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  • 151.
    Francia, Guadalupe
    et al.
    Department of Education, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Parker-Jenkins, Marie
    University of Limmerick, Limmerick, Republic of Ireland.
    Edling, Silvia
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Developing education policy to support the rights of refugee Children to Education: Reflections from Sweden and the Republic of Ireland2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper draws on research designed to provide an understanding of the Convention of the Right of the Child and policy strategies targeted to assist newly arrived refugee children in Ireland and Sweden.  The study analyses the responses of these two  European welfare states and the use of political strategies to support new refugee children’s right to education at a time of increased social, ethnic and religious conflict in the world. .

    We utilise ‘Social Representations Theory’ as a useful theoretical starting point for understanding education policy processes targeting specific groups and communities. In line with Moscovici (2001), Chaib & Orfali (Eds.) (2000), Jodelet (2011, 2015), we argue that the analysis of social representations gives relevant knowledge about how groups and individuals construct, communicate and share different versions of the world. Social representations are values, norms and knowledge systems that enable individuals to orientate themselves in their social world (Moscovici, 1984, 2000, 2001). These rep­resentation systems function as common explanations of the real world constructed and shared by members of a social group and are communicated through words, media images, objects and behaviours. Social representations are socially shared practical knowledge that aims to inform  social behaviours and communications and help individuals everyday transactions in a complex social world (Jodelet, 1989, 2011;2015) and deal with contradictions in relation to policies targeted for vulnerable groups (Gilly 1989).

    Method

    Methodologically, key political documents regarding current national strategies implemented by Irish and Swedish national authorities were analysed. The documents were analysed by posing the following questions: • Which social representations of refugee children are present in the education policies/ suggested in these texts? • Which strategies to guaranteed refugee children’s ‘right to education’ are related to social representations? • What do the responses of Sweden and Ireland tell us about regarding the relationship between social representations and strategies? Further, in relation to these questions, the reading of the texts focused on a number of aspects, such as: Descriptions of newly arrived refugee children in the political texts; arguments to legitimise the introduction of strategies. The extent of education policy on education for refugee children is included in these arguments; the emphasis on ‘children’s rights’ and the underpinning of human rights law in the form of the European Convention on Human Rights to which both countries are a party; references to leading research on Children’s rights and on Newly arrived refugee children in these descriptions and arguments for strategies. The analysed documents are the following: • The European Convention on Human Rights, • The Convention of the Right of the Child • The European Union Charter of Fundamental Rights, • The European Social Charter and UN Human Rights Treaties • The Irish constitution (Ireland) • The Aliens Act 1935& The Aliens Order 1946 (Ireland) • The amended regulations implementing the EU Rights of Residence Directives (Ireland) • The Immigration Act 1999 (Ireland) • National Budget for Ireland and Sweden 2014-2016 • National School Acts and school regulation documents for Ireland and Sweden • Swedish School Inspectore report 2014:03 Education for newly arrived refugee pupils Quality Evaluation [Skolinspektionens rapport 2014:03 Utbildningen för nyanlända elever, Kvalitetsgranskning](Sweden) • The Swedish National Agency for Education documents target to newly arrived refugees pupils (Sweden)

    Expected Outcomes

    This on-going research study demonstrates how social representations of child refugees can be used by political actors in leading education policy processes as an interpretation system to manage immediate political needs and to reconcile with European treaty obligations. Finally, the paper shows how education research focused on Children Rights can be used in the development of leading education policies targeted to assist vulnerable groups in Europe at a time of significant of global conflicts.

    References

    Capps R., Newland K., Fratzke S., Groves S., Fix M., McHugh M., and Auclair G. (2015) The Integration Outcomes of U.S. Refugees: Successes and Challenges. . Brussels: Migration Policy Institute Europe http://www.migrationpolicy.org/research/integration-outcomes-us-refugees-successes-and-challenges. Chaib, M. & Orfali, B. (2000) (Eds). Social Representations and Communicative Processes. Jönköping:Jönköping University Press. Gilly, M. (1989). Les représentations sociales dans le champ éducatif. In D. Jodelet (ed). Les représentations sociales.(363-386). Paris: Presses Universitaires de France. Jodelet, D. (1989) Représentations sociales: un domaine en expansion. In D. Jodelet, D. (ed). Les représentations sociales.(31-60). Paris: Presses Universitaires de France. Jodelet, D. (2011) Aportes del enfoque de las representaciones sociales al campo de la educación [Contributions from the Social Representations Approach to the Field of Education] Espacios en Blanco - Serie indagaciones - Nº 21 - Junio 2011 (133-154)http://www.scielo.org.ar/pdf/eb/v21n1/v21n1a06.pdf Jodelet, D, (2015) Représentations sociales et mondes de vie. Textes édités par Nikos Kalampalikis. Collection Psycologie du Social. Paris, Éditions des Archives Contemporaines. Kumin J. (2015) Kumin J. (2015) Welcoming Engagement: How Private Sponsorship Can Strengthen Refugee Resettlement in the European Union. Brussels: Migration Policy Institute Europe. http://www.migrationpolicy.org/research/welcoming-engagement-how-private-sponsorship-can-strengthen-refugee-resettlement-european McHugh M. and Sugarman J. (2015) Transatlantic Symposium Report: Improving Instruction for Immigrant and Refugee Students in Secondary Schools Brussels: Migration Policy Institute Europe. http://www.migrationpolicy.org/research/transatlantic-symposium-report-improving-instruction-immigrant-and-refugee-students Moscovici, S. (1984). Social representations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Moscovici, S. (2000). Social representations. Explorations in Social Psychology. Oxford: Black¬well. Moscovici, S. (2001). Why a Theory of Social Representations. In K. Deaux & G.Philogène (eds.). Representations of the Social. 8-35. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers. Papademetriou D.G. (2015) Beyond Asylum: Rethinking Protection Policies to Meet Sharply Escalating Needs (Transatlantic Council Statement) Brussels: Migration Policy Institute Europe http://www.migrationpolicy.org/research/beyond-asylum-rethinking-protection-policies-meet-sharply-escalating-needs-transatlantic

  • 152.
    Fransson, Göran
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    A Culture of Trust or an Ideology of Distrust?: Comparing Finnish and Swedish Educational Culture and the Impact on National Mentoring Approaches2015Ingår i: Uncovering the Cultural Dynamics in Mentoring Programs and Relationships: Enhancing Practice and Research / [ed] F. Kochan, A. Kent & A. Green, Charlotte, N. Carolina, USA: Information Age Publishing, 2015, s. 253-271Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 153.
    Fransson, Göran
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    A theoretical contribution to research on ‘teacher induction policies’ and ‘mentoring policy’2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Mentoring is a global phenomenon. Even though the concept of ‘mentoring’ exists in different national and cultural contexts and is performed in a variety of ways, it is nevertheless a contested practice (Kemmis et al., 2014). The incoherent way of naming, framing and defining ‘mentoring’ has been discussed in the literature, in that different concepts, such as mentoring, coaching, supervision etc., have been used to describe the same phenomenon (cf. Gold, 1996; Sundli, 2007; Mullen, 2012;). For instance, Mullen (2012) writes that: “While some theorists think of coaching as a type of mentoring, others see the exact reverse – that is, mentoring as a type of coaching” (p. 9). Further, in the educational field a clear line is seldom drawn between ‘mentoring’ practiced in  initial teacher training and the ‘mentoring’ of newly qualified teachers. This may mean that the same phenomenon is described in different ways, or that different descriptions are applied to the same phenomenon.

    The purpose of this conceptual paper is to problematize how the concept of ‘mentoring’ is used in the literature to address the ‘phenomenon of mentoring’.

    Perspective(s) or theoretical frame­work

    In this study, a sensemaking perspective is used to acknowledge the processes of sensemaking and negotiation of meanings. According to Weick (1995), sensemaking involves three specific elements: a frame of past moments and understandings, cues of the present moment of experience and a connection in-between, Accordingly, ‘the content of sensemaking is to be found in the frames and categories’ (p. 111) that summarize past experiences. Thus, how the concept of ‘mentoring’ or the ‘phenomenon of mentoring’ is made sense of in individual or specific contexts is a result of negotiations of meanings.

    Methods and data

    The data for this conceptual paper comes from strategically chosen journal articles as examples of how the concept of ‘mentoring’ is used in different national and cultural educational contexts. A content analysis is performed to identify the various meanings of mentoring and the contexts in which it is used (Miles, Huberman & Saldaña, 2014).

    Arguments and con­clusions

    The analysis shows that major challenges in (accurate) sensemaking can be due to:

    (a)   language transformation (notions and concepts from one language are transformed into another language, most often into English, which can result in a change of meaning)

    (b)  context transformation (sensemaking of context specific circumstances may be difficult)

    (c)   context insensitivity (mixing up different ‘mentoring contexts’)

    (d)  phenomenon insensitivity (mixing up different phenomena, e.g. ‘coaching’, ‘mentoring’, etc.

    In certain contexts, some of these issues may be of minor relevance, whilst in others they may be vital for achieving (accurate) sensemaking.

    The paper draws attention to the importance of acknowledging linguistic, conceptual and contextual dimensions of ‘mentoring’ in the sense-making process in order to achieve stringency and coherence in research, for instance when research overviews are conducted to frame own research.

    References:

    Kemmis, S., Heikkinen, H., Fransson, G., Aspfors, J. & Edwards-Groves, C. (2014).  Mentoring of new teachers as a contested practice: Supervision, support and collaborative self-development. Teaching and Teacher Education. Vol. 43, 154–164

    Miles, M.B., Huberman, A.M. & Saldaña, J. (2014). Qualitative data analysis: a methods sourcebook. (3. ed.) Los Angeles: Sage.

    Mullen, C.A. (2012). Mentoring: An Overview. In S.J. Fletcher & C.A. Mullen (Eds.), The SAGE Handbook of Mentoring and Coaching in Education (pp. 7–23). London: SAGE.

    Sundli, L. (2007): Mentoring – A new mantra for education? Teaching and Teacher Edu­cation. 23(2). pp. 201–214.

    Weick, K. (1995): Sensemaking in Organisations. Thousand Oaks. California: Sage Pub­lications.

  • 154.
    Fransson, Göran
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Conceptual and contextual confusion? Making Sense of the Concept of “Mentoring” and the Accurate “Context”2018Ingår i: AERA-conference-deposit, 2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Mentoring is a global phenomenon. Even though the concept of ‘mentoring’ exists in different national and cultural contexts, and is performed in a variety of ways, it is nevertheless a contested practice (Kemmis et al., 2014). The incoherent way of naming, framing and defining ‘mentoring’ has been discussed in the literature, in that different concepts, such as mentoring, coaching, supervision etc., have been used to describe the same phenomenon (cf. Gold, 1996; Sundli, 2007; Mullen, 2012).

    The purpose of this conceptual paper is to problematise how the concept of ‘mentoring’ is used in the literature to address the ‘phenomenon of mentoring’. I first discuss how the concept of mentoring can be used in different contexts and then conduct an in-depth analysis of how the results from one specific article (Aspfors & Fransson, 2015) are used by others. More precisely, I analyse how this article is cited and quoted by other scholars.

  • 155.
    Fransson, Göran
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Manoeuvring in a digital dilemmatic space: making sense of a digitised society2016Ingår i: Nordic Journal of Digital Literacy, ISSN 1891-943X, E-ISSN 1891-943X, Vol. 11, nr 3, s. 185-201Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Although an increasingly digitised society offers a variety of options, it also implies challenges, risks and dilemmas for citizens, organisations and corporations. The purpose of this article is to critically analyse digital society from the perspective of dilemmatic space. The theoretical frame offers new ways of making sense of the digital society, and may provide new perspectives on how to manoeuvre (or not) in it. By taking dilemmas as the starting point, aspects such as uncertainty, plurality, options, challenges and decision making are in focus, as are processes of power, negotiation, identity formation, positioning and manoeuvring.The theoretical framework is applied and exemplified in relation to three digitised society themes: (a) the blogosphere and social networking communities (SNC), (b) file sharing, network control and surveillance, and (c) education. These themes have been chosen in order to illustrate the different aspects of a digital society and to show how the theoretical framework operates when different aspects of these themes are placed in the foreground or background, i.e. emphasised or downplayed. This implies that the unknown and unexpected must be taken into account, and that this involves having to manoeuvre in new, changing and ever present dilemmatic spaces.

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  • 156.
    Fransson, Göran
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Mentoring in Sweden: A Narrative of Agreements and Fading Aways2019Ingår i: Abstract book, NERA 2019, 2019, s. 963-964Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the Swedish society, mentoring is an issue which involves many stakeholders,including (a) the two teachers unions, as defenders of teachers rights, (b) school owners andmunicipals, as locally responsible for the schools and teachers and thus for mentoring, (c) TheSwedish National Agency for Education as a supporting authority and as responsible for theimplementation of standards the newly qualified teachers are evaluated against. Universities andteacher education institutions are not generally regarded as stakeholders even though they havedelivered some education for mentors. However, like in the other Nordic countries, teacherinduction is a complex ecosystem with different intentions and interests.In Sweden there have been some important milestones when comes to the formal implementation ofmentoring. In 1995, a national agreement was reached between the Swedish Association of LocalAuthorities and the two teachers’ unions (the Nation-al Union of Teachers in Sweden and theSwed-ish Teachers’ Union) emphasising school development. One component in this agreement wasthat it gave new teach-ers the right to be supported by a mentor and to participate in an inductionprogramme. However, it took some years until the issue of mentoring became more widespreadaround the millennium-shift, partly due to a feared lack of teachers, but after some years the issue ofmentoring started to lose momentum (Fransson, 2012). A second milestone was the 2008government proposal of a national mandatory induction system, with mentoring, a probationary yearand the registration of teachers as central components (SOU, 2008:52, Government bill, 2010). Inthe system, newly qualified teachers were expected to have a mentor and at the same time beingevaluated by the principal who decided whether or not the teacher was suitable enough to berecommended to earn the Teacher Registration. The reform, implemented in 2010 -2012 putmentoring in the foreground through legislation and boosted mentoring for NQTs. However, in mid2014 the principals’ evaluation of the NQTs was abolished and the teacher registration was earnedwhen graduation from teacher education. This lead to mentoring became less prioritized, even964though there are still obvious needs for it.The most actual challenge at the moment is to prove why mentoring should be put higher on the listof preferences of the educational challenges among a number of many issues calling for attention.Another issue which must be highlighted is the need and importance of education of mentors. As aconclusion, I suggest that the issue of mentoring has lately buried under other ‘more important’issues to a great extent, and the ecological niche for mentoring, so to speak, seems to have fadedaway even though the legislation is in place.

  • 157.
    Fransson, Göran
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Mentoring in Sweden: The rise, fall and present state of the actual2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this presentation the background, development and state of the actual regarding support to newly qualified teachers (NQT) and teacher induction system in Sweden will be outlined. The issue supporting NQTs became high on the educational agenda 2006 when an Official Investigation was launced and in 2008 proposed a national system national mandatory induction system, with mentoring, a probationary year and the registration of teachers as central components (SOU, 2008:52). This was implemented in 2010-2011 but severe challenges regarding the registration occurred leading to recurrent changes in the legislation regarding the legislation. Further, in mid 2014 the principals’ evaluation of the NQTs was abolished and the teacher registration was earned when graduation from teacher education. This lead to mentoring became less prioritized, even though there are still obvious needs for i. It is concluded that the issue of mentoring to a great extent since than has been buried under other ‘more important’ issues, and seems to have faded away even though the legislation regarding mentoring is in place.

    Implementing mentoring for NQTs may imply the implementation of education for the mentors. However, in Sweden it was just five out of 18 surveyed universities and university colleagues that gave an mentor education of 7,5 ECTS (five week of studies). In this presentations the present state of the actual in this matter for autumn 2019 will be presented as a summary of challenges to overcome if (agin) putting mentoring of NQTs higher on the educational agenda in Sweden

  • 158.
    Fransson, Göran
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Mentoring Policies: Possibilities, Challenges and Future Directions2020Ingår i: International Handbook of mentoring: Paradigms, Practices, Programs, and Possibilities / [ed] N. J. Irby, J. Boswell, L. Searby, F. Kochan, R. Garcia & N. Abdelrahman, Hoboken: Wiley-Blackwell, 2020, s. 435-452Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Although many mentoring programs are mandated and initiated as part of a policy direction or mandate, and policy is an important element in the development, implementation, and evaluation of mentoring, investigations into the impact of policy upon mentoring initiatives and outcomes, has not been explicitly highlighted in the mentoring research (Fransson & McMahan, 2013).  Although the literature on policies and mentoring programs and practices is scarce, there is limited evidence to suggest that policies impact mentoring endeavors in a variety of ways and can have both positive and negative effects (Carver & Feiman-Nemser, 2009; Polikoff, Desimone & Hochberg, 2015).  Yet, policy development and implementation can have an extensive impact on mentoring programs and relationships.  As these programs continue to grow, it is imperative that the field become more cognizant of the role and impact of policies upon the personal, professional and organizational aspects of mentoring.  Against this background, expanding our understanding of how policy is designed, implemented and influences mentoring program development, practice and success is important. 

                The purpose of the chapter is to outline, discuss and problematize policy issues related to mentoring and to offer recommendations for future action.  Most of the examples on policy issues are related to adult situations in the educational field.  This field offers a policy landscape that illustrates the complexity and multi-layering of mentoring policy.  Thus, it is believed that many of the findings can be transferred to other mentoring contexts.

    The chapter begins with a theoretical overview of how policy and the processes of policy development and policy enactment are conceptualized.  Issues such as international policy flows and policy learning are discussed and evaluations as part of policy formation are problematized.  This theoretical overview facilitates an understanding of mentoring policy and how it is enacted or played out in mentoring practices.  The overview is followed by a discussion about the challenges involved in identifying the field of mentoring policy.  As outlined in the overview, different dimensions of policy are emphasized depending on which theoretical perspective is used.  This in turn influences which theoretical binoculars are used to identify the field of mentoring policy.  Searching databases for the various terms and the challenges associated with this are also discussed.  Thereafter, ‘policies for policy development’ are examined.  One policy in particular is analyzed more closely in order to highlight the most important aspects of policy analysis.  The chapter closes with a concluding discussion about the challenges and possibilities for policy research.  A possible new direction in mentoring policy in also discussed.

  • 159.
    Fransson, Göran
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Online (Web-based) Education for Mentors of Newly Qualified Teachers: Challenges and Opportunities2016Ingår i: International Journal of Mentoring and Coaching in Education, ISSN 2046-6854, E-ISSN 2046-6862, Vol. 5, nr 2, s. 111-126Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to report on a research project concerning a web-based (online) course for mentors of newly qualified teachers (NQTs). 

    Design/methodology/approach – A mixed-method approach with questionnaires and interviews was used to collect the data.

    Findings – Positive attitudes towards online education were discerned and initial concerns about the use of technical tools were dissipated during the course. It was found that the mentoring related content of the online course could be mediated. The most significant difference in the participants’ meaning making and ability to ‘connect theory and practice’ with ‘concrete knowledge’ was between those with experience of mentorship before or during the course and those without.

    Research limitations/implications – The study focuses on one cohort of mentor participants (n=18) attending one mentor education course.

    Practical implications – The paper contributes to the value of online education for mentors of NQTs and includes some practical recommendations for mentor education providers.

    Originality/value – This paper reports on an under-researched area. Research on professional development programmes for mentors in general is limited, and even more so when it comes to online education for mentors.

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  • 160.
    Fransson, Göran
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Skilda världar för nya lärare2016Ingår i: Svenskläraren, Vol. 2, nr 20, s. 20-22Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    De första åren som lärare är viktiga för viljan att stanna kvar och utvecklas i yrket. Men eftesom arbetsvillkor och kollegial stöttning skiljer sig åt kraftigt mellan skolor ges nya lärare skilda förutsättningar.

  • 161.
    Fransson, Göran
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Studieteknik och studentkompetens2016Ingår i: Pedagogik för högskolelärare / [ed] Tomas Hansson, Stockholm: Gidlunds förlag, 2016, 1, s. 42-69Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 162.
    Fransson, Göran
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Så kan osäkerheten vändas2018Ingår i: Pedagogiska Magasinet, ISSN 1401-3320, Vol. -, nr 3, s. 56-60Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 163.
    Fransson, Göran
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Understanding Morality and Ethics: Maneuvering Ethical Dilemmas in Digital Educational Contexts2017Ingår i: Teacher education for ethical professional practice in the 21st century / [ed] O. Dreon & D. Polly, Hershey: IGI Global, 2017, s. 72-97Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter provides a theoretical base for the understanding of moral and ethical issues in teaching. It outlines how teaching can be regarded as a social, relational and moral endeavor and discusses the moral and ethical dimensions of teaching and learning. Classical ethical frames, such as consequentialism, deontology and virtue ethics, are described and problematized as guiding frames for the process of moral decision-making. Bauman’s ideas about ethics in postmodern society are presented, including the notion of moral uncertainty and ambivalence in present-day society. Habermas’ (1996) discourse ethics, emphasizing communicative actions, are also introduced. The theoretical frame of dilemmatic space is proposed as an additional means of understanding and maneuvering through the complexities of modern everyday life, where varying norms and values and moral and political positions are taken into account. Conflicting views of how morality develops are presented and challenges for teaching morality and ethics outlined.

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  • 164.
    Fransson, Göran
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Frelin, Anneli
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Highly committed teachers: what makes them tick?: A study of sustained commitment2016Ingår i: Teachers and Teaching: theory and practice, ISSN 1354-0602, E-ISSN 1470-1278, Vol. 22, nr 8, s. 896-912Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses on teacher commitment, and particularly on teachers displaying sustained high levels of commitment throughout their teaching careers (over 15 years). Graduates from one Teacher Education programme responded to an open-ended questionnaire conducted on 10 occasions concerning their work as teachers, from graduation in 1993 to 2013. Out of the 72 who responded on all nine occasions, eight teachers stating high levels of commitment throughout their careers were selected for additional interviews. A framework containing four commitment factors was used as the point of departure. Content analyses of the interview and selected questionnaire data then resulted in a revised framework of five factors: personal, teaching, school context, system context and professional development. Accounts from eight teachers with sustained high commitment illustrate the framework. The article offers an extended framework for understanding and categorising the factors that contribute to teacher commitment.

  • 165.
    Fransson, Göran
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Frelin, Anneli
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Grannäs, Jan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Exploring a conceptual framework to understand how principals balance the partly contradictory tasks of evaluating and supporting newly qualified teachers2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In many countries it is argued that the “quality of teachers” is the most important school-related factor in pupils’ learning (Hattie, 2009; 2012). Teacher quality has become a key argument for teachers’ professional development. When it comes to newly qualified teachers (NQTs), in many countries the call for “teacher quality” has either led to reforms that support NQTs or reforms requiring an evaluation of their competence. In some countries these approaches are combined, with induction systems and mentoring that support NQTs and an evaluation of their skills to ensure quality. However, some research suggests that if the same person performs both roles it is more difficult to create and maintain a relationship based on confidence, openness and mutual trust that promotes risk-free learning (Author 1, 201*, Jones 2009). In some countries or states mentors perform both these roles (cf. Yusko & Feiman Nemser, 2008), whereas in others these two roles are separated so that mentors support and principals evaluate.

    The latter kind of system was introduced in Sweden in 2011, with mentors supporting NQTs and principals performing the evaluation (Government Bill, 2010/11). However, previous research shows that when the Swedish principals performed the assessment they also supported the NQTs (Author 1, Author 2, Author 3, 201*) in that they partly applied an instructional leadership (cf. REF) and gave post-observation feedback. However, being both an evaluator and supervisor can be challenging. For instance, Hinchey (2010) claims that teachers only improve their practice in relatively non-threatening contexts and that the assessment may challenge this (cf. Author 1, 201*; Range, Young & Hvidstone, 2013).

    A review of the research literature reveals that there is an urgent need for theoretical development in order to understand how principals enact and balance their roles as evaluators of NQTs and pedagogical leaders. In responding to this call, the purpose of the paper is: (a) to elaborate and discuss a conceptual framework that captures how principals enact and balance their roles as evaluators and pedagogical leaders in the context of evaluating NQTs and (b) to exemplify how data can be related to the framework.

    Theoretical framework

    The emphasis on and combination of supportive and evaluative dimensions are contained in the framework of a four-way table that includes “formal and structured evaluation” vs. “informal evaluation” and  “strong instructional leadership” vs. “weak instructional leadership”.

    The evaluation dimension is defined as the extent to which evaluations are scheduled, planned, directed by guiding formulae, how the different issues of the national standards are focused, time spent on the evaluation, the structure and focus of the follow-up discussions etc.   

    The instructional dimension is defined as how and how much guidance is given and how the NQTs professional development are facilitated. Here the focus is on guidance and feedback that contribute to developing the instructional skills or pedagogical thinking of the NQT. Positive feedback relates to the content included in the table. Positive feedback in a general sense, without connection to instruction, thinking or a situation, is not included. For instance, positive feedback heard in the corridor, such as: ‘colleagues say you perform well’, is not included in this dimension. Guidance can be absent or present, more or less extensive, or constructive and detailed.

    Methods/methodology

    The framework is developed by reviewing the research literature in the areas of teacher induction (cf. (Hobson, Ashby, Malderez, & Tomlinson, 2009), evaluation of NQTs (cf. Yusko & Feiman Nemser, 2008) and principals’ instructional leadership (cf. Neumerski, 2013; LaPointe Terosky, 2016). Most of the literature relating to principals’ instructional leadership focuses on teachers in general and not specifically NQTs (cf. Tuytens & Devos, 2017), but is nevertheless valuable.

    Drawing on and combining supportive and evaluative dimensions result in a four-way table framework with the following axes:  “formal and structured evaluation” vs. “informal evaluation” and “strong instructional leadership” vs. “weak instructional leadership”.

    This framework is then used in explorative analyses of data from a longitudinal research project in which five principals conducting a formal evaluation of NQTs are followed in the year of the evaluation. These five principals are regarded as cases. The NQTs being evaluated teach Years 4-6.

    Each principal is interviewed at least twice during the year (in total between 73-158 minutes), which forms the main data for the analysis. The interviews and analysis explore principals’ self-reported information regarding their strategies to enact and balance their role as evaluators and the support they provide. Using the software NVivo, codes are created based on content analysis (Miles, Huberman & Saldaña, 2014).

    Self-reported data needs to be looked at critically (Podsakoff, MacKenzie, Lee, & Podsakoff, 2003). To validate this kind of data: (i) observations and recordings of post-observation conversations (tot. 72 minutes) are performed with two of the principals (A and C) and their NQTs, (ii) joint interviews are conducted with three principals (A, C and E) and their NQTs (in total 130 minutes) and (iii) observations of three of the principals’ observations (B, C, D) are carried out. A coherent design of these validating strategies is not possible due to ethical and practical reasons. Three of the NQTs did not feel comfortable with the participation of an external researcher during the observations and/or post-observation conversations. Some of the planned observations were cancelled due to illness, the unavailability of the informant or were performed ad hoc and informally and were not observed or recorded.

    Expected outcomes/results

    Positioning the principals in the framework of the four-way table with the axes “formal and structured evaluation” vs. “informal evaluation” and “strong instructional leadership” vs. “weak instructional leadership” enables their actions to be positioned differently. Four out of the five teachers are positioned more towards “strong instructional leadership” and “formal and structured evaluation”, albeit with different emphases on the two dimensions. The fifth principal (E) is positioned more towards “informal evaluation” and “weak instructional leadership”. This principal describes his/her leadership as ‘leadership on the run’.

    The overall conclusion is that the theoretical framework enables principals to be positioned according to how their evaluative and supportive roles vary. Also, the quality of the data, for instance with regard to quantity, focus on relevant issues and different kinds of data (e.g. self-reported narratives, narratives from other actors such as NQTs, and first-hand information from the researchers’ direct observations) gives a much more informed analysis of the positioning in the framework. However, in this small-scale study, the different kinds of data do not contradict each other, but strengthen the conclusions and the positioning.

    Thus, the framework facilitates an understanding of how principals facilitate NQTs professional development in a context in which evaluative and supportive dimensions are applied. The framework could also be used to analyse how mentors balance the supportive and evaluative dimensions.

    References

    Author 1 (201*). [details removed for peer review]. Article published in international peer-reviewed journal.

    Author 1, Author 2 & Author 3 (201*). [details removed for peer review]. Paper presented at an International Annual Conference.

    Government bill 2010/11:20 Legitimation för lärare och förskollärare [Registration for Teachers and Pre-School Teachers]. The Swedish Government.

     Hattie, J. 2009. Visible learning: a synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. London: New York: Routledge.

    Hattie, J. (2012). Visible learning for teachers: maximizing impact on learning. London: Routledge.

    Hinchey, P.H. (2010). Getting teacher assessment right: What policymakers can learn from research. Boulder, CO: National Education Policy Center.

    Hobson, A. J., Ashby, P., Malderez, A., & Tomlinson, P. D. (2009). Mentoring beginning teachers: what we know and what we don't. Teaching and Teacher Education, 25(1), 207-216.

    Jones, M. (2009). Supporting the supporters of novice teachers: An analysis of mentors’ needs from twelve European countries presented from an English perspective. Research in Comparative and International Education 4, no. 1: 4–21.

    LaPointe Terosky, A. (2016): Enacting instructional leadership: perspectives and actions of public K-12 principals, School Leadership & Management,

    Miles, M.B., Huberman, A.M. & Saldaña, J. (2014). Qualitative data analysis: a methods sourcebook. (3. ed.) Los Angeles: Sage.

    Neumerski, C. M. (2013). Rethinking Instructional Leadership: A Review of What Do We Know About Principal, Teacher, and Coach Instructional Leadership, and Where Should We Go from Here? Educational Administration Quarterly 49 (2): 310–347.

    Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J.-Y., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 879–903. 

    Range, B. G., Young, S. & Hvidston, D. (2013) Teacher perceptions about observation conferences: what do teachers think about their formative supervision in one US school district?, School Leadership & Management, 33:1, 61-77.

    Tuytens, M. & Devos, G. (2017) The role of feedback from the school

    leader during teacher evaluation for teacher and school improvement, Teachers and Teaching, 23:1, 6-24,

    Yusko, B., & Feiman Nemser. S. (2008). Embracing contraries: Combining assistance and assessment in new teacher induction. Teacher College Record 110, no. 5: 923–53.

  • 166.
    Fransson, Göran
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Frelin, Anneli
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Grannäs, Jan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Rektorer och lämplighetsprövningen av nyutbildade lärare: En rapport från forskningsprojektet Rektors arbete och lämplighetsprövning av nya lärare: En studie av rektorers förändrade arbetsvillkor efter införandet av lärarlegitimation2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den 2 mars 2011 beslutade riksdagen att införa en legitimation för lärare och förskollärare samt att nyexaminerade lärare och förskollärare skulle genomgå en introduktionsperiod. Under denna introduktionsperiod skulle de få stöd av en mentor samtidigt som rektor eller förskolechef skulle bedöma deras lämplighet för yrket.

    För rektorerna innebär lämplighetsprövningen av nyexaminerade lärare nya arbetsuppgifter och ett formaliserat uppdrag att bedöma lärares skicklighet. Detta i samband med att rektorers arbetssituation har befunnits vara intensiv med en uppsplittrad vardag där många snabba beslut måste tas väcker frågor kring hur arbetets förutsättningar påverkar lämplighetsprövningen, och hur lämplighetsprövningen påverkar arbetsförhållanden och yrkesroller.

    I juni månad 2014 inbjöds 646 rektorer att besvara en enkät rörande lämplighetsprövningen. 248 rektorer svarade vilket ger en svarsfrekvens på 39 % (n=248). 159 kvinnor (64 %) och 89 män (36 %) besvarade enkäten. Nästan 60 % av rektorerna hade varit rektor på sin nuvarande enhet i tre år eller mindre. 77 % av rektorerna var verksamma vid kommunala skolor medan 23 % var verksamma vid fristående skolor.

    Resultaten visar att rektorernas upplevelse av lämplighetsprövningen är att den i huvudsak, om än i varierade grad, upplevts meningsfull och att rektorerna känt sig tillfreds med de lämplighetsprövningar de genomfört. Det förekommer mer spriddaåsikter om i vilken mån lämplighetsprövningen varit väl investerad tid och kraft. Lämplighetsprövningen har konkurrerat med många andra arbetsuppgifter men det finns ändå en tendens att rektorerna som grupp anser att den investerade tiden och kraften varit värt utfallet.

    Det råder oenighet kring i vilken mån lämplighetsprövningen bidragit till mer positiva relationer mellan rektor och den nya läraren, men att det råder relativt stor enighet om att lämplighetsprövningen inte nämnvärt försämrat relationerna. En sammantagen tolkning av detta är att något mer positiva relationer med de nya lärarna etablerats och att båda parter lärt känna varandra såväl professionellt som privat. Endast 12 % av rektorerna anger att de har fått någon utbildning i att genomföra lämplighetsprövningen. Rektorerna har haft ett begränsat stöd av huvudman eller andra rektorer vilket skapat ett frirum att genomföra lämplighetsprövningen på sitt eget sätt. Samtalen med mentorn har varit viktiga för rektorns bedömning. Vidare framträder lärarkollegiets informella bedömning dels som en viktig komponent i rektors formella bedömning, dels som ett viktig komplement till i rektors formella bedömning. Av de 137 lämplighetsprövningar som genomförts rådde viss tveksamhet i 10 fall och i två fall uppgav rektorerna att det råddestor tveksamhet. Samtliga 137 lärare bedömdes dock efter introduktionsperiodens slutsom lämpliga.

    Rektorers tilltro till politiker har påverkats negativt av alla turer kring lärarlegitimationen och att lämplighetsprövningen slutligen avvecklades. 73 % av rektorerna anser att deras förtroende för politiker minskat, medan 6 % anser att förtroendet ökat.

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  • 167.
    Fransson, Göran
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Gallant, Andrea
    Faculty of Arts and Education, Deakin University, Burwood, Australia.
    Shanks, Rachel
    School of Education, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, Scotland, UK.
    Human elements and the pragmatic approach in the Australian, Scottish and Swedish standards for newly qualified teachers2018Ingår i: Journal of educational change, ISSN 1389-2843, E-ISSN 1573-1812, Vol. 19, nr 2, s. 243-267Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Teacher standards are used in many countries, but it has been argued that there is a disconnection between the standards and teachers’ everyday practices. Mega-narratives about teachers' practices have been recognised as powerful for educational change and when implementing and legitimising standards. In this comparative study, the standards for newly qualified teachers in Australia, Scotland and Sweden are analysed in order to determine the extent to which they contain human elements, here framed as contextual professionalism, and/or paradigmatic knowledge (Olson and Craig, 2009. This comparison facilitates an exploration of how teachers' work is envisaged in the respective countries and what is expected or required from newly qualified teachers.  The results indicate that the Australian and Scottish standards emphasise paradigmatic knowledge in teaching, whereas the now abandoned Swedish standards emphasise contextual professionalism in teaching.

  • 168.
    Fransson, Göran
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Holmberg, Jörgen
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Lindberg, J. Ola
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Olofsson, Anders D.
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Digitalise and capitalise? Teachers’ self-understanding in 21st-century teaching contexts2019Ingår i: Oxford Review of Education, ISSN 0305-4985, E-ISSN 1465-3915, Vol. 45, nr 1, s. 102-118Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The digitalisation of educational contexts has changed the prac- tice of teaching and learning. In this, teachers have a key role in enacting digital technologies for this purpose and have different opportunities to do so. This article explores how digitalisation can affect teachers by focusing on: (a) how teachers manage to capi- talise on digitalisation; and (b) how digitalisation can affect and reconstruct their self-understanding. Two teacher colleagues of English as a foreign language (EFL) in the same teaching team are interviewed and observed. Drawing on the interplay between self-image, self-esteem, job motivation, and task perception, it is shown how the teachers’ self-understanding is played out and changes due to the call for digitalisation. Whereas one of the teachers has been able to capitalise on digitalisation in a way that has been beneficial both professionally and personally, the other has felt pressurised by it. A conclusion is that a limited or extended use of digital technologies should not be taken as an indicator of teaching quality.

  • 169.
    Fransson, Göran
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Holmberg, Jörgen
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Westelius, Claes
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    The challenges of using head mounted virtual reality in K-12 schools from a teacher perspective2020Ingår i: Education and Information Technologies: Official Journal of the IFIP technical committee on Education, ISSN 1360-2357, E-ISSN 1573-7608Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of head mounted displays (HMDs) to experience virtual realities (VR) hasbecome increasingly common. As this technology becomes more affordable,immersive and easier to use, it also becomes more serviceable in educationaland training contexts. Even though the technology, content and feasibility forK-12 school purposes are still being developed, it is reasonable to expect thatthe call or ‘push’ to use HMD VR in K-12 schools will increase, especially asthere is now a greater economic interest in the use of digital technologies ineducational contexts. This article aims to inform the process of implementingHMD VR in K-12 contexts by researching the preconditions and challenges of usefrom a teacher perspective. It does this by analysing the organisational, institutional,contextual and practical challenges and opportunities in the implementationof HMD VR in K-12 school contexts. The data draws on (a) interviews, informalconversations and observations of teachers testing HMD VR and different VRapplications in a Digital Learning Lab (DLL) and (b) data from a project involvingupper secondary school history teachers discussing the planned implementation ofHMD VR in their teaching and being in the DLL. The main findings are relatedto: (a) economy and technology, (b) initial learning barriers, (c) organisation andpractical enactment for teaching and learning, (d) curricula, syllabuses and expectedlearning outcomes and (e) teachers’ competences, professional developmentand trust. The consequences for educational contexts and possible waysforward are also discussed.

  • 170.
    Fransson, Göran
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Hrastinski, Stefan
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan (KTH).
    Jaldemark, Jimmy
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Lindberg, Ola J.
    Umeå Universitert.
    Lundin, Johan
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Svensson, Lars
    Högskolan Väst.
    Öberg, Lena-Maria
    Mittuniversitetet.
    On the Swedish National Grade School for Digital Technologies in Education – GRADE: Expectations and experiences of doctorial students and supervisors2018Ingår i: ICERI2018 Proceedings, 2018, s. 769-774Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish National Graduate School for Digital Technologies in Education (GRADE) is a cooperative venture between six Swedish universities established during 2018. Within the field of educational sciences and in the area of digital technologies in education, GRADE aims to strengthen the expertise in the area and to increase national and international cooperation in research training activities.

    Over a number of years, and from multitude of sources (cf. Brown & Davis, 2004; Fisher, Higgins & Loveless, 2006; Kafai & Resnick 1996), research has stressed that increased digitalization in schools leads to a complexity that needs to be taken into account on different levels, from different perspectives and with different designs, methodologies and theoretical perspectives (cf. Olofsson, Lindberg, Fransson & Hauge, 2015; Price, Jewitt & Brown, 2013; Tondeur, Valcke & van Braak, 2008). At a micro-level, the learning situation of students, teachers and school-leaders changes and it becomes important to deepen the knowledge about the impact digital technologies has on the fundamental conditions for teaching and learning of different school subjects (cf. Chun, Kern & Smith 2016; Leung & Baccaglini-Frank, 2017). On a macro-level, conditions for education as such changes and digital technologies becomes an important object of study as agents of change (Wong & Li, 2008). The digitalization of K-12 schools has long been highlighted in policy as a necessity (cf. Kirkman et al, 2002; OECD, 2010). However, research and evaluations (cf. Fransson et al, 2012; OECD, 2015; Wastiau et al, 2013) show that many substantial challenges remain. One of the fundamental pillars of GRADE is the interdisciplinary approach. Several disciplines are present (Applied IT, Curriculum studies, Education, Informatics, Technology and Learning, Educational work, Work-interated Learning) in researching digital technologies in K-12 schools with the ambition to contribute to the continued implementation, integration and use of digital technologies in Swedish K-12 schools that stems from the evidence-based knowledge produced within the activities of GRADE. The research within GRADE will be characterized by close cooperation with stakeholders from school practice, with the aim to contribute to concrete school development. In GRADE, a multi-level approach that involves multiple layers or levels of school activities will be encouraged. When possible, studies will be longitudinal. This will imply studies from an organizational and management perspective, e.g. studies of school leaders and other members of senior management positions responsible for digital technology use and implementation. Also implied are studies of teachers' teaching practices and didactical considerations, as well as studies of the students in classrooms and their learning using digital technologies. This will also imply that several issues with a bearing on the digitalization of education, for example regarding school policy, teaching, learning, assessment and professional development will be researched from different perspectives and with different methodological approaches. In this paper, these points of departure will be explored based on the expectations and experiences of the first twelve admitted doctoral students and their supervisors.

  • 171.
    Fransson, Göran
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Lindberg, Ola J.
    Department of Education, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Olofsson, Anders D.
    Department of Applied Educational Science, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Adequate digital competence – a close reading of the new national strategy for digitalization of the schools in Sweden2018Ingår i: Seminar.net: Media, technology and lifelong learning, ISSN 1504-4831, E-ISSN 1504-4831, Vol. 14, nr 2, s. 217-228Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the notion of ‘adequate digital competence’, as it is used in the 2017 Swedish strategy for digitalization of the school system, is in focus. Based on a close reading of the strategy, three dimensions are formulated for discussion: time, context, and interpretation. These dimensions open a more general discussion about the content of policies regarding digital competence. The notion of striving for an ‘adequate digital competence’ for children, students, teachers, school leaders, and other school staff is loaded with a variety of possible meanings. The strategy provides guidance in some aspects, but leaves a lot to local enactment of the strategy.

  • 172.
    Fransson, Göran
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Lindberg, Ola J.
    Umeå Universitert.
    Olofsson, Anders D.
    Umeå Universitet.
    Conditions for implementing ICT in Swedish upper secondary schools: How national strategies for implementation relate toexisting local educational practices2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The implementation and use of information- and communication technology (ICT) in education are high on the educational agendas of most countries. In principle, all western countries now have a policy or strategy for ICT in K-12 schools. Although countries may have similar economic preconditions, they often implement different ICT policies in school (Austin & Hunter, 2013; Ottestad, 2010).  ICT policies may also have different rationales and are often over-optimistic about ICT options (Convery, 2009; Egea, 2014; Jordan, 2011) and the use of ICT as a tool for teaching and learning in education (Hammond, 2014). Most research on ICT policies seems to focus on issues such as policy rationale or how policy is implemented in schools. However, few studies focus on the existing educational practices in schools as preconditions for ICT implementation. In this paper, the focus is on how policy implementation strategies, as they are understood in the recently proposed Swedish ICT policy, relate to already established educational practices in upper secondary school settings. Specifically, the aim of the paper is to discuss how policy implementation strategies relate to the existing local practices in three upper secondary contexts as preconditions for integration of ICT.

    Traditionally, policy has often been viewed as a top-down process, where policy is formulated in one arena and then realized in another (Lindensjö & Lundgren, 2000). However, policy formation processes are rather more complicated than that and can be understood as processes of interpretation and enactment (Ball, Maguire & Braun, 2012). Acknowledging these processes of policy formation (Edwards, 2012) is to acknowledge processes of micro-political manoeuvring, power and negotiation in practice, and to relate the policy enactment processes to the existing preconditions, structures and activities of the contexts in which the policy is to be realized. Thus, understanding how the proposed policy implementation strategies relate to existing practices as preconditions in schools may help us to understand what kind of challenges an ICT policy may face and to formulate more realistic expectations for the use of ICT in education.

    The kind of analysis that is suggested in this paper may also clarify why the implementation and use of ICT in school is so challenging and why there seems to be a discrepancy between expectations in the policy formulation arena and its use in the realization arena (Author 1, Author 2, Author 3 & Colleague, 20**; Tondeur, van Braak and Valcke’s, 2007). It has been suggested that national and political initiatives and governing have little impact on the use of ICT in school (McGarr, 2009). Rather, it has been emphasized that teachers want to see compelling reasons why they and their students should use ICT for teaching and learning (Howard, 2013; Lim, 2015). This might be related to ‘teacher culture’ and a reason why principals have been identified as key persons when implementing ICT. However, different leadership styles have also been found to give different results when it comes to implementing ICT (Hadjithoma-Garstka, 2011). Indeed, different leadership styles seem to fit different educational cultures. Implementing an ICT policy in local schools has been found to be a multifaceted phenomenon rooted in educational culture (Vanderlinde, van Braak, & Dexter 2012). If contextual matter is of importance for implementing ICT, it is therefore of interest to study how the proposed policy implementation strategies relate to existing educational practices in schools.

    Methods/methodology

    The discourse and qualitative content analyses of a Swedish national ICT policy (Miles, Huberman & Saldaña, 2014) identified several suggested strategies for its implementation. These were then related to data from a 4-year research project in three upper secondary schools ‘known’ for their advanced use of ICT for teaching and learning. However, the narratives of advanced use appear to have been projected onto the schools. It is possible to trace this to different specific contextual circumstances: for school A, to the reputation of the municipality regarding the use of ICT in its K-12 schools, for school B, to a specific centre of technology at the school sponsored by a private founder, and for school C, as being known for remote teaching. All three schools are so-called one-to-one schools, meaning that every student and teacher has their own computer.

    In the three municipalities involved in the project, interviews were conducted with three centralized ICT strategists. In each school unit (A, B and C above), interviews were conducted with the principals and with the local ICT coordinators. These interviews were conducted between September 2015 and February 2016 and focused on the use of ICT in schools in a general sense, policies and routines related to ICT, the challenges and opportunities with ICT, infrastructural issues and professional development for principals and teachers. In total, the three interviews lasted almost three and a half hours.

    Data has also been collected from teachers and students in the three upper secondary schools. At each school unit, teachers and students were interviewed and observations of the teaching situations were performed. These interviews and observations were conducted between October and November 2015. In school unit A, ten teachers and 13 pupils were interviewed and approximately 22 hours of teaching was observed. In school B, nine teachers and 15 pupils were interviewed and approximately 20 hours of teaching was observed. In school C, six teachers and 10 pupils were interviewed and approximately 9 hours of teaching was observed. In spring 2016 seven subject-oriented group interviews were conducted with in total 21 teachers. 

    Expected outcomes/results

    The analyses of the policy document identified the following ICT policy implementation strategies:

    (a) the importance of strategies and plans for policy implementation,(b) local processes of policy enactment, (c) principals strategic leadership,(d) professional development for teachers, principals and management, (e) organized collegial learning and(f) cooperation and strategic alliances.

    In this proposal, three of the strategies (c, d and e) are used to exemplify and discuss how they relate to existing practices in the three upper secondary schools as preconditions for ICT policy implementation. In the full paper, all six strategies will be discussed in relation to existing educational practices.

    Regarding principals’ strategic leadership (c): existing practices show that at present the extent to which the principals act as strategic leaders is not clear when it comes to digitization and the use of ICT in the schools. The principals express that digitization is important, but it is not clear which strategies they deploy and how they operate as active strategic leaders in this regard. The ‘ICT issue’ competes with the many other issues that principals have to deal with and does not seem to be prioritized or generate any significant activities.

    Regarding professional development for teachers and principals (d): there are several issues that teachers and principals are expected to learn about. Analyzing professional development regarding ICT at four levels – the municipal, school, collegial and individual level – suggests that teachers learn most about ICT and its use in teaching and learning at the individual and collegial level, usually as informal learning when two or more colleagues create an informal self-organized professional development activity around a specific issue, application or lesson. This kind of activity could be regarded as informal “collegial learning”. The strategy proposed for organized collegial learning (e) appears to be less frequent.

     

    References

    Author 1, Author 2, Author 3 & Colleague (20**). [details removed for peer review]. Published as an international book chapter. 

    Ball, S. J., Maguire, M., & Braun, A. (2012). How schools do policy: Policy enactments in secondary schools. London & New York: Routledge.

    Convery, A. (2009). The pedagogy of the impressed. How teachers become victims of technological visions. Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice, 15(1), 25–41.

    Egea, O. M. (2014). Neoliberalism, education and the integration of ICT in schools. Acritical reading. Technology, Pedagogy and Education, 23(2), 267-283.

    Edwards, D.B. (2012), “Researching international processes of education policy formation: conceptual and methodological considerations”. Research in Comparative and International Education, 7(2), 127-145.

     Hadjithoma-Garstka, C. (2011). The role of the principal’s leadership style in the implementation of ICT policy. British Journal of Educational Technology, 42(2), 311–326.

     Hammond, M- (2014). Introducing ICT in schools in England: Rationale and consequences. British Journal of Educational Technology, 45(2), 191–201,

     Howard, S. K. (2013). Risk-aversion: understanding teachers’ resistance to technology integration. Technology, Pedagogy and Education, 22(3), 357–372.

     Jordan, K. (2011). Framing ICT, teachers and learners in Australian school education ICT policy. The Australian Educational Researcher, 38(4), 417-431.

     McGarr, O. (2009). The development of ICT across the curriculum in Irish schools: A historical perspective. British Journal of Educational Technology, 40(6), 1094–1108.

     Miles, M.B., Huberman, A.M., & Saldaña, J. (2014). Qualitative data analysis: a methods sourcebook. (3. ed.) Los Angeles: Sage.

     Lim, M. H. (2015). How Singapore teachers in a pioneer ‘School of the Future’ context ‘deal with’ the process of integrating information and communication technology into the school curriculum. The Australian Educational Researcher, 42, 69-96.

     Lindensjö, B., & Lundgren, U. P. (2000). Utbildningsreformer och politisk styrning [Educational reform and political control]. Stockholm: HLS förlag.

    Tondeur, J., van Braak, J., & Valcke, M. (2007). Curricula and the use of ICT in education: Two worlds apart? British Journal of Educational Technology, 38(6), 962–976.

    Vanderlinde, R., van Braak, J. & Dexter, S. (2012). ICT policy planning in a context of curriculum reform: Disentanglement of ICT policy domains and artifacts. Computers & Education, 58, 1339-1350.

  • 173.
    Fransson, Göran
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Lindberg, Ola J.
    Department of Education, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Olofsson, Anders D.
    Department of Applied Educational Science, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    From a student perspective, what constitutes a good (or less good) use of ICT in teaching?2018Ingår i: Education and Information Technologies: Official Journal of the IFIP technical committee on Education, ISSN 1360-2357, E-ISSN 1573-7608, Vol. 23, nr 5, s. 2155-2177Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates what upper secondary school students regard as good or less good teaching using ICT. 367 Swedish upper secondary students in 2 schools responded to a web-based questionnaire. The students were asked to describe one of their teachers who used ‘ICT in a way that made them learn very well, and one who used ICT in a way that made them learn less well’ and to describe what these teachers did and why their teaching was understood as good or less good. 18 themes were identified, of which 17 were combined into eight overall counterpart themes and one non-counterpart theme. ‘Clarity’ was the most prominent theme, followed by ‘teachers’ ‘ICT skills’, ‘uses ICT in a good way’, ‘fun factor’, ‘puts information on the LMS’, ‘varies the teaching methods’, ‘demonstrates how to use ICT’ and ‘general pedagogical skills’. The results show that although the specific focus is on students’ views of their teachers’ use of ICT, general pedagogical skills are a major focus in the themes. Effectiveness is an explicit theme in terms of ICT adding value to teaching and learning, while ineffectiveness is an implicit underlying dimension in the themes relating to less good teaching. It is also evident that the students value the same teacher’s use of ICT in teaching differently.

  • 174.
    Fransson, Göran
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Lindberg, Ola J.
    Umeå Universitet.
    Olofsson, Anders D.
    Umeå Universitet.
    Policy Narratives VS. The Actual Use of Digital Technologies. Practices That Never Meets?2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Often great faith is given to the use of digital technologies to facilitate and transform teaching and learning in primary and secondary schools. Especially prominent are such a belief in various policy papers on a wide international level of supranational organizations such as the United Nations, OECD, or the European Union (Egea, 2014; Scheurmann & Pedro, 2009, Bassi, 201; cf. OECD 2015;) as well as at national levels (eg. Akcaoglu, 2015). Policy documents often mention digital technologies in terms of their ability and potential to improve and transform educational activities. Such statements can both be seen as part of a political rhetoric in order to push for change, as well as a belief that such claims are reasonable.

    Expressions of the reasonable to include digital technology and the use of IT in schools' activities appear in the various trans-national studies that aim to create a picture of the use of digital technologies in various European countries. Several such studies have been conducted in recent years (cf. OECD, 2015; Fredriksson, Gajek & Jedeskog, 2009; Blamire, 2009). Many of these studies have the aim to create a form of benchmarking process on the use of digital technologies in schools. The rhetoric of how digital technology can transform teaching and learning is also stressed by private operators offering services that in a simple way seems to be able to solve schools' problems with the use of digital technology and related applications (see eg. Grimaldi, 2013).

    However, educational contexts are complex and multidimensional. With scarce financial and human resources, teachers and other school staff is to deal with a variety of requirements, goals and expectations that are not always compatible with each other. In addition, a variety of complex relationships and positions as well as norms, traditions and values ​​of what teaching and learning is and should be, and how it ought to take shape. According to Säljö (2010) research focusing the uptake and use of digital technologies in schools are not always clear and seldom indicate success (e.g. Hammond, 2013; Krange & Ludvigsen, 2009). The outcomes are far from straightforward when digital technologies are introduced either in general or in specific subjects or contexts of learning.

    Aim

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze and discuss differences in how digital technology is expected to be used for learning in schools in, on one hand, various policy documents and evaluations, and on the other hand, the use that is reported in research. In that sense, evaluations are seen as evaluations-as-policy, rather than ‘objectice’ search for knowledge.

  • 175.
    Fredholm, Johanna
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Larsson, Linda
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Systematiskt kvalitetsarbete på förskolor sett ur tre ledningsnivåer: Ansvarsskillnad och verksamhetsperspektiv i kvalitetsarbetet2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (yrkesexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Barn anses idag som kompetenta och sociala aktörer där dagens vårdnadshavare kräver en förskola med hög kvalité för sina barn. Forskning visar att kvalité är ett rörligt begrepp som förknippas med sin samtid samt ett kulturellt och socialt sammanhang, där bedömningen av kvalitén är subjektiv och beror på åskådarens perspektiv.Studiens syfte är att undersöka tre olika ledningsnivåer: förskolechef, förskollärare och barnskötare. Här lyfts deras tankar kring kvalitetsarbete och belyser ansvarsskillnader och faktorer som påverkar i verksamheten. Det insamlade materialet är semistrukturerade intervjuer med två förskolechefer, två förskollärare och två barnskötare på två olika förskolor i olika kommuner. Tolkningsramar som används är kvantitativt och kvalitativt förhållningssätt till kvalité. Resultatet visar på skillnader i planeringstid, olika strukturer i verksamheter, hur förskollärarprofessionen blir tydlig, den pedagogiska dokumentationen, de strukturella faktorerna och olika möjligheterna de ger varandra samt olika syn på systematiskt kvalitetsarbete i förskolan. Slutsatsen utifrån resultatet visar hur väsentliga olika delar är för att lyckas uppnå hög kvalité i förskolan: vilka faktorer som påverkar kvalitén, samt hur betydande det är med bra kommunikation i arbetslagen och mellan de tre olika ledningsnivåerna.

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  • 176.
    Frelin, Anneli
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Comparisons Across Borders: The Professional Territories of Teachers and Social Pedagogues2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 177.
    Frelin, Anneli
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Curriculum, Didaktik, and Professional Teaching: Conceptual Contributions from the Intersections of Curriculum Studies in an Age of «Crisis» in Education2016Ingår i: Curriculum: Decanonizing the Field / [ed] João M. Paraskeva & Shirley R. Steinberg, New York: Peter Lang Publishing Group, 2016Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 178.
    Frelin, Anneli
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Enacting democratic relations in everyday teaching: comparing teachers’ practices from preschool to high school2017Ingår i: Citizenship Teaching and Learning, ISSN 1751-1917, E-ISSN 1751-1925, Vol. 12, nr 3, s. 341-353Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In democratic societies fostering democratic citizens is an important goal of education and  includes experience of democratic relations. But how do teachers interpret and carry this out? Are there differences between the levels of schooling, and if so, what? In an explorative study, interviews with teachers from preschool to high school were conducted and analyzed to elicit practical arguments (Fenstermacher and Richardson, 1993). The informants described their mission as intertwined in everyday activities and teaching democracy ‘as a way of life’ in the spirit of Dewey. For example, the task of fostering quality in relations, such as empathy, was only discussed by preschool teachers, whereas the task of balancing equal relationships was addressed by all the informants at all levels. It also became clear that the progression of democratic learning runs parallel with addressing ever-present relational issues of a democratic nature.

  • 179.
    Frelin, Anneli
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Alterator, Scott
    La Trobe University, Australia.
    Professional border territory negotiations between teachers and social pedagogues – a case study2018Ingår i: NERA 2018 - 46th Congress: Educational Research: Boundaries, Breaches and Bridges: Abstracts, 2018, s. 424-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In response to a growing teacher shortage in most Nordic countries, and calls to “let teachers be teachers”, other professional groups with varying backgrounds and training are being introduced in schools. This measure is expected to let teachers focus primarily on core tasks, for example teaching and grading, and leave more peripheral tasks to members of other professional groups. In everyday practices, such changes in their professional work environment entails, to some extent, professional boundary negotiations. This paper examines such negotiations in a case study, in order to trace some emerging professional boundaries and potential boundary crossings between teachers and so called social pedagogues.

    Professions provide important services to the society based on discretionary work that requires university based training and licensing (e.g. Evetts, 2009). In Sweden, focus has been placed on formal grading as the most apparent task over which only teachers have jurisdiction, which is also in line with an increased focus on accountability in schools (Englund & Solbrekke, 2015). Professional action in education has been analysed using the concept of professional territory, which consists of the school staff's conceived task perception, the social transactionand the appropriated physical space where interaction takes place (Grannäs & Frelin, 2017).

    A case study was conducted in a newly built primary school (grades F-6). The staff teams consisted of three teachers and one social pedagogue responsible for around 90 students. The social pedagogues had occupational training although not a university degree. Three school visits and four interviews with two primary teachers and two social pedagogues were conducted. For this paper, interviews with a teacher and a social pedagogue working in the same team were analysed with attention to instances of negotiation and blurred boundaries, here conceptualized as professional border territories.

    Preliminary results: In the first year in operation of the school, the teachers and social pedagogues have had to negotiate continuously, as situations have emerged in the professional territory. This regards for example the matter of who should “check in” the students in the department in the morning. The time and place just before classes start can thus be viewed as one professional border territory. Another such territory is during seat work, when the social pedagogue tried to steer clear of helping students with their work and tend to matters of order. A third is during emergent conflicts, where the person who was present first, either the teacher or the social pedagogue, attended to the matter even if this was the social pedagogue’s task. When new professional groups enter schools their potential contribution to the educational environment, along with the risks that may ensue for educational relationships, need investigation.

    References:

    Englund, Tomas, & Solbrekke, Tone Dyrdal. (2015). Om innebörder i lärarprofessionalism. Pedagogisk Forskning i Sverige, 20(3-4), 168-194.

    Evetts, Julia. (2009). New Professionalism and New Public Management: Changes, Continuities and Consequences. Comparative Sociology, 8(2), 247-266. doi: 10.1163/156913309x421655

    Grannäs, Jan, & Frelin, Anneli. (2017). Spaces of student support -comparing educational environments from two time periods. Improving schools, 20(2), 127-142

  • 180.
    Frelin, Anneli
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    de Laval, Suzanne
    Grannäs, Jan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Practice oriented multidisciplinary post occupancy evaluation as a tool for planning and remodeling of school facilities2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 181.
    Frelin, Anneli
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Fransson, Göran
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Four components that sustain teachers’ commitment to students: a relational and temporal model2017Ingår i: Reflective Practice, ISSN 1462-3943, E-ISSN 1470-1103, Vol. 18, nr 5, s. 641-654Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Teacher commitment is a key factor for explaining how and why teachers care about their students’ learning and well-being, and it is a well-known fact that teachers invest emotionally in their work and their students. The purpose of the article is to contribute to the conceptual underpinning of commitment in relation to the teacher-student relationship and to suggest a conceptual model based on empirical material. Eight teachers were selected for interview, all of whom had been in the profession since 1993 and had reported high commitment throughout their careers. The content of the teachers’ accounts were analysed, with attention to how commitment to students manifested itself in their stories. The analysis resulted in a model consisting of four temporally related components of teacher commitment to students: moral, action/motivational, knowledge/self-confidence and reward/self-esteem. Understanding teacher commitment is important for preventing teacher attrition. Rather than applying general measures to boost commitment, this model provides conceptual bases for addressing deficits in particular components of teacher commitment.

  • 182.
    Frelin, Anneli
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Fransson, Göran
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Principals’ experiences of changes in relationships with newly qualified teachers resulting from a teacher registration reform2019Ingår i: International Journal of Educational Management, ISSN 0951-354X, E-ISSN 1758-6518, Vol. 33, nr 4, s. 556-568Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this paper is to understand, from principals’ points of view, how a teacher registration reform is enacted by examining the potential changes in the relationships between principals and newly qualified teachers (NQTs). The reform entailed principals performing an aptitude assessment of new teachers in their probationary year.

    Design/methodology/approach

    Semi-structured interviews were conducted with five principals from two Swedish municipalities on three occasions in one academic year. A third follow-up interview was conducted one year later with four of the principals, the fifth no longer being in post.

    Findings

    The assessment appears to be downplayed by the principals, whereas the supportive dimension and the facilitation of NQTs’ professional development seem to be acknowledged and made explicit. For some of the principals, their creative translation of the reform’s intentions transformed these relations and strengthened their leadership.

    Research limitations/implications

    The study is small-scale and was carried out in a specific period of policy implementation from the principals’ perspectives. Future studies would benefit from involving both principals’ and teachers’ perspectives.

    Practical implications

    Policymakers appear to have underestimated the structural aspects of the reform, even though in general the reform enactments had some kind of positive effect on these relations.

    Social implications

    For some principals, their creative translation of the reform’s intentions transformed relations and strengthened their leadership.

    Originality/value

    The data are from a unique period when a reform was implemented and later partly withdrawn. The study deepens the understanding on how principals tries to enact and balance their roles as evaluators of NQTs and pedagogical and instructional leaders.

  • 183.
    Frelin, Anneli
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Grannäs, Jan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Changing school environments through the eyes of the students2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper draws on socio-material and spatial theories to open up new possibilities for understanding how school practices are in play: the interior of the school buildings, the outside playground and different artefacts being part of the school environment. The purpose of this case study is to enhance our understanding of different students’ views of their educational environment, inside and outside of the classroom. The focus lies on their experiences of safe and unsafe places, along with spaces that supports and impede their learning. More specifically, we have used a spatial perspective for analyzing students’ photo stories in a newly opened school.

  • 184.
    Frelin, Anneli
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Grannäs, Jan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Changing school environments through the eyes of the students2018Ingår i: AERA abstract repository, 2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Purpose This paper draws on socio-material and spatial theories to open up new possibilities for understanding how school practices are in play: the interior of the school buildings, the outside playground and different artefacts being part of the school environment. More specifically, we have used a spatial perspective for analyzing students’ photo stories describing spaces that supports and impede their learning as well as safe and unsafe spaces in a newly opened school.

    2. Theoretical framework In discussions about educational practices, cognitive, social and cultural concepts tend to dominate. These concepts are often based on notions about humans using various kinds of tools and that social interaction is played out in a context. Notions like this can easily obscure the significance of material objects (Fenwick, Edwards, & Sawchuk, 2011). A sociomaterial perspective entails viewing interactions in school as more than social processes, but materializing processes in and with material objects. This involves envisioning, enacting and experiencing education in relation to its material, social and discursive aspects (Mulcahy, Cleveland, & Aberton, 2015). Stables (2015) argues that there is a need to regard the school environment as “part of the life story of its users”. School environments are appropriated by their users who respond to their environment in different ways.

    3. Methods The case school, Maple Grove, is a newly opened secondary school. The fieldwork was conducted over the course of one school year (Yin, 2009). The main data used in this paper consists of students’ photo stories. According to Banks (2007), visual research methods are appropriate for the study of youth and their contexts.

    4. Data sources Digital stories (using the software Sway) was collected by means of classroom assignments. Combinations of images (photographs, screenshots etc.) and texts supported the socio-material analysis.

    5. Results Preliminary results show variations in both the areas that students view as safe and unsafe, and the reasons for their choice of area. This means that one area may be depicted as safe by one student, but unsafe by another. They also pointed to various social and physical features that affected their learning environment. Students also point out vital places in school buildings that neither architects nor school staff could foresee in the original design.

    6. Conclusion A conclusion that can be drawn is that the school administration and staff need to be sensitive to the views of the students in the transition from design to dynamic practice.

  • 185.
    Frelin, Anneli
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Grannäs, Jan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Compensatory conditions in the corridor: comparing staff work in (secondary) schools designed in two different time periods2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we set out to explore how the physical, social and conceived conditions in schools can facilitate or disrupt support work aimed at improving student learning and preventing social exclusion (cf. Frelin & Grannäs, 2013). This is accomplished by comparing student support practices in the common areas of two newly renovated secondary schools built in two different time periods. The focus is on teachers’ and other school staff’s enactment of curriculum and policy reforms in their endeavours to improve students’ learning conditions and well-being (cf. Ball, Maguire, & Braun, 2012; Mulcahy, 2016). This enactment takes place in a designed school environment, where teachers and support staff appropriate spaces for educational purposes in different ways (cf. Stables, 2015). The interview and observational data come from two qualitative case studies, one complete (2012-14) and one ongoing (2015-16), using a spatial analysis perspective. Physical, social and conceived aspects of space are considered (Frelin & Grannäs, 2014, 2015). The case schools, located in two municipalities, were originally built in the 1910s (Lönnhaga) and the 1960s (Tallvik). Both schools serve mixed to low SES communities and have organized student support functions in the schools’ corridors, cafeterias, recreation areas and other common spaces. These functions are for example school host, student coach and student welfare officer. The organization, function and physical layout of the schools differ and represent the pedagogical and architectural ideas of the periods in which they were built. Preliminary results show variations in the physical conditions for support work in terms of number of storeys, transparency (e.g. stone or glass walls) and layout (enclosed or open spaces), how the staff respond to these conditions (e.g. stationary in offices or mobile in corridors) and the kind of contact staff have with the management (e.g. whether or not they are used as substitute teachers). In contrast, the task perception among the support staff as a whole is similar in both schools. It is interesting to see how the staff respond creatively to the physical school environments, designed in different time periods and rebuilt in response to policy reform, in order to carry out their tasks (cf. Blackmore et al, 2011; Mulcahy, 2016; Stables, 2015).

  • 186.
    Frelin, Anneli
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Grannäs, Jan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Exploring the Support Function ”School Host” as Equalizer of Educational Opportunity in the School Environment2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper a spatial perspective is used to explore the support work of school hosts in the common areas of the school environment aimed at equalizing educational opportunities and preventing social exclusion. Recent investments in student support staff are aimed at improving student care and boosting students’ academic performances. Interviews from two case schools, complemented by observations and documents, were compared in order to determine how the hosts relate to physical, conceived and social spaces in schools. Results show ways in which spatial aspects such as the physical layout of the school enable or limit their work. Their actions are the outcome of the relations between the school environment and their task perceptions. Moreover, they draw upon established relationships.

  • 187.
    Frelin, Anneli
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Grannäs, Jan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Konflikthantering i skolan: Ett ekologiskt perspektiv2019Ingår i: Skolans konflikter: Vad varje lärare bör veta / [ed] Pihlgren, Ann S., Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2019, 1, s. 75-92Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    En konfliktfri skola är ingen bra skola. Samhället är inte konfliktfritt, och eftersom skolan ska förbereda elever för samhället har den ett viktigt uppdrag att rusta elever att hantera konflikter på ett konstruktivt och fredligt sätt. Däremot är inte alla konflikter positiva för eleverna och för utbildningsmiljön. Det här kapitlet tar utgångspunkten i skolor som ekologiska system för att arbeta med konflikter i skolan på ett sätt som bidrar till utbildningens syften.

  • 188.
    Frelin, Anneli
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Grannäs, Jan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Policy enactment in an era of transition from compensation to competition2019Ingår i: rg, Ger, 2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 189.
    Frelin, Anneli
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Grannäs, Jan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Professional territories in open learning environments: – examining collaborations between teachers and social pedagogues2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 190.
    Frelin, Anneli
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Grannäs, Jan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Relationell pedagogik i korridoren?: ett rumsligt och relationellt perspektiv på skolans relationsarbete2016Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 191.
    Frelin, Anneli
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Grannäs, Jan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik. Institutt for lærerutdanning og skoleforskning, Universitetet i Oslo.
    Skolans mellanrum: Ett relationellt och rumsligt perspektiv på utbildningsmiljöer2017Ingår i: Pedagogisk forskning i Sverige, ISSN 1401-6788, E-ISSN 2001-3345, Vol. 22, nr 3-4, s. 198-214Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 192.
    Frelin, Anneli
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Grannäs, Jan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Teachers’ pedagogical conceptions of a planned activity based learning environment2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 193.
    Frelin, Anneli
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Grannäs, Jan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    The role of dataveillance software in school leaders’ surveillance of teachers2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 194.
    Frelin, Anneli
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Grannäs, Jan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Fransson, Göran
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Relational Dimensions of Policy Enactment: Principals' Experiences of Relations With Newly Qualified Teachers During the Teacher Registration Reform2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Globalized educational reforms include registration reforms for newly qualified teachers (NQTs). As policies travel, this paper examines the Swedish example of principals’ policy enactments (Ball et al, 2012) when assessing NQTs. Questionnaire data was collected in three municipality clusters. 11 semi-structured interviews with principals were conducted in two municipalities. These were analyzed to determine whether and how the relations between principals and NTQs changed due to the teacher registration reform. The results showed some positive change in the relations and that contrary to the reform’s intentions support and assessment practices were intermingled. As the complexity of the situation was underestimated, other countries may learn from the example of a reform that led to a policy retreat.

  • 195.
    Frelin, Anneli
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Quiles-Fernández, Emma
    University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada.
    Professional border territories: A cross-country understanding of social educators and pedagogues in the school landscape2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This proposal outlines a cross-country conversation about the social dimensions of pedagogical work. Through our work being alongside a Swedish social pedagogue and a Spanish social educator, we begin to ponder about the border territories that social pedagogy holds in different contexts, times and places.

    As we know, professions provide important services to the society based on discretionary work that requires university based training and licensing (e.g. Evetts, 2009). In our educational field, the professionals dealing with social pedagogy vary from country to country. For example, due to the social needs that appeared in Spain in the 90s, the Ministry of Education created a university degree called Social Education. However, before that, social educators worked in non-regulated educational spaces. Professionalizing their role allowed them to start a relational work with children, youth, families, teachers, social workers, social services, and doctors, with social well-being goals. The curriculum that those university programs offer relates to schooling processes, social development, and family matters. This means that, holistically, social educators are able to work in several education communities, crossing borders and building bridges, offering possibilities that have not considered it in the past by their participants. Possibilities that usually are seeing as ‘the path for a better life’.

    In Sweden, social workers have traditionally taken care of the more severe social and welfare issues, whereas teachers have had responsibility for pastoral care and other less severe relational problems. Recently, in response to a growing teacher shortage in most Nordic countries, and calls to ‘let teachers be teachers’, a new para-professional group with a social pedagogue non-university degree or comparable occupational training have become more common in schools. 

    Thinking with both realities, and attending the three narrative inquiry dimensions, we have puzzled about which spaces do social educators/social pedagogues appropriate inside and outside of school, what do they perceive to be their task to perform, what do they leave to others, and with whom do they interact. All those wonders have created our research puzzle: what negotiations happen in the professional border territories, or spaces in-between, and how can we understand the dynamic inter-professional educational work landscapes in different countries?

    In order to trace some emerging professional boundaries and potential boundary crossings between teachers and social educators/social pedagogues, our discussion is nested in the notion of professional territory, which consists of the professionals’ conceived task perception, the social transaction and the appropriated physical space where interaction takes place (Grannäs & Frelin, 2017).

  • 196.
    Frelin, Anneli
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Wistrand, Anna
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Professionalitet under press: Lärares arbete bland restträsk, pappersfloder och medkänslomalströmmar2018Ingår i: Läraren och yrkesetiken / [ed] Sara Irisdotter Aldenmyr, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2018, 1, s. 106-124Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Dagens ämneslärare möter en mängd utmaningar i vardagen, vilket innebär att det vissa gånger kan kännas tungt att arbeta som lärare. De upplevelserna delas av många inom lärarprofessionen, och har orsaker som ofta ligger utanför det som direkt går att påverka. Har de yrkesetiska principerna potential att hjälpa till att hantera den professionella pressen och i så fall hur?

  • 197.
    Frid, Robin
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Wikström, Christian
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    TAKK och gester i förskolan: TAKK-tavlan som didaktiskt verktyg2016Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (yrkesexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Många förskolor arbetar idag med Tecken som Alternativ och Kompletterande Kommunikation (TAKK) för att gynna barnens språkliga och kommunikativa utveckling. Syftet med studien är att undersöka användningen av TAKK och gester i förskolan samt hur TAKK finns representerad i förskolornas miljö. En frågeställning som undersöks är hur förskollärare och barnskötare i förskolan har lärt sig att använda TAKK. En annan är hur TAKK-tavlor (de bilder som förklarar hur olika tecken utförs) och andra gester, deiktiska och ikoniska, används i förskolan samt vilken roll TAKK-tavlan har som didaktiskt verktyg.

     

    För att besvara frågeställningarna utfördes observationer på två förskolor samt en enkätundersökning riktad till de pedagoger som var delaktiga under observationerna. Resultatet belyser pedagogernas förhållningssätt gentemot TAKK och TAKK-tavlor, hur barn och pedagoger använder sig av TAKK och gester samt TAKK-tavlan som didaktiskt verktyg. Resultatet visar även att alla förskollärare och barnskötare som deltog i studien har lärt sig TAKK och att lika många barnskötare som förskollärare har gått på kurs för att lära sig TAKK. I enkätundersökningen svarade fyra av respondenterna att de helt håller med om att det finns TAKK-tavlor för barnen medan två delvis instämde. En respondent var mer tveksam. Resultatet belyser att pedagogernas användning av TAKK-tavlor, tecken och gester påverkar barnens användning av dessa. Använder pedagogerna på en förskola sig av flera TAKK-tecken men väldigt få deiktiska gester, som att peka på något, visar det sig i barnens användning av dessa gester. En förskollärare menar i enkätundersökningen att även om barnen inte förstår det som tecknas tycker de att det är intressant och att de gärna härmar. I resultatet framkommer det att ett aktivt TAKK-användande kan minska antalet deiktiska gester.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 198.
    Friman, Linnéa
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Moberg, Josefine
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Barns strategier för tillträde till lek: En studie om pedagogers erfarenheter av vilka tillträdesstrategier barn använder sig av för att ta sig in i lek2016Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (yrkesexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    I den här studien har vi valt att studera vad pedagoger har för erfarenheter av hur barn tar sig in i lek och vilka tillträdesstrategier som är de vanligaste. Vi har därför utfört intervjuer med pedagoger som vi spelat in för att ta reda på våra forskningsfrågor. Under intervjerna samt då vi bearbetat materialet har vi utgått ifrån Corsaros 15 tillträdesstrategier samt annan forskning inom forskningsfältet. I resultatet presenterar vi pedagogers tidigare erfarenheter av hur barn tar sig in i lek. Vi tar också upp vilken respons barn får i sina försök till tillträde enligt pedagogerna och vilka strategier pedagoger upplever är mer och mindre förekommande. En annan aspekt vi tar upp i resultatet är vilken roll pedagogen har då barn blir nekad till lek. Studien har visat att det finns två strategier som är mest förekommande enligt de sju pedagoger vi intervjuat och de poängterade även vikten av att vara närvarande som pedagog när ett barn blir nekad till lek för att kunna hjälpa och stötta barnet.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 199.
    Frölin Hagström, Hanna
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Larsson, Emelie
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Digitala medel i förskolan: Förskolepedagogers uppfattningar och erfarenheter av IKT i förskolan2016Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (högskoleexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Avsikten med undersökningen var att få djupare kunskap kring IKT i förskolan, hur IKT används samt de pedagogiskt ansvariga i förskolans egna perspektiv och åsikter kring IKT som ett hjälpmedel i verksamheten. Detta har uppnåtts via en enkätundersökning där det både funnits öppna frågor såväl som slutna frågor. De frågeställningar vi haft och använt oss av i denna studie är följande;

    - Vilka digitala medel finns det på förskolorna?

    - Hur använder de pedagogiskt ansvariga sig av IKT i förskolan?

    - Vad är de pedagogiskt ansvarigas syn på digitala medel som verktyg i förskolan?

    Resultatet visar att de pedagogiskt ansvariga i förskolan är generellt positiva till användandet av digitala medel i verksamheten. Samtidigt upplever de flesta att de inte har tillräckligt med kunskap och utbildning för att bedriva en pedagogisk verksamhet där digitala medel används som stöd.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 200.
    Galusso, Natalia
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Rektorernas tolkningar av de nya målen om digitalisering och deras strategier för tillämpning av målen i förskolan.2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
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