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  • 18701.
    Österman Solborg, Amanda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    De mångbottnade männen och de enkla kvinnorna: En feministisk och genusinriktad undersökning av det manliga och kvinnliga i Stephen Kings Pestens tid2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 18702.
    Österström, Stina Lisa
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Ohlsén, Oscar
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Inre arbetsmotivation och engagemang i organisationen: en studie om skillnader mellan inhyrda och tillsvidareanställda läkare2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to examine if intrinsic motivation and work commitment to the organization differs between permanent doctors and hired doctors. The total of 63 doctors who participated in the study made an internet-based survey with 21 questions taken from the Basic Need Satisfaction at Work Scale and 3 questions from the section “work commitment” in QPS Nordic. The main results of the study showed that permanent doctors perceived a higher level of intrinsic motivation on all the three needs autonomy, competence and relatedness. Furthermore the result showed a tendency that permanent doctors perceived a higher level of work commitment to the organization then hired doctors.

  • 18703.
    Östgård, Kristina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Vårdpersonalens upplevelser av att vårda personer med Beteendemässiga och Psykiska Symtom vid Demens (BPSD)2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    More and more people suffer from dementia and a large part of these is affected by some point of one or several behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). BPSD creates great suffering for the affected but can also be difficult for the people around them to manage, relatives and health professionals, and is a big reason that a person moves in to a nursing facility. The aim of this study was to describe health professional’s experience of caring for persons with behavioral and psychological symptoms in dementia, BPSD. The study had a descriptive design with qualitative approach. Data were collected through six individual semi-structured interviews. By convenience sampling, nursing assistant working at a nursing facility for people with dementia in Sweden were recruited. Data were analyzed by qualitative content analysis. A theme emerged, “Difficulties to find a balance between need and resource”. The informants experienced their work in caring for people with BPSD as a great challenge but also as very awarding. The feeling of being inadequate, lacking knowledge or ability to handle certain situations or symptoms and lack of resources perceived as stressful by the informants. Aggressiveness and anxiety in individuals with BPSD were experienced as the most difficult to handle. The results also showed that the informants experienced working with persons with BPSD as exiting, interesting and fun and that they felt satisfaction in being there for the person with BPSD and to be able to contribute to their well-being. The conclusion in this study shows that informants experienced great challenges in their work to create wellbeing for people with BPSD. Support and education could increase the job satisfaction for the health personnel but also increase the quality of life for people with BPSD.

  • 18704.
    Östholm, John
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences. University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för datavetenskap.
    Spelkaraktär: En kreativ designprocess2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Designprocessen för en ”next-gen”-spelkaraktär är i dag förhållandevis invecklad och innehåller många olika moment innan den når sitt slutgiltiga stadium med en färdig karaktär som resultat. Den här artikeln dokumenterar designprocessen för en spelkaraktär från början till slut och kommer att se mycket till den kreativa men även den tekniska aspekten av detta arbete. Arbetet resulterar i en karaktär som modelleras, skulpteras, animeras och slutligen importeras till Unreal Editor 3.0.

  • 18705.
    Östlin, Anders
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Tjockleksmätning med ultraljud: Icke konventionell metod med signalbehandling2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Ultrasonic thickness gauging of steel tubes is typically performed by observing the time difference between two following echoes. This process is often connected to various problems regarding interference. This thesis describes how to avoid these problems by using signal processing and analyzing the signals in the frequency domain.

    To achieve these results a signal model that describes the necessary effects is derived. From this model different measurement methods to analyze and determine the thickness are developed.

    One of the methods proved to be useful.

  • 18706.
    Östlin, Carl Niclas
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Palmé, Fredrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Säljstöd: En kvalitativ fallstudie gällande samspelet mellan Self-Support, Core-team Support och External Support2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Abstrakt

     

    Titel: Säljstöd

    Nivå: Kandidatuppsats

    Författare: Fredrik Palmé och Niclas Östlin

    Handledare: Jens Eklinder Frick och Jonas Molin

    Datum: 2015 - januari

     

    Syfte: Tidigare forskning har visat att det finns lite eller ingen interaktion mellan säljstödsstrukturerna Self-Support, Core-Team Support och External-Support. Syftet med denna studie är därför att öka vår förståelse kring säljstödsstrukturer och se om det finns ett samspel mellan dem och om de kan kombineras, samt öka förståelsen för de fyra underliggande dimensionernas (workload, complexity, prequalification och customization) påverkan på valet av säljstöd.

    Metod: Studien är designad som en fallstudie med en kvalitativ ansats och ett hermeneutiskt perspektiv. Den teoretiska referensramen samlades in med hjälp av deduktion och det empiriska materialet samlades in genom semi-konstruerade intervjuer.

     Resultat och slutsats: Studien indikerar att det finns ett konstant samspel mellan de tre olika säljstödsstrukturerna. Valet av säljstöd beror  på säljarens upplevelser av de fyra dimensionerna och Self-Support, Core-team support och External-support är ofta kombinerade för att erbjuda det mest lämpliga stödet vid rätt tidpunkt.

     Förslag till vidare forskning: Eftersom ett av företagen var under omstrukturering och led av viss personalbrist, finns det möjligtvis en skillnad i appliceringen av säljstöd i ett företag som har lämplig mängd personal. Det vore även intressant att se vilken påverkan kommunikationen i ett mer centraliserat företag hade haft på valet av säljstöd.

     Uppsatsen bidrag: Studiens bidrag är den ökade förståelsen kring samspelet mellan olika säljstödsstrukturer. Det måste anses vara svårt att skapa ett ramverk för att bestämma vilket säljstöd som bör tillämpas, då varje säljsituation är unik och kan behöva en kombination av olika säljstöd för att vara tillräcklig.

     Nyckelord: Säljstöd, Self-Support, Tvärfunktionella grupper, Externt stöd, Arbetsbörda, Komplexitet, Anpassningsbarhet, Förkvalificering, Säljaktiviteter.  

  • 18707.
    Östlin, Kajsa
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Jansson, Sara
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Vuxna personers erfarenheter av att leva med diabetes mellitus typ 2: En litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Antal fall av diabetes mellitus typ 2 ökar i Sverige samt över hela världen. Okunskap om hur sjukdomen utvecklas och hanteras kan leda till komplikationer och andra sjukdomar.

    Syfte: Syftet med litteraturstudien var att beskriva vuxna personers erfarenheter av att leva med diabetes mellitus typ 2, samt att beskriva de inkluderade artiklarnas datainsamlingsmetod.

    Metod: Litteraturstudien har deskriptiv design. Studien inkluderar 12 kvalitativa artiklar funna i databaserna PubMed och Cinahl.

    Huvudresultat: I analysen av artiklarna framkom kategorier som besvarade vuxna personers erfarenheter av att leva med diabetes mellitus typ 2. Kategorierna var: Erfarenheter av att ha diagnostiseras med diabetes typ 2, Vuxna personers erfarenheter av kontroll och behandling av diabetes typ 2, Erfarenheter av kostförändringar i samband med diabetes typ 2 hos vuxna personer, Erfarenheter av sociala sammanhang hos vuxna personer med diabetes typ 2 och Erfarenheter och hanteringssätt att leva med sin diabetes typ 2. Resultatet reflekterar positiva och negativa erfarenheter i det vardagliga livet i hos personer med diabetes mellitus typ 2.

    Slutsater: Att få diabetes mellitus typ 2 medförde många olika känslor hos flera informanter. Diabetes påverkade vardagliga livet och krävde förändringar i den drabbades liv. Flera informanter erfor frustation över vården och många erfor stöd från familj och vänner. Rädsla för att drabbas av komplikationer till följd av sin sjukdom och inte få se sina barn växa upp gav motivation till att ta hand om sin sjukdom. 

  • 18708.
    Östlin, Nurtena
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Rasoulzadeh, Arezou
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Livskvalitet och copingstrategier hos ungdomar med cancer: : En litteraturstudie2011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 18709.
    Östling, Marcus
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences.
    Att arbeta med musik i förskolan: En enkät- och intervjustudie om musik som ett didaktiskt verktyg för lärande2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Music is not mentioned to a large extent in the curriculum for Swedish preschools (National Agency, 2016). Preschool teachers don’t have any guidelines to relate to in their planning and implementation of music activities. This creates a complexity when working with music. Because of this further knowledge is needed in this area and that is why this study aims to illustrate didactic considerations in the planning and implementation of music activities in the preschool. This can further lead to inspire others to implement music in the preschool. The study looks closer at how music is valued and used as a didactic learning tool. This is done with the help of a questionnaire aimed at active preschool teachers (30 participants) and one interview. The study has a didactic perspective as a theoretical starting point and the results are analyzed and connected to the didactic triangle (Wahlström, 2015) and the didactic questions what, why and how (Ferm Thorgersen, 2012).

     

    The result determines that music is a legitimate tool for developing children’s knowledge in several areas for example language, mathematics, science and movement. The result illustrates didactic considerations, how music activities are formed and the priority when planning and implementing music activities. The study also illustrates different ways of working with music and the preschool teachers relation to music. By contributing with new knowledge the study can therefore make it easier for others to work with music together with children in the preschool. If there are clear goals for learning and the activity is characterized by children’s influence can this lead to rewarding and fun music activities in the preschool.

  • 18710.
    Östlin-Gustafsson, Anethe
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences.
    Bildkommunikation med barn som har autism: En kvalitativ studie kring hur och varför bilder används som ett alternativ till verbal kommunikation2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 18711.
    Östlund, Amanda
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Hillberg, Cecilia
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Anhörigas upplevelser av att leva med närstående som drabbats av Alzheimers sjukdom: -En beskrivande litteraturstudie-2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract The aim of the study was to describe relative’s experiences of living with or near a person that has Alzheimer’s disease. The study builds on social, physical and psychic perspectives. The studies were based on 18 scientific articles that were quality checked with the aid of a review model. Articles were applied for through the databases Academic Search Elite, Cinahl and Vård I Norden Online. The selection criteria’s were that the articles replied on the study's aim, were written on Swedish or English and published between the years 2000 to 2008. The result showed that relatives were set to a dramatic change that were requiring, challenging and the relatives experienced dread, sorrow, stress and debt. The social network decreased and the result was often decreased loneliness and isolation. The result also showed that the relatives were in need of aid from family and friends, and from the healthcare. To summary the majority experienced that the burden increased of being relatives to a person with Alzheimer’s disease.

    Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease, family, relatives, experience.

  • 18712.
    Östlund, Annika
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences.
    Teknik i bruksmiljö2008Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 18713.
    Östlund, Ann-Sofi
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Distriktssköterskors upplevelser av och tillvägagångssätt vid ett motiverande samtal2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
  • 18714.
    Östlund, Ann-Sofi
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Uppsala universitet.
    Motivational Interviewing in Primary Care: Nurses' experiences and actual use of the method2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The overall aim of the present thesis was to describe and examine primary care nurses´ self-reports on training, use and performance as well as experiences and actual performance of MI.

    Method: One qualitative and three quantitative studies were conducted among primary care nurses. A study-specific questionnaire was sent to 980 primary care nurses and 673 (69%) responded (Study I). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 MI trained primary care nurses (Study II). MI sessions between 12 (Study III) respective 23 (Study IV) primary care nurses and patients (total 32 respective 50 sessions) were audio-recorded. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis, Motivational Interviewing Integrity Code, Motivational Interviewing Sequential Code for Observing Process Exchanges and statistical analysis.

    Results: The findings showed that primary care nurses reported and experienced lack of training in MI and lack of prerequisites for using MI (Study I-II), while training, knowledge, prerequisites and time were associated with use of MI. They also reported and experienced that MI facilitated their work with patients (Study I-II) as well as elicited their own ability to motivate and be empathetic (Study II). About half of the primary care nurses reported that they used MI (Study I), and none of the nurses (Study III) achieved the approved skill levels in MI in their recorded sessions. They overestimated their performance on six of eight aspects of MI (Study III). The most frequently used nurse talk in the recorded sessions was neutral, which is not consistent with MI. Questions and reflections directed toward change were most likely to be followed by change talk among patients (Study IV).

    Conclusions: Self-reported knowledge about MI and personal as well as workplace prerequisites for using it were associated with self-reported use of MI. Participating nurses´ experienced that MI requires openness, practice, support, feedback and willingness. The participating primary care nurses did not achieve approved levels of MI skills in their recorded MI sessions. Patients´ change talk is more likely to occur after open questions, complex reflections as well as after questions and reflections directed toward change.

  • 18715.
    Östlund, Ann-Sofi
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala universitet.
    Kristofferzon, Marja-Leena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala universitet.
    Häggström, Elisabeth
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala universitet.
    Wadensten, Barbro
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala universitet.
    Primary care nurses' performance in motivational interviewing: a quantitative descriptive study2015In: BMC Family Practice, ISSN 1471-2296, E-ISSN 1471-2296, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 89-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Motivational interviewing is a collaborative conversational style intended to strengthen motivation to change. It has been shown to be effective in addressing many different lifestyle problems as well as in chronic disease management, and many disease prevention guidelines promote use of motivational interviewing. The aim of the present study was twofold: to assess to what extent the primary care nurses in the study perform motivational interviewing according to the Motivational Interviewing Treatment Integrity Code and to investigate how the participating primary care nurses rated their own performance in motivational interviewing.

    Method: The study was based on twelve primary care nurses’ audio-recorded motivational interviewing sessions with patients (total 32 sessions). After each session, the nurses completed a questionnaire regarding their experience of their own performance in motivational interviewing. The audio-recorded sessions were analyzed using Motivational Interviewing Integrity Code 3.1.1.

    Results: None of the nurses achieved beginning proficiency in all parts of any motivational interviewing sessions and two nurses did not achieve beginning proficiency in any parts or sessions. Making more complex than simple reflections was the specific verbal behavior/summary score that most nurses achieved. Beginning proficiency/competency in “percent open questions” was the summary score that fewest achieved.

    Conclusion: Primary care nurses did not achieve beginning proficiency/competency in all aspects of motivational interviewing in their recorded sessions with patients, where lifestyle change was discussed. This indicates a need for improvement and thus additional training, feedback and supervision in clinical practice with motivational interviewing.

  • 18716.
    Östlund, Ann-Sofi
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala universitet.
    Wadensten, Barbro
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala universitet.
    Häggström, Elisabeth
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Kristofferzon, Marja-Leena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    District nurses' and registered nurses' training in and use of motivational interviewing in primary care settings2014In: Journal of Clinical Nursing, ISSN 0962-1067, E-ISSN 1365-2702, Vol. 23, no 15-16, p. 2284-2294Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims and objectives

    To examine to what extent district nurses and registered nurses have training in motivational interviewing, to what extent they use it and what prerequisites they have for using it; to compare district nurses and registered nurses, as well as to compare users and nonusers of motivational interviewing; and to examine possible relationships between use of motivational interviewing and the variables training, supervision and feedback in motivational interviewing and prerequisites for use.

    Background

    Motivational interviewing is an effective method for motivating patients to change their lifestyle, used increasingly in primary care.

    Design

    A cross-sectional survey study.

    Methods

    A study-specific questionnaire was sent to all district nurses and registered nurses (n = 980) in primary care in three counties in Sweden, from September 2011–January 2012; 673 (69%) responded. Differences between groups as well as relationships between study variables were tested.

    Results

    According to self-reports, 59% of the respondents had training in motivational interviewing and 57% used it. Approximately 15% of those who reported using it had no specific training in the method. More district nurses than registered nurses had training in motivational interviewing and used it. The following factors were independently associated with the use of motivational interviewing: training in and knowledge of motivational interviewing, conditions for using it, time and absence of ‘other’ obstacles.

    Conclusions

    Having knowledge in motivational interviewing and personal as well as workplace prerequisites for using it may promote increased use of motivational interviewing.

    Relevance to clinical practice

    Having the prerequisites for using motivational interviewing at the workplace is of significance to the use of motivational interviewing. In the context of primary care, district nurses seem to have better prerequisites than registered nurses for using motivational interviewing.

  • 18717.
    Östlund, Ann-Sofi
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Wadensten, Barbro
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Häggström, Elisabeth
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Lindqvist, Helena
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, MIC Lab, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kristofferzon, Marja-Leena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Primary care nurses' communication and its influence on patient talk during motivational interviewing2016In: Journal of Advanced Nursing, ISSN 0309-2402, E-ISSN 1365-2648, Vol. 72, no 11, p. 2844-2856Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    To describe what verbal behaviors/kinds of talk occur during recorded motivational interviewing sessions between nurses in primary care and their patients. The aim was also to examine what kinds of nurse talk predict patient change talk, neutral talk and/or sustain talk.

    Background

    Motivational interviewing is a collaborative conversational style. It has been shown to be effective, in addressing health behaviors such as diet, exercise, weight loss and chronic disease management. In Sweden, it is one of the approaches to disease prevention conversations with patients recommended in the National Guidelines for Disease Prevention. Research on the mechanisms underlying motivational interviewing is growing, but research on motivational interviewing and disease prevention has also been called for.

    Design

    A descriptive and predictive design was used.

    Methods

    Data were collected during 2011-2014. Fifty audio-recorded motivational interviewing sessions between 23 primary care nurses and 50 patients were analyzed using Motivational Interviewing Sequential Code for Observing Process Exchanges. The frequency of specific kinds of talk and sequential analysis (to predict patient talk from nurse talk) were computed using the software Generalized Sequential Querier 5.

    Findings

    The primary care nurses and patients used neutral talk most frequently. Open and negative questions, complex and positive reflections were significantly more likely to be followed by change talk and motivational interviewing-inconsistent talk, positive questions and negative reflections by sustain talk.

    Conclusions

    To increase patients’ change talk, primary care nurses need to use more open questions, complex reflections as well as questions and reflections directed toward change.

  • 18718.
    Östlund, Ann-Sofi
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap.
    Wadensten, Barbro
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap.
    Kristofferzon, Marja-Leena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap.
    Häggström, Elisabeth
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap.
    Motivational interviewing: Experiences of primary care nurses trained in the method2015In: Nurse Education in Practice, ISSN 1471-5953, E-ISSN 1873-5223, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 111-118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Motivational interviewing is a person-centered counseling style used to promote behavioral change regarding a wide variety of lifestyle problems. Use of motivational interview is growing worldwide and among many different healthcare professions, including primary care nursing. The study aim was to describe motivational interview trained nurses' experiences of motivational interviewing in primary care settings. The study had a qualitative descriptive design. It was carried out in Swedish primary care settings in two county council districts, with 20 primary care nurses trained in motivational interviewing. Half of them used the method in their work, half did not. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were used. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The nurses experienced that openness to the approach and an encouraging working climate are required to overcome internal resistance and to increase use of motivational interviewing. They also experienced mutual benefit: motivational interviewing elicits and develops abilities in both nurses and patients. For the nurses using it, motivational interviewing is perceived to facilitate work with patients in need of lifestyle change. Lack of training/education, support, interest and appropriate work tasks/patients are reasons for not using motivational interviewing.

  • 18719.
    Östlund, Christine
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Dimensionering och optimering av ett solcellssystem för en industribyggnad i Mellansverige: En simuleringsstudie2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When converting to renewable energy systems, solar power as an energy source is a potential option; in order to achieve the climate and energy goal with 100% renewable energy production in year 2040. This is something the government try to achieve by making installation of solar cells more attractive through allowances such as subventions and tax reduction. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of solar cell system on an industrial building in the midst of Sweden, in regard of economical-, technical- and climate related points of view. This was performed by replacing purchased electricity with locally produced electricity, where optimal circumstances for the solar power systems and the limits of the building has been taken into consideration during the dimensioning. With cost suggestions from a local authorized dealer the magnitude of the pay off time as a motivating factor was estimated. The local climate impact will be investigated through a litterature study, focusing on green house gas emissions. The dimensioning of the solar cell systems were based on empirical input from measurements in combination with documented data regarding the industrial building and simulated in the program Winsun PV. The study resulted in two different-sized systems with cost sheets that formed the basis for the calculated pay off time. System case 1 was dimensioned to keep the size of the nominal system effect to 255 kWp, this to avoid extra energy tax. The system gave an annual exchange of 228 MWh / year which gave the repayment period between 18 - 23 years. The system was simulated with an optimum angle of 39 ° in 15 ° azimuth direction of the modules. System case 2 was dimensioned to 1200 kWp in order to cover the effective usable surface of the roof, the system gave an annual exchange of 886 MWh / year and the repayment period was 22.5 - 25.1 years. The modules were simulated with the roof slope ± 4.7 ° in -15 ° azimuth direction. A further efficiency development for solar cell technology is required as well as an extended investment support from the County Administrative Board, to provide a more profitable exchange of solar cell systems in higher latitudes. If the solar cell system has a positive effect on the ecological footprint depends on where the solar cell is made and which electrical mix replaced by the produced solar energy.

  • 18720.
    Östlund, Christoffer
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Framkomlighet i entréer på Högskolan i Gävle för personer med nedsatt rörelseförmåga2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It is claimed that the modern society is built for everyone, yet many individuals with disabilities encounter problems in their everyday life that prevent them from feeling like a part of society. University of Gävle has been proven to have insufficiencies regarding availability. This has been exposed in surveys conducted by students in the Building Engineering Program.

    This thesis aims to identify the problems that exist at the ramps and entrances. To facilitate the investigation, the major entrances to the school were selected.

    The theoretical material consists of BBR 2014, Bygg ikapp 2014 and websites with related content. To find scientific articles websites such as Taylor & Francis Online, Academic Search Elite and Web of Science was used. These articles were discovered in the database in the library of The University of Gävle and the searches related to relevant literature that revolves around disabilities and accessibility in buildings.

    The study is based on two labs that has been named lab one and two. In lab one, the entrances were measured and this data was compared with previously established literature-data that describes what is acceptable when you are using a wheelchair. This data consists of measurements but also an inspection of existing resources. Lab two consisted of a practical test with a wheelchair and was based on an existing template used in checking accessibility. The purpose of the second test was to experience the problems firsthand and undergo these tests as a real-life experience.

    The results from both labs were very poor and many entrances showed major flaws at most checkpoints.

  • 18721.
    Östlund, Elin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Träd, Miljö och Människor: Om konsten att välja träd efter platsens förutsättningar2010Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats ger en bild över hur man kan göra för att hitta det rätta trädet för platsen.

  • 18722.
    Östlund, Eric
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Lernholt, Kim
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Physical Activity Toolkit: Utveckling av en tillgänglig mobilapplikation för kognitivt funktionsnedsatta2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 18723.
    Östlund, Frida
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Mossberg, Marianne
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Nyutexaminerade sjuksköterskor och stress: En litteraturstudie2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka nyutexaminerade sjuksköterskornas upplevelse av stress i yrket. Metoden som användes var en litteraturstudie som baserade sig på 17 artiklar. Resultatet blev tydligt att stressen var en nedbrytande faktor för de nyutexaminerade sjuksköterskorna. Upplevelsen att det förväntades av dem att vara en självständig sjuksköterska och kunna allt från början skapade stress. Den kliniska kunskapen och ledarskapsrollen har den nyutexaminerade sjuksköterskan för lite träning på och detta anses vara en brist i utbildningen. Stressen kan bli och var en början till utmattningssyndrom för många nyutexaminerade. Det var ett stort antal nyutexaminerade som hade tankar om att sluta redan tidigt i sjuksköterskeyrket. De sjuksköterskor som upplevde arbetsglädje och fick sina behov tillfredsställda kände inte av stressen på samma vis. Faktorerna som oftast kom upp som orsak att till öka stressen var när arbetsmiljö, ledning, bemanning och kontakten med kollegor inte fungerade. Slutsats Det är viktigt att vara medveten om stressen som nyutexaminerad sjuksköterska och ta ansvar för sin egen hälsa. Ledningen inom hälso- och sjukvården bör öka sin medvetenhet om sjuksköterskeyrkets risker.

  • 18724.
    Östlund, Hanna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Blad, Linda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Fysisk aktivitets inverkan på individers mentala hälsa som depression och nedstämdhet vid ischemisk hjärtsjukdom2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: One in five individuals with ischemic heart disease suffer from depressive disorders. Depression in individuals with ischemic heart disease leads to increased mortality. Previous research has shown that physical activity has an effect on people`s mental health in depression. Mortality in ischemic heart disease decreases and the need for cardiac rehabilitation increases.

    Aim: The purpose was to investigate the impact physical activity had on the mental health of individuals with ischemic heart disease, as well as describe the study groups of the included studies.

    Method: A descriptive literature study of 11 quantitative scientific articles. The articles were searched in the databases PubMed and Cinahl.

    Main results: Physical activity had a positive effect on depression and sedation in patients with ischemic heart disease. Only the physical exercise`s effect on depression was difficult to measure and prove, but research showed that improved fitness in many cases led to a reduction of depressive disorders. The effects of physical activity tended to differ between men and women. The number of participants in the studies was between 62-522 and more men than women participated. The majority of the studies had an average age of participants between 61-67.5 years.

    Conclusion: Physical activity improved the mental health of individuals with ischemic heart disease. It was difficult to prove that physical activity alone, was what affected mental health, because many aspects apart from physical activity, are part of a rehabilitation program. However, highlighting the importance of physical activity from more than one aspect should increase the conditions to motivate more people to participate in exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation. It will not only be a benefit to the patient but also a profit for the society.

  • 18725.
    Östlund, Johanna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    Öhman, Marie Louise
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    Supernatural: Fans, tolkningsprocesser och meningsskapande2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Titel: Supernatural- Fans, tolkningsprocesser och meningsskapande

    Nivå: C-uppsats inom Medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap

    Författare: Marie Louise Öhman och Johanna Östlund

    Handledare: Anna Edin

    Examinator: Eva Åsén Ekstrand

    Datum: juni 2013

    Syfte: Studera fansens tolkningar, engagemang och meningsskapande med fokus på den amerikanska TV-serien Supernatural.    

    Teori: Analysera fansens tolkningsprocesser utifrån Stuart Halls Encodning/Decoding- modell och de tre tolkningssätten, dominant, förhandlande och oppositionell läsning.  

    Metod: Kvalitativundersökning. Med ett antal enkätfrågor som besvarades av 43 respondenter. För att nå ut till fansen annonserade vi efter respondenter via internetforumet Tumblr.

    Resultat/slutsatser: Av våra respondenter gjorde majoriteten en förhandlande läsning av TV-serien. De förstår producenternas avsedda läsning men väljer ibland att (helt eller delvis) bortse från den genom alternativa tolkningar. Det här visar sig exempelvis genom att fansen skriver fanfiction och diskuterar avsnitten med andra fans.

    Nyckelord: Supernatural, fans, tolkning, meningsskapande, publiker, receptionsanalys

  • 18726.
    Östlund, Kajsa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies.
    En kvalitativ studie om upplevda möjligheter och begränsningar med hälsofrämjande öppen förskola: Ett uppdrag från Salutsatsningen i Västerbottens Läns Landsting2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to examine how open pre-school as an arena for health promotion worked. The focus was on the employees’ experiences of the opportunities and limits in their work. The study was a comission from Salutsatsningen in Västerbotten County Council in Sweden. The method was a qualitative approach and five interviews were conducted with employees in open pre-schools in Västerbotten. The interviews were based on the criteria that served as guidelines in the employees’ work. The three main elements (criteria) were psychosocial health, diet and physical activity. The results showed that the employees had adequate procedures for their health promotion work. They experienced opportunities to support parents in their parenting and to promote healthy messages to the visitors in open pre- school. The limits they experienced were primarily in the form of cooking facilities and physical activities. Collaboration with other actors as Child health center, Maternity Care, Social Services and Dental health was also crucial to health promotion work. The conclusion was that the health promotion work in Västerbotten has a solid foundation to strengthen and support children and parents and also to promote healthy messages. But there are some deficiencies in the area of knowledge among staff and lack of clarity from Salut regarding certain criteria.

  • 18727.
    Östlund, Linda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Inställda förrättningar: Orsaker till inställande i Gävleborg, Dalarna och Jämtlands län 2013-20172018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sometimes obstacles arise in cadastral procedures that make it impossible to carry out the party's claim. An obstacle may be that property formation does not meet the conditions in chapter 3. or 5 chap. property formation (SFS 1970: 988). According to a press release issued by the Government Chancellor on January 19, 2017 (Regeringskansliet, 2017), the average processing time for an cadastral procedures is approximately 47.1 weeks at the Swedish mapping, cadastral and land registration authority (based on the last five years). The Swedish mapping, cadastral and land registration authority was commissioned to work towards shorten cases queues. By detecting obstacles in cadastral proceedings earlier, those cases that are not possible to be implemented can be removed from the case queue and help shorten the processing time.

    By examin cases that have been canceled due to a material barrier, a basis has been provided for reasons of resignation. During the period from 1 January to 31 december 2017, 74 cadastral procedurs were canceled in Gävleborg, Dalarna and Jämtland on due to material barriers.

    In view of the outcome of Klang (Klang, 2010) and the result of this work it can be concluded that the section of the law that most often cause barriers to cadastral procedurs are found in chapter 3 of the Property Formation Act.

    An examination of the property formation at an earlier stage would facilitate the work of the establishment. If obvious defects of appropriateness and conditions that are significantly contrary to the applicable land rules are discovered and can be resolved already at the first examination of the application, it could help reduce the processing time for that case. If not, the case would even be considered impracticable already there. However, in order to be able to make such an assessment at first examination, there is a certain kind of competence that is already lacking today.

  • 18728.
    Östlund, Maria
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology.
    Johansson, Jessica
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology.
    Betydelsen av ett riktat hälsoprogram inför pensionering - utövarnas uppfattningar om synen på hälsa2009Student thesis
  • 18729.
    Östlund, Monica
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences.
    Musik i förskolan: två förskollärares syn på musikens betydelse för yngre barn2011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, two preschool teachers' views on music in preschool has been investigated. Qualitative interviews have taken place in two preschools - one without specific focus and a music-oriented section located in a different preschool. The questions in the interviews were formulated so that the preschool teachers' views on the role of music and use in pre-emerged. The answers given were largely similar, particularly when it comes to how preschool teachers perceive the music's impact on children's linguistic development. The major differences that emerged was that the music in the music-oriented section is seen as a means to achieve all goals of the curriculum, and a lot of time and planning is spent on music activities in their efforts to achieve this. Organized and well-planned music-themed assemblies took place daily on the music-oriented section, and the importance of engaged educators was emphasized. In the preschool without special emphasis music was in large seen as a fun element and an addition to other activities, while they still were aware of its good effects on child development. Music was seen as being able to give children an added dimension in themes and such.

  • 18730.
    Östlund, Robert
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Johansson, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Sentence First CAPTCHA: Proposal and study of a text based CAPTCHA scheme2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A major problem on the Internet is automated computer programs abusing services intendedto be used only by humans. Therefore, a method is needed to separate computersfrom humans. Completely Automated Public Turing Test To Tell Computers and HumansApart, or CAPTCHA, is a term used to describe a test that is difficult for computers andeasy for humans to pass and that can be generated and graded automatically. Most of theCAPTCHA schemes currently in use rely on some kind of image or audio recognitionproblem, making them unavailible to the visually and/or audially impaired. Additionally,visual CAPTCHAs can currently be broken with alarmingly high success rates. We proposea CAPTCHA scheme based purely in the text domain which we have named SentenceFirst CAPTCHA. The problem imposed on the users consists of classifying stochasticallygenerated sentences by fluency and legibility and pairs of sentences by semantic coherence.This scheme was implemented and tested by means of several surveys. The answers wereanalysed and the results show that this could very well be a feasible CAPTCHA scheme.

  • 18731.
    Östlund, Sara
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Andersson, Carina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    ”Såna som mig får inte du tag på”: -Vilka faktorer är viktiga för att personer med intellektuell funktionsnedsättning ska erhålla en anställning på den öppna arbetsmarknaden?2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine important factors during support for people with intellectual disability to obtain employment. Five professionals who are supporting people with intellectual disabilities in the process towards work and four individuals that have received employment support have been interviewed. An empowerment perspective and inductive thematic method has been used to analyze the material. The results showed the importance to adjust support and evaluation individually. Client inclusive support, the work with motivation and advocating for people with disability are all important factors. To support development of skills and self awareness, to accustom society to people with disability and contribute to positive expectations are also central aspects. The conclusion has shown that empowerment-based support is a successful way of helping people with intellectual disability to receive employment. Also when needed, be able to offer continued support when employment has been established to help people retain employment.

  • 18732.
    Östlund, Ulrika
    et al.
    Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Wennman-Larsen, Agneta
    Persson, Carina
    Gustavsson, Petter
    Wengström, Yvonne
    Mental health in significant others of patients dying from lung cancer2010In: Psycho-Oncology, ISSN 1057-9249, E-ISSN 1099-1611, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 29-37Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 18733.
    Östman, Anders
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Assessment of End-User Needs: Project report2006Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 18734.
    Östman, Anders
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad. University of Gävle, GIS-institutet.
    BEGIN midterm project report2007Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 18735.
    Östman, Anders
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    Examples of training modules in Gävle, Berlin and Dublin2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 18736.
    Östman, Anders
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    GI-INDEED – Professional Training in GIS based on Distance Learning2006In: The first GISAU conference, 2006, p. 10-13Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 18737.
    Östman, Anders
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    GI-INDEED project midterm report2006Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 18738.
    Östman, Anders
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    Introduction of the VESTA GIS project2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 18739.
    Östman, Anders
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    Network for testing GI services2010In: Proceedings from Symposium GIS Ostrava 2010, 2010, p. 6 s.-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 18740.
    Östman, Anders
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad. University of Gävle, GIS-institutet.
    Process Analysis: Project report A2.1-D12007Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 18741.
    Östman, Anders
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Skyddade områden: ett viktigt tema i INSPIRE2005In: Nordisk Geomatik, ISSN 1653-2376, no 4, p. 16-18Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 18742.
    Östman, Anders
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    Verktyg för dataharmonisering baserade på öppen källkod2010In: Kartdagarna 2010 i Jönköping, 14-16 April, 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 18743.
    Östman, Anders
    et al.
    University of Gävle, GIS-institutet. University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Abugessaisa, Imad
    Tanzilli, Solgerd
    He, Xin
    University of Gävle, GIS-institutet.
    El-Mekawy, Mohamed
    GeoTest: a Testing Environment for Swedish Geodata2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    GeoTest is a project initiated by Future Position X (a GIS cluster organization in Gävle, Sweden), the National Land Survey of Sweden (NLS) and the University of Gävle. The project aims to test Swedish geodata and make sure they comply with the INSPIRE specifications in Annex I–III. The purpose of this paper is to present the development of and experiences from GeoTest in developing the required infrastructure for testing Swedish geodata.

    Due to the high demand for geodata in modern society, and anticipated requirements by INSPIRE, the issue of testing a national SDI is very important. An adequate testing environment is required. In this context, two aspects are discussed:

    1. Technical requirements for GeoTest.

    2. Organizational and coordination aspects.

    The technical requirements for GeoTest are to provide an environment to test current specifications in the context of INSPIRE Annex I. The methodology is crucial to govern the testing process. The developed methodology mainly relates to the transformation testing of the themes specified in Annex I–III. The objective of the tests is to ensure that the specifications are balanced in terms of costs and that they contribute to address user needs. At this stage, GeoTest focuses on transformation testing. The aim is to test that the transformations from local schemas to INSPIRE schemas are technically feasible.

    The methodology is based on four stages; the main strategy used in this testing was the ETL (extract-transform-load) approach. The testing process started with a preliminary desk study, with the objective to collect basic information about the themes and identify the availability and sources of schemas. The extraction process helped to identify the costly procedures when generating GML data that conform to the source schemas; in this stage we encountered some problems in the extraction process, as the data are loosely coupled to the source schema. The transformation procedures of the GML data from the extraction process to the INSPIRE GML schema performed in three sub-stages, mainly related to schema mapping, matching and transformation.

    The testing process was coordinated with NLS, via one contact person per theme. The extraction for the sample data was based on random selection of 5% of the sheet index. The paper presents the results of testing five themes addresses, cadastral parcels, geographical names, hydrography, and transport networks. The result shows that in total, 13 INSPIRE schemas has been investigated. Of these, data may be delivered for 10 schemas.

  • 18744.
    Östman, Anders
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    Bjerkman, Jan
    Future Position X.
    Regional GI Cluster in Support to the SDI Development2010In: International Conference SDI 2010 – Skopje, September 15-17 2010, 2010, p. 209-216Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 18745.
    Östman, Anders
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad. University of Gävle, GIS-institutet.
    Palmér, Owe
    Stridsman, Folke
    Training and Education for Spatial Data Infrastructures2007In: Proceedings of the IPY GeoNorth 2007 Conference, Yellowknife, Canada, August 21-24 2007, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 18746.
    Östman, Anders
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad. University of Gävle, GIS-institutet.
    Saio, Giorgio
    Granelli, Valeria
    Liljergren, Pär
    University of Gävle, GIS-institutet.
    Marchese, Alessandra
    GI-INDEED, an e-learning initiative in geo-information for environmental management compliant with the INSPIRE Directive2007In: Proceedings of the 13th EC-GIS Conference, July 4-6, 2007, Porto, Portugal, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 18747.
    Östman, Fredrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Sandberg, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Auditor independence: A field study in Pietermaritzburg, South Africa from auditors’ perspecti2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT

    Title: Auditor Independence – A field study in Pietermaritzburg, South Africa from auditors’ perspective.

    Level: Final assignment for Master Degree in Business Administration

    Author: Fredrik Östman and Patrik Sandberg

    Supervisor: Arne Fagerström

    Date: 2012 – May

    Aim: The empiric material in this study was gathered in Pietermaritzburg, South Africa. The auditor’s independence has been a hot topic because of the huge audit scandals worldwide. The quality of auditing is high in South Africa and the aim of this study was to discuss how auditors in South Africa secure their independence and their opinion about the different threats they come across in work.

    Method: This is a qualitative study with a descriptive approach. The empirical data was collected by semi-structured interviews with eight South African auditors active in Pietermaritzburg.

    Result and Conclusions: The results of this study suggest the auditors in South Africa are well aware of the independence issue and use the regulatory framework as well as basic ethics and moral values. The current legislation, CPC, is seen as a good guideline and used frequently. It seems to be accepted by both the profession and the public.          

    Suggestions for future research: The focus of this study is from the auditor’s point of view. A proposal for further research would be to see the issue from other angels such as different stakeholders.Another suggestion is to perform a similar study in another country and compare it with the result from this study. 

    Contribution of the thesis: Hopefully this study will contribute by giving auditors different individual views and perspective on the independence issue and thereby the colleagues can learn from each other.

    Key words: Auditor, independence, safeguard, Code of Professional Conduct,  South Africa, Qualitative method.

  • 18748.
    Östman, Fredrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Sandberg, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Är Guldkunderna lönsamma?: En studie av Länsförsäkringar Skaraborgs kundbonussystem2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    AbstraktTitel: Är Guldkunderna lönsamma?

    Nivå: C -uppsats i Företagsekonomi

    Författare: Patrik Sandberg & Fredrik Östman

    Handledare: Ann Wetterlind Dörner

    Datum: 2011 – Maj

    Syfte: Uppsatsens syfte är att, på uppdrag av Länsförsäkringar Skaraborg, undersöka om företagets kundbonussystem är lönsamt för företaget i praktiken.

    Metod: Uppsatsen bygger i huvudsak på en kvantitativ metod där data som har behandlats erhållits från uppdragsgivaren i form av ett Excel-dokument. X2- tester har gjorts i statistikprogrammet Minitab för att på så sätt undersöka den verkliga effekten av bonussystemets utformning.

    Resultat & slutsats: Utifrån de uppgifter och data som har erhållits visar resultaten på att bonussystemet är lönsamt för företaget även i praktiken.

    Förslag till fortsattforskning: I uppsatsen har hänsyn tagits till redan givna variabler. Ytterligare variabler skulle kunna vägas in i analysen för att på ett kvantitativt plan öka trovärdigheten för resonemanget och på ett kvalitativt plan öka förståelsen för kundernas agerande.

    Uppsatsens bidrag: Resultaten i den här uppsatsen har visat att kundbonussystemet är lönsamt för företaget även i praktiken. Ett resonemang har förts om var de största effekterna finns och detta kan eventuellt sedan användas för att effektivisera verksamheten.

  • 18749.
    Östman, Joel
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics.
    Mårtensson, Andreas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics.
    Ledtidsreducering genom värdeflödeskartläggning: Fallstudie på Humm Kombucha2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Organizations striving to grow competitive in the market must today achieve or maintain high productivity, produce the right products, in the right quantity at the right time with high delivery precision to cope with it. By applying effective improvement tools, organizations can reduce lead times, thus achieving higher productivity and quality, which in the long run contributes to lead-time reduction and cost savings. Shorter lead times are today an efficiently competitive weapon, where organizations that hold this can respond faster to market demand and increase customer satisfaction. Over the years, there have been many improvement tools that manufacturing industries can use to reduce lead times. At present, there are few completed and published studies on the use of enhancement tools in just breweries. The purpose is to investigate whether breweries which are a process industry can embrace manufacturing industries' improvement tools and achieve its effects that contribute to lead-time reduction.The methodology that has been the basis for this study is an explanatory case study. Based on this methodology, an approach has naturally arisen, which is a deductive approach. In order to answer the purpose and questions, interviews were conducted which consisted of qualitative semi structured questions, observations in production and measurements of each process step at Humm Kombucha in Gavle. Based on the secondary literature study, improvement tools have been developed that have been successfully used to reduce lead times in manufacturing industries The conclusion that can be established is that breweries can embrace improvement tools and their effects adapted to manufacturing industries. The study has developed improvement suggestions and improvement tools that Humm Kombucha can use in production to eliminate bottlenecks, which in turn reduces lead times.

  • 18750.
    Öström, Anita
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    Life in the Interregnum: July’s People: Nadine Gordimer’s July’s People2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this essay is to describe and examine differences in social behavior and social interactions in Nadine Gordimer’s July’s people. Specifically, attention will be given to the interim order that occurs after the collapse of the former South African regime and before a new regime has been established. In short, the essay attempts to answer the question how power is redistributed after the black revolution that occurs in the narrative. Antonio Gramsci’s Neo-Marxist theory is used to examine who dominates and who is subordinated among the novel’s main characters.

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