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  • 1851.
    Björklund, Martin
    et al.
    Centre for Musculoskeletal Research, National Institute for Working Life, Umeå Sweden.
    Crenshaw, Albert G.
    Centre for Musculoskeletal Research, National Institute for Working Life, Umeå Sweden.
    Djupsjöbacka, Mats
    Centre for Musculoskeletal Research, National Institute for Working Life, Umeå Sweden.
    Johansson, Håkan
    Centre for Musculoskeletal Research, National Institute for Working Life, Umeå Sweden.
    Repetitive low-back-level arm activity to fatigue diminishes limb position sense1999Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Position sense awareness of the shoulder was determined for 9 males and 9 females before and after performing repetitive low-level arm activity to fatigue. The activity consisted of continuous horizontal internal and external rotations. Position sense awareness tests were performed with subjects blindfolded and seated with the arm in a motorized rig. The subjects were asked to actively reproduce test positions of 10°, 25°, 55° and 70° randomly assigned, while starting at 40° (relative to the sagittal plane). The tests were conducted immediately before and after the fatiguing activity. An ANOVA revealed that the absolute error, measured as test position minus reproduced position, was significantly increased following fatigue for the subjects as a group (p<0.001 ). Furthermore, females had overall higher error than males (p<0.05). The results indicate that repetitive low-level activity to fatigue leads to proprioceptive deficits. These deficits can create a non-optimized motor control, causing an increase in the co-activation of agonist and antagonist muscles and thus increasing the work-load. This could create an unfavorable cycle of events, which would further impact proprioception and thereby enhance the risks for muscle pain and injury. The higher incidence of injuries for female athletes compared to males may be attributed to gender differences in proprioception.

  • 1852.
    Björklund, Martin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Djupsjöbacka, Mats
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Crenshaw, Albert G
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Acute muscle stretching and shoulder position sense2006In: Journal of athletic training, ISSN 1062-6050, E-ISSN 1938-162X, Vol. 41, no 3, p. 270-274Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Stretching is common within sports as a potential maneuver for injury prevention. Stretching induced changes in muscle spindIe properties is a suggested mechanism. This may imply a reduction in proprioception following stretching, however, little is known of this association. Our finding showing no effect of acute stretching on shoulder position sense provides insight into this issue.

    Objectives: To evaluate if acute stretching of the shoulder muscles affects position sense.

    Design: A crossover design with subjects randomized to 3 groups, as regarded by the I sequence of 3 interventions.

    Setting: A university human research laboratory.

    Patients or Other participants: Nine female (age, 21 +2) and 9 male (24 + 3) healthy volunteers.

    lntervention(s): The interventions consisted of stretching of shoulder 1) agonists, 2) antagonists, and 3) non-stretching control.

    Main Outcome Measure(s): Position sense acuity of the right shoulder was determined before and arter the interventions by subjects at tempting to reproduce arm positions of 15° and 30° (shoulder adduction) while starting at 45° to the sagittal plane. The outcome variables were the response variability (variable error, VE) and overall accuracy (absolute error, AE).

    Results: A multivariate repeated measures analysis ofvariance revealed that the relative change in VE (i.e., VE after/VE before) was not significantly different between the interventions (p = 0.38). Similarly no change in AE was found (p = 0.76). Furthermore, there were no differences regarding test sequence or in the interaction 'intervention x sequence' for either VE (p = 0.73 and 0.53, respectively) or for AE (p = 0.71 and 0.67, respectively)

    Conclusions: The present study showed no effect on shoulder position sense after an acute bout of stretching either agonist or antagonist shoulder muscles.

  • 1853.
    Björklund, Martin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF.
    Djupsjöbacka, Mats
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF.
    Svedmark, Åsa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF.
    Häger, Charlotte
    Inst samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, sjukgymnastik, Umeå univeristet.
    Effects of tailored neck-shoulder pain treatment based on a decision model guided by clinical assessments and standardized functional tests. A study protocol of a randomized controlled trial2012In: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, ISSN 1471-2474, E-ISSN 1471-2474, Vol. 13, no 75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    A major problem with rehabilitation interventions for neck pain is that the condition may have multiple causes, thus a single treatment approach is seldom efficient. The present study protocol outlines a single blinded randomised controlled trial evaluating the effect of tailored treatment for neck-shoulder pain. The treatment is based on a decision model guided by standardized clinical assessment and functional tests with cut-off values. Our main hypothesis is that the tailored treatment has better short, intermediate and long-term effects than either non-tailored treatment or treatment-as-usual (TAU) on pain and function. We sub-sequentially hypothesize that tailored and non-tailored treatment both have better effect than TAU.

    Methods

    120 working women with minimum six weeks of nonspecific neck-shoulder pain aged 20-65, are allocated by minimisation with the factors age, duration of pain, pain intensity and disability in to the groups tailored treatment (T), non-tailored treatment (NT) or treatment-as-usual (TAU). Treatment is given to the groups T and NT for 11 weeks (27 sessions evenly distributed). An extensive presentation of the tests and treatment decision model is provided. The main treatment components are manual therapy, cranio-cervical flexion exercise and strength training, EMG-biofeedback training, treatment for cervicogenic headache, neck motor control training. A decision algorithm based on the baseline assessment determines the treatment components given to the each participant of T- and NT-groups. Primary outcome measures are physical functioning (Neck Disability Index) and average pain intensity last week (Numeric Rating Scale). Secondary outcomes are general improvement (Patient Global Impression of Change scale), symptoms (Profile Fitness Mapping neck questionnaire), capacity to work in the last 6 weeks (quality and quantity) and pressure pain threshold of m. trapezius. Primary and secondary outcomes will be reported for each group with effect size and its precision.

    Discussion

    We have chosen not to include women with psychological ill-health and focus on biomedical aspects of neck pain. Future studies should aim at including psychosocial aspects in a widened treatment decision model. No important adverse events or side-effects are expected. Trial registration: Current Controlled Trials registration ISRCTN49348025. Key words: Neck, trapezius, myalgia, neck-shoulder pain, RCT, individualized treatment, rehabilitation, physiotherapy, tailored

  • 1854.
    Björklund, Martin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Dept. of Community Med. and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå Univ., Umeå, Sweden.
    Djupsjöbacka, Mats
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Svedmark, Åsa
    Dept. of Community Med. and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå Univ., Umeå, Sweden.
    Häger, Charlotte
    Dept. of Community Med. and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå Univ., Umeå, Sweden.
    Effects of tailored versus non-tailored treatment on pain and pressure pain threshold in women with nonspecific neck pain: a randomized controlled trial2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim of the investigation: The evidence for physiotherapy treatments of nonspecific neck pain is modest despite a large increase of intervention studies the last decade. One reason could be different underlying causes for pain in individuals with nonspecific neck pain, and that identification of sub-groups or individual needs is seldom accounted for in studies. In the absence of causal treatment options, a tailored treatment approach based on an explicit clinical decision model guided by assessment of function, clinical signs and symptoms, should be considered. Our aim was to evaluate tailored treatment based on such a decision model, targeting women with nonspecific neck pain. Our main hypothesis was that the tailored treatment (T) would have better short, intermediate and long-term effects on pain intensity and pressure pain threshold for the trapezius muscles than either non-tailored treatment (NT) (same treatment components but applied quasi-randomly) or treatment-as-usual (TAU) (no treatment from the study, no restrictions). We further hypothesized that T or NT has better effect than TAU. For details, cf. Current Controlled Trials registration ISRCTN49348025 and published study protocol.

    Methods: 120 working women with minimum six weeks duration of neck pain were randomized to the T, NT or TAU groups. All participants had more than “no disability” but less than “complete disability” according to the Neck Disability Index, and reported impaired capacity on the quality or quantity to work the preceding month. Main exclusion criteria were trauma-related neck pain, specific diagnoses and generalized pain or concomitant low back pain. The decision model for tailored treatment was based on tests and symptoms with defined cut-off levels comprising the following main categories: reduced cervical mobility, impaired neck-shoulder strength and motor control, trapezius myalgia, cervicogenic headache and impaired eye-head-neck control (cf. published study protocol). Assessment was performed one week before and after the 11-weeks intervention, with follow-ups 6-months (intermediate-term) and 12-months (long-term) after the intervention. Outcome variables were pain intensity (Numeric Rating Scale, NRS, 0 – 10) and pressure pain threshold (PPT) of the upper trapezius muscles (kPa). PPT was not measured at long-term follow-up.  Preliminary statistical analyses for the predefined hypotheses were performed with analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) with baseline outcome values as covariates. This was supplemented with pairwise Bonferroni-compensated comparisons in case of significance of factor group.

    Results: 86% of the participants completed the intervention, and the attrition was similar across groups. Preliminary results for the short term evaluation showed a reduction in NRS from an average of 4.4 and 4.5 to 2.5 in the T and NT groups, respectively, which was significantly greater compared to the TAU group (p=0.024 and p=0.014 for T and NT). For the PPT, there was no difference between T and NT groups at the short term evaluation, but close to a significantly increased threshold for the T compared to the TAU group (p=0,058). No differences were found between treatment groups on the intermediate and long-term evaluations for neither of the two outcome variables.

    Conclusions: The results indicate that tailored treatment for women with nonspecific neck pain may not be more effective, with respect to pain reduction, compared to non-tailored treatment. The hypothesis of superiority of tailored or non-tailored treatment over treatment-as-usual was partly supported for the short-term evaluation. However, the short-term results should be interpreted with caution since the impact of higher attention given to the participants in T and NT groups is not known. Reference:1. Björklund M, Djupsjöbacka M, Svedmark Å, Häger C. (2012) Effects of tailored neck-shoulder pain treatment based on a decision model guided by clinical assessments and standardized functional tests. A study protocol of a randomized controlled trial. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders. May 20;13(1):75

  • 1855.
    Björklund, Martin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Djupsjöbacka, Mats
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Wijk, Katarina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Sundelin, Gunnevi
    Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering.
    Gellerstedt, Sten
    LO.
    Minska värken: Åtgärder mot värk i nacke och rygg2010Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna skrift vänder sig till dig som har ständig värk i rygg eller nacke, eller som vid flera tillfällen haft en diffus smärta i rygg eller nacke. Här kan du läsa om vilka åtgärder forskare rekommenderar och vad du själv kan göra för att minska värken. Forskningen om vilka åtgärder som hjälper har gjort framsteg och även för dig som haft långvarig värk finns det goda möjligheter att minska smärtan.

  • 1856.
    Björklund, Martin
    et al.
    Centre for Musculoskeletal Research, National Institute for Working Life, Umeå Sweden.
    Hamberg, Jern
    Stiftelsen Alfta Kurhem, Alfta Rehab Center, Alfta, Sweden.
    Crenshaw, Albert G.
    Centre for Musculoskeletal Research, National Institute for Working Life, Umeå Sweden.
    Sensory adaptation after a 2-week stretching regimen of the rectus femoris muscle2001In: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0003-9993, E-ISSN 1532-821X, Vol. 82, no 9, p. 1245-1250Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of a muscle stretching regimen for the rectus femoris muscle on subjective stretch sensation and range of motion (ROM). DESIGN: A 2 x 2 crossover design comprising 2 treatments and 2 intervention periods.

    SETTING: A military base in Sweden.

    PARTICIPANTS: A volunteer sample of 29 male military conscripts divided into 2 groups, with each group subjected to both experimental and control treatments at different time periods.

    INTERVENTION: Two weeks of supervised stretching (4 times/wk) of the rectus femoris muscle (experimental treatment) and the calf muscles (control treatment).

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Subjective rating of the stretch sensation for the anterior aspect of the thigh determined on a category ratio scale. Passive knee flexion ROM determined on each test with the same applied torque, specific for each subject.

    RESULTS: An additive analysis of variance revealed that the stretch sensation after the experimental treatment was decreased, compared with the control treatment (p <.01). The knee flexion, however, remained the same regardless of the treatment.

    CONCLUSION: Sensory adaptation seems to be an important mechanistic factor in the effect stretching has on ROM changes. The lack of change in knee flexion suggests that the stretching, as performed in this study, did not influence stiffness of the rectus femoris muscle. Sensory adaptation may also be an underlying mechanism in the alleviating effect of stretching when applied to tired, tender, and painful muscles.

  • 1857.
    Björklund, Martin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Alfta Research Foundation, Alfta, Sweden.
    Hamberg, Jern
    Alfta Research Foundation, Alfta, Sweden.
    Heiden, Marina
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Barnekow-Bergkvist, Margareta
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    The assessment of symptoms and functional limitations in low back pain patients: validity and reliability of a new questionnaire2007In: European spine journal, ISSN 0940-6719, E-ISSN 1432-0932, Vol. 16, no 11, p. 1799-1811Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many of the existing low back pain (LBP) questionnaires of function and symptoms have a content of different domains of disability presented as a single sum score, making it difficult to derive changes within a specific domain. The present study describes the development of a clinically derived back-specific questionnaire incorporating both a functional limitation and a symptom scale, with a further subdivision of the symptom scale in separate indices for severity and temporal aspects. The aims of the study were to assess the overall reliability and validity of the new questionnaire, named the Profile Fitness Mapping questionnaire (PFM). A total of 193 chronic LBP patients answered the PFM together with five validated criterion questionnaires. For the internal consistency of the questionnaires, the three indices of the PFM had the highest Cronbach's alpha (0.90-0.95) and all items had item-total correlations above 0.2. The correlation coefficients between the PFM and the back-specific criterion questionnaires ranged between 0.61 and 0.83, indicating good concurrent criterion validity. The best discriminative ability between patients with different pain severities was demonstrated by the functional limitation scale of the PFM. Well centered score distribution with no patient's score at the floor or the ceiling level indicates that the PFM has the potential to detect the improvement or worsening of symptoms and functional limitations in chronic LBP patients. Classification according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and health (ICF) of WHO revealed a high degree of homogeneous item content of the symptom scale to the domain of impairments, and of the functional limitation scale to the domain of activity limitations. The present study suggests that the PFM has a high internal consistency and is a valid indicator of symptoms and functional limitations of LBP patients. It offers the combination of a composite total score and the possibility of evaluations within specific domains of disability. Complementary evaluation of test-retest reliability and responsiveness to change is warranted.

  • 1858.
    Björklund, Martin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Hamberg, Jern
    Alfta Research Foundation, Sweden.
    Heiden, Marina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Barnekow-Bergkvist, Margareta
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    The profile fitness mapping questionnaire for the neck. Reliability and validity of a new questionnaire for symptoms and functional limitations in subjects with neck pain. (Poster)2010In: Proceedings of the Premus 2010 conference, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1859.
    Björklund, Martin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Hamberg, Jern
    Alfta Research Foundation, Alfta, Sweden.
    Heiden, Marina
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Barnekow-Bergkvist, Margareta
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    The profile fitness mapping scales, validity of a new back-specific questionnaire2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Disability questionnaires for LBP-patients mostlyemanate from health professionals and have a content of differentdomains of disability presented as a single sum score, makingit difficult to derive changes within a specific domain. Thisstudy introduces a new back-specific questionnaire, the ProfileFitness Mapping questionnaire (PFM), which was based on patient’sself-reported characteristics of the LBP. The PFM incorporatesboth a functional limitation and a symptom scale, with furthersubdivision of the symptom scale in separate indices for severityand temporal aspects. The aim of the study was to assess theoverall validity of the PFM.

    Methods and Results: Chronic LBP-patients (n=193) answered thePFM and four validated back-specific criterion questionnaires.The correlation coefficients between the PFM and the criterionquestionnaires showed good concurrent criterion validity (0.61– 0.83). The best discriminative ability between patientswith different pain severity was demonstrated by the functionallimitation scale of the PFM. Classification according to theICF revealed a high degree of homogeneous item content of thesymptom scale to the domain of impairments, and of the functionallimitation scale to the domain of activity limitations. Wellcentered score distribution indicates that the PFM has the potentialto detect improvement or worsening of symptoms and functionallimitations in chronic LBP-patients.

    Conclusion: The results of the study signify that the PFM isa valid indicator of symptoms and functional limitations ofLBP-patients. It provides the combination of a composite totalscore and the possibility of evaluations within specific domainsof disability.

  • 1860.
    Björklund, Martin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Hamberg, Jern
    Heiden, Marina
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Barnekow-Bergkvist, Margareta
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    The profile fitness mapping scales, validity of a new back-specific questionnaire2007In: The 2007 Society for Back Pain Research Meeting, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Disability questionnaires for LBP-patients mostly emanate from health professionals and have a content of different domains of disability presented as a single sum score, making it difficult to derive changes within a specific domain. This study introduces a new back-specific questionnaire, the Profile Fitness Mapping questionnaire (PFM), which was based on patient’s self-reported characteristics of the LBP. The PFM incorporates both a functional limitation and a symptom scale, with further subdivision of the symptom scale in separate indices for severity and temporal aspects. The aim of the study was to assess the overall validity of the PFM.

    METHODS AND RESULTS: Chronic LBP-patients (n=193) answered the PFM and four validated back-specific criterion questionnaires. The correlation coefficients between the PFM and the criterion questionnaires showed good concurrent criterion validity (0.61 – 0.83). The best discriminative ability between patients with different pain severity was demonstrated by the functional limitation scale of the PFM. Classification according to the ICF revealed a high degree of homogeneous item content of the symptom scale to the domain of impairments, and of the functional limitation scale to the domain of activity limitations. Well centered score distribution indicates that the PFM has the potential to detect improvement or worsening of symptoms and functional limitations in chronic LBP-patients.

    CONCLUSION: The results of the study signify that the PFM is a valid indicator of symptoms and functional limitations of LBP-patients. It provides the combination of a composite total score and the possibility of evaluations within specific domains of disability.

  • 1861.
    Björklund, Martin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Hamberg, Jern
    Alfta Research Foundation.
    Heiden, Marina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Barnekow-Bergkvist, Margareta
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    The ProFitMap-neck: reliability and validity of a questionnaire for measuring symptoms and functional limitations in neck pain2012In: Disability and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0963-8288, E-ISSN 1464-5165, Vol. 34, no 13, p. 1096-1107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To assess overall reliability and validity of a neck-specific questionnaire, the Profile Fitness Mapping neck questionnaire (ProFitMap-neck), on three chronic neck pain groups. Method: Participating groups were as follows: whiplash associated disorders, inpatient care (IP-WAD, n = 127); nonspecific neck pain, inpatient care (IP-NS, n = 83) and nonspecific neck pain subjects (non-IP-NS, n  = 104). All groups answered the ProFitMap-neck and the SF-36, whereas non-IP-NS also answered the Neck Disability Index (NDI) and the Functional Self-Efficacy Scale (SES). Internal consistency, test–retest reliability and components of convergent construct, face and content validity were determined for the ProFitMap-neck. Results: The ProFitMap-neck showed good internal consistency in all three groups, and ICC test–retest reliability (0.80–0.91). Good correlation (0.66–0.78) and highest agreement was reached with NDI. According to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, the symptom scale of the ProFitMap-neck was mainly classified to the domain of impairments–body functions, and the functional limitation scale to the activity limitation domain. Conclusion: The results indicate that the ProFitMap-neck is valid for measuring symptoms and functional limitations in people with chronic neck pain. The combination of a composite total score of symptoms and function as well as separate scores of each domain makes ProFitMap-neck suitable for research as well as in clinical practice.

    Implications for Rehabilitation

    • The ProFitMap-neck can be used as a valid self-assessment tool for measuring symptoms and functional limitations in people belonging to the most prevalent categories of neck pain.

    • The combination of the symptom and functional limitation questionnaire scores in a total score can be used for an overall clinical judgment.

  • 1862.
    Björklund, Martin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Radovanovic, Sasa
    Ljubisavljevic, Milos
    Windhorst, Uve
    Johansson, Håkan
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Effects of combined mechanical and nociceptive stimuli on nociceptive-responsive dorsal horn neurons of cat spinal cord2000Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of large ramp and hold stretch of the gastrocnemius muscles were studied on dorsal horn nociceptive-responsive neurons (DHN) in decerebrated cats. The stretch consisted of 3 subsequent plateaus, ending with a release phase from a near maximal physiological length of the muscle. This was done in order to mimic the "therapeutical stretches" used in clinical settings to alleviate muscle tenderness and stiffness. Stretch was applied before and after i.a. injection of bradykinin (50 microg.) into the gastrocnemius muscles. Changes in DHN activity were extracellularly recorded with high impedance glass microelectrodes. Only neurons up to approximately 1 mm were recorded. Neurons were identified as nociceptive on the basis of their response to an identification procedure applied on beforehand. Responsiveness of the DHN to stretch was variable. If responsive, a typical behavior was an increased firing rate during the ramp phases, followed by a gradual decrease during the hold phases and a reduction in firing rate or a complete silence during and after the release phase, usually lasting up to 50 s. Bradykinin injections induced either excitation or inhibition of DHN.. Stretch applied directly after the bradykinin injection in most cases elicited changes in the bradykinin-induced response of the DHN, changing both response profile as well as its strength. Results indicate that nociceptive-responding DHN could be influenced by innocuous ramp and hold stretch both in conjunction with and without chemically induced activation. The behavior of the DHN to stretch in the presence of the painful stimuli may be one of the possible mechanisms that could explain the short term relieving effects of muscle stretching when applied on stiff and tender muscles.

  • 1863.
    Björklund, Martin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Belastningsskadecentrum.
    Radovanovic, Sasa
    University of Gävle, Belastningsskadecentrum.
    Ljubisavljevic, Milos
    University of Gävle, Belastningsskadecentrum.
    Windhorst, Uwe
    University of Gävle, Belastningsskadecentrum.
    Johansson, Håkan
    University of Gävle, Belastningsskadecentrum.
    Muscle stretch-induced modulation of noxiously activated dorsal horn neurons of feline spinal cord.2004In: Neuroscience research, ISSN 0168-0102, E-ISSN 1872-8111, Vol. 48, no 2, p. 175-184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present work was designed to check for the possibility of interactions between mechanical innocuous and chemically induced noxious muscle afferent inputs on discharge behavior of nociceptive superficial dorsal horn neurons (SDHNs) of the spinal cord in decerebrated cats. The innocuous and noxious stimuli were applied separately and in combination, so that the effects of the innocuous stimulus on nociceptive processing could be evaluated. The innocuous stimulus consisted of ramp-and-hold stretches of the gastrocnemius muscles, whereas the noxious stimulus consisted of i.a. injections of bradykinin (BK; 0.5-1 ml, 50 microg/ml) into the arterial circulation of same muscles. Only neurons up to approximately 1mm depth and those that responded to noxious pinch of the gastrocnemius muscles were selected for further analysis. The activity of 16 dorsal horn neurons was recorded extracellularly with high-impedance glass microelectrodes, out of which seven responded to stretch, while 12 neurons responded to bradykinin injections. The bradykinin injections induced three types of responses: excitatory, inhibitory and mixed. The majority of the neurons that showed excitatory and mixed responses to bradykinin were also influenced by stretches applied directly after the bradykinin injection. In these neurons, the stretch usually counteracted the bradykinin-induced response, i.e. shortening and reducing bradykinin-induced excitation and re-exciting the cells after bradykinin-induced inhibition. The mechanism of the stretch modulation is proposed to reside in a segmental spinal control of the nociceptive transmission.

  • 1864.
    Björklund, Martin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Umea University, Dept of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation; Physiotherapy, Umeå, Sweden,.
    Tronarp, Rebecca
    Umea University, Dept of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation; Physiotherapy, Umeå, Sweden.
    Granås, Marie
    Umea University, Dept of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation; Physiotherapy, Umeå, Sweden.
    Dahlgren, Gunilla
    Umea University, Dept of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation; Physiotherapy, Umeå, Sweden.
    McDonough, Suzanne
    University of Ulster, UK.
    Nyberg, André
    Umea University, Dept of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation; Physiotherapy, Umeå, Sweden.
    Häger, Charlotte
    Umea University, Dept of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation; Physiotherapy, Umeå, Sweden.
    Office-cycling while working: An innovative concept to prevent and reduce musculoskeletal pain in office workers - a controlled feasibility study2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: According to the World Health Organization, WHO, a sedentary lifestyle is the single largest health risk for a number of diseases including musculoskeletal disorders and metabolic diseases. The negative health effects of excessive sitting are not compensated for by shorter bouts of increased physical activity. However, evidence shows that increased physical activity reduces musculoskeletal pain, which is very prevalent in those who are inactive. About 50-70 % of those who work at a computer report musculoskeletal pain and spend on average about 5 hours/day with very low energy metabolism. Work places are therefore an important arena for prevention and intervention by means of reducing sedentary time and increasing physical activity both for general health benefits and effects on the musculoskeletal pain.

    Purpose: To test the feasibility of office-cycling in an office work place and explore its potential effects on musculoskeletal pain in office workers.

    Methods: Twenty office workers (ages 27-61, 5 males) with musculoskeletal pain participated in this three-week controlled pilot field study. The intervention group (n=10), had access to an innovative customized cycle ergometer (OfficeBiking®) at their regular office workstation whilst performing their usual work tasks. Offie-cycling was an alternative to sitting/standing by their height adjustable office desk; they were instructed to bike as often as comfortable. The control group (n=10) was instructed to continue to work as usual. The experiences of office-cycling and how it influenced work performance was studied with a questionnaire. Musculoskeletal pain was evaluated using pain drawings and pain ratings and participants' total pain was calculated by adding each individuals' self-reported pain from their three most painful areas (NRS 0-10).

    Results: Importantly, office-cycling did not reduce self-reported work performance; the majority (9/10) would like daily access; and made suggestions to improve the user-friendliness of the bike. Office-cycling was used regularly (median, 11/15 workdays; median active time 59 min/day IQR 39;91). There was no observed difference regarding either number of self-reported areas of pain (NSAP) or general musculoskeletal pain (GMP) between the intervention group and the control group at baseline. Self-reported GMP decreased in 8 persons in the intervention group which was one more than in the control group (n=7). NSAP decreased in the intervention group (n=7; md -1,0 IQR -2,3;0,0); and the control group (n=5; md -0,5 IQR -1,3;0,3). The difference in total pain (intervention end-baseline) revealed a clinically important change in the intervention group (NRS -2,5, IQR -8,8;4,0) but not in the control group (NRS 0,0 IQR -6,2;2,5).

    Conclusions: The results suggest that office-cycling is a feasible method for use in work place interventions with some promising results. Future research suggestions are: underlying mechanisms regarding effects of physical activity on pain in parallel with controlled studies in laboratory environments to investigate dose-effects for metabolic expenditure and optimal pain reduction whilst office-cycling.

    Implications: The results in this feasibility study indicate a promising potential of the innovative office-cycling concept to prevent and reduce musculoskeletal pain in sedentary office workers.

  • 1865.
    Björklund, Martin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umea University, Umeå Sweden.
    Wiitavaara, Birgitta
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Heiden, Marina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Responsiveness and minimal important change for the ProFitMap-neck questionnaire and the Neck Disability Index in women with neck-shoulder pain2017In: Quality of Life Research, ISSN 0962-9343, E-ISSN 1573-2649, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 161-170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The aim was to determine the responsiveness and minimal important change (MIC) of the questionnaire ProFitMap-neck that measures symptoms and functional limitations in people with neck pain. The same measurement properties were determined for Neck Disability Index (NDI) for comparison purposes.

    Methods

    Longitudinal data were derived from two randomized controlled trials, including 103 and 120 women with non-specific neck pain, with questionnaire measurements performed before and after interventions. Sensitivity and specificity to discriminate between improved and non-improved participants, based on categorization of a global rating of change scale (GRCS), were determined for the ProFitMap-neck indices and NDI by using area under receiver operator curves (AUC). Correlations between the GRCS anchor and change scores of the questionnaires were also used to assess responsiveness. The change score that showed the highest combination of sensitivity and specificity was set for MIC.

    Results

    The ProFitMap-neck indices showed similar responsiveness as NDI with AUC exceeding 0.70 (Range: ProFitMap-neck, 0.74 – 0.83; NDI, 0.75 – 0.86). The MIC in the two samples ranged between 6.6 – 13.6% for ProFitMap-neck indices and 5.2 and 6.3% for NDI. Both questionnaires had significant correlations with GRCS (Spearman’s rho 0.47 – 0.72).

    Conclusions

    Validity of change scores was demonstrated for the ProFitMap-neck indices with adequate ability to discriminate between improved and non-improved participants. Values of minimal important change were presented.

  • 1866.
    Björklund, Matilda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Public health science.
    Är användningen av Instagram ett nytt självskadebeteende?: En tvärsnittsstudie om Instagram-användares reflektioner.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Björklund, M. (2017). Is the use of Instagram a new self-harm behaviour? A cross-sectional study of Instagram users’ reflections. Bachelor thesis in Public Health Science. Department of Occupational and Public Health Science. Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies. University of Gävle, Sweden.

     

    The aim of the study was to investigate the use of Instagram among Swedish internet users. A further aim was to investigate whether there was an association between the increased use of Instagram and mental health.

    The method used was a cross-sectional study with questionnaires. Both quantitative and qualitative questions were included in the survey, which were presented as descriptive statistics as well as thematic analysis with quotes. The selection was a convenience selection and snowball selection, where the surveys were disseminated via the author Facebook.

    The result showed that the majority used Instagram several times a day and many of them were found to be in the risk group of mental illness. Many users found that the images exposed in Instagram contributed to comparisons between themselves and the photos resulting in body dissatisfaction.

    The conclusion was that the use of Instagram several times a day was associated with a decreased level of well-being. The majority of the Instagram users compared themselves with other people and more thought of their appearance, when they were exposed to the images in Instagram.

  • 1867.
    Björklund, Niklas
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för datavetenskap.
    Acting in animation2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It is important to remember actors and animators are similar in many respects, but also very different in some. They both frame and provide life to a character, through thoughts and feelings. To obtain a better understanding of how professional animators work and what methods they use, this thesis contains general background information on animation and the Principles in Animation, as well as the analysis of acting and the different acting concepts. By studying these methods and utilizing them in my own work, a short animation was developed to visualize a characters personality through his actions. The result was then applied to a questionnaire to determine if the audience could pick out the characters personality only through the animation without dialog, music, or sound. According to the interviewed audience, they could feel some of the characters emotions and pick out some of the inner thoughts and feelings from the animation.

  • 1868.
    Björklund, Ove
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Åbo Akademi University, Vaasa, Finland.
    Häggström, Elisabeth
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Åbo Akademi University, Vaasa, Finland.
    Nyström, Lisbet
    Åbo Akademi University, Vaasa, Finland.
    Young Finnish Unemployed Men's Experiences of Having Participated in a Specific Active Labor Market Program2017In: American Journal of Men's Health, ISSN 1557-9883, E-ISSN 1557-9891, Vol. 11, no 5, p. 1426-1435Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present study was to describe young Finnish unemployed men's experiences of having participated in a specific active labor market program, intended to fight unemployment and offered at a resource center. Fifteen young unemployed Finnish men in the age range 18 to 27 years were interviewed face-to-face. Purposive sampling was used to increase the variation among informants. The interview texts were analyzed using both manifest and latent qualitative content analysis. The present results reported that the young men felt that they, thanks to the program at the resource center, had acquired daily routines and could ultimately believe in the future. The young men described how they now had a structure, economic support, and that they could return to their daily life. The informants also described how they could see new possibilities and believe in oneself. There is a lack of empirical studies assessing the possible impact of active labor market programs on the unemployed based on participants' own experiences. Further research is needed to describe and elucidate in more detail the effects of targeted support measures and the needs of unemployed men of different ages and living in different contexts.

  • 1869.
    Björklund, Ove
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Åbo Akademi.
    Söderlund, Maud
    Åbo Akademi.
    Nyström, Lisbet
    Åbo Akademi.
    Häggström, Elisabeth
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Åbo Akademi.
    Unemployment and Health: Experiences Narrated by Young Finnish Men2015In: American Journal of Men's Health, ISSN 1557-9883, E-ISSN 1557-9891, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 76-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies have shown that the experiences and consequences of unemployment can affect people differently depending on, for example, age and gender. The purpose of the present study was to describe young Finnish men's experiences of being unemployed as well as how their experiences of health emerged. Fifteen young unemployed Finnish men in the age range 18 to 27 years were interviewed face to face. Purposive sampling was used to increase the variation among informants. The interview texts were analyzed using both manifest and latent qualitative content analysis. The present results showed that the young men were strongly negatively affected by being unemployed. They described how they had slowly lost their foothold. They also described feelings of shame and guilt as well as a flight from reality. The present results show that even young men who have only experienced shorter periods of unemployment, in this study periods between 2 and 6 months, are negatively affected, for example, with regard to their identity and emotional life. Further research is needed to describe and elucidate in more detail the effects of unemployment on men of different ages and living in different contexts.

  • 1870.
    Björklund, Peter
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences.
    Felrapportering av datakonvertering2008Student paper second term, 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Projektet Connect hos Sandvik system development efterfrågar en applikation för att lösa rapporteringen av sina datakonverteringar mellan olika system. Systemet som data konverteras till är PeopleSoft, som är ett av Oracels databassystem. Applikationen skapas med hjälp av diverse verktyg som finns integrerade i PeopleSofts egna verktygspaket PeopleTools, där PeopeCode som är PeopleSofts egna programmeringsspråk inkluderas. Applikationen genererar en rapport innehållande tre delrapporter, varav en delrapport på fel och avvikelser som skett under en konvertering, en delrapport där data innan och delrapport med relevant data gällande en konvertering.

  • 1871.
    Björklund, Tobias
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Att ge sponsorer det perfekta erbjudandet: En undersökning om Ljusdals Bandyklubb2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Att ge sponsorer det perfekta erbjudandet – En undersökning om Ljusdals Bandyklubb

    Bandyföreningar har det ofta tufft ekonomiskt och för att förbättra den ekonomiska ställningen kan föreningen öka sina sponsorintäkter. Syftet med den är studien blev således att undersöka hur en idrottsförening kan öka sina sponsorintäkter, samt hur en idrottsförening ger sponsorn det perfekta erbjudandet.

    Uppsatsen utgörs av en fallstudie och främst av en kvalitativ form. En induktiv ansats användes för att kunna forma en teori. Primärdata har samlats in genom fem olika intervjuer, vilka har analyserats utifrån det hermeneutiska synsättet. Även en enkät har använts vid insamlingen av primärdata. Primärdata presenteras i ett empirikapitel där varje intervju sammanfattas samtidigt som enkätundersökningens resultat presenteras med en fråga i taget. Primärdata och sekundärdata ligger till grund för analysen och slutsatsen i slutet av studien.

    Resultaten från studien kan användas som komplement för en idrottsförening så att de kan se vad sponsorer vill ha, och därmed kunna ta mer betalt för sina tjänster. Studien visar hur Ljusdals BK kan förbättra sina relationer och motprestationer för att slutligen också öka sina sponsorintäkter. Även andra bandyföreningar eller mindre idrottsföreningar skulle kunna ha nytta av studien om de vill se hur de kan förbättra sponsorintäkterna.

  • 1872.
    Björklund, Tony
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Building engineering.
    Steiner, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Fästning eller fikaställe: Arbetsplatsens förvaltning, identitet och arkitektur2014Book (Other academic)
  • 1873.
    Björklund, Victor
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Sving, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Att vara patient på akutmottagningen: En beskrivande litteraturstudie2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Akutmottagningen är en plats dit människor söker sig vid akuta besvär, de har öppet dygnet runt, det finns inga schemalagda besök och väntetiderna är långa. Kommunikation är en viktig faktor på en akutmottagning då det används för att leverera omvårdnad och för att samarbeta. Sjuksköterskan på en akutmottagning har en hög arbetsbelastning och besitter breda kunskaper för att leverera vård till de varierande sjukdomarna som förekommer. Man vet att vara patient på ett sjukhus kan innebära ett förlorat egenvärde och hopplöshet däremot finns det lite studier på hur det är att vara patient på en akutmottagning.

  • 1874.
    Björkman, Annica
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Andersson, Kajsa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Bergström, Jenny
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Increased Mental Illness and the Challenges This Brings for District Nurses in Primary Care Settings2018In: Issues in Mental Health Nursing, ISSN 0161-2840, E-ISSN 1096-4673, Vol. 39, no 12, p. 1023-1030Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Patients with mental illness generally make their initial healthcare contact via a registered nurse. Although studies show that encountering and providing care to care-seekers with mental illness might be a challenge, little research exists regarding Primary Care Nurses' (PCN) view of the challenges they face. The aim of this study was to qualitatively explore PCNs' reflections on encountering care-seekers with mental illness in primary healthcare settings. The results consist of three themes: constantly experiencing patients falling through the cracks, being restricted by lack of knowledge and resources, and establishing a trustful relationship to overcome taboo, shame, and guilt.

  • 1875.
    Björkman, Annica
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Engström, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Nursing Department, Medicine and Health College, Lishui University, Lishui, China .
    Olsson, Annakarin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Wahlberg, Anna Carin
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Identified obstacles and prerequisites in telenurses’ work environment: a modified Delphi study2017In: BMC Health Services Research, ISSN 1472-6963, E-ISSN 1472-6963, Vol. 17, no 1, article id 357Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Telenursing is an expanding part of healthcare, staffed with registered nurses whose work environment is typical of a call centre. Work-related stress has been shown to be a major problem in nurses’ work environments and of importance to the outcome of care, patient safety, nurse job satisfaction and burnout. Today, however, we have a limited understanding of and knowledge about the work environment for telenurses. The aim of the present study is to explore and reach consensus on perceived important obstacles and prerequisites in telenurses’ work environment.

    Methods: A modified Delphi design, using qualitative as well as quantitative data sequentially through three phases, was taken. Data were initially collected via semi-structured interviews (Phase I) and later using a web survey (Phase II-III) between March 2015 and March 2016.

    Results: The findings present a consensus view of telenurses’ experiences of important obstacles and prerequisites in their work environment. Central to the findings are the aspects of telenurses having a demanding work, cognitive fatigue and having no opportunity for recovery during the work shift was ranked as important obstacles. Highly ranked prerequisites for managing were being able to focus on one caller at a time, working in a calm and pleasant environment and having technical support 24/7.

    Conclusions: Managers need to enable telenurses to experience control in their work, provided with possibilities to control their work and to recover during work; shortening work time could improve their work environment. Limited possibilities to perform work might contribute to feelings of stress and inability to perform work. 

  • 1876.
    Björkman, Annica
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science, Caring Science.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science, Caring Science.
    Giving advice to callers with mental illness: adaptation among telenurses at Swedish Healthcare Direct2019In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 14, no 1, article id 1633174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Our aim was to describe Swedish Healthcare Direct (SHD) and its features as a complex system. Methods: Qualitative interviews were conducted with 20 SHD telenurses, covering their experiences and skills when encountering and advising callers with mental illness. Complexity science was used as an a priori theoretical framework to enhance understanding of the complex nature of telenursing. Results: SHD was described as a complex system as nurses were constantly interacting with other agents and agencies. During these interactions, dynamic processes were found between the agents in which the nurses adapted to every new situation. They were constantly aware of their impact on the care-seekers, and perceived their encounters with callers with psychiatric illness as "balancing on a thin line". SHD was also described as both an authority and a dumping ground. The openness of the system did not give the nurses possibility to control the number of incoming calls and the callers' intentions. Conclusions: These new insights into SHD have important implications for organization developers and nursing management in terms of overcoming linear thinking.

  • 1877.
    Björkman, Annica
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    The bidirectional mistrust - callers’ online discussions about their experiences of using the national telephone advice service2018In: Internet Research, ISSN 1066-2243, Vol. 28, no 5, p. 1336-1350Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore and describe online communication about the experiencesand attitudes toward Swedish Healthcare Direct, a national telephone advice nursing (TAN) service.

    Design/methodology/approach – A descriptive research design was adopted using a six-step netnographicmethod. Three Swedish forums were purposefully selected and data from the virtual discussions were collected.

    Findings – Three themes emerged: expectancy and performativity of the nurses, absurdity in accessibilityand the scrutinizing game. The most prominent finding was the scrutinizing game, which included aspects ofbidirectional mistrust from both nurses and callers. Another salient finding was the attitudes that callers heldtoward nurses who used a technique interpreted as “passing the buck.”

    Research limitations/implications – The use of a nethnographic method is novel in this area of research.Consequently, the body of knowledge has regarding telephone advise nursing service has significantly beenbroadened. A limitation in this study is that demographic data for the posters are not available.

    Practical implications – Bidirectional distrust is an important issue that must be acknowledged by TANservices, since it might damage the service on a fundamental level. Healthcare providers, politicians, andresearchers should account for the power and availability of virtual discussions when seeking consumers’opinions and evaluating the quality of the care provided.

    Originality/value – This analysis of the ongoing discussions that take place on the internet provides insightinto callers’ perceptions of a national TAN service. The bidirectional mistrust found from both the nurses andthe callers might be a threat to callers’ compliance with the advice given and their care-seeking behavior.

  • 1878.
    Björkman, Annica
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    When all other doors are closed: Telenurses' experiences of encountering care seekers with mental illnesses.2018In: International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, ISSN 1445-8330, E-ISSN 1447-0349, Vol. 27, no 5, p. 1392-1400Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to describe the telephone nurses' experiences of encountering callers with mental illnesses. Telenursing services are solely staffed with telenurses, who with the support of a decision support system (CDSS) independently triage callers based on the severity of the main symptoms presented by the care seeker. The system focuses on somatic symptoms, while information regarding mental health and mental illnesses is limited. Information about telenurses' experiences of encountering care seekers with mental illnesses is scarce, despite the increase in mental illnesses in the population. The study used a descriptive design with a qualitative approach. Twenty telenurses were interviewed, and the data were then analysed using inductive qualitative content analysis. The results are elaborated in the following three categories: (i) Experiences of encountering care seekers with mental illnesses; (ii) Experiences of facing difficulties and challenges; and (iii) Experiences of facing dissatisfaction and threats. Encountering care seekers with mental illnesses is metaphorically addressed as 'when all other doors are closed'. Encountering care seekers with mental illnesses was perceived as time-consuming and did not adequately correspond to the resources given by the service. Even though telenurses strive to achieve agreement, there is a collision between human needs and organizational structures. The study pinpoints the lack of resources for and education about mental illnesses and the limitations of the decision system, which needs to be updated in order to provide all care seekers care on equal terms.

  • 1879.
    Björkman, Carolina
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Falk, Jasmine
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Utvecklingen av ett hållbart avfallshanteringssystem i Bangalore2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    India is a country that is growing economically while the problems with the waste andit´s treatment are still in the development phase. The study focuses on how the waste ishandled in the city of Bangalore. From a Swedish point of view the waste collection andtreatment have been investigated Bangalore and shortcomings identified. Suggestionsfor improvements are presented from the lack of the waste management and the focushas been on how Swedish solutions could be implemented in Bangalore.

    In Sweden the sorting of waste at a household level is managed from different fractionsin containers and therefore the waste has a higher degree of recyclability. Theprocessing steps that are providing energy are sufficient leading to very little wastebeing added to landfills. A constant work is done based on the waste hierarchy. InBangalore, the situation is the reverse and the waste collected mostly ends up inlandfills or unofficial dumping sites around the city. In Sweden, waste is handled by theformal sector, while Bangalore is largely dependent on an informal sector whereindividuals collect waste.

    A literature study has provided insight into the difficulties developing countries mayhave to face regarding waste management and the factors that come into play in theexecution of a functioning system. Within the project, an observational study was madein Bangalore for two weeks. Based on the observational study a lot of previousinformation on how waste is handled could be examined more critically and morerealistic conclusions drawn. The lack of a functioning system for waste collectionthroughout Bangalore results in a lot of waste ending up directly on the streets or onabandoned plots. This in turn gives rise to odors for residents and an unhygienicenvironment. The collection available to the public was in most cases insufficient.

    Three factors were identified that prevent the waste management from functioning.These were politics, the formal and informal sector, as well as the practical collectionof waste. A major obstacle in Bangalore is the lack of political interest of functioningwaste management. No major action is taken against the growing amounts of wasteproduced. A good integration between the formal waste collectors consisting of thetransport of waste and waste collectors versus informal waste collectors is missing.Bangalore also lacks formal collection systems and the people are not given the rightconditions to be able to go anywhere to get rid of their waste. This leads to increasedignorance about how waste should be sorted for processing appropriately and whereenergy can be recovered.

    A clearer collection is needed if Bangalore is to achieve sustainable development and tocurb the escalating environmental problems they face. Some form of waste treatment isneeded to reduce the pressure on the city landfill. By doing this there is a change for thecity to be sustainable and green.

  • 1880.
    Björkman, Josefin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Sandberg, Elin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Föräldrars copingstrategier för att hantera tiden efter att deras barn fått en cancerdiagnos: en litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Almost on a daily basis a child gets affected by cancer in Sweden. Childhood cancer can be a long process involving the whole family. The parents are the child’s safety and are usually involved in the care of the child. The cancer diagnosis causes demanding emotions among the parents, and that is when they can institute different ways to manage and adapt to change of living.

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to describe how parents to children diagnosed with cancer handle the life situation during the period of illness. Also to describe the included articles study sample.

    Method: A descriptive literature study based on twelve scientific articles with a qualitative approach, obtained through searches of the databases Cinahl and Pubmed.

    Main results: Throughout the result, coping strategies were seen to be effective. The result showed coping strategies as (1) support which parents obtain from religion, others in similar situation and people in the surrounding. (2) Experience of control, which parents achieved through information, routine and planning. (3) Changing the emotions and way of thinking, by maintaining hope, positive thinking, being optimistic, having an avoidance behavior and performing distracting activities. A majority of the participants in the included articles were women. Ranged in age from 20 to 60 years. Two of the articles were from Sweden and the remaining from other countries.

    Conclusion: Coping strategies were seen to be effective ways for the parents to cope with the difficult time they appeared in. Three general observed coping strategies were accommodating for the parents; support, changed emotions and way of thinking and experiences of control. By gaining an understanding of the management method of the parents and contribute and strengthen coping strategies, the health professionals can work to promote health and well-being among the parents.

  • 1881.
    Björkman, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Övningar med förskolebarn i naturen: En undersökning om barns matematikkunskaper2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna undersökning har jag genomfört tre olika övningar i matematik i naturen med några förskolebarn i åldern fyra år för att ta reda på deras kunskap i räkning, jämförelseord och sortering. Mitt syfte var att se hur utvecklad barnens kunskap var i de av Gelman och Gallistels principer som övningen innehöll. Resultatet visade att barnen hade goda kunskaper i de övningar som utfördes. Den metod jag använde var att gå ut i skogen till en välbekant plats. Där fick barnen genomföra övningarna med hjälp av kottar, stenar, pinnar och löv. 

    Den erferanhet jag gjorde var att jag fick se att barnens kunskaper bland annt kunde visas med hjälp av deras sinnen och genom lek.

  • 1882.
    Björkman, Pontus
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences.
    A Muscular Rig for Smooth Skinning in Autodesk Maya2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The limitations of the default skinning methods in Autodesk Maya can be compensated for when seeking realistic skin deformations of a human being. The main focus is put on the construction of an example muscular rig in Autodesk Maya, and an explanation of what criteria the rig is supposed to fulfill. From a merged three dimensional and artistic view, the components of the rig is discussed and evaluated to establish an understanding of how the system needs to work in order to produce realistic skin deformations. The research is performed via design and creation experiments on the various parts of the system, and even though the initial theory has met its demands, some of the practical performance yet abandons a lot to wish.

  • 1883.
    Björkman, Sofie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Hägglund, Rikard
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Köpbeteende: två platser inom upplevelseindustrin2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med examensarbetet är att se hur köpbeteendet gestaltar sig i olika situationer. Vi har avgränsat examensarbetet till att belysa två organisationer inom upplevelseindustrin. Gekås i Ullared och Vasaloppet. Vi anser att köpmönstret hos besökarna vid dessa platser skiljer sig från det vardagliga köpmönstret. Vi önskar även att ge förslag på verksamhetsutveckling. Sist men inte minst ska vi ta fram en checklista för påverkande framgångsfaktorer för event och andra aktörer inom upplevelseindustrin.

     

    Metod: Vi diskuterar hur köpbeteende i speciella situationer gestaltas på platserna Gekås Ullared och på Vasaloppet. Studien har gjorts enligt ett traditionellt upplägg med syfte och problemformuleringar, basen har utgjorts av en teoristudie. Utifrån den har intervjufrågor formats. I arbetet har vi använt oss av ett kvalitativt förhållningssätt med en hermeneutisk lära. Avslutningsvis har en kritisk granskning gjorts av den valda metoden.

     

    Resultat & slutsats: I studien fick vi fram att både Gekås och Vasaloppet har hög andel nöjda kunder som gärna återkommer till platserna. Gekås och Vasaloppet arbetar ständigt med att utveckla sitt erbjudande till deras kunder genom ett helhetskoncept. Detta är en stark faktor till att kunderna återkommer samt att evenemanget/företaget fortsätter att öka i popularitet och utveckling. Förberedda kunder får ett större mervärde och utbyte av upplevelsen. Medias bevakning av Gekås och Vasaloppet har gjort att fler människor väljer att besöka de två orterna.

     

    Förslag till fortsattforskning: Med bakgrund av denna forskning skulle vi se ett intresse i att få ta del av en forskning om hur köpbeteendet för platserna skiljer sig mellan män och kvinnor.

     

    Uppsatsens bidrag: Denna uppsats ska ge större förståelse för hur företag som arbetar med upplevelser kan utveckla sina koncept, att skapa större attraktion och göra upplevelsen mer minnesvärd för kunden.

     

    Nyckelord: Köpbeteende, Upplevelse, Upplevelseindustri, Varuhus, Evenemang,   

    Shopping

  • 1884.
    Björkman, Stefanie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    En åländsk trädgårdsmästare och hans trädgård.: Fredrik Sundberg, Hasselbo Trädgård på 1950-talet2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Tänk att du träffar din livspartner, ni flyttar in hos dina föräldrar och bor i en liten kammare. Ni får barn och börjar bygga ett hus på en bit mark ni bryter ut från din fars mark. Arbetet pågår i över två år och ni flyttar in i det nybyggda huset med tillhörande växthus och en ladugård med era tre små barn. Mannen i huset försörjer er genom att dra upp plantor och göra begravningsbuketter och kransar. Ni har en ko, några höns, grisar och odlar det mesta av maten själva. Till en början har ni ingen telefon i huset och ni har ingen bil, bara cyklar. Er granne, din far, har häst och kärra om det behövs. Hur är det möjligt att försörja familjen på enbart mat ni själva odlar? Idag år 2010 är det en knepig kombination att få ihop men för Fredrik Sundberg på 1950-talet var det hans enda möjlighet.

    Min nyfikenhet väcktes kring den här personen eftersom det är min gammelmorfar, min mammas morfar. Fredrik Sundberg hade en av Ålands första handelsträdgårdar, Hasselbo Trädgård under åren 1930-1997. Tyvärr gick han bort när jag var liten men nu har intresset väckts för hur hans trädgård såg ut på den tiden han var verksam. Huset, växthuset och trädgården finns kvar inom släkten och jag har studerat hur trädgårdsmästaren Fredrik Sundberg levde och hur hans trädgård såg med fokus på 1950-talet.

  • 1885.
    Björkqvist, Emma
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Nilsson, Tove
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Identitet & Förtroende: Om ledarens inverkan på medarbetarnas identifikation2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of the study is to from the employee’s perspective create an increased understanding of the relationship between the organizational identity and the employee´s trust in its leader.

    Method: Since the aim of the study is to increase the understanding of how organizational identity and trust for the leader is experienced a qualitative method have been chosen. For the data collection semi-structured interviews have been used and the ten persons who have been interviewed are employed as real-estate agents in Stockholm, Gävle and Sandviken. The material has later been analyzed through a thematic analysis and the results have been presented and discussed.

    Result & Conclusions: The study's results demonstrate that the employee’s trust in their local leaders affect their identification with the organization as well as the organizational identity. Furthermore, the study indicates that identification and the organizational identity influence each other.

  • 1886. Björkvall, Anders
    et al.
    Engblom, Charlotte
    University of Gävle, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för litteraturvetenskap och svenska språket.
    Finns det nytta med nöje?: barns självvalda skärmbaserade textaktiviteter som resurs för lärande i skolan2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 1887.
    Björkvall, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Engblom, Charlotte
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, Swedish.
    Young Children’s Exploration of Semiotic Resources during Unofficial Computer Activities in the Classroom2010In: Journal of Early Childhood Literacy, ISSN 1468-7984, E-ISSN 1741-2919, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 271-293Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper describes and discusses the learning potential of unofficial techno-literacy activities in the classroom with regards to Swedish 7–8-year-olds’ exploration of semiotic resources when interacting with computers. In classroom contexts where every child works with his or her own computer, such activities tend to take up a substantial amount of time. The children have access to a wide range of sites and programmes and show an interest in discovering these resources. The paper thus explores a previously often neglected site for learning, located in the official classroom context but involving self-chosen activities with contemporary technology. In terms of theory and methodology, social semiotic ethnography is introduced into the field of young children’s techno-literacies. It is illustrated how a social semiotic approach allows for a more detailed analysis of the semiotic resources, whereas ethnographic data are necessary for an understanding of how such resources are put to use.

  • 1888.
    Björkvall, Madeleine
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Klang, Cassandra
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Det gäller att snappa upp den lilla tråden. Fiska lite innan man får napp, ett litet detektivjobb: Chefers hantering av negativa livshändelser hos medarbetare på en Region2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 1889.
    Björling, Ann-Sofie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    Situationen för andraspråksinlärare som aldrig har tillägnat sig läs- och skrivförmågan.: En kvalitativ intervju med tre analfabeter studerande inom SFI.2011Student paper second term, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 1890.
    Björling, Mikael
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Chemistry.
    Air exchange and ventilation in an underground train station2012In: 10th International Conference on Healthy Buildings 2012: Vol. 2 / [ed] Eliza Morawska, 2012, p. 1406-1411Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The indoor air climate of an underground train station was investigated during two days in January 2008. The underground platform was accessed from ticket halls on each side with air volumes of 1 000 m3 and 1 430 m3, respectively. The station platform air volume was approximately 14 300 m3. Air from the outside could enter either via the ticket halls or via the train tunnels from ventilation towers situated on each side of the platform area. The local mean age of air was determined in several locations at different heights using pumped sampling and homogeneous emission of PFTs. In addition, the temperature and relative humidity was measured at selected locations. The average air exchange rate per hour (ACH) was found to be 3.62 h-1, ranging from 4 h-1 at rush hours to slightly more than 3 h-1 at night and in the middle of the day. The largest ACH (4.5 h-1) was found at rush hour in one of the ticket halls, corresponding to a flow rate of 75 000 m3/h. The lowest ACH (2.8 h-1) was found in the other ticket hall at night, corresponding to a flow rate of 47 000 m3/h. In the middle of the station platform the ACH was lower than the ACH at the platform ends.

  • 1891.
    Björling, Mikael
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Chemistry.
    Att ändra sin förståelse: exemplet faser och fasövergångar2012In: I mötet mellan vetenskap och lärande: 13 högskolepedagogiska utmaningar / [ed] Göran Fransson & Helena Hammarström, Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2012, p. 195-216Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 1892.
    Björling, Mikael
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för naturvetenskap.
    Förorenade byggnader: Provtagning och riskbedömning2009Report (Other academic)
  • 1893.
    Björling, Mikael
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Högskolan i Gävle: Omorganisation - översyn: Scenario 1 SOM NU-fast bättre2009Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Utredningen för Scenario 1:Som Nu - fast bättre i Högskolan i Gävles översyn av organisationen. Rapporten lyfter fram flera skäl till att förbättra den nuvarande organisationen snarare än att söka skapa en ny, oprövad organisationsform.

  • 1894.
    Björling, Mikael
    Physical Chemistry 1, Chemical Center, University of Lund, Lund, Sweden .
    Interaction between Surfaces with Attached Poly(ethylene oxide) Chains1992In: Macromolecules, ISSN 0024-9297, E-ISSN 1520-5835, Vol. 25, no 15, p. 3956-3970Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents a self-consistent mean-field lattice theory of the Scheutjens-Fleer type where segments may adapt to temperature and the local environment by changing their distribution among internal states. Some new features are introduced in the theoretical treatment of incompressible systems, and it is demonstrated how the chemical potential may be calculated without reference to a bulk system. The theory is applied to make a qualitative prediction for the interaction between surfaces with grafted poly-(ethylene oxide), or PEO, chains. A simple two-state model for the PEO segments is used. The attractive force between the PEO-covered surfaces in water is predicted to be related to the temperature-dependent solubility of PEO in water. The contributions to the force are illustrated by simple examples. The attractive force does not change monotonically upon changing the graft density. At low coverages a strong bridging attraction is predicted if the surfaces are hydrophobic. As the surfaces become more polar, repulsion sets in at a larger separation and the overall attraction becomes less strong. A calculated, closed, solubility gap for a crude model of micelles of nonionic surfactants is presented.

  • 1895. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Björling, Mikael
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Kemi för de yngre åren2016In: Ämnesdidaktiska utmaningar inom matematik, naturvetenskap och teknik / [ed] Mikael Björling, Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2016, 1, p. 109-132Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta är bakgrunden till att små barn är fascinerande av att leka Titt-ut,men som alla föräldrar vet så försvinner den lekens lockelse när barnet blir äldre. Barn utvecklas snabbt i de yngre åren, vilket skapar både möjligheter och begränsningar för hur lärande i naturvetenskap och kemi uppstår i förskolan och grundskolan. Det finns många skäl till att kemirelaterade aktiviteter bör introduceras i de yngre åren och i det här kapitlet diskuteras några av dessa skäl ur ett kemididaktiskt perspektiv. Kapitlet är uppbyggt kring några av de betydande framsteg som gjorts i den utvecklingspsykologiska forskningen under de senaste tjugo åren (Gärdenfors, 2006). Idag vet vi ganska mycket om hur våra hjärnor fungerar och utvecklas. Insprängt i denna beskrivning kommer jag att reflektera kring hur detta skulle kunna påverka valet av innehåll när det gäller naturvetenskapligt lärande för yngre barn. På slutet sammanfattar jag tankarna om innehåll med ett speciellt fokus på kemi.

  • 1896.
    Björling, Mikael
    Lunds universitet, Lund.
    Polymers at interfaces: or statistical thermodynamics for chain molecules subjected to constraints1991Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 1897.
    Björling, Mikael
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Sustainable science policy - in whom shall we trust?2017In: A good life for all: Essays on sustainability celebrating 60 years of making life better / [ed] Fagerström, Arne and Cunnigham, Gary M., Mjölby: Atremi AB , 2017, 1, p. 21-43Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of science as a provider of well-tested and trustworthy knowledgre in a sustainable society is discussed with respect to other social institutions: government and state bureaucracy, the market, the media and the public. In particular, societal pressures that threaten scientific endeavour are problematised with a slight bias towards examples from sustainability science. Global challenges of today transcend social institutions and therefore require novel modes of trans-institutional cooperation. Such modes of cooperation may produce unwanted clashes of institutional norms that imperil objective and mutually accepted norms need to be developed. The science policy for a democratic, sustainable society should strive for clear divisions among social institutions while encouraging suitable modes of cooperation to address global challenges to the sustainability of human life.

  • 1898.
    Björling, Mikael
    Physical Chemistry, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Using end-confined chains to model end-absorbing, triblock copolymers: 1. Analytical approach1998In: Macromolecules, ISSN 0024-9297, E-ISSN 1520-5835, Vol. 31, no 25, p. 9026-9032Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The bridging attraction, mediated by associative, triblock copolymers with insoluble end blocks and a soluble spacer block, is analyzed using scaling arguments and analytical methods. Adsorbing these associative polymers (APs) onto a single surface, the approach of another, bare, surface results in a strong bridging attraction. When both slit surfaces bear adsorbed APs, the bridging attraction is much weaker. The main contribution is an entropic gain since bridge formation decreases the monomer number density in the crowded region near the surface.

  • 1899. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Björling, Mikael
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Ämnesdidaktiska utmaningar inom matematik, naturvetenskap och teknik2016Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här boken samlar ett axplock av ämnesdidaktiska utmaningar inom matematik, naturvetenskap och teknik från lärare och forskare med anknytning till Högskolan i Gävle (HiG). Den röda tråden är en vilja att göra ämnena mer tillgängliga samt stimulera utveckling av undervisning och lärande i dessa ämnen.

    Författarna till den här boken förenas av ett brinnande intresse för sina olika ämnen och en stark önskan att finna vägar till utveckling av undervisningen för att underlätta lärande och väcka nyfikenhet. Boken är skriven till dig som delar våra intressen. Vi hoppas att den ska inspirera till ytterligare utveckling av ämnesdidaktiken.

  • 1900. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Björling, Mikael
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Ämnesdidaktiska utmaningar inom matematik, naturvetenskap och teknik2016In: Ämnesdidaktiska utmaningar– inom matematik, naturvetenskap och teknik / [ed] Mikael Björling, Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2016, 1, p. 9-14Chapter in book (Other academic)
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