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  • 18151.
    Wärvik, Gun-Britt
    et al.
    Gothenburg University.
    Runesdotter, Caroline
    Gothenburg University.
    Pettersson, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    PISA, Communicative Acts and the Media: The Discourse of "Failure" and "Success"2018In: NERA 2018 - 46th Congress: Educational Research: Boundaries, Breaches and Bridges: Abstracts, 2018, p. 107-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The interest in large-scale comparative studies of students’ assessment has increased considerably during the last decades and the results have been widely spread in media. Among the different international surveys of students’ assessment -PISA is standing out in publicity, meaning that the results have received an extraordinary significance as an assessment of the education system and education policy. The OECD seem to be well-aware of the importance of dissemination and one activity taking place in relation to the presentation of results are press-releases and “newsletters” presenting theresults for media, as well as for policymakers and others in a focused and simplified way. In the paper, we pay special attention to these activities which we consider to be communicative acts (cf. Luhmann, 1996). A point of departure for the paper is that media, through the communicative acts by OECDs strategy for dissemination, creates certain conditions for how educational results are classified, regulated and communicated in society (Luhmann, 1996), and has thus become a powerful actor in the making ofa comparativistic paradigm (Lindblad, Pettersson & Popkewitz, 2015) in education. We consider media as a conglomerate of actors participating in the intersection of science, educational policy, and society, the Agora (Nowotny et al., 2003) where the results are communicated and measures proposed. The aim is to analyze how valid statements are produced on the basis of PISA-results: Which kind of actors are present, what kind of comparisons are made and which conclusions are drawn, what is selected by the OECD and the media to be in focus for the reporting. The analysis has a particular focus on the making of diversity and context in terms of “failure” and “success”.

  • 18152.
    Wäsström, Olof
    University of Gävle, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för kultur- och religionsvetenskap.
    Synkronicitet som skelett?: hur synkronicitet ser ut och verkar i Kieslowskis film ”Blå”2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Det här är en jungiansk filmstudie med fokus på synkronicitet i handlingen från början till slutet. Hur manusförfattarna skildrar en människas försök att glömma och förneka delar av sin historia till att via omständigheter hon inte själv kan råda över, bland annat tack vare ett intensivt inflöde av omedvetet material som manifesteras via synkronistiska skeenden, slutligen kan förlösas och gå vidare i livet igen. En slags mild chockterapi som upprepas till dess att huvudpersonen ger upp sin ensidiga hållning och börjar tro på livet igen.

    Jag kommer också att komma in på något som jag här kallar länkade händelser eller objekt.

  • 18153.
    Wästgårds, Joel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Kostundervisning: En studie av läroplanernas inverkan på lärarnas arbetssätt och ämneskunskaper inom kost.2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 18154.
    Wågnert, Nadia
    University of Gävle, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences.
    Bilden av Hitlers maktövertagande i nordisk press2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att spegla den bild av Hitler och det nationalsocialistiska tyska arbetarpartiet som framkommer i tidningar mellan 23 januari 1933 till 6 februari 1933. För att kunna göra detta grundades undersökningarna på tre frågeställningar: Hur framställs Hitler och det nationalsocialistiska tyska arbetarpartiet i tidningarna? Går det att finna någon skillnad beroende på vilken politiska inriktningen tidningarna har? Går det att finna någon skillnad mellan länderna?

                         Källorna i studien består av åtta nordiska tidningar från Norge (Aftenposten och Arbeiderbladet), Danmark (Berlingske Tidende och ØstsJællands Folkeblad), Finland (Hufvudstadsbladet) och Sverige (Gefle Dagblad, Arbetarbladet och Norrlandposten). Bilden av Hitler har varierat genom tiderna och hans namn har förknippats med ord som bland annat diktator, ledare, beskyddare, människa och monster. Men genom att det fanns väldigt lite skrivet om Hitler under hans levnad blir tidningar ett sätt att närma sig vad hans samtida samhälle ansåg om honom. Studien är en komparativ och kvalitativ, där vikten inte ligger i att göra en så korrekt beskrivning utav specifika händelser som möjligt, utan istället att jämföra den bild som framkommer i tidningarnas nyhetsmaterial och ledare.

                          Den teoretiska grunden som undersökningen byggs på är attributionsteorin. Denna teori innebär att tolkandet av situationer görs genom att tillskriva någon (aktören) någonting alltifrån en egenskap till ett motiv eller att finna orsaker i aktörens omgivning, om de är dispositionella (interna) eller situationella (externa). Den tidigare forskningen utgörs av Stig Hadenius och Stefan Höjelids studier. Där påvisas det att det både fanns ett tydligt landsperspektiv såväl som ett partipolitisktperspektiv.

                          I studien fanns inget konkret landsperspektiv i likhet med Höjelids studie där tidningarna visade upp ett gemensamt tolkningsmönster då exempelvis tidningarna från Sverige visade upp stor variation i sitt förhållningssätt till Hitler och det nationalsocialistiska arbetarpartiet. Däremot i likhet med Hadenius studie visade tidningarna en partipolitisk aspekt. Men den partipolitiska aspekten var inte oproblematisk då det gick att finna i likhet med Hadenius studie en splittring mellan nyhetsmaterialet och ledarsidorna. I denna studie visade Gefle Dagblad denna typ av splitring, där ledaren var väldigt negativ till Hitlers agerande i Tyskland i förbjudandet av bland annat Vorwärts medan nyhetsmaterialet visade en annan sida.

                           I det empiriska materialet speglades både en positiv och negativ bild av Hitler och det nationalsocialistiska tyska arbetarpartiet. Dock så framkommer dessa ställningstaganden tydligare senare i studien. I det negativa nyhetsmaterialet och ledare beskrevs Hitler som en diktator och ansågs vara oparlamentarisk. Skulden som lades på Hitler och det nationalsocialistiska tyska arbetarpartiet för de händelser som ägde rum i Tyskland under den studerade perioden förklarades genom dispositionella faktorer. Däribland fanns tidningar som Arbetarbladet och Arbeiderbladet som tydligt speglade denna negativa vinkling. I de tidningar vars nyhetsmaterial och ledare som beskrev Hitler positivt fanns Berlingske Tidende och Aftenposten. Här lades istället skulden på kommunisterna och socialisterna och tidningarna blandar dispositionella och situationellt tolkningar. De övriga tidningarna (ØstsJællands Folkeblad, Hufvudstadsbladet, Norrlandsposten och Gefle Dagblad) hade blandade åsikter om Hitler. Där framkom det att den partipolitiska anknytningen var den mest sammanhängande och övergripande, i enlighet med Hadenius studie.

                          Många tidningar visade under perioden en kontinuitet i deras bild av Hitler och det nationalsocialistiska tyska arbetarpartiet. De som visade sig vara avvikande i studien gällande detta var ØstsJællands Folkeblad och Hufvudstadsbladet som ändrade sina åsikter efter maktövertagandet. Anledningen till detta kan ligga i det geografiska läget som kan skapa andra konflikter men också i den form Hitler kom till makten, denna parlamentariska form som sammanföll med deras egna politiska system var respektingivande.   

                          Hur än tidningen speglade Hitler går det att finna att mycket av den plats som fanns i tidningen ägnades åt honom. I detta skeende som studien porträtterar var det svårt att skilja Hitler och det nationalsocialistiska tyska arbetarpartiet åt.  Hitler namn uppfattades som en synonym till det nationalsocialistiska paritet och den ideologi de representerade.

  • 18155.
    Wågström, Britt-Mari
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology, Ämnesavdelningen för medicinsk vetenskap.
    Fynd av bakterier och svampar i blododlingar hos vuxna under år 2005 i Gävleborgs län: En epidemiologisk studie2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Occurrence of bacteraemia and fungemia is a serious condition with high mortality and the incidence is increasing worldwide. The aim of this study was to survey the occurrence of bacteria and fungi in blood cultures from adult patients domiciled in the county of Gävleborg during one year and also to calculate the incidence and mortality in the same geographical area.

    Method

    This is a descriptive epidemiologic study, based on all episodes of blood cultures analyzed at the Microbiology laboratory, Gävle hospital during 2005. Patients from 20 years of age, domiciled in the county of Gävleborg at the date of drawing the blood culture, where included in the study. Criteria of exclusion were negative blood cultures and cultures which were classified as contaminants.

    Results

    Altogether there were 4 564 blood cultures analyzed, resulting in 524 (11 %) positive cultures for further study. There were 442 patients (48 % women) involved in 499 episodes with confirmed bacteraemia or fungemia. Gram positive bacteria represented 52 %, gram negative 45 % and fungi 3 %. The most frequently isolated bacterium was Escherichia coli followed by Staphylococcus aureus. In women, Escherichia coli was the most common bacterium, and there was a significant difference between the genders (p= 0.004). In men, Staphylococcus aureus was the dominant species (p= 0.027). Streptococcus pneumoniae was more common in women (p= 0.005). The incidence of bacteraemia and fungemia in the county of Gävleborg was 235/100 000 inhabitants above the age of 20 (women, 223/100 000 men, 247/100 000). The incidence increased with age and the mean age was 70.2 years. The mortality within 30 days after the last positive blood culture was 22 % (97 patients). Escherichia coli was the most common bacteria diagnosed among those who died. The mortality in fungemia was 66 %. There was no significant difference in incidence or mortality between the two provinces Gästrikland and Hälsingland. Patients with bacteraemia and fungemia were initially cared for at all medical care units at the three hospitals in the county.

    Conclusion

    The incidence of bacteraemia/fungemia in the county of Gävleborg was 235/100 000 inhabitants. The most common bacteria in patients with confirmed bacteraemia were Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Increasing age was a contributing risk factor. Patients with fungemia had considerably higher mortality compared to patients with bacteraemia. There where no significant differences in mortality between the two provinces.

  • 18156.
    Wåhlstrand, Maria
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology. University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för pedagogik.
    Bardakci, Serap
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology. University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för pedagogik.
    Pedagogers sätt att hantera konflikter: - En jämförelse mellan två förskolor2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med detta arbete är att undersöka hur pedagoger arbetar med att hantera konflikter mellan barn, samt att jämföra två olika förskolor för att se vilka likheter och skillnader som finns. Studien bygger på ett frågeformulär med sex pedagoger på två olika förskolor samt en litteraturstudie som jämförs med pedagogernas svar i frågeformulären. I bakgrunden beskrivs bland annat ett teoretiskt perspektiv samt olika författares syn på konflikter och hantering av konflikter. Resultatet visar på en viss skillnad i arbetet med konflikthantering. Detta genom att olika tankar kring barns känslor har visats samt att pedagogerna på ena förskolan gärna håller sig mer i närheten av de barn som ofta hamnar i konflikter till skillnad från de pedagogerna på den andra för skolan. De likheter som visas är bland annat att alla pedagoger i denna studie är överrens om att barn kan till viss del lösa konflikter själva.

  • 18157.
    Xia, Guo
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    Hailun, Gao
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    The nurses’ experiences of hospice care: A descriptive literature review2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 18158.
    Xia, Wu
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    Jinan, Zheng
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    Quality of life among women with cervical cancer: A descriptive literature review2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 18159.
    Xia, Xiaolin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    A Comparison Study on a Set of Space Syntax based Methods: Applying metric, topological and angular analysis to natural streets, axial lines and axial segments2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, there has been an increasing interest in looking at urban environment as a complex system. More and more researchers are paying attention to the study of the configuration of urban space as well as human social activities within it. It has been found that correlation exists between the morphological properties of urban street network and observed human social movement patterns. This correlation implies that the influence of urban configurations on human social movements is no longer only revealed from the sense of metric distance, but also revealed from topological and geometrical perspectives. Metric distances, topological relationships and angular changes between streets should be considered when applying space syntax analysis to an urban street network. This thesis is mainly focused on the comparison among metric, topological and angular analyses based on three kinds of urban street representation models: natural streets, axial lines and axial segments. Four study areas (London, Paris, Manhattan and San Francisco) were picked up for empirical study. In the study, space syntax measures were calculated for different combinations of analytical methods and street models. These theoretical space syntax accessibility measures (connectivity, integration and choice) were correlated to the corresponding practical human movement to evaluate the correlations. Then the correlation results were compared in terms of analytical methods and street representation models respectively. In the end, the comparison of results show that (1) natural-street based model is the optimal street model for carrying out space syntax analysis followed by axial lines and axial segments; (2) angular analysis and topological analysis are more advanced than metric analysis; and (3) connectivity, integration and local integration (two-step) are more suitable for predicting human movements in space syntax. Furthermore, it can be hypothesized that topological analysis method with natural-street based model is the best combination for the prediction of human movements in space syntax, for the integration of topological and geometrical thinking.

  • 18160.
    Xian, Niu
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment.
    Can, Zhang
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment.
    An Exploratory Study of Outsourcing motives and effects in Sweden and ChinaIndependent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 18161.
    Xiang, Luo
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    A virtual Music fountain simulation based on particle system2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents a real-time simulation of a music fountain which is simulated in three dimensions by a particle animation system. In this system, gravity and wind are factors that affect the locus movement of particles. Using kinematic equations, the dynamic behaviors of particles is modeled. A specific contribution of the work presented here is that parameters for the motion equation are estimated from sound playing in real-time which controls the dynamic behavior of animated fountain. An open source programming language called Processing is used to implement the environment. Results of the system are demonstrated in form of its graphical output and performance benchmarks from run-time evaluation. The author investigates the influence of the parameters of particle system and music attributes on the animation of the music fountain simulation. The size, number, color, texture and transparency of particles can influence the quality of music fountain simulation. Using FFT function to get music parameters is the best way to figure out differences between different music.

  • 18162.
    Xiang, Tingting
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Xu, Sujing
    University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Core Enterprise's Partner Selection in a Green Supply Chain2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Core enterprise is the center of Green Supply Chain (GSC) and it helps partners to meet the environmental standards and to improve GSC’s performance. However there are two questions for core enterprise when it establishes GSC: What roles do core enterprise play in GSC? How does core enterprise improve GSC’s performance? What criterions are considered when core enterprise chooses partners in GSC?

     

    In order to answer these questions, this paper will use following methods: firstly, Analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and Analytic network process (ANP) have be used to study on three research companies (IKEA, TOYOTA and Apple); Secondly, six interviews with research companies’ employees.

     

    After case study, the results show that when core enterprise chooses partners, it will draw up some criterions and sub-standards for partners to fulfill. Furthermore, core enterprise plays the roles as GSC’s builder, director, coordinator, and designer in the system.

     

    Finally, this paper answered the research questions: Firstly, in order to improve the performance of GSC, core enterprise should direct all partners in GSC to save materials and recycle waste in each link of GSC. Secondly, core enterprise can use four criterions to choose partners. These criterions are: environmental management performance, product-related elements, production-service levels, and enterprise culture.

  • 18163.
    Xiao, Chuye
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Jiang, Xi
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Implementation of utility calculations based on utility difference proportions2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This pilot study presents an implementation of utility calculation that is based on utility difference proportions. To conduct a utility calculation for a consequence, one needs to evaluate utility difference proportions and to calculate utility values. The application can help decision makers to compare consequences pairwise and make decisions easier regarding to the final output utility value for each consequence. On the other hand, the application is limited to a specific case with specified preference ordering. The application can be further developed into a more real interactive analytic decision-making support tool in the future.

  • 18164.
    Xiao, Naiyuan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Comfort temperature analysis in a historical stone church2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis a church named Hamrånge, located North of the town Gävle in Sweden, has been studied. In this church thermal comfort is a problem that need to be considered. There is poor insulation and air leakage in the building envelope. And appearance doesn't allow to add any additional insulation, becauce people want to keep its original appearance. In cold weather the church is heated by bench heaters and radiators through direct electicity. 

  • 18165.
    Xiao, Naiyuan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Energy-efficiency building envelope technologies2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, the excessive emission of greenhouse gas CO2, it causing globalwarming, already poses a serious threat to human survival. The problem catches theattention all over the world, and promoting the development of building energyefficiency. In order to the sustainable development of human beings, in 1992 theUnited Nations framework convention on climate change (UFCCC) organizationpublished the Kyoto protocol. In the Kyoto protocol, the European countriescommitted that during 2008 and 2012 they would reduce the amount of greenhouseemissions to 8% compare to 1990.[2] Building envelope technologies can helphouseholder reduce the energy consumption use in the building. Building envelopetechnologies used in the project Brogåden – Alingsås which save the energyconsumption from 204 kWh/ m2a to 95 kWh/ m2a in Sweden. While the cost just838SEK/m² or 8% of the total building costs. In China the envelope technologies usedin the project student apartment in Shandong building university save the energyconsumption about 72% compare with the old student apartments.

  • 18166.
    Xiao, Yi
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Peng, Ronghe
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Rookie Plan: A New Type of Logistics Service Provider in China2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With the development of logistics market, the third party logistics can no longer solve all the problems in supply chain management, the appearance of fourth party logistics is a breakthrough solution to modern supply chain challenge. Since China has become the manufacturing center of the world, it attracts more attentions to its own logistics market. But at the same time, there are few studies on Chinese fourth party logistics.

    This purpose of the study is to research a fourth party logistics service provider in China, including the barriers and the recommendations to promote its development. The fourth party logistics assembles the resources, capabilities, and technologies of its own company and other companies to design, build and run comprehensive supply chain solutions (Foster 1999). The research objectives of the study are 1. Identify what is the smart logistics and the factors comprised smart logistics network in general. 2. Describe the Rookie plan and analysis its property and prospect. And 3. Classify the impact of smart logistics on customer satisfaction or requests, and formulate recommendations on how to improve the performance of Rookie plan.

    Due to such aims, this research pursues a hybrid method which consists both of survey and case study about the ‘Rookie Plan’. Hereby, not only the secondary data for theoretical framework establishment and information gathering of the case project is engaged, but also the primary data through questionnaire to the sellers on the ecommerce platform named ‘Taobao’. For enhancing the reliability and validity of the survey, the overall process is conducted base on a four step guideline, as well as four-phase data analysis method for analyzing the information. What is more, the overall analysis part is led by PEST model. The integration of all methods above confirm the reliability and validity of the research process.

    The results of survey show that there is a necessary to bring smart logistics into e-commerce, and there is a huge potential for the development of fourth party logistics.  This study has demonstrated that Rookie Plan, the new type of logistics service provider in China has obtained a significant achievement and bring the customers huge benefits, but it also faced some risks including it cannot guarantee all aspects of this plan can have well function, and the underdevelopment logistics infrastructure also hinder its development. As the reason of achieving a better development of Rookie plan and shining a light for other 4PL companies in China, the recommendations for Rookie Plan are strengthen the planning and construction of logistics infrastructure, promote the development of third party logistics service provider, and accelerate the integration of e-commerce and modern logistics industry. 

  • 18167.
    Xiao, Ziye
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Liu, Xingrui
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    CSR implementation in large enterprises: Comparision between China and Sweden2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has been widely talked about over decades. CSR is a concept proposed in Western Countries firstly and it asks for business to contribute sustainable economic development and to improve the quality of life by involving other stakeholders at the same time. The CSR among countries in Asia has beenspreadingin recent years. This thesis takes a closer comparison on the CSR between China and Sweden. As a case study with qualitative strategy, its main aims are to compare the driving forces, barriers, activities and deliverables in implementation of CSR in a Sweden-China context. Two Swedish enterprises and one Chinese enterprise are used as examples here in this study and both of their primary data by interview and secondary data by CSR or Sustainability Report are utilized.

    Theories refer to the implementation of CSR, the CSR in China and Sweden are used to establish the conceptual framework of this study. Empirical findings show that Chinese and Swedish enterprises both implement CSR in a similar way while the differences still exist. For instance, the Swedish enterprises stress the work on philanthropic responsibility to participate in local activities, while the Chinese enterprises contribute to the society by donation in natural disaster. Their activities, driving forces, barriers and deliverables are summarized in a model, respectively. Base on this fact, this thesis argues that the difference is due to the influence of cultural and political factors. Consequently, it leads to a situation that the Swedish enterprises have an advantage in implementation on caring of employees while the Chinese enterprises are good at making contributions to the larger society. This thesis can hopefully provide insightful comparison between the implementation of CSR in both Swedish and Chinese enterprises. As a conclusion, the study recommends that the future research should focus on CSR implementation of political influence.

  • 18168. Xiaohua, W.
    et al.
    Zhi, W.
    Zhao, Ming
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi.
    The relationship between developers and customers in agile methodology2008In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Computer Science and Information Technology, ICCSIT 2008, Singapore, 2008, p. 566-572Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Agile methods such as XP emphasize the adaptation to changes, the collaboration with customers and the role of individuals. The project manager, developer and customer should have a tactic to handle the uncertain factors and the management conflicts in software development process. XP ′ s on-site customer practice makes the customer play a important role in development process, and facilitate the broad collaboration between developer and customer. Based on the feature of XP project life cycle and practices, this paper explores respective activities and responsibilities between development team and customer team, and the issues in their collaboration. Some practices in which customer participates is addressed, the activities of both developer and customer are described, some probable problems when customer and programmer work together are presented, and a formal example is given. © 2008 IEEE.

  • 18169.
    Xie, Tian
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Multi-zone modeling of Thermal Comfort and Energy Consumption of a hospital ward: a summer case study2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Hospital is of interest when consider its especial function. Because of the obviously different between the normal residential buildings, the requirement of hospitals’ indoor climate strictly differs from other buildings.

    The author starts this report by briefly stating the building construction currently. Surrounded the topic of thermal comfort and energy consumption, many suggestion and options came out in this report to develop a better condition.

    Firstly, the introduction of the hospital buildings requires the background of the hospital object and the purpose to this report will be stated.

    Secondly, the simulation tool and how to use this tool simulate our real case are introduced.

    Then, the summer case is investigated by this tool after the model is proved to be validated.

    Finally, the improvement of establishing a better indoor environment is raised and the results of improvement and conclusion can be found. The final result will show the optimal solution that discovered by this study after compared different alternatives carefully.

  • 18170.
    Xie, ZhenYun
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    A Microstrip Antenna for Medical Application: Tissues Detection2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is going to design a microstrip antenna that can detect the different tissue, according to this clue, we suppose that it can be used in medical application, for example to detect the breast tumor. Our research and guess are based on the different electrical properties of the tissue.

    Follow the conductivity and permittivity of different tissue, a simple 3D breast structure is going to be modelled, and a tumor tissue will be defined too. Four types of antenna have been designed and simulated in HFSS.

    The antenna with best performance will be manufactured, which is the rectangular microstrip antenna with gap, it works under 2.45Ghz resonate frequency, and with dimension 37.26mm×28.83mm.

    Test S21 of antenna in Vector Network Analyser with different biological tissue, in order to make a simple prove that the antenna can detect the different tissue. The result shows when we use the different tissue’s size and quantity, the S21 changes. 

  • 18171.
    Xinlu, Yu
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Ming, Gong
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Left-behind Children in China: A qualitative study about the experience of left-behind children concerning their childhood2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of the thesis is to explore the negative life experience of left-behind children in a dynamic and integrated perspective taking left-behind children, their guardians, parents, school and other social communities into consideration. It explores the current situation of some left-behind children in China, and discusses the causes and negative effects on children‟s comprehensive development. A qualitative research method has been used because of the in-depth outcome accessible through face-to-face interview. Three left-behind children in different family compositions and one teacher were interviewed. The outcome of this study is discussed in multiple dimensions to explore consequences of left-behind children in China. The results suggest that parents’ migration can lead to more serious problems for the children than expected. The management of left-behind children requires concerted efforts from various social systems, not only parents, schools, children welfare center, and the whole nation, otherwise it would worsen deteriorated social issues.

  • 18172.
    Xintao, Liu
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Geoinformatik och Geodesi.
    Ban, Yifang
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Geoinformatik och Geodesi.
    Uncovering urban mobility patterns with massive floating car data2015In: Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, ISSN 0198-9715, E-ISSN 1873-7587Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban mobility patterns are crucial to understanding urban structures, with applications ranging from traffic forecasting to urban planning. This paper develops a bottom-up approach to assess urban mobility patterns in a quantitative manner based on over 14,200,000 GPS points obtained from 11,263 moving taxicabs in Wuhan, Hubei, China. These taxicabs are equipped with GPS devices and are continuously being driven; thus, the corresponding mobile data sets (i.e., floating car data) cover the entire urban open space and bear traffic characteristics. Consequently, such mobile data are unique and more suitable for urban mobility analysis. Instead of employing the commonly used trajectory methods, we divided the GPS points into moves and stops, focusing on the latter. We found that the time intervals for all of the stops demonstrate the scaling property; that is, the stops can be separated into far more short ones than long ones, which we believe to be typical of the traffic system. The long stops showed a cluster pattern in a self-organized way at different timelines. We extracted these spatiotemporal clusters in a natural way and found that their sizes bear a heavy-tailed distribution. We further analyzed their evolution in both time and space and then categorized them into hotspots and traffic jams, of which the distributions objectively and quantitatively suggest the dynamic and multiple nuclei of urban mobility patterns. This study also provides insights into research on mobile data from the perspective of a complex system.

  • 18173.
    Xintao, Liu
    et al.
    Department of Civil Engineering, Ryerson University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
    Ban, Yifang
    Division of Geoinformatics, Department of Urban Planning and Environment, Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Songnian, Li
    Department of Civil Engineering, Ryerson University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
    An across-country comparison of hierarchical spatial structures of cities2014In: Geomatica, ISSN 1195-1036, Vol. 68, no 3, p. 207-217Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the hierarchical structures of twenty-nine selected European countries from the perspectives of blocks and natural cities, and further makes an across-country comparison among them. Blocks are minimum cycles consisted of road segments in the road network of a whole country, and natural cities are defined as the aggregations of small blocks. We test the size distributions of blocks and natural cities at country level and find both exhibit heavy tailed distributions. Especially, the power law distribution of city sizes indicates the scaling property. Therefore, the cities in a country can be repeatedly grouped into a similar two-tier structure of head and tail via the head/tail division rule. The ascending tiers represent the small, middle, big and mega cities, respectively. Accordingly, a simple model is developed to evaluate and cross compare the degree of similarity and stability of the hierarchical structures of cities. Moreover, cities and blocks are the functional units of a country and the correlation coefficients between city sizes/number of blocks and the economic factors (i.e. GDP/population) are up to 0.87. We further conjecture that the compared results of hierarchies can serve as an indicator to assess that of country’s economic system.

  • 18174.
    Xinyu, Fang
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    Wenjie, Yang
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    Experience of family caregivers caring for person with dementia: – A descriptive literature review2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 18175.
    Xiong, Xin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment. University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för energi- och maskinteknik.
    Li, Shuang
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment.
    Energy Audit of a Building: Energy Audit and Saving Analysis2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The typical residential building is located at the crossing of S. Centralgatan Street and Nedre Akargatan Street in the city of Gavle. It is a quadrangle building of six floors with a yard in the middle. There are 180 apartments of five types in total, and at the first floor there is a kindergarten. There is a District Heating in the building and heating recovery system ventilation which use heat exchanger to reheat.

    Several solutions are used for reducing the heat loss. In the first step, the heat loss  and heat  in  has  been  calculated. There  are  several parameters  that involve the heat loss and heat in of whole building, so each parameter in the energy balance equation is extracted and calculated. And then the Energy Balance Sheet has been built. Among the heat loss part, the transmission is 1237MWh,  the  hot  tap  water  is  332MWh,  the  mechanical  ventilation  is 1041MWh, the natural ventilation is 325.7MWh.In the part of heat in, the DH is 1265.7MWh, the heat pump is 793MWh, the solar radiation is 562MWh, the internal heating is 315MWh.Later in the second step, after analyzing data of heat loss part, the improvements will be focused on the transmission and hot tap water parts because the heat loss in those two parts occupy the most. At the end of final step, the solutions have been discussed to optimize the heating system.

    As conclusion, there are several suggested solutions. The total reduction of heat loss after adjustment is 163MWh, accounts 5.6% of originally heat loss. The  heat  loss  of  the  building  has  been  reduced  from  2935.7MWh  to 2772.7MWh.

  • 18176.
    Xiuqun, Wang
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Sciences.
    Yuru, Yang
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Sciences.
    Persons’ experience before and after amputation: A descriptive review2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 18177.
    Xu, Hanbing
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Hou, Kailin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    A measurement system for static non-linearities2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Measuring static nonlinearities systems has been a hot topic in recent years. In this thesis, amplifier is a device as a static nonlinearities system. In most cases, amplifiers operate as a linear device under small signal conditions. However it becomes more nonlinear and distorting with increasing drive levels. It is applied in many fields, such as communication, mathematical, biology.

     

    This thesis is aiming to investigate the differences between linear and nonlinear modeling of circuits by modeling of a device and implementing a measurement system for electrical devices in MATLAB® as the tool. The approach to fulfill our aim is to find the coefficients of the model and getting the error between models and measured. In this thesis, the error is used to determine the goodness of fit in a specific model.

     

    Through working while following our project design, a comparison is made in the end between the modeling capabilities for two model structures: linear and polynomial, for two operation modes of an amplifier with lower and higher input power. 

  • 18178.
    Xu, Miaowen
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Guo, Xinlei
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Trust Building for Online Private Sellers: Case of Taobao in China2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim:The aim of our study is to analyzeelements of online trust building process from sellers’ standpoint based on case study of Chinese website: Taobao.

    Method:This study was conducted in qualitative method with 12 interviewees as online sellers from Taobao website. Data presentation involves tables and figures to help readers to understand trust building process and apply it in business.

    Result & Conclusions: Online trust building is dynamic and interactive. Three main elements of trust building are product, communication and 3rd party. Trust building process goes through three stages: knowledge-based trust, experience-based trust, and relationship-based trust.

    Suggestions for future research: Limitation of generality suggests further study in quantitative method. Since it is a single case study specific in China, comparison cross-culture or between websites is also suggested as future possibilitiesto test generalizability of this theoretic framework.

    Contribution & implication: This study provided atheoretic framework for online trust building process in real-world context. Management implication was suggested to focus on development of product, communication and 3rdparty service for sellers and website holder

  • 18179.
    Xu, Shuiai
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Automatic location of number plates at night time2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In transport information area, in order to improve control system, identifying vehicle plates is very important. For that reason we are focusing on recognizing the vehicle plate from an image. To distinguish one car from others, one should remove all area except the vehicle plate. Due to the extra difficulties, like limited light, distances, moving etc., it can be hard to detect the final vehicle plate. In this work, we have solved the location of vehicle plate at night time, by separating the objects from the background by using morphological processing and analyzing the characteristics of vehicle plates by using removal of noise and mathematical calculations. According to some characteristics of cars and vehicle plates we developed an algorithm to detect the number of final vehicle plate. This algorithm works fine, and the detected result is accurate.

  • 18180.
    Xu, Wenwen
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Supply Chain Financing: A Recipe to Ease SMEs' Financing2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 18181.
    XU, XIAODAN
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    YUAN, XIN
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Front-line employees make efforts on banks: an empirical case study in Chinese commercial banks2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In order to reduce the risks, banks has two ways to evaluate the loan exposure. One is credit rating, and the other one is pledge collaterals. Many literatures and financial regulations are emphasizing on the importance of credit rating. However, with the illustration of a plenty of empirical study, the pledging collaterals are the popular way which was using by “lazy” banks. Credit rating or pledging with collaterals is the gap between theories and practices. 

    The aim of this thesis is to figure the factors which make the gap between the theories and practices. At last, the front-line employees are paid attention on. Since front-line employees are the first and direct one who contact customers. Reliability and responsiveness has a space to develop by training first-line employees, moral hazard controlling, and sectoral specialization the credit inspection.

  • 18182.
    Xu, Zhengyan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Zhou, Yibing
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Specific Handwritten Chinese Character Recognition Based on Artificial Intelligence2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As internet techniques are developing more and more quickly, internet becomes the

    main way to communicate with the outside world. In this case, written information

    on paper needs to be converted to digital information urgently, increasing the need

    for handwritten character recognition. The aim of this work is to discuss methods

    that can be used to recognize handwritten Chinese characters. We study geometric

    features and clustering of handwritten Chinese characters from three aspects, which

    are handwritten character preprocessing, feature extraction and clustering. To test

    the correctness of our method, an application was built that could learn to recognize

    five medium-hard handwritten Chinese characters by using a neural network.

  • 18183.
    Xue, Fei
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    MOMENT BALANCE OF AN AXISYMMETRIC JET AND THE EFFECT OF AIR ENTRAINMENT FROM AMBIENT2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 18184.
    Xueli, Mei
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    Xuemei, Yang
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    The quality of life in persons with stoma after enterostomy: with stoma after enterostomy - A descriptive review2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 18185.
    Xueni, Zhang
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Sciences.
    Yeqing, Lu
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Sciences.
    Experiences of bereavement from suicide: - A descriptive review2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 18186.
    Xuwen, Lu
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    Zhaoyu, Xu
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    Nursing interventions for patients with COPD: A descriptive literature review2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 18187.
    Yah Yiyen, Evodia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Gbenga, Augusta
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Do Multinational Corporations incorporate employees’ culture into their Organisational Culture?: Case of Sandvik AB, Sandviken Sweden2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This study aims to investigate, if Multinational Corporations incorporate employees’ culture while forming their organisational culture and the impact of cultural integration on the organisation’s business activities. 

    Design/methodology/approach: This is an exploratory research in which qualitative data is used. Interviews were administered to 14 employees at Sandvik AB, Sandviken in Sweden. As for validity and reliability, the data for this work was collected from a real life case (Sandvik) and the interview responses were transcribed and analysed in relation to what other scholars consider together with the ideas of the authors. 

    Findings: This study shows that MNCs incorporate employees’ culture into their organisational culture. Factors of employees’ cultures are present in the organisational culture of Sandvik. Cultural integration as indicated by this study influences job performance, job satisfaction, and give a good image to the organization. It improves team members’ skills and creates aspiration among the employees. 

    Originality/value and contribution: This topic seems to be one of the few studies that investigate if MNCs incorporate employees’ culture into their organisational culture. It therefore fills the theoretical gap in this area of study. The study contributes to the few studies of integrating employees’ culture into an organisational culture and acts as a start-up guide to future studies. 

    Limitation: Only one MNC is used in this study. Ideally, another MNC would have been investigated, so as to know if the present results are recurrent with another case. The study is also limited to only the aspect that deals with the integration of employee’s culture into an organisational culture, and not cultural diversity in its totality. It is of interest for scholars in future studies to examine the topic under review relating to several organisations.

  • 18188.
    Yahaya, Ismael
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden, and London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK .
    Uthman, Olalekan A
    Warwick-Centre for Applied Health Research and Delivery (WCAHRD), Division of Health Sciences, Warwick Medical School, The University of Warwick, United Kingdom, and Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, International Health Group, Liverpool, Merseyside, UK .
    Soares, Joaquim
    Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden, and Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Macassa, Gloria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Public health science. Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden, and Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Social disorganization and history of child sexual abuse against girls in Sub-Saharan Africa: A multilevel analysis2013In: BMC International Health and Human Rights, ISSN 1472-698X, E-ISSN 1472-698X, Vol. 13, no 33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a considerable public health problem. Less focus has been paid to the role of community level factors associated with CSA. The aim of this study was to examine the association between neighbourhood-level measures of social disorganization and child sexual abuse CSA.

    Methods

    We applied multiple multilevel logistic regression analysis on Demographic and Health Survey data for 6,351 adolescents from six countries in sub-Saharan Africa between 2006 and 2008.

    Results

    The percentage of adolescents that had experienced CSA ranged from 1.04% to 5.84%. There was a significant variation in the odds of reporting CSA across the communities, suggesting 18% of the variation in CSA could be attributed to community level factors. Respondents currently employed were more likely to have reported CSA than those who were unemployed (odds ratio [OR] = 2.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.48 to 2.83). Respondents from communities with a high family disruption rate were 57% more likely to have reported CSA (OR=1.57, 95% CI 1.14 to 2.16).

    Conclusion

    We found that exposure to CSA was associated with high community level of family disruption, thus suggesting that neighbourhoods may indeed have significant important effects on exposure to CSA. Further studies are needed to explore pathways that connect the individual and neighbourhood levels, that is, means through which deleterious neighbourhood effects are transmitted to individuals.

  • 18189.
    Yahaya, Ismail
    et al.
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Midsweden University, Sweden, and Centre for Evidence-Based Global Health, Nigeria.
    Ponce de Leon, Antonio
    Division of Social Medicine, Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    A. Uthman, Olalekan
    Warwick - Centre for Applied Health Research and Delivery (WCAHRD), Division of Health Sciences, Warwick Medical School, The University of Warwick, Coven try, CV4 7AL, United Kingdom.
    Soares, Joaquim
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Midsweden University, Sweden, and Division of Social Medicine, Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Macassa, Gloria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Public health science. Department of Public Health Sciences, Midsweden University, Sweden, and Division of Social Medicine, Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Individual and community-level socioeconomic position and its association with adolescents experience of childhood sexual abuse: a multilevel analysis of sixcountries in Sub-Saharan Africa2013In: Journal of Injury and Violence Research, ISSN 2008-2053, E-ISSN 2008-4072, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 21-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is a substantial global health and human rights problem and consequently a growing concern in sub-Saharan Africa. We examined the association between individual and community-level socioeconomic status (SES) and the likelihood of reporting CSA.

    METHODS: We applied multiple multilevel logistic regression analysis on Demographic and Health Survey data for 6,351female adolescents between the ages of 15 and 18 years from six countries in sub-Saharan Africa, between 2006 and 2008.

    RESULTS: About 70% of the reported cases of CSA were between 14 and 17 years. Zambia had the highest proportion of reported cases of CSA (5.8%). At the individual and community level, we found that there was no association between CSA and socioeconomic position. This study provides evidence that the likelihood of reporting CSA cut across all individual SES as well as all community socioeconomic strata.

    CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence of socioeconomic differentials in adolescents’ experience of CSA, suggesting that adolescents from the six countries studied experienced CSA regardless of their individual- and community-level socioeconomic position. However, we found some evidence of geographical clustering, adolescents in the same community are subject to common contextual influences. Further studies are needed to explore possible effects of countries’ political, social, economic, legal, and cultural impact on Childhood sexual abuse.

  • 18190.
    Yahaya, Ismail
    et al.
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden; Centre for Evidence-Based Global Health, Nigeria.
    Ponce De Leon, Antonio
    Division of Social Medicine, Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Uthman, Olalekan A.
    Centre for Applied Health Research and Delivery (WCAHRD), Division of Health Sciences, Warwick Medical School, The University of Warwick, Coventry, UK.
    Soares, Joaquim J. F.
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden; Division of Social Medicine, Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Macassa, Gloria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Public health science. Department of Public Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden; Division of Social Medicine, Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Childhood sexual abuse among girls and determinants of sexual risk behaviours in adult life in sub-Saharan Africa2015In: Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, ISSN 1759-6599, E-ISSN 2042-8715, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 67-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between child sexual abuse and sexual risk behaviours as well as its potential mediators.

    Design/methodology/approach This cross-sectional study used data from a cross-sectional study from 12,800 women between 15 and 49 years of age included in the 2008 Nigerian Demographic and Health Survey. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was applied to assess the association between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and sexual risk behaviours.

    Findings The authors found that CSA was directly associated with sexual risk behaviours. In addition, the association between CSA and sexual risk behaviour was also partially mediated by alcohol and cigarette use.

    Research limitations/implications The results show that being abused in childhood is important for the subsequent development of sexual risk behaviours in adulthood and the association is mediated by alcohol and cigarette use.

    Practical implications The results may be helpful for policy makers and health care planners in designing cultural sensitive public health intervention that will reduce the burden of CSA, its long-term effects (sexual risk behaviours) and intervening mediators that increase the risks.

    Social implications These findings suggest that to reduce sexual risks, interventions to address sexual abuse needs to include other social problems (smoking, alcohol) that victims result to when faced with trauma.

    Originality/value The current study is the only one so far in sub-Saharan Africa to have explored the relation between CSA and sexual risk behaviours using SEM.

  • 18191.
    Yahaya, Ismail
    et al.
    Mid-Sweden University, Sweden.
    Soares, Joaquim
    Mid-Sweden University, Sweden.
    De Leon, Antonio Ponce
    Mid-Sweden University, Sweden.
    Macassa, Gloria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Public health science. Mid-Sweden University, Sweden.
    A comparative study of the socioeconomic factors associated with childhood sexual abuse in sub-Saharan Africa2012In: Pan African Medical Journal, ISSN 1937-8688, E-ISSN 1937-8688, Vol. 11, no 51, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is a problem of considerable proportion in Africa where up to one-third of adolescent girls report their first sexual experience as being forced. The impact of child hood sexual abuse resonates in all areas of health. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of childhood sexual abuse and variations across socioeconomic status in six sub-Saharan countries. Methods: Datasets from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) in six sub-Saharan African countries conducted between 2003 and 2007 were used to access the relationship between CSA and socio economic status using multiple logistic regression models. Results: There was no association between CSA and education, wealth and area of settlement. However, there was contrasting association between CSA and working status of women. Conclusion: This study concurs with other western studies which indicate that CSA transcends across all socio economic group. It is therefore important that effective preventive strategies are developed and implemented that will cross across all socio-economic groups. © Ismail Yahaya et al.

  • 18192.
    Yahyapour, Nima
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    The impact of culture and demographics on hiring decision: Telia Sonera and Telenor2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 18193.
    Yake, Chanelle
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Jäderholm, Linn
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Det goda åldrandet: En kvalitativ studie av seniorer i den tredje åldern2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att öka kunskapen och förståelsen för äldres sociala behov i den tredje åldern för de som besöker träffpunktsverksamheten. För att genomföra studien har en kvalitativ intervjumetod används med fyra seniorer samt två träffpunktsledare. Detta för att få bådas perspektiv på vad ett gott åldrande innebär, men fokus har legat på seniorerna. Studien utgick ifrån två teorier, den sociala nätverksteorin och aktivitetsteorin. Dessa två är huvudteorier. I förhållande till dessa har gerotranscendensteorin används då den motsäger vad de två ovannämnda teorierna pekar på. Studiens empiriska data har analyserats efter den hermeneutiska cirkeln. Resultatet av studien visade att ett aktivt liv är av stor vikt för seniorerna som besöker träffpunktsverksamheten. Studien visade även att träffpunktsledarnas engagemang och motivation bidrar till att seniorerna upplever att de har ett inflytande i träffpunktsverksamheten. Seniorerna menade att känslan av delaktighet bottnar i den goda relation som de har till träffpunktsledaren.

  • 18194.
    Yakob, Silvana
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Computer science.
    Utvecklingsprocess av en mobilapplikation anpassad för KOL patienter2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med arbetet var att utveckla en programvara (app) för patienter med kroniskt obstruktiv lungsjukdom (KOL) för att de skall kunna lära känna sin sjukdom bättre och därmed förbättra sin livsstil för att kunna bromsa försämringen av sjukdomen. Åldersgruppen som appen vänder sig till är mellan 40-80 år och för att de äldre skall ta till sig den nya tekniken med smartphones bör appen ha en enkel design. Den här gruppen patienter har kanske inte så stor teknikvana med datorer så det är också en anledning att ha en app som är lätt att använda.Utvecklingsprocessen av appen har gjorts i flera steg. Först formulerades en rad frågor om hur appen skulle fungera. Därefter formulerades frågor som patienten skulle svara på. Den första versionen av appen var en Powerpointdesign som därefter utvecklades i olika steg till en färdig Android app. Flera patienter fick testa appen under utvecklingens gång och även svara på ett frågeformulär om deras upplevelse av att använda appen. Patienterna gav förslag på ändringar och uttryckte behov av utveckling. Slutversionen av appen blev omtyckt av testgruppen och några förslag har även lämnats till vidare utveckling.

  • 18195.
    Yan, Min
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Li, Qiuyun
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Consumer behavior in coffee drinking: Comparison between Chinese and Swedish university students2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to analyze factors that affecting consumers to drink coffee, based on two case studies in University of Gävle in Sweden and Zhuhai College of Jilin University in China.The study was conducted with mixed research methods. A questionnaire survey was designed as a pre-study to get a general idea and the interviews were designed based on the result of survey in order to gain more detailed information and explanations from the respondents. All the data are shown by tables or diagrams or histograms. University students in two different culture participated in survey and interviews, a comparison perspective for cross culture was mentioned in this study. As for Result & Conclusions, both external factors (culture, price and people around) as well as internal factors (personality, psychological influence, learning and knowledge) impact the consumer‟s behaviors that are shown in different consumption characteristics. Take all in account, these factors could have an effect on university students to drink (or not drink) coffee in Jilin University and University of Gävle. And Contribution & implication, the comparison of coffee drink between Chinese culture and Swedish culture is the most attractive contributions, supplementing the related study. Price issue was considered as the important factor that affecting the consumer to choose coffee, thus suggesting the managers to focus on the coffee price. In addition, the effective way to explore coffee market in China or Sweden is to know better of the consumers. Suggestions for future research, other consumer groups are missing given the study only focus on the university students. Also tested with more sample sizes of survey andIIinterviews are recommended in the future research so as to make it even valid and reliable.

  • 18196.
    Yang, Angelica
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics.
    Sandström, Emelie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics.
    Björklin, Madeleine
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics.
    Etablering och utformning av en effektiv uthyrningsverksamhet av byggnadsmaskiner2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 18197.
    Yang, Bin
    et al.
    Department of Applied Physics and Electronics, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Melikov, A.K.
    International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Kabanshi, Alan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Zhang, C.
    Department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Bauman, F. S.
    Center for the Built Environment, University of California, Berkeley, CA, United States.
    Cao, G.
    Department of Energy and Process, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, KolbjørnHejesVei 1B, Trondheim, Norway.
    Awbi, H.
    School of Construction Management and Engineering, University of Reading, United Kingdom.
    Wigö, Hans
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Niu, J.
    School of Architecture, Design and Planning, The University of Sydney, Australia.
    Cheong, K. W. D.
    Department of Building, School of Design and Environment, National University of Singapore, Singapore.
    Tham, K. W.
    Department of Building, School of Design and Environment, National University of Singapore, Singapore.
    Sandberg, Mats
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Nielsen, P. V.
    Department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Kosonen, R.
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering, Aalto University, Espoo, Finland; College of Urban Construction, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing, China.
    Yao, R.
    School of Construction Management and Engineering, University of Reading, United Kingdom.
    Kato, S.
    Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Sekhar, S. C.
    Department of Building, School of Design and Environment, National University of Singapore, Singapore.
    Schiavon, Stefano
    Center for the Built Environment, University of California, Berkeley, CA, United States.
    Karimipanah, Taghi
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Li, X.
    Department of Building Science, School of Architecture, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    Lin, Z.
    Division of Building Science and Technology, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
    A review of advanced air distribution methods - theory, practice, limitations and solutions2019In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 202, article id 109359Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ventilation and air distribution methods are important for indoor thermal environments and air quality. Effective distribution of airflow for indoor built environments with the aim of simultaneously offsetting thermal and ventilation loads in an energy efficient manner has been the research focus in the past several decades. Based on airflow characteristics, ventilation methods can be categorized as fully mixed or non-uniform. Non-uniform methods can be further divided into piston, stratified and task zone ventilation. In this paper, the theory, performance, practical applications, limitations and solutions pertaining to ventilation and air distribution methods are critically reviewed. Since many ventilation methods are buoyancy driving that confines their use for heating mode, some methods suitable for heating are discussed. Furthermore, measuring and evaluating methods for ventilation and air distribution are also discussed to give a comprehensive framework of the review.

  • 18198.
    Yang, Bin
    et al.
    Department of Applied Physics and Electronics, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Department of Applied Physics and Electronics, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Department of Applied Physics and Electronics, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Kabanshi, Alan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Outdoor thermal comfort under subarctic climate of north Sweden – A pilot study in Umeå2017In: Sustainable cities and society, ISSN 2210-6707, Vol. 28, p. 387-397Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Outdoor microclimate is important to determine the quality of outdoor spaces. Swedish people cherish summer period and prefer more outdoor activities in summer because of long winter with harsh outdoor environments. People in urban areas use parks for recreation and outdoor activities frequently in summer. Under subarctic climate, limited studies have been performed to explore the effect of microclimate environments on usage of outdoor spaces such as parks. The study explored the relationship of microclimate environments, park use and human behavioral patterns in urban area of Umeå, Sweden, which is under subarctic climate. Observations of naturally occurring behavior were recorded. Structured interviews, based on specially designed questionnaires, were performed during July to August in 2015. Measurements of objective parameters for microclimate environments, including air dry bulb temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, solar radiation and globe temperature, were performed. Human subjective responses from the questionnaire survey were compared with objectively measured results. 49% of local persons still prefer higher solar radiation even under “slightly warm” Thermal Sensation Vote (TSV), which reflects their high expectation to solar radiation. Local persons in Umeå, who expose themselves to a wider climate, are more adapted to subarctic climate than non-local persons.

  • 18199.
    Yang, Canjun
    et al.
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China.
    Virk, Gurvinder SinghUniversity of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.Yang, HuayongZhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China.
    Wearable Sensors and Robots: Proceedings of International Conference on Wearable Sensors and Robots 20152017Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    These proceedings present the latest information on regulations and standards for medical and non-medical devices, including wearable robots for gait training and support, design of exoskeletons for the elderly, innovations in assistive robotics, and analysis of human–machine interactions taking into account ergonomic considerations. The rapid development of key mechatronics technologies in recent years has shown that human living standards have significantly improved, and the International Conference on Wearable Sensor and Robot was held in Hangzhou, China from October 16 to 18, 2015, to present research mainly focused on personal-care robots and medical devices. The aim of the conference was to bring together academics, researchers, engineers and students from across the world to discuss state-of-the-art technologies related to various aspects of wearable sensors and robots.  

  • 18200.
    yang, chun
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment. University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi.
    xue, le
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment. University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi.
    An Exploratory Study of Customer Satisfaction Based on ACSI Model: an application to the No.2 bus service in Gävle of Sweden2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis used ACSI model as a theoretical basis, which is a cause-and-effect model, to measure the quality of goods or service that starts from “customer expectations” to “customer satisfaction”. The purpose of this thesis is to find a suitable model for developing the customer satisfaction of No.2 bus service, by examining the relationships between perceived quality, customer expectation, perceived value and customer satisfaction in ACSI model. According to the data from survey of the international students in Gävle University, who lives in Sätra of Gävle of Sweden, this thesis used the partial least squares (PLS) regression to estimates the ASCI model. As a result, the coefficients of each variable and R-square statistics indicate that the relationships between PQ, CE, CS and PV are very weak; PV should be ignored in the case. Therefore, the ACSI model in this case had been revised, and the conclusion can be drawn: the ACSI model was unsuitable for No.2 bus case, furthermore, this study presents a new model for No.2, which is “customer expectation—perceived quality—customer satisfaction”. Consequently, the X-traffic Company should know the customers expectation and provide the service which can meet customer needs. By expanding previous research and based on ACSI model, the study empirically examines the relationships between three customer satisfaction dimensions.

     

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