaks method was selected by 58%, compared with 38.7% of Topfer’s method,because of its simplicity. By checking the correctness of histogram question it also shows that those whowell understood answers choose the head/tail breaks rather than the Topfer’s method. However in somecases, where the amount of geographical features is relatively small, Topfer’s method is more selectedbecause of its informative characteristic and similar structure to the original map. It was also found that inthe comparison the head/tail breaks is more advantageous in line feature type generalization than in arealfeature type. This is probably because Topfer’s method changes its minority selection rule to half selectionin line feature type, whereas the head/tail breaks keeps the scaling property. Any difference between thetwo tested scales, Finland level and Helsinki level, is not found in this comparison study. However, futurework should explore more regarding this and other issues.

  • 155.
    Lin, Yue
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för Industriell utveckling, IT och Samhällsbyggnad.
    A Comparison Study on Natural and Head/tail Breaks Involving Digital Elevation Models2013Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The most widely used classification method for statistical mapping is Jenks’s natural breaks. However, it has been found that natural breaks is not good at classifying data which have scaling property. Scaling property is ubiquitous in many societal and natural phenomena. It can be explained as there are far more smaller things than larger ones. For example, there are far more shorter streets than longer ones, far more smaller street blocks than bigger ones, and far more smaller cities than larger ones. Head/tail breaks is a new classification scheme that is designed for values that exhibit scaling property. In Digital Elevation Models (DEMs), there are far more lower elevation points than higher elevation points. This study performs both head/tail breaks and natural breaks for values from five resolutions of DEMs. The aim of this study is to examine advantages and disadvantages of head/tail breaks classification scheme compared with natural breaks. One of the five resolutions of DEMs is given as an example to illustrate the principle behind the head/tail breaks in the case study.The results of head/tail breaks for five resolutions are slightly different from each other in number of classes or level of details. The similar results of comparisons support the previous finding that head/tail breaks is advantaged over natural breaks in reflecting the hierarchy of data. But the number of classes could be reduced for better statistical mapping. Otherwise the top values, which are very little, would be nearly invisible in the map.A main conclusion to be drawn from this study is that head/tail breaks classification scheme is advantaged over natural breaks in presenting hierarchy or scaling of elevation data, with the top classes gathered into one. Another conclusion is when the resolution gets higher; the scaling property gets more striking.

  • 156.
    Lindberg, Anna
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap.
    Utomhuspedagogik: Möjligheter till lärande utomhus2011Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (yrkesexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med det här arbetet var att undersöka om och hur barnen på förskolan kan utvecklas genom utomhuspedagogik. Det låg också i mitt intresse att undersöka i vilken utsträckning föräldrar uppfattar utomhuspedagogikens eventuella fördelar. Mina frågeställningar var därför: Vad kan utomhuspedagogik medföra för barns utveckling på förskolan? Vilken uppfattning har föräldrarna på den aktuella förskolan om utomhuspedagogikens inverkan? För att få svar på mina frågor har jag gjort en litteraturstudie på tidigare forskning och en enkätundersökning bland föräldrarna på den förskola där jag jobbar. Jag har sen jämfört svaren för att få fram en bild av föräldrarnas uppfattning. Resultatet visade att det finns en mängd fördelar med utomhuspedagogik för barnens utveckling och lärande. Det visade också att föräldrarna hade en bristande kunskap om detta

  • 157.
    Lindman, Mattias
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Geofysik.
    Lund, Björn
    Uppsala universitet, Geofysik.
    Roberts, Roland
    Uppsala universitet, Geofysik.
    Spatiotemporal characteristics of aftershock sequences in the south Iceland seismic zone: Interpretation in terms of pore pressure diffusion and poroelasticity2010Ingår i: Geophysical Journal International, ISSN 0956-540X, E-ISSN 1365-246X, Vol. 183, nr 3, s. 1104-1118Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In seismology numerous observations indicate a relationship between pore pressure in the Earth's crust and the occurrence of earthquakes. In this paper we study aftershock sequences in the South Iceland Seismic Zone (SISZ), where poroelastic rebound has been observed in the post-seismic period of two M 6.5 earthquakes in 2000 June. We analyse characteristic features in the spatiotemporal distribution of aftershocks following the two M 6.5 2000 June 17 and 21 earthquakes and a M 4.5 earthquake on 1999 September 27. These features include an initial pre-power-law decay period characterized by an initially finite aftershock rate, a subsequent power-law decay interrupted by distinct and temporary rate increases and decreases as well as increased clustering of aftershocks with time in the main shock fault zones. Extending the analysis to a M 3.2 aftershock sequence in the same region confirms an increase in the duration of the initial pre-power-law decay period with increasing main shock magnitude. We find, from the return time of aftershock magnitudes to the long-term completeness level, that the initial pre-power-law decay period and its durational dependence on main shock magnitude may not only represent incompleteness artefacts but may also reflect the physics of the aftershock process in the SISZ. Based on pore pressure diffusion modelling, we interpret the origin of the observed SISZ aftershock features in terms of a spatially non-linear coseismic influence of the main shock on stresses in the surrounding crust and poroelastic adjustment of stresses and pore pressures during main shock initiated diffusion processes. In a discussion of alternative interpretations, we find that rate and state friction and dynamically propagating crack models, the statistical ETAS model, afterslip models, viscoelastic relaxation of the lower crust and upper mantle and a recently proposed dependence on the crustal state of stress all appear inconsistent with at least one of the characteristic spatiotemporal features of the studied SISZ aftershock sequences. We conclude that these features constitute strong evidence for pore pressure effects in aftershock triggering within the SISZ and recommend that poroelastic adjustment of stresses is taken into account in modelling of main shock initiated pore pressure diffusion.

  • 158.
    Liu, Qingling
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för Industriell utveckling, IT och Samhällsbyggnad.
    Gong, Fanting
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för Industriell utveckling, IT och Samhällsbyggnad.
    Monitoring land use and land cover change: a combining approach of change detection to analyze urbanization in Shijiazhuang, China2013Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Detecting the changes of land use and land cover of the earth’s surface is extremely important to achieve continual and precise information about study area for any kinds of planning of the development. Geographic information system and remote sensing technologies have shown their great capabilities to solve the study issues like land use and land cover changes. The aim of this thesis is to produce maps of land use and land cover of Shijiazhuang on year 1993, 2000 and 2009 to monitor the possible changes that may occur particularly in agricultural land and urban or built-up land, and detect the process of urbanization in this city. Three multi-temporal satellite image data, Thematic Mapper image data from year 1993, Enhanced Thematic Mapper image data from 2000 and China Brazil Earth Resource Satellite image data from 2009 were used in this thesis. In this study, supervised classification was the major classification approach to provide classified maps, and five land use and land cover categories were identified and mapped. Post-classification approach was used to improve the qualities of the classified map. The noises in the classified maps will be removed after post-classification process. Normalized difference vegetation index was used to detect the changes of vegetated land and non-vegetated land. Change detection function in Erdas Imagine was used to detect the urban growth and the intensity of changes surrounding the urban areas. Cellular automata Markov was used to simulate the trends of land use and cover change during the period of 1993 to 2000 and 2000 to 2009, and a future land use map was simulated based on the land use maps of year 2000 and 2009. From this performance, the cross-tabulation matrices between different periods were produced to analyze the trends of land use and cover changes, and these statistic data directly expressed the change of land use and land cover. The results show that the agricultural land and urban or built-up land were changed a lot, approximately half of agricultural land was converted into urban or built-up land. This indicates that the loss of agricultural land is associated with the growth of urban or built-up land. Thus, the urbanization took place in Shijiazhuang, and the results of this urban expansion lead to the loss of agricultural land and environmental problems. During the process of detecting the land use and cover change, obtaining of high-precision classified maps was the main problem.

  • 159.
    Liu, Zhina
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Berggrundsgeologi.
    Koyi, Hemin
    Uppsala universitet, Berggrundsgeologi.
    Nilfouroushan, Faramarz
    Uppsala universitet, Berggrundsgeologi.
    Kinematics and internal deformation within 3-D granular slopes: insights from analogue mdoels and natural slopes2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study uses results of a series of analogue models, scanned data of natural landslides, and sections of natural failed slopes to investigate the kinematics and internal deformation during the failure of an unstable slope. The models simulate collapse of granular slopes by focusing on the spatial and temporal distribution of their internal structures. Model results show that the collapse of granular slopes resulted in different-generation extensional normal faults at the back of the slope, and contractional structures such as overturned folds, shealth folds and thrusts at the toe of the slope. The failure surfaces and the volume of the failure mass changed both spatially and temporally. Our model results show also that the nature of runout base has a significant influence on the kinematics and internal deformational structures. The runout distance increased with decreasing basal friction of a rigid runout base, and the topography at the slope toe was much gentler in the model with lower basal friction along the rigid runout base. The runout distance was shortest in the granular slope with deformable runout base. More extensional normal faults occurred in the model with low-friction runout base, whereas more shortening structures formed in the model with high-friction runout base. Similar tomodel results, our field observations indicate the presence of at least two generations of failure surfaces where the older ones are steeper.

  • 160.
    Liu, Zhina
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för geovetenskaper.
    Koyi, Hemin
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för geovetenskaper.
    Nilfouroushan, Faramarz
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för geovetenskaper.
    Swantesson, Jan
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper, Avdelningen för hälsa och miljö.
    Reshetyuk, Yuriy
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för Industriell utveckling, IT och Samhällsbyggnad, Samhällsbyggnad/GIS-Institutet.
    Internal deformation within an unstable granular slope: insights from physical modeling2012Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The collapses of granular materials frequently occur in nature in the form of, for example, rock avalanches, debrisavalanches and debris flow. In previous studies of collapses of a granular material, most of the focus has been onthe effect of initial geometry and mechanical properties of the granular materials, the run-out distance, and thetopography of final deposit. In this study, results of analogue models and scanned natural failed slopes are usedto outline the mode of failure of an unstable slope. Model results and field observations are used to argue that agranular mass moves downslope in a wavy pattern resulting in its intensive deformation.In the models, we mainly investigated the internal deformation of collapses of granular slopes in terms of theirinternal structures and the spatial and temporal distribution of the latter. Model results showed that a displacedmass of the granular slope has the following two features: (1) Initial collapse resulted in a series of normal faults,where hanging-wall blocks were slightly deformed, like the slump-shear structures in nature; (2) With furthercollapse, a set of secondary structures, such as deformed/folded fault surfaces, faulted folds, displaced inclinedfolds, and overturned folds formed near the slope surface. The occurrence of these structures reflects the failureprocess of the granular mass in space and time. In addition, our model results show that the nature of basal frictionhas a significant influence on the geometry and kinematics of these structures at the slope toe. Model results showalso that the mass does not glide downslope along only one surface, but includes several gliding surfaces each ofwhich take part of the sliding. These gliding surfaces become steeper deeper in the sliding mass. Some of thesefeatures observed in the models are also detected in the field. Scanned failed slope surfaces show a wavy patternsimilar to that in the models, reflecting the presence of normal faults at the head of the slope and folding at theslope toe.

  • 161.
    Liu, Zhina
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Berggrundsgeologi.
    Koyi, Hemin
    Uppsala universitet, Berggrundsgeologi.
    Swantesson, Jan
    Karlstad University.
    Nilfouroushan, Faramarz
    Uppsala universitet, Berggrundsgeologi.
    Reshetyuk, Yuriy
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för Industriell utveckling, IT och Samhällsbyggnad, Samhällsbyggnad/GIS-Institutet.
    Kinematics and 3-D internal deformation of granular slopes: analogue models and natural landslides2013Ingår i: Journal of Structural Geology, ISSN 0191-8141, E-ISSN 1873-1201, Vol. 53, s. 27-42Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study uses results from a series of analogue models, and field observations, scanned data and sections of natural landslides to investigate the kinematics and internal deformation during the failure of an unstable slope. The models simulate collapse of granular slopes and focus on the spatial and temporal distribution of their internal structures. Using a series of systematically designed models, we have studied the effect of friction and deformability of the runout base on internal deformation within a granular slope. The results of these different models show that the collapse of granular slopes resulted in different-generation extensional faults at the back of the slope, and contractional structures (overturned folds, sheath folds and thrusts) at the toe of the slope. The failure surfaces and the volume of the failure mass changed both spatially and temporally. Younger failure surfaces formed in the back of the older ones by incorporating additional new material from the head of the slope. Our model results also show that the nature of the runout base has a significant influence on the runout distance, topography and internal deformation of a granular slope. Model results are compared with natural landslides where local profiles were dug in order to decipher the internal structures of the failure mass. The natural cases show similar structural distribution at the head and toe of the failure mass. As in model results, our field observations indicate the presence of at least two generations of failure surfaces where the older ones are steeper.

  • 162.
    Lozano, Rodrigo
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för industriell ekonomi, industridesign och maskinteknik, Industriell ekonomi. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för logistik och innovativ produktion.
    Bridging aims and delivery of higher education for sustainable development: Using pedagogical approaches to fulfil competences2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 163.
    Lozano, Rodrigo
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för Industriell utveckling, IT och Samhällsbyggnad, Industriell ekonomi. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för logistik och innovativ produktion.
    Drivers for and barriers to Corporate Sustainability2019Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 164.
    Lozano, Rodrigo
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för industriell ekonomi, industridesign och maskinteknik, Industriell ekonomi. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för logistik och innovativ produktion.
    Impulsores de la sostenibilidad corporativa [Corporate sustainability drivers]2019Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 165.
    Lozano, Rodrigo
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för Industriell utveckling, IT och Samhällsbyggnad, Industriell ekonomi. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för logistik och innovativ produktion.
    Institutionalising sustainability in HEIs: Experiences from the University of Gävle2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 166.
    Lozano, Rodrigo
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för Industriell utveckling, IT och Samhällsbyggnad, Industriell ekonomi. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för logistik och innovativ produktion.
    Reinforcing the holistic perspective of sustainability: Analysis of the importance of sustainability drivers in organisations2017Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 167.
    Lozano, Rodrigo
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för Industriell utveckling, IT och Samhällsbyggnad, Industriell ekonomi. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för logistik och innovativ produktion.
    State of the art on sustainable business models: A discussion on sustainable business models : Providing a more holistic perspective on sustainable business models2018Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 168.
    Lozano, Rodrigo
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för industriell ekonomi, industridesign och maskinteknik, Industriell ekonomi. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för logistik och innovativ produktion. Organisational Sustainability, Ltd, Cardiff, UK.
    Sustainable business models: providing a more holistic perspective2018Ingår i: Business Strategy and the Environment, ISSN 0964-4733, E-ISSN 1099-0836, Vol. 27, nr 8, s. 1159-1166Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Corporate sustainability has recently been challenging traditional business models that have been based on value proposition, creation and capture. There has been a steady increase in publications using the term “sustainable business models”; however, there have been few that have theoretically defined or characterized the term, and in most cases, they just apply the term. Seven peer‐reviewed papers were selected that aimed to define and explain sustainable business models and that have been widely cited. The papers were analyzed by assessing the elements and activities covered using the corporate sustainability framework, and by comparing them against four approaches to explain organizations. The paper proposes a definition and framework for more sustainable business models aimed at integrating organizational approaches, the company system, stakeholders, change and sustainability dimensions, thus providing a more holistic and systemic approach to discourses on sustainable business models.

    Publikationen är tillgänglig i fulltext från 2020-04-10 00:01
  • 169.
    Lozano, Rodrigo
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för industriell ekonomi, industridesign och maskinteknik, Industriell ekonomi. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för logistik och innovativ produktion. Organisational Sustainability, Cardiff, UK.
    Barreiro-Gen, Maria
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för industriell ekonomi, industridesign och maskinteknik, Industriell ekonomi. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för logistik och innovativ produktion.
    Analysing the incorporation of sustainable development into European Higher Education Institution's curricula2019Ingår i: Engineering Education towards Sustainability: Approaches for Institutionalization and Teaching Implementation: Second Internacional Conference on Engineering Education for the 21st Century – ICEE21C 2019 / [ed] Guraya, T., Cabedo, L., Bilbao: Universidad del País Vasco / Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea , 2019, s. 51-56Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 170.
    Lozano, Rodrigo
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för Industriell utveckling, IT och Samhällsbyggnad, Industriell ekonomi. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för logistik och innovativ produktion.
    Findler, Florian
    Schönherr, Norma
    Stacherl, Barbara
    Making the Invisible Visible: Impact Assessment in Higher Education2018Ingår i: Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: Proceedings of the Twenty-Ninth Annual Meeting, 2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 171.
    Lozano, Rodrigo
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för Industriell utveckling, IT och Samhällsbyggnad, Industriell ekonomi. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för logistik och innovativ produktion.
    Reid, Angus
    Investors, Electricity Utility Companies, and Transformative Change in Europe2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 172.
    Lupo Stanghellini, Paola S.
    et al.
    Deptartment of Invertebrate Zoology and Hydrobiology, Natural Science Museum of Trento, Trento, Italy.
    Collentine, Dennis
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för ekonomi, Ämnesavdelningen för nationalekonomi.
    Stakeholder discourse and water management: implementation of the participatory model CATCH in a Northern Italian alpine sub-catchment2008Ingår i: Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, ISSN 1027-5606, E-ISSN 1607-7938, Vol. 12, nr 1, s. 317-331Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Water Framework Directive (WFD, directive 2000/60/EC) was created to ensure the sustainable use of water resources in the European Union. A central guideline included throughout the directive is a call for the participation of stakeholders in the management of these resources. Involving stakeholders is an important step to ensure that catchment management plans take into consideration local experience in the development of these plans and the impact of the plans on local interests. This paper describes and analyses the results of a series of workshops to facilitate implementation of the WFD at a catchment level based on the stakeholder participation model, CATCH. To test the usefulness of the CATCH model, developed for water management in a catchment area, a sub-catchment in an alpine valley in the north-east of Italy, the Alta Valsugana in the Province of Trento, was chosen as the setting for a series of workshops. In this valley water is fundamental for activities associated with agriculture, domestic use, energy production, sports and recreation. In the recent past the valley has had serious problems related to water quality and quantity. Implementation of water management plans under the WFD may lead to conflicts within the catchment between different stakeholder interest groups. Including stakeholders in the development of management plans not only follows the guidelines of the WFD but also could result in a more locally adapted and acceptable plan for the catchment. A new stakeholder analysis methodology was developed and implemented in order to identify the relevant stakeholders of the area and then two sets of workshops involving the key stakeholders identified were conducted in Spring 2006. The CATCH meetings were a new experience for the participants, who had to deal with both the principles of the WFD in general and the participation requirement in particular. During the meetings, the CATCH model played a very important role in structuring the participatory process. It provided a general framework consisting of a sequence of steps that helped the participants to reach the goal of the process: the identification and evaluation of measures to improve water management in the catchment. This test of the CATCH model showed it to be a dynamic and flexible tool, useful for structuring and guiding the participation process, without imposing undue restrictions on influencing the outcome of stakeholder participation in a small catchment.

  • 173.
    Ma, Ding
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för Industriell utveckling, IT och Samhällsbyggnad, Samhällsbyggnad, GIS.
    Topological and Scaling Analysis of Geospatial Big Data2018Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Geographic information science and systems face challenges related to understanding the instinctive heterogeneity of geographic space, since conventional geospatial analysis is mainly founded on Euclidean geometry and Gaussian statistics. This thesis adopts a new paradigm, based on fractal geometry and Paretian statistics for geospatial analysis. The thesis relies on the third definition of fractal geometry: A set or pattern is fractal if the scaling of far more small things than large ones recurs multiple times. Therefore, the terms fractal and scaling are used interchangeably in this thesis. The new definition of fractal is well-described by Paretian statistics, which is mathematically defined as heavy-tailed distributions. The topology of geographic features is the key prerequisite that enables us to see the fractal or scaling structure of the geographic space. In this thesis, topology refers to the relationship among meaningful geographic features (such as natural streets and natural cities).

    The thesis conducts topological and scaling analyses of geographic space and its involved human activities in the context of geospatial big data. The thesis utilizes the massive, volunteered, geographic information coming from LBSM platforms, which are the global OpenStreetMap database and countrywide, geo-referenced tweets and check-in locations. The thesis develops geospatial big-data processing and modeling techniques, and employs complexity science methods, including heavy-tailed distribution detection and head/tail breaks, along with some complex network analysis. Head/tail breaks and the induced ht-index are a powerful tool for geospatial big-data analytics and visualization. The derived scaling hierarchies, power-law metrics, and network measures provide quantitative insights into the heterogeneity of geographic space and help us understand how it shapes human activities at city, country, and world scales. 

  • 174.
    Ma, Ding
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för Industriell utveckling, IT och Samhällsbyggnad, Samhällsbyggnad, GIS.
    Sandberg, Mats
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Energisystem.
    Jiang, Bin
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för Industriell utveckling, IT och Samhällsbyggnad, Samhällsbyggnad, GIS.
    Characterizing the Heterogeneity of the OpenStreetMap Data and Community2015Ingår i: ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information, ISSN 2220-9964, Vol. 4, nr 2, s. 535-550Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OpenStreetMap (OSM) constitutes an unprecedented, free, geographical information source contributed by millions of individuals, resulting in a database of great volume and heterogeneity. In this study, we characterize the heterogeneity of the entire OSM database and historical archive in the context of big data. We consider all users, geographic elements and user contributions from an eight-year data archive, at a size of 692 GB. We rely on some nonlinear methods such as power law statistics and head/tail breaks to uncover and illustrate the underlying scaling properties. All three aspects (users, elements, and contributions) demonstrate striking power laws or heavy-tailed distributions. The heavy-tailed distributions imply that there are far more small elements than large ones, far more inactive users than active ones, and far more lightly edited elements than heavy-edited ones. Furthermore, about 500 users in the core group of the OSM are highly networked in terms of collaboration.

  • 175.
    Macay Moreira, José Miguel
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för Industriell utveckling, IT och Samhällsbyggnad.
    Using photogrammetric Digital Surface Model in LiDAR software for creating Three Dimensional Buildings2013Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The way of representing Earth has changed; two dimensional (2D) maps have turned into three Dimensional (3D) representations. There are many studies in order to create 3D city maps as well as areas where these are applied such as 3D cadastral, 3D visualization and flood simulation, etc. These can be created with the aid of different data sources using photogrammetric Digital Surface Model (DSM) derived from image matching and from Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) point clouds or both of them combining orthophotos and building footprints. Several software has been developed to ease and speed up this process.

    In this study, a current state-of-the art in the 3D city modeling with particular interest to commercial software was analyzed. DSMs from image matching (Satellite and Airborne) were used in order to create a 3D city model of Trento, Italy. The objectivewas to examine the degree of automation and the computation time of two available software: Feature Manipulation Engine (FME) and Building Reconstruction (BREC). Other problem such as the quality of the DSM needed would be discussed for each software and the results would be compared to those achieved using LiDAR data. Recommendations and possible problems would also be addressed.

    In order to create a 3D city model, the ALDPAT software (Airborne LiDAR Data Processing and Analysis Tool) has been used to separate the ground regions (Digital Terrain Model, DTM) from the man-made objects and trees (Normal Digital Surface Model, nDSM). FME and BREC software have been used to reconstruct the 3D city model.

    The output results from FME and BREC have been analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. The comparison between the models generated from photogrammetric and LiDAR DSMs have been performed. The results show that buildings generated by satellite images have poorest quality compared with buildings from LiDAR and airborne data.

    In particular, the performed tests will be shown that among the Level of Details (LoD), a LoD1 and LoD2 3D city models can be generated using a DSM by image matching. A deeper study should be done in order to analyze the level of detail qualitatively.

  • 176.
    Milutinovic, Goran
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för datavetenskap och samhällsbyggnad, Datavetenskap.
    Ahonen-Jonnarth, Ulla
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för datavetenskap och samhällsbyggnad, Besluts-, risk- och policyanalys.
    Seipel, Stefan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för datavetenskap och samhällsbyggnad, Datavetenskap. Division of Visual Information and Interaction, Department of Information Technology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Brandt, S. Anders
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för datavetenskap och samhällsbyggnad, Samhällsbyggnad.
    The impact of interactive visualization on trade-off-based geospatial decision-making2019Ingår i: International Journal of Geographical Information Science, ISSN 1365-8816, E-ISSN 1365-8824, Vol. 33, nr 10, s. 2094-2123Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In a previous work we developed GISwaps, a novel method for geospatial decision-making based on Even Swaps. In this paper, we present the results of an evaluation of a visualization framework integrated with this method, implemented within a decision support system. This evaluation is based on two different studies. In the quantitative study, 15 student participants used GISwaps with no visual features, and 15 participants used GISwaps with the integrated visual framework, as the tool in a solar farm site location case study. The results of the quantitative evaluation show positive impact of the visualization in terms of increased coherency in trade-offs. The results also show a statistically significant difference in average trade-off values between the groups, with users from the non-visual group setting on average 20% higher trade-off values compared with the users in the visual group. In the qualitative study, we had one expert in GIS, two experts in decision-making and two experts in solar energy as a focus user group. Data in this study were obtained by observations and semi-structured interviews with the participants. The impact of the visualization framework was assessed positively by all participants in the expert group. 

  • 177.
    Mousavi, Z.
    et al.
    ISTerre, Université Joseph Fourier, Grenoble, France; National Cartographic Center, Geodetic Department, Tehran, Iran.
    Walpersdorf, A.
    ISTerre, Université Joseph Fourier, Grenoble, France.
    Walker, R.T.
    Department of Earth Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.
    Tavakoli, F.
    National Cartographic Center, Geodetic Department, Tehran, Iran.
    Pathier, E.
    ISTerre, Université Joseph Fourier, Grenoble, France.
    Nankali, H.
    National Cartographic Center, Geodetic Department, Tehran, Iran.
    Nilfouroushan, Faramarz
    Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Djamour, Y.
    National Cartographic Center, Geodetic Department, Tehran, Iran.
    Global Positioning System constraints on the active tectonics of NE Iran and the South Caspian region2013Ingår i: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, ISSN 0012-821X, E-ISSN 1385-013X, Vol. 377-378, s. 287-298Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a velocity field compiled from a network of 27 permanent and 20 campaign GPS stations  across NE Iran. This new GPS velocity field helps to investigate how Arabia-Eurasia collision deformation is accommodated at the northern boundary of the deforming zone. The present-day northward motion decreases eastward from 11 mm/yr at Tehran (~52°E) to 1.5 mm/yr at Mashhad  (~60°E). N-S shortening across the Kopeh Dagh, Binalud and Kuh-e-Surkh ranges sums to 4.5±0.5 mm/yr at longitude 59°E. The available GPS velocities allow us to describe the rigid-body rotation of the South Caspian about an Euler pole that is located further away than previously thought. We suggest that two new stations (MAVT and MAR2), which are sited far from the block boundaries, are most  likely to indicate the full motion of the South Caspian basin. These stations suggest that NW motion is accommodated by right-lateral slip on the Ashkabad fault (at a rate of up to 7 mm/yr) and by up to 4-6 mm/yr of summed left-lateral slip across the Shahroud left-lateral strike-slip system. Our new GPS results are important for assessing seismic hazard in NE Iran, which contains numerous large population centers and possesses an abundant historical earthquake record. Our results suggest that the fault zones along the eastern Alborz and western Kopeh Dagh may accommodate slip at much faster rates than previously thought. Fully assessing the role of these faults, and the hazard that they represent, requires independent verification of their slip-rates through additional GPS measurements and geological fieldwork.

  • 178.
    Myagmartseren, Purevtseren
    et al.
    Department of Geography, School of Arts and Science, National University of Mongolia, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.
    Buyandelger, Myagmarsuren
    Land Administration Department of Capital City, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.
    Brandt, S. Anders
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för Industriell utveckling, IT och Samhällsbyggnad, Samhällsbyggnad, GIS.
    Implications of a Spatial Multicriteria Decision Analysis for Urban Development in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia2017Ingår i: Mathematical problems in engineering (Print), ISSN 1024-123X, E-ISSN 1563-5147, Vol. 2017, artikel-id 2819795Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    New technology has provided new tools for effective spatial planning. Through the example of locating suitable sites for urbandevelopment in Ulaanbaatar, this paper illustrates how multicriteria decision analysis and geographical information systems canbe used for more effective urban planning. Several constraint and factor criteria were identified, transformed into map layers,and weighted together using the analytic hierarchy process. Besides localization results, this study shows the effect of using poorelevation data and how a sensitivity analysis can be applied to yield further information, spot weighting weaknesses, and assess thequality of the criteria.

  • 179.
    Märdla, Silja
    et al.
    Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Ellmann, Artu
    Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Ågren, Jonas
    Lantmäteriet.
    Sjöberg, Lars
    KTH.
    Regional geoid computation by least squares modified Hotine’s formula with additive corrections2018Ingår i: Journal of Geodesy, ISSN 0949-7714, E-ISSN 1432-1394, Vol. 92, nr 3, s. 253-270Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Geoid and quasigeoid modelling from gravity anomalies by the method of least squares modification of Stokes’s formula with additive corrections is adapted for the usage with gravity disturbances and Hotine’s formula. The biased, unbiased and optimum versions of least squares modification are considered. Equations are presented for the four additive corrections that account for the combined (direct plus indirect) effect of downward continuation (DWC), topographic, atmospheric and ellipsoidal corrections in geoid or quasigeoid modelling. The geoid or quasigeoid modelling scheme by the least squares modified Hotine formula is numerically verified, analysed and compared to the Stokes counterpart in a heterogeneous study area. The resulting geoid models and the additive corrections computed both for use with Stokes’s or Hotine’s formula differ most in high topography areas. Over the study area (reaching almost 2 km in altitude), the approximate geoid models (before the additive corrections) differ by 7 mm on average with a 3 mm standard deviation (SD) and a maximum of 1.3 cm. The additive corrections, out of which only the DWC correction has a numerically significant difference, improve the agreement between respective geoid or quasigeoid models to an average difference of 5 mm with a 1 mm SD and a maximum of 8 mm.

  • 180.
    Märdla, Silja
    et al.
    Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Ågren, Jonas
    Lantmäteriet.
    Strykowsky, Gabriel
    Technical University of Denmark.
    Oja, Tönis
    Estonian Land Board.
    Ellmann, Artu
    Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Forsberg, René
    Technical University of Denmark.
    Bilker-Koivula, Mirjam
    Land Survey of Finland.
    Omang, Ove
    Norwegian Mapping Authority.
    Parseliunas, Eimuntas
    Vilinius Gediminas Technical Univesity, Lithuania.
    Liepins, Ivars
    Latvian Geospatial Information Agency.
    From discrete gravity survey data to a high-resolution gravity field representation in the Nordic-Baltic region2017Ingår i: Marine Geodesy, ISSN 0149-0419, E-ISSN 1521-060X, Vol. 40, nr 6, s. 416-453Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The deduction of a regularly spaced gravity anomaly grid from scattered survey data is studied, addressing mainly two aspects: reduction of gravity to anomalies and subsequent interpolation by various methods. The problem is illustrated in a heterogeneous study area and contrasting test areas including mountains, low terrains, and a marine area. Provided with realistic error estimates, Least Squares Collocation interpolation of Residual Terrain Model anomalies yields the highest quality gravity grid. In most cases, the Bouguer reduction and other interpolation methods tested are equally viable. However, spline-based interpolation should be avoided in marine areas with trackwise survey data.

  • 181.
    Neophytou, M. K-A.
    et al.
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Environmental Fluid Mechanics Laboratory, University of Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus .
    Fernando, H. J. S.
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Earth Sciences, University of Notre Dame, IN, United States .
    Batchvarova, E.
    National Hydrometeorological Institute, National Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria .
    Sandberg, Mats
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Energisystem.
    Lelieveld, J.
    Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz, Germany .
    Tryphonos, E.
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Environmental Fluid Mechanics Laboratory, University of Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus.
    A scaling law for the Urban Heat Island phenomenon: deductions from field measurements and comparisons with existing results from laboratory experiments2014Ingår i: ASME 2014 4th Joint US-European Fluids Engineering Division Summer Meeting collocated with the ASME 2014 12th International Conference on Nanochannels, Microchannels, and Minichannels, 2014, s. V01DT28A009-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We report results from a multi-scale field experiment conducted in Cyprus in July 2010 in order to investigate the Urban Heat Island (UHI) in Nicosia capital city and its interaction with multiscale meteorological phenomena taking place in the broader region. Specifically, the results are analysed and interpreted in terms of a non-dimensional/scaling parameter dictating the urban heat island circulation reported from laboratory experiments (Fernando et al, 2010). We find that the field measurements obey the same scaling law during the day, in the absence of any other flow phenomena apart from the urban heating. During the night we find that the deduced non-dimensional value reduces to half (compared to that during the day); this is due to the presence of katabatic winds from Troodos mountains into the urban center of Nicosia and their cooling effect superimposed on diurnal urban heating. Based on this deduction, the impact of various proposed heat island mitigation measures in urban planning can be evaluated.

  • 182.
    Nilfouroushan, Faramarz
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för geovetenskaper.
    Ground Movements in the Zagros Fold-Thrust Belt of SW Iran Measured by GPS and InSAR Compared to Physical Models2007Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis uses geodetic satellite data to measure present-day crustal deformation in the Zagros fold-thrust belt (SW Iran). Geodetic-type measurements are also used in down-scaled models that simulate the surface deformations seen in convergent settings like the Zagros fold-thrust belt.

    Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements of three surveys between 1998 and 2001 indicate 9 ± 3 mm/yr and 5 ± 3 mm/yr shortening across the SE and NW Zagros respectively. GPS results show that in addition to the different rates and directions of shortening on either side of the NS trending Kazerun fault, local along-belt extension occurs to the east.

    Differential SAR interferograms of ERS1 & 2 images between 1992 and 1999 detect 8 ± 4 mm/yr uplift rate across a newly recognized fault in SW Qeshm Island. This can be attributed to a steep imbricate thrust that may still represent the local Zagros deformation front.

    The salt diapirs in the Zagros rise from a source layer that acts as a low-frictional decollement that decouples the deformation of the cover sediments from their basement in the eastern Zagros whereas the cover to the west deforms above a high-friction decollement. Physical models were prepared to simulate cover deformation in the Zagros by shortening a sand pack above adjacent high- and low-frictional decollements (represented by a ductile layer). The strain distributions differed above the two types of decollements; it was more heterogeneous above the salt where local extension in the shortening direction was dominant. A separate work also investigated systematically the role of basal friction on cover deformation in convergent settings. Accurate height measurements of the model surface by laser-scanner indicated a deformation front more distal than usual, particularly in the low-basal frictional models. The volume reduction in our shortened sand models correlated directly with their basal friction.

  • 183.
    Nilfouroushan, Faramarz
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för Industriell utveckling, IT och Samhällsbyggnad, Samhällsbyggnad, GIS. Geodetic infrastructure Department, Lantmäteriet, Gävle, Sweden.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för Industriell utveckling, IT och Samhällsbyggnad, Samhällsbyggnad, GIS.
    Gido, Nureldin
    Ground Subsidence And Groundwater Depletion In Iran: Integrated approach Using InSAR and Satellite Gravimetry2017Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Long-term monitoring of temporal gravity field and ground water level changes in Iran and its associated ground subsidence seen by geodetic methods are important for water source and hazard management.The high-rate (cm to dm/year) ground subsidence in Iran has been widely investigated by using different geodetic techniques such as precise leveling, GPS and interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR). The previous individual SAR sensors (e.g. ERS, ENVISAT and ALOS) or multi-sensors approach have successfully shown localized subsidence in different parts of Iran. Now, thanks to freely available new SAR sensor Sentinel-1A data, we aim at investigate further the subsidence problem in this region.

    In this ongoing research, firstly, we use a series of Sentinel-1A SAR Images, acquired between 2014 to 2017 to generate subsidence-rate maps in different parts of the country. Then, we correlate the InSAR results with the monthly observations of the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission in this region. The monthly GRACE data computed at CNES from 2002 to 2017 are used to compute the time series for total water storage changes. The Global Land Data Assimilation System( GLDAS) hydrological model (i.e. soil moisture, snow water equivalent and surface water) is used to estimate Groundwater changes from total water storage changes obtiaend from GRACE data.

    So far, we have generated a few interferograms, using Sentinel-1A data and SNAP software, which shows a few cm subsidence in western Tehran in last 2 years. We will try more Sentinel images for this area to better constrain the rate and extent of deformation and will continue InSAR processing for the rest of the country to localize the deformation zones and their rates. We will finally comapre the rates of subsidence obtained from InSAR and the rate of groundwater changes estimated from GRACE data.

  • 184.
    Nilfouroushan, Faramarz
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för datavetenskap och samhällsbyggnad, Samhällsbyggnad. Lantmäteriet, Geodetic infrastructure, Gävle, Sweden.
    Jivall, Lotti
    Lantmäteriet, Geodetic infrastructure, Gävle, Sweden.
    Al Munaizel, Naim
    Lantmäteriet, Geodetic infrastructure, Gävle, Sweden.
    Lilje, Christina
    Lantmäteriet, Geodetic infrastructure, Gävle, Sweden.
    Kempe, Christina
    Lantmäteriet, Geodetic infrastructure, Gävle, Sweden.
    Maintenance of the National Realisation of ETRS89 in Sweden: re-analysis of 20-years GPS data for SWEREF stations2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The national geodetic reference frame of Sweden called SWEREF 99, was adopted in 2000 by EUREF as therealization of ETRS89 in Sweden and was officially introduced in 2001 as a national reference frame, thateventually in 2007 replaced the former reference frame. The SWEREF 99 reference frame is defined by an activeapproach through the 21 fundamental SWEPOS permanent GNSS stations, hence relying on positioning servicessuch as the network real time kinematic (NRTK) and post processing service. The SWEREF 99 coordinates areassumed to be fixed in time and no temporal variations are expected. However, the stability of the stations andtheir coordinates can be altered due to equipment change or software as well as local movements at the referencestations.To be able to check all alterations mentioned above and having a backup national network of GNSS stations,approximately 300 passive so-called consolidation stations are used. The consolidation stations are a subset (mainpart) of the so-called SWEREF stations established from 1996 and onwards. All 300 stations are remeasured withstatic GNSS for 2x24 hours using choke ring antennas on a yearly basis with 50 stations each year. The originalprocessing was done with the Bernese GNSS software (here called Bernese original) and the reprocessing wascarried out with both the Bernese and the GAMIT-GLOBK software packages during 2017-2018.The resulting coordinates in SWEREF 99 from GAMIT and Bernese processing are equal at 1.2 mm level forhorizontal and 4 mm for vertical components (1 sigma) when using the same models and processing strategy.The original processing, which partly is based on other models and parameters, differs slightly more (rms 2.4mm) for the north component. Our analysis both from Bernese and GAMIT shows that the standard uncertaintiesfor a single SWEREF 99 determination (2x24 hrs) is 2 mm for the horizontal components and 6-7 mm inheight. However, since some stations are slowly moving they have slightly increased the estimated uncertainties.It is interesting to note that the repeatability is on the same level also for the original processing, where wehave differences in models and parameters used during the years. This indicates that the SWEREF-concept ofdetermining SWEREF99 coordinates has worked well on the mentioned uncertainty level.We performed trend analysis and statistical tests to investigate the stability of the estimated SWEREF 99coordinates. The analysed station time series (minimum three observations) showed that about 14% of the stationshad significant trends at the 95%-level. The possible explanation for those trends can be either local deformationand/or residuals of uplift model and/or computational effects such as lack of good or enough close-by stations forHelmert transformations from ITRF to SWEREF 99.The outcomes of the new processing and analysis reported here, are used to analyse the stability of SWEREF99 after two decades. The results have also been used to define the SWEREF 99 component in the fit of theSWEN17_RH2000 new geoid model to SWEREF 99 and RH 2000 (Swedish realization of EVRS).

  • 185.
    Nilfouroushan, Faramarz
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för Industriell utveckling, IT och Samhällsbyggnad, Samhällsbyggnad, GIS. Lantmäteriet.
    Jivall, Lotti
    Lantmäteriet.
    Lilje, Christina
    Lantmäteriet.
    Steffen, Holger
    Lantmäteriet.
    Lidberg, Martin
    Lantmäteriet.
    Johansson, Jan
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Jarlemark, Per
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Evaluation of newly installed SWEPOS mast stations, individual vs. type PCV antenna models and comparison with pillar stations2016Ingår i: Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vienna: European Geosciences Union , 2016, Vol. 18, artikel-id EGU2016-4265-1Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    For about two decades, SWEPOS (the Swedish Permanent GNSS network) pillar stations have been used indifferent geodetic and geodynamic studies. To keep continuous measurements of these long lived pillar stationsand at the same time modernizing the SWEPOS network, it has been decided to install new truss mast stations,equipped with modern and individually calibrated antennas and radomes, capable of tracking all new GNSSsatellites. Installation of mast stations started in 2011. Today, each pillar station in the SWEPOS permanent GNSSnetwork has a close-by truss mast station, mostly in 10 meters distance with individual calibrated Leica chokering antenna and its attachment (LEIAR25.R3, LEIT). Due to their closeness to pillars, the modern mast stationsmay provide additional information for the analysis of ground movements in Sweden e.g. to distinguish betweentectonic and geodynamic processes (e.g. land uplift in Sweden).In this study, we have used two datasets from two different seasons for 21 pillars and 21 mast stations andformed different networks. The mast network has been processed using both IGS standard (type) and individuallycalibrated PCV (Phase Center Variation) models and therefore the effect of these two different PCV models onheight components has been investigated. In a combined network, we processed all 42 stations (21 pillars+21mast) to see how this multi-baseline network (861 baselines) combination differs from independent mast or pillarnetworks with much less baselines (210 baselines). For our analysis, we used the GAMIT-GLOBK softwareand compared different networks. Ambiguity resolutions, daily coordinate repeatability and differences betweenheight components in different solutions are presented. Moreover, the GAMIT and BERNESE solutions forcombined mast and pillar networks are compared.Our results suggest that the SWEPOS truss mast stations can reliably be used for crustal deformation studies.The comparison between pillar and mast stations shows similar time series for different horizontal and verticalcomponents and their Normalized rms (nrms) and weighted rms (wmrs) are almost equal.Comparison of standard and calibrated PCV models for mast stations show notable differences in height compo-nents and reach up to14 mm. These differences are antenna-dependent and are not systematic offsets. Therefore,whenever available, individual calibrated antenna models have to be used instead of standard (type) calibratedmodels.This study is part of the Swedish CLOSE III research project between Lantmäteriet, SP, and Chalmers Universityof Technology.

  • 186.
    Nilfouroushan, Faramarz
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Berggrundsgeologi.
    Pysklywec, Russell
    Cruden, A. R.
    Koyi, H.
    Uppsala universitet, Berggrundsgeologi.
    Role of Basement Faults on the Crustal Wedge Deformation of the Zagros fold-thrust belt, New Insights from 2-D Thermo-mechanical Numerical Models2010Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 187.
    Nilfouroushan, Faramarz
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Berggrundsgeologi.
    Pysklywec, Russell
    Cruden, Alexander
    Comparison of analogue and numerical models: Sensitivity of numerical "sandbox" models of fold-thrust belts to material cohesion2010Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Scaled analogue and numerical brittle-viscous shortening models are conducted and the effects of uncertainties of the cohesion of brittle materials in the numerical modeling results are investigated. We demonstrate that the numerical models are very sensitive to small cohesion changes; specifically the geometry and number of structures are variable, especially in models with two weak viscous layers.  The results of some of the scaled numerical models can be very similar to analogue models in the usual range of cohesion values (here 0-100 Pa) of brittle materials.

  • 188.
    Nilfouroushan, Faramarz
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Berggrundsgeologi.
    Pysklywec, Russell
    Department of Geology, University of Toronto, Canada .
    Cruden, Alexander
    Department of Geology, University of Toronto, Canada M5S 3B1 c School of Geosciences, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Sensitivity analysis of numerical scaled models of fold-and-thrust belts to granular material cohesion variation and comparison with analogue experiments2012Ingår i: Tectonophysics, ISSN 0040-1951, E-ISSN 1879-3266, Vol. 526-529, s. 196-206Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Scaled analog and numerical brittle–viscous shortening models are employed to evaluate how fold–thrust structures evolve with changes in the cohesion of brittle materials, a rather poorly constrained physical parameter at this scale of experiment. The shortening models are characterized by various styles of shear zones and features resembling pop-up structures. The kinematics, geometry, and number of these structures are controlled by the viscous detachment layers in the models; the finite deformation of the model wedges is fundamentally different in model sets with one or two viscous layers. We demonstrate that the structural evolution of the numerical models is very sensitive to small changes in cohesion value. This is especially pronounced in the experiments that incorporate two weak viscous layers. The overall deformation of the numerical models is most similar to analog models when cohesion values are 70–80 Pa.

  • 189.
    Nilfouroushan, Faramarz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Earth Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden; Department of Earth Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.
    Pysklywec, Russell
    Department of Earth Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.
    Cruden, Alexander
    Department of Earth Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada;School of Geosciences, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Koyi, Hemin
    Uppsala University, Earth Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Numerical modeling of salt-based mountain belts with pre-existing basement faults: application to the Zagros fold- and thrust belt, southwest Iran2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Two-dimensional thermal-mechanical models of thick-skinned, salt-based fold- and thrust belts, such as the Zagros,SW Iran, are used to address: 1) the degree of deformation and decoupling between cover and basement rocks dueto the presence of a weak salt detachment; 2) the reactivation potential of pre-existing basement normal faults dueto brittle or ductile behavior of the lower crust (as related to cold or hot geothermal gradients); and 3) variations indeformation style and strain distribution. The geometry and kinematics of the orogenic wedge and the activity ofpre-existing basement faults are strongly influenced by the geothermal gradient (defined by the Moho temperature,MT) and basement rheology. We infer that the MT plays a major role in how the lower and upper crust transferdeformation towards the foreland. In relatively hot geotherm models (MT = 600C at 36 km depth), the lowermostbasement deforms in a ductile fashion while the uppermost basement underlying the sedimentary cover deformsby folding, thrusting, and displacements along pre-existing basement faults. In these models cover units abovethe salt detachment are less deformed in the hinterland. In relatively cold geotherm models (MT = 400C at 36km depth), deformation is mainly restricted to the hinterland of the models where basement imbricates form.Detachment folding, thrusting and gravity gliding occur within cover sediments above uplifted basement blocks.Gravity gliding contributes to a larger amount of shortening in the cover compared to the basement.

  • 190.
    Nilfouroushan, Faramarz
    et al.
    Hans Ramberg Tectonic Laboratory, Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Department of Earth Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.
    Pysklywec, Russell
    Department of Earth Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.
    Cruden, Alexander
    School of Geosciences, Monash University Victoria, Melbourne, Australia.
    Koyi, Hemin
    Hans Ramberg Tectonic Laboratory, Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Thermal-mechanical modeling of salt-based mountain belts with pre-existing basement faults: application to the Zagros fold and thrust belt, southwest Iran2013Ingår i: Tectonics, ISSN 0278-7407, E-ISSN 1944-9194, Vol. 32, nr 5, s. 1212-1226Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Two-dimensional thermal-mechanical models of thick-skinned, salt-based fold and thrust belts,  such as the Zagros, SW Iran, are used to address: 1) the degree of deformation and decoupling between cover and basement rocks due to the presence of a weak salt detachment; 2) the reactivation potential of pre-existing basement normal faults due to brittle or ductile behavior of the lower crust (as related to cold or hot geothermal gradients); and 3) variations in deformation style and strain distribution. The geometry and kinematics of the orogenic wedge and the activity of pre-existing basement faults are strongly influenced by the geothermal gradient (defined by the Moho temperature, MT) and basement rheology. We infer that the MT plays a major role in how the lower and upper crust transfer deformation towards the foreland. In relatively hot geotherm models (MT = 600°C at 36 km depth), the lowermost basement deforms in a ductile fashion while the uppermost basement underlying the sedimentary cover deforms by folding, thrusting, and displacements along pre-existing basement faults. In these models, cover units above the salt detachment occur within a less deformed, wide plateau in the hinterland. In relatively cold geotherm models (MT = 400°C at 36 km depth), deformation is mainly restricted to basement imbricate thrusts that form within the orogenic hinterland. Detachment folding, thrusting and gravity gliding occur within cover sediments above uplifted basement blocks. Gravity gliding contributes to a larger amount of shortening in the cover compared to the basement.

  • 191.
    Nilfouroushan, Faramarz
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Berggrundsgeologi.
    Talbot, C. J.Uppsala universitet, Berggrundsgeologi.Hodacs, PeterUppsala universitet, Berggrundsgeologi.Koyi, HeminUppsala universitet, Berggrundsgeologi.Sjöberg, LarsRoyal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Geodetic horizontal velocity and strain rate fields around Lake Vänern (SW Sweden) derived from GPS measurements between 1997 and 20112012Proceedings (redaktörskap) (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In 1989, the Värmland GPS network consisting of 8 stations spaced an average of 60 km apart was setup to monitor the ongoing deformation in and around Lake Vänern due to tectonic and mainly Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) processes in Fennoscandia. This network covers an area of about 10000 km2, straddles the Protogine and the Mylonite zones and includes one of the most active seismic zones of Sweden. We use GAMIT-GLOBK software to process the past GPS data, collected in October 1997, the only campaign that was measured with choke ring antenna, and the new GPS measurements in October 2010 and 2011 to estimate station velocities. We also integrate our local network with the SWEPOS (Swedish Permanent GPS network) and IGS (International GNSS Service) stations to better constrain the velocity fields in ITRF2008 and Eurasia-fixed reference frames. Since the rates of horizontal movements are very slow (less than 1 mm/year), our measurements in longer time spans (at least in 13 years, between 1997 to 2010, 2011 and planned 2012) better resolve the tectonic signal from the noise. Preliminary results obtained from campaign-mode measurements in 1997, 2010 and 2011 agree well with those reported in the latest study by Lidberg et al. (2010) who used the data from permanent GPS stations of the BIFROST (Baseline Inferences for Fennoscandian Rebound Observations Sea Level and Tectonics) project. Strain-rate analysis resulting from the obtained velocities illustrates the overall extensional component trending NW-SE with local variations. Adding more campaigns in 2012 and 2013 will surely increase the reliability of our analysis. The velocity field obtained from this research will add more details to the tectonic picture generated by BIFROST. The results are also relevant to GIA modeling, geodetic vs. seismic strain accumulation, waste isolation and seismic hazards.

  • 192.
    Nilsson, Måns
    et al.
    Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Hillman, Karl
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Teknisk miljövetenskap.
    Magnusson, Thomas
    Linköping University.
    How do we govern sustainable innovations? Mapping patterns of governance for biofuels and hybrid-electric vehicle technologies2012Ingår i: Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions, ISSN 2210-4224, Vol. 3, s. 50-66Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines patterns of governance aimed at sustainable technological innovation in the transport sector. It makes an overall assessment of governance emerging in the fields of biofuel and hybrid-electric vehicle (HEV) technologies, and makes a classification of its characteristics. It examines the role of different actors and levels of governance as well as preferred mechanisms and targets of governance. The assessment reveals that there are rather differential patterns of governance influencing the two fields. For instance, international-level and market-based governance are much more prevalent in biofuels, whereas industry-led and cognitive governance play comparatively stronger roles in HEV. These patterns can be understood in light of both the different institutional and actor characteristics of the two technologies, and their positions in relation to socio-technical regimes.

  • 193.
    Nilsson, Måns
    et al.
    Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Hillman, KarlHögskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Teknisk miljövetenskap.Rickne, AnnikaUniversity of Gothenburg.Magnusson, ThomasLinköping University.
    Paving the Road to Sustainable Transport: Governance and innovation in low-carbon vehicles2012Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This book is about how societies around the world can accelerate innovation in sustainable transport. It examines the relationship between policy change and the development of technological innovations in low carbon vehicle technologies, including biofuels, hybrid-electric vehicles, electric vehicles and fuel cells. Examining this relationship across countries and regions that are leaders in vehicle manufacturing and innovation, such as the European Union, Germany, Sweden, China, Japan, Korea and USA, the books aims to learn lessons about policy and innovation performance.

  • 194.
    Nilsson, Måns
    et al.
    Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Rickne, Annika
    University of Gothenburg.
    Hillman, Karl
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Teknisk miljövetenskap.
    Magnusson, Thomas
    Linköping University.
    The Road Ahead: Conclusions and Governance Implications2012Ingår i: Paving the Road to Sustainable Transport: Governance and innovation in low-carbon vehicles / [ed] Måns Nilsson, Karl Hillman, Annika Rickne, Thomas Magnusson, New York: Routledge, 2012, 1, s. 277-289Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 195.
    Norell, Lina
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik.
    Sundqvist, Josefine
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Miljöteknik.
    Granulat på konstgräsplaner i Gävle kommun: Miljöpåverkan vid spridning via dagvattensystem2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Konstgräsplaner kan beaktas som en betydande utsläppskälla av mikroplaster. Fyllnadsmaterialet som används på konstgräsplaner kallas granulat och går under definitionen mikroplast. De som används främst på den svenska marknaden är SBR, TPE, EPDM och R-EPDM. Granulatet sprids främst via dagvattnet från konstgräsplaner som då riskerar att hamna i närliggande vattendrag. Tidigare studier har påvisat att granulatet kan urlaka toxiska ämnen som riskerar att förorena vattendragen. Vattenlevande organismer kan misstolka små partiklar som föda, vilket kan ge konsekvenser som bland annat förstoppning och svält. Ämnena som kan urlaka tillhör samlingsnamnet miljögifter och är stabila, toxiska, reproduktionsstörande och ackumulerande.

    Syftet med denna studie är att ge en beskrivning av vilka fyllnadsmaterial som används på konstgräsplaner i Gävle och undersöka hur dessa partiklar kan spridas samt identifiera åtgärdsförslag för att minska spridningen. Syftet är också att redovisa konstgräsplanernas dagvattenutlopp och vattendragens status för att redogöra för den potentiella miljöpåverkan som granulatet kan ge upphov till. Metoderna som använts i arbetet är litteraturstudie, personlig kommunikation, fältobservationer, kartsystem och figurer samt vattenprov.

     

    Gavlefastigheter äger fem konstgräsplaner i Gävle kommun, vilka är Träffen IP, Gavlevallen, Nynäs IP, Sörby IP och Andersberg. På dessa planer används SBR- TPE- och R-EPDM-granulat. På planområdet förekommer dagvattenbrunnar och granulatet kan spridas till dessa genom ytavrinning vid höga regnflöden, snöplogning och smältvatten samt att spelarna får med sig partiklarna från planen. De flesta planer har dräneringssystem kopplat till dagvattenledningar som kan sprida urlakande ämnen till vattendrag. Dagvattenledningarna har utlopp i Testeboån, Bäckebrobäcken, Gavleån och Hemlingbybäcken. Granulatets fysikaliska egenskaper är en betydande roll om partikeln sedimenterar till botten eller om den kan transporteras med vattendraget. De konstgräsplaner som främst är i behov av åtgärder för att minska spridningen av granulat är Sörby, Anderberg och Nynäs.

     

    Vattendragens statusklassning uppnår ej god kemisk status och ämnen som förekommer i förhöjda halter varierar beroende på vattendrag. Enligt tidigare studier kan flera av dessa ämnen urlaka från granulatet, vilket innebär att det finns en risk för ett tillskott av dessa ämnen om spridning sker.

  • 196.
    Novák, Pavel
    et al.
    University of West Bohemia, Plzeň, Czech Republic.
    Tenzer, Robert
    National School of Surveying, Division of Sciences, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
    Eshagh, Mehdi
    Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för Industriell utveckling, IT och Samhällsbyggnad, Samhällsbyggnad/GIS-Institutet.
    Evaluation of gravitational gradients generated by Earth's crustal structures2013Ingår i: Computers & Geosciences, ISSN 0098-3004, E-ISSN 1873-7803, Vol. 51, s. 22-33Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Spectral formulas for the evaluation of gravitational gradients generated by upper Earth’s mass components are presented in the manuscript. The spectral approach allows for numerical evaluation of global gravitational gradient fields that can be used to constrain gravitational gradients either synthesised from global gravitational models or directly measured by the spaceborne gradiometer on board of the GOCE satellite mission. Gravitational gradients generated by static atmospheric, topographic and continental ice masses are evaluated numerically based on available global models of Earth’s topography, bathymetry and continental ice sheets. CRUST2.0 data are then applied for the numerical evaluation of gravitational gradients generated by mass density contrasts within soft and hard sediments, upper, middle and lower crust layers. Combined gravitational gradients are compared to disturbing gravitational gradients derived from a global gravitational model and an idealised Earth’s model represented by the geocentric homogeneous biaxial ellipsoid GRS80. The methodology could be used for improved modelling of the Earth’s inner structure.

  • 197.
    Olsson, Perola
    et al.
    Lunds Universitet.
    Rost, Helén
    Reshetyuk, Yuriy
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för Industriell utveckling, IT och Samhällsbyggnad, Samhällsbyggnad/GIS-Institutet.
    Laserskanning2011Ingår i: Geodetisk och fotogrammetrisk mätnings- och beräkningsteknik, Lantmäteriet , 2011, s. 181-204Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 198.
    Olsson, Simon
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för Industriell utveckling, IT och Samhällsbyggnad.
    Pettersson, Jacob
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för Industriell utveckling, IT och Samhällsbyggnad.
    Case Pöyry Sweden AB: Miljöprestandaindikatorer för ett tjänsteföretag2013Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The world's natural resources are constantly being reduced, which increases the pressure on companies to actively engage themselves in environmental activities. Meanwhile, stakeholders focus is being broadened and it is now important not only to supply a particular product or service but also show that they are actively pursuing an environmental agenda. Companies can use various tools to aid in environmental efforts, but also to demonstrate to the world that the company is actively engaged in environmental activities. One such tool is the environmental standard ISO14001 which provides the company with guidance and support on how the business must manage its environmental efforts. To show a business' progress in environmental performance, it is advantageous to use environmental performance indicators as they enable stakeholders to easily understand how the business works with environmental issues.

    Authors in the field explain that the environmental management system propagation is limited in service organizations. It is known that also a service organization contributes to environmental impact in some way. Therefore, it is interesting to examine a service organization's direct environmental impact and to create environmental performance indicators to the organization.

    This case study has been carried out on a case-company that has the intention to implement an environmental management system. The case-company needs help to identify its environmental aspects, formulate environmental performance indicators and environmental goals and therefore the study's purpose is: to identify a service organizations environmental impact and to develop environmental indicators. This is going to be applied to a technology consulting company. And also identify and set the environmental goals to use in the environmental management system.  To identify the case-company’s environmental impact interviews have been conducted.

    Study results show that transports are judged to be the case- company's most significant environmental aspect. The conclusion from this study is that it is difficult to prove that a given model, a certain environmental impact or a certain aspect excels at technical consulting.

  • 199.
    Ong, Theresa
    et al.
    Princton University, US.
    Lin, Brenda
    CSIRO.
    Philott, Stacy
    University of California, Santa Cruz.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Miljövetenskap.
    Levin, Simon
    Princeton University.
    A model for growing and shrinking cities: Urban gardens as a bridge2019Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 200.
    Otieno, Kevine Okoth
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för Industriell utveckling, IT och Samhällsbyggnad.
    Forestry Carbon Sequestration and Trading: a Case study of Mau Forest Complex in Kenya2015Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The global temperature is at an all-time high, the polar ice is melting, the sea levels are rising and the associated disasters are a time bomb. These variations in temperature are thought to trace roots to anthropogenic sources. In order to mitigate these changes and slow down the rate of warming, several efforts have been made locally and internationally. One of the agreed up-on way to do this is by using forests as reservoirs for carbon since carbon is one of those greenhouses gasses responsible for the warming. Mau forest, in Kenya, is one of those ecosystems where degradation has happened tremendously, though still viewed as a potential site for reclamation.

    Using GIS and remote sensing analysis of Landsat images, the study sought to compare various change detection techniques, find the amount of biomass lost or gained in the forest and the possible income accrued in case the forest is placed under the Kyoto protocol’s Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). Various vegetation ratios were used in the study ranging from NDVI, NDII to RSR. The results obtained from these ratios were not quite convincing as setting threshold for the ratios to separate dense forest from other forms of vegetation was not straightforward. As a consequence, the three ratios NDVI, NDII and RSR were combined and substituted for RGB bands respectively. A classification was done using this combination and the results compared to classifications based on tasselled cap and principal component analysis (PCA).

    The results of the various methods showed that the forest has lost its biomass over time. The methods indicated that the section of the forest studied lost between 8088 ha and 9450 ha of dense forest land between 1986 and 2010. This is between 29% and 35% of forest cover lost depending on the various methods of change detection used. This acreage when converted into forest biomass at a rate of 236 Mg.ha-1 gives a value of between 1908768 tons and 2230200 tons of carbon. If the Mau forest were registered as Kyoto compliant, then in the carbon market, this would have been a loss of between $24.1m and $ 28.2m according to California carbon dashboard (28th, May 2015). This is a huge sum of money if paid to a rural community as benefits from carbon sequestration via forestry. Such are the amounts that a community can earn by protecting a forest for the purposes of carbon sequestration and trading.

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