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  • 18701.
    Wilhelmson, Matilda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, Religious studies.
    Kulturreligiositet: Det kristna kulturarvets betydelse för svenska ungdomar och unga vuxna i deras beslutsfattande kring konfirmation och dop.2016Student paper other, 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna uppsats presenteras en studie kring ungdomars och unga vuxnas förhållande till kristendomen som utförts genom en intervjuundersökning kring dop och konfirmation, två handlingar inom Sveriges största trossamfund Svenska kyrkan. Tidigare studier visar att medlemskapet inom Svenska kyrkan och intresset för att delta i kyrkliga aktiviteter har minskat under de senaste decennierna. Sedan år 2000 saknar Sverige en statsreligion och är utifrån den definitionen en sekulariserad nation. En allt mindre del av befolkningen identifierar sig själva som religiösa men trots det är över 60 procent av befolkningen fortsatt medlemmar i Svenska kyrkan. Ett medlemskap i Svenska kyrkan uppnås idag genom dopet och detta medlemskap bekräftas vid konfirmationen. Dessa två handlingar står i fokus för denna studie där motiven bakom besluten beträffande dem undersöks.       Intervjuerna som genomförts i syftet att undersöka motiven bakom besluten och religionens betydelse för beslutsfattandet har gett ett resultat där sex olika motiv kan presenteras. Dessa motiv analyseras sedan utifrån tidigare forskning för att ge ett förslag till vilken roll religionen skulle kunna fylla i ett sekulariserat samhälle. Detta görs i åtanke av sammanhanget mellan religion, kultur och tradition och utifrån begreppet kulturreligiositet.

  • 18702.
    Wilhelmsson, Jonas
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment.
    Lättviktsskiva till skrivbord2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to investigate the possibility of developing a new lightweight material to use as desktop board. Reasons to develop lightweight panels are, saving cost to the company in form of raw materials and transportation, at the same time as it is an improvement for the environment. Since Edsbyverken have several product lines that are eco-labeled, this fact was taken into account when the materials were selected. Analyses of the Swedish office furniture market have been carried out, also studies of materials and techniques adapted for the production of lightweight boards. Pressure tests were carried out with the existing desktop board as reference to be compared with the test pieces. Two lightweight boards were selected, a design phase was carried out where desktop legs were designed to reflect the characteristics that a lighter desk possesses.

  • 18703.
    Wilhelmus Johannes Andreas, G.
    et al.
    Karolinska Insitutet, Department of Neurobiology, Caring Sciences and Society, División of Physical Therapy, Sweden.
    Johansson, Elin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Observational Methods for Assessing Ergonomic Risks for Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders: A Scoping Review2018In: Revista Ciencias de la Salud, ISSN 1692-7273, Vol. 16, no Special Issue, p. 8-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (wrmsds) are one of the most common causes of absence from work. Exposures in the work environment can cause or aggravate the impact of these musculoskeletal disorders and the identification of ergonomic exposures are essential in risk assessment. It is important to assess all three key indicators of these exposures (intensity, frequency and duration) for being able to estimate the risk level for the development of wrmsds. Aim: This paper aims to give an overview of some of the observational methods that can be used for assessment of ergonomic risks at the workplace. Methods: This study was conducted as a scoping review of the medical and ergonomic literature and official governmental webpages in Sweden, U.S.A. and the Netherlands. Results: In total, 19 different observational methods were identified. We summarize our findings based on the body parts that were studied and what key indicators were assessed: 1) intensity of the work load (posture and force production), 2) frequency of the work load (e.g. repetitive movements), and 3) the duration of the work load (e.g. static work). In an appendix we include a brief presentation of these methods together with the work sheet (if available) and the source reference of the observational method. Conclusion: For ergonomists that perform risk assessments, there is a large number of observational assessment tools available and it is important to understand that different methods can be used simultaneously to be able to estimate the objective risk levels for wrmsds. © 2018, Universidad del Rosario. All rights reserved.

  • 18704.
    Wilke Bozkurt, Angelica
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Integration av nyanlända elever i grundskoleverksamheten: Hur ser det ut i grundskolans verksamheter?2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie syftar till att kunna bidra med kunskap för lärare gällande hur de kan hjälpa nyanlända eleverna integreras i grundskoleverksamheterna. Den syftar också till att ge en inblick kring lärares syn på integrering av de nyanlända eleverna i de svenska grundskoleverksamheterna och hur integrationen ser ut. I Sverige används två olika metoder för integration som båda har fördelar och nackdelar att ta i beaktning. Både de svenska och de internationella studierna visar att integrationen av nyanlända elever är varierad och prioriteras olika mycket mellan grundskoleverksamheterna. Detta framkommer även i enkätstudien som är gjord utifrån denna studies syfte. Resultatet visar att det finns många brister med integrationen av nyanlända elever i grundskoleverksamheterna. Bland annat saknas stöd till alla nyanlända elever, kunskap gällande hur lärarna ska arbeta med integrationen och tid till att planera en likvärdig utbildning för alla elever.

  • 18705.
    Wilkinson, Cathy
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Porter, Libby
    Colding, Johan
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Metropolitan planning and resilience thinking: A practitioner’s perspective2010In: Critical Planning, Vol. 17, p. 2-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Glasgow, Stockholm and Melbourne by resilience and planning scholars, this paper synthesizes practitioner insights into how resilience thinking can inform metropolitan planning. The paper identifies three ways resilience thinking can usefully inform metropolitan planning. First, by offering new metaphors regarding the nature of structural change in linked and complex systems that prioritize change and uncertainty. Second, through the application of new frames and tools for analysis of the dynamics of complex social-ecological urban systems. Third, by examining the relevance of adaptive governance for metropolitan planning.

  • 18706.
    Wilkinson, Cathy
    et al.
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm, Sweden, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Luleå tekniska universitet, Luleå, Sweden.
    Saarne, Toomas
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Paterson, Garry D.
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Colding, Johan
    Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Stockholm, Sweden; The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Strategic spatial planning and the ecosystem services concept: An historical exploration2013In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 18, no 1, article id 37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines how ecosystem services (ES) have been taken into account historically in strategic spatial plans in Melbourne and Stockholm through a comparative case study analysis of eight strategic spatial plans from 1929-2010. We investigated the types of ES taken into account, and how human-nature relations and the valuation and trade-off discussions regarding ES were framed. An ES coding protocol was developed that categorized and identified 39 ES drawing from the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment and other relevant literature. Only two of the 39 ES were addressed in every plan for both cities, namely freshwater and recreation. While the number of ES referred to in plans has generally increased over time, just under a third of ES in Melbourne and Stockholm were not addressed at all. References to individual ES showed little continuity over time. This variability reveals a time-scale mismatch that has been overlooked in the ES literature with potential urban policy implications. Despite considerable variation in ES addressed across the plans, there is a striking similar pattern in the total numbers of ES addressed over time in both cities. Plans for both cities showed a spike in the late 60s/early 70s, followed by a significant decline in the late 70s/early 80s with the highest number of ES addressed in the most recent plans. Furthermore, our analysis shows that strategic spatial plans generally demonstrate awareness that urban populations are dependent on ecosystems and this framing is an important part of the policy discourse. While specific monetary values were not placed on any ES in the plans, resolution of land-use conflicts requiring tradeoffs between ES and equity of distribution of ES is a central feature of most of the examined plans. We argue that longitudinal policy document analysis represents a useful complement to any attempt to improve understanding of the implications of and opportunities for operationalizing an ES approach in urban practice

  • 18707.
    Willander, Johan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology. Gösta Ekman Laboratory, Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sikström, Sverker
    Department of Psychology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Kristina
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Multimodal retrieval of autobiographical memories: sensory information contributes differently to the recollection of events2015In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 6, article id 1681Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies on autobiographical memory have focused on unimodal retrieval cues (i.e., cues pertaining to one modality). However, from an ecological perspective multimodal cues (i.e., cues pertaining to several modalities) are highly important to investigate. In the present study we investigated age distributions and experiential ratings of autobiographical memories retrieved with unimodal and multimodal cues. Sixty-two participants were randomized to one of four cue-conditions: visual, olfactory, auditory, or multimodal. The results showed that the peak of the distributions depends on the modality of the retrieval cue. The results indicated that multimodal retrieval seemed to be driven by visual and auditory information to a larger extent and to a lesser extent by olfactory information. Finally, no differences were observed in the number of retrieved memories or experiential ratings across the four cue-conditions.

  • 18708.
    Williams, Maelona
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology.
    Adolfsson, Agnes
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology.
    Fysisk aktivitet och lärande i skolan: -en litteraturstudie om det eventuella sambandet2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Om fysisk aktivitet påverkar lärandet och har många andra positiva effekter kan man undra om inte skolans idrottstimmar borde utökas. Syftet med litteraturstudien är att undersöka vad tillgänglig forskning säger när det gäller sambandet mellan fysisk aktivitet och lärande i skolan. Materialet till studien har sökts i relevanta databaser. För att ett vetenskapligt dokument skulle bli inkluderat i litteraturstudien skulle fokus ligga på och beröra fysisk aktivitet och lärande, alternativt fysisk aktivitet och kognitiv utveckling. Eftersom fokus ligger på fysisk aktivitet inom skolan har de även valt att beskriva hur idrottsundervisningen i skolan har utvecklats sedan införandet. Författarna har valt att granska utredningar, forskning och artiklar som haft som syfte att utvärdera och lyfta fram den fysiska aktiviteten i skolan. Resultatet tyder på att elever som får utökad fysisk aktivitet presterar bättre i skolan. Det finns även samband mellan ökad fysisk aktivitet och elevers trivsel i skolan. Flera studier anser att mer forskning bör göras innan det går att dra konkreta slutsatser att det finns ett samband mellan fysisk aktivitet och skolprestationer.

  • 18709.
    Willind, IsaDora
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskans upplevelser av kommunikation och kulturella yttranden mellan personer från olika kulturer.: - en litteraturstudie2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim was to describe nurses’ experiences of communication and cultural manifestations with people from different cultures and to review the selected articles sample and drop-outs.  

    Method: The present study has a descriptive design. Ten articles with qualitative approach were included.

    Findings: The results showed that nurses experienced communication difficulties with people from different cultures which was experienced as challenging and frustrating. To facilitate communication difficulties the nurses developed their own strategies and enlisted the help of an interpreter, bilingual healthcare professionals and relatives. The nurses experienced difficulties with cultural manifestations which included that many relatives visited the patient, and that routines and visiting hours were not respected.

    Conclusion: The nurses felt that they lacked in cultural knowledge, understanding and education. By establishing teaching of transcultural nursing in nursing programmes could lead to newly graduated nurses having better tools to meet patients from different cultures when they start working. Professional practising nurses should be provided with training.

  • 18710.
    Willing, Magnus
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies.
    Kolic, Emir
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies.
    Arbetstillfredsställelse bland personliga assistenter med anhörigrelation2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine the job satisfaction of personal assistants with a family connection to the customer. The study was conducted at the company OP Assistans with the help of a questionnaire survey. A total of 33 valid responses gave a response rate of 37.5%. The results showed significant differences between women and men in the dimensions of

    Safety, Feelings About the company and Communication, and a strong tendency to difference in dimension Supervision, where women showed a higher job satisfaction than men in all four dimensions. The results showed also a significant difference in the dimension My Job based on length of employment, where employees who have been employed between 6 to 15 years, showed a higher job satisfaction in the dimension My job than respondents who were employed between 1 to 6 years.

    Keywords: Job Satisfaction, satisfaction with supervisor, leadership

  • 18711.
    Willman, Emelie
    University of Gävle, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för svenska språket och engelska.
    En jämförelse mellan två reflektionsunderlag2009Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studiens syfte är att med hjälp av en undersökning innefattande åtta elever från år tre se om lärarens val av reflektionsunderlag påverkar elevernas läsutveckling i en positiv riktning. Materialet som användes i undersökningen bestod av en text som eleverna fick läsa samtidigt som de spelades in på band. Studiens informanter bestod av fyra flickor och fyra pojkar från två olika skolor. Materialet analyserades genom att bandinspelningarna transkriberades. I nästa steg analyserades materialet genom att avvikelser från den ursprungliga texten markerades, slutligen gjordes en bedömning av elevernas kunskapsnivå utifrån ett reflektionsunderlag.

    Resultatet visade att God läsutveckling var det reflektionsunderlag som gav den största positiva responsen hos elevernas läsutveckling. Vidare visade resultatet att God läsutvecklingen även samlade eleverna närmare varandra kunskapsmässigt än vad LUS gjorde.

  • 18712.
    Willmer, Mikaela
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    ‘The only chance of a normal weight life’: A qualitative analysis of online forum discussions about bariatric surgery2018In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 10, article id e0206066Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The only effective weight loss treatment for severe obesity is bariatric surgery, with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass being the most common method. Patients often have unrealistic expectations of surgery and expect a “miracle cure” even though the procedure requires major lifelong lifestyle changes. Most patients access information about the procedure online, and come into contact with others who have had the surgery.

    Objective

    The objective of this study was to describe shared values, feelings, and thoughts among visitors to a web-based forum for those undergoing bariatric surgery.

    Methods

    In this cross-sectional observation study using qualitative contents analysis, the material consisted of an online discussion forum thread about bariatric surgery, with 498 posts. These were saved in a document, read and re-read. Through coding of meaningful units of text, themes were established.

    Results

    Four themes were constructed during data analysis: a) A new life-anticipating dramatic changes of body and mind; b) Negotiating the system and playing the waiting game; c) A means to an end-managing the pre-operative diet; and d) Managing the attitudes of others. Posters described the process of bariatric surgery as a journey, riddled with roadblocks, setbacks and trials, but also with joy and expectations of a new life.

    Conclusion

    Professionals who encounter this group should be aware of their need for support throughout the process, and investigate the possibility of both pre- and postoperative support groups, either online or face-to-face. The results also show that the posters on the forum had very high, and often unrealistic, expectations on how the surgery would change their lives. It is important for those who encounter this group before surgery to be aware of this tendency and to take measures to ensure that patients undergo the surgery with realistic expectations.

  • 18713.
    Willmer, Mikaela
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science, Caring Science.
    Westerberg Jacobson, Josefin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science, Caring Science.
    Lindberg, Magnus
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science, Caring Science.
    Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis of the 9-Item Utrecht Work Engagement Scale in a multi-occupational female sample: a cross-sectional study2019In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, article id 2771Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to use exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to investigate the factorial structure of the 9-item Utrecht work engagement scale (UWES-9) in a multi-occupational female sample.

    Methods: A total of 702 women, originally recruited as a general population of 7–15-year-old girls in 1995 for a longitudinal study, completed the UWES-9. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was performed on half the sample, and CFA on the other half.

    Results: Exploratory factor analysis showed that a one-factor structure best fit the data. CFA with three different models (one-factor, two-factor, and three-factor) was then conducted. Goodness-of-fit statistics showed poor fit for all three models, with RMSEA never going lower than 0.166.

    Conclusion: Despite indication from exploratory factor analysis (EFA) that a one-factor structure seemed to fit the data, we were unable to find good model fit for a one-, two-, or three-factor model using CFA. As previous studies have also failed to reach conclusive results on the optimal factor structure for the UWES-9, further research is needed in order to disentangle the possible effects of gender, nationality and occupation on work engagement.

  • 18714.
    Willmes, Emma
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Björklund, Vera
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Hur personer med Hiv upplever hälsa i vardagslivet2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Background: HIV is one of the world's largest public health problems, in 2017 the

    World Health Organization stated that about 37 million people worldwide are living

    with HIV. In Sweden, approximately 6,500 people are living with HIV and every year

    between 400-500 new cases of HIV are reported in Sweden. Despite good knowledge of

    HIV does prejudices, fears and a negative attitude towards people with HIV still exists

    within the healthcare sector. The understanding of an individual's everyday life is an

    important basis for the nurse's work because the understanding controls the actions the

    nurse can insert to ease the experience of health in everyday life. A better understanding

    of an individual's everyday life can also improve the relationship between the nurse and

    the patient and can facilitate the person's participation in their own care.

    Purpose: Describe how people with HIV experience health in their everyday life.

    Method: A literature review with descriptive design based on 12 qualitative articles.

    Findings: The result indicate that people with HIV experience difficulties regarding

    medication, stigmatization and discrimination as obstacles to health in their everyday

    life. While social support from family, friends, faith and healthcare staff can facilitate

    the experience of health in everyday life.

    Conclusion: People with HIV experience difficulties regarding medication,

    stigmatization and discrimination as obstacles to health in everyday life while social

    support from family, friends, faith and healthcare staff can facilitate the experience of

    health in everyday life. It is important to understand how the individual experiences his

    everyday life and what influences the experience of everyday life, this because an

    individual’s everyday life has to work in order for them to experience health.

    Keyword: Everyday life, Experience, Health, HIV.

  • 18715.
    Willstedt, Martin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för datavetenskap.
    Litzell, Peter
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för datavetenskap.
    Utveckling av databassystem för Sjölins Smide2009Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett genomtänkt databassystem består av en väl utformad databas samt lättanvänt användargränsnitt. Brister i dessa punkter kan orsaka irritation och illvilja mot användning av systemet. Syftet med detta uppdrag var att åtgärda dessa brister för vår uppdragsgivare och skräddarsy en lösning utifrån användarnas perspektiv. En webbaserad lösning valdes för att främja mobilitet och tillgänglighet bland företagets anställda. Resultatet blev ett system som bättre stödjer användarna i vardagliga arbetsuppgifter.

  • 18716.
    Wilén, Annika
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology.
    Hur förskollärare och lärare är rustade att möta barn i behov av särskilt stöd.2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna undersökning handlar om hur väl rustade förskollärare och lärare är att möta barn i behov av särskilt stöd i förskolan/skolan – sett utifrån ett lärarperspektiv.

    Syftet med undersökningen är att ge ökad kunskap om förskollärare och lärare resurser i förskolan och skolan, samt hur dessa resurser påverkar förskolan och skolans kvalitet och verksamhet. Två förskollärare samt två lärare intervjuades i undersökningen.

    Resultatet av undersökningen visar att både förskollärarna och lärarna anser att det inte finns tid till att möta alla barn i behov av särskilt stöd så mycket som de önskar och anser att de behöver. Barnantalet i barngrupperna och klasserna anser förskollärarna och lärarna är för högt. De ansåg även att förskolan och skolans lokaler var för små. Både förskollärarna och lärarna anser att miljön är dåligt anpassad till barn i behov av särskilt stöd i förskolan och skolan, då lokalerna är små, samt är dåligt anpassade för barn som behöver rullstol.

    Enligt förskollärarna i studien är det ett problem att hinna med att specialanpassa verksamheten i förskolan för barnen i behov av särskilt stöd. Förskollärarna ser problem med att hinna tillverka specialpedagogiskt material, samt att speciellt planera och genomföra en daglig verksamhet för barn i behov av särskilt stöd.

    De slutsatser som kan dras utifrån undersökningen är att förskollärare och lärare behöver mindre barngrupper för att få tid till alla barn. Enligt undersökningen läggs för stort ansvar på förskollärare och lärare att se till alla barns behov samt att planera och utveckla verksamheten utifrån de skolpolitiska krav som ställs. Förskollärarna och lärarna behöver få ökat delat ansvar från rektor för utformning av den pedagogiska verksamheten, så den svarar mot de skolpolitiska krav som finns. Kommuner behöver få ökad inblick i hur förskolan och skolans verksamhet ser ut på en konkret nivå, för att kunna avgöra vilka ekonomiska resurser som behövs för att införliva de krav som ställs i förskolan/skolan på skolpolitiknivå.

  • 18717.
    Wilén, Jonna
    et al.
    National Institute for Working Life, Umeå, Sweden.
    Johansson, Amanda
    National Institute for Working Life, Umeå, Sweden.
    Kalezic, Nebojsa
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Lyskov, Eugene
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Sandström, Monica
    National Institute for Working Life, Umeå, Sweden.
    Psychophysiological tests and provocation of subjects with mobile phone related symptoms2006In: Bioelectromagnetics, ISSN 0197-8462, E-ISSN 1521-186X, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 204-214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of exposure to a mobile phone-like radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic field on persons experiencing subjective symptoms when using mobile phones (MP). Twenty subjects with MP-related symptoms were recruited and matched with 20 controls without MP-related symptoms. Each subject participated in two experimental sessions, one with true exposure and one with sham exposure, in random order. In the true exposure condition, the test subjects were exposed for 30 min to an RF field generating a maximum SAR(1g) in the head of 1 W/kg through an indoor base station antenna attached to a 900 MHz GSM MP. The following physiological and cognitive parameters were measured during the experiment: heart rate and heart rate variability (HRV), respiration, local blood flow, electrodermal activity, critical flicker fusion threshold (CFFT), short-term memory, and reaction time. No significant differences related to RF exposure conditions were detected. Also no differences in baseline data were found between subject groups, except for the reaction time, which was significantly longer among the cases than among the controls the first time the test was performed. This difference disappeared when the test was repeated. However, the cases differed significantly from the controls with respect to HRV as measured in the frequency domain. The cases displayed a shift in low/high frequency ratio towards a sympathetic dominance in the autonomous nervous system during the CFFT and memory tests, regardless of exposure condition. This might be interpreted as a sign of differences in the autonomous nervous system regulation between persons with MP related subjective symptoms and persons with no such symptoms.

  • 18718.
    Wimalm, Sara
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    Värnström, Sanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    Till föräldrar som har Instagram…: En kvalitativ jämförelsestudie om föräldrars resonemang i den mediala värld som vi lever i.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is about how parents view usage of instagram when it comes to publishing pictures of their children. We want to emphazise problems that revolves around the fact that children can't raise their own voice on the matter.

     

    We have chosen to do an analysis where we compare how our respondants reasons based on a survey that is also an integral part of this paper. In order to get a better idea of how medias affect todays society, we have used Mark Deuze’s work about invisible medias and Nanna Gillberg’s writings about todays attention driven society. We also discuss digitalization and globalization which are important aspects of how the society develops. With this information, we will draw conclusions as to our respondants usage of Instagram and the publishing images of their kids.

     

    Our research question is how parents reasons about publishing pictures of their kids on Instagram or not. We also research if the parents has had a dialogue regarding publishing pictures of their kids on instagram or not.

     

    The result we got from our research is that parents care for their childerns integrity on social media. We could also show that parents share the same views about publishing pictures of ther children on Instagram. The majority of respondants in our study have had a dialogue about this subject.

  • 18719.
    Wimark, Jennie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Kosten i förskolan ur ett pedagogiskt perspektiv2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 18720.
    Wimo, Anders
    et al.
    Aging Research Center (ARC), Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Center for Alzheimer Research at Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Centre for Research & Development, Uppsala University/County Council of Gävleborg, Sjukhuset i Gävle, Sweden.
    Sjölund, Britt-Marie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Aging Research Center (ARC), Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sköldunger, Anders
    Aging Research Center (ARC), Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Qui, Chengxuan
    Aging Research Center (ARC), Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Klarin, Inga
    Department of Geriatrics, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; Division of Clinical Geriatrics, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm Sweden.
    Nordberg, Gunilla
    The Swedish Dementia Centre, Stockholm, Sweden.
    von Strauss, Eva
    Aging Research Center (ARC), Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; The Swedish Red Cross University College, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Cohort Effects in the Prevalence and Survival of People with Dementia in a Rural Area in Northern Sweden2016In: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, ISSN 1387-2877, E-ISSN 1875-8908, Vol. 50, no 2, p. 387-396Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Recent studies suggest that trends in cardiovascular risk may result in a decrease in age-specific prevalence of dementia. Studies in rural areas are rare.

    Objectives: To study cohort effects in dementia prevalence and survival of people with dementia in a Swedish rural area.

    Methods: Participants were from the 1995-1998 Nordanstig Project (NP) (n = 303) and the 2001-2003 Swedish National study on Aging and Care in Nordanstig (SNAC-N) (n = 384). Overall 6-year dementia prevalence and mortality in NP and SNAC-N were compared for people 78 years and older. Logistic regression analyses were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for dementia occurrence using the NP study population as the reference group. Cox regression models were used to analyze time to death.

    Results: The crude prevalence of dementia was 21.8% in NP and 17.4% in SNAC-N. When the NP cohort was used as the reference group, the age- and gender-adjusted OR of dementia was 0.71 (95% CI 0.48-1.04) in SNAC-N; the OR was 0.47 (0.24-0.90) for men and 0.88 (0.54-1.44) for women. In the extended model, the OR of dementia was significantly lower in SNAC-N than in the NP cohort as a whole (0.63; 0.39-0.99) and in men (0.34; 0.15-0.79), but not in women (0.81; 0.46-1.44). The Cox regression models indicated that the hazard ratio of dying was lower in the SNAC-N than NP population.

    Conclusions: Trends toward a lower prevalence of dementia in high-income countries seem to be evident in this Swedish rural area, at least in men.

  • 18721.
    Winberg, Emma
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science.
    Motivation till lärande: Hur kan mellanstadieelever motiveras till att jobba med matematik i skolan?2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 18722.
    Winberg, Helena
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för energi- och maskinteknik. University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment.
    Tiestö, Micaela
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för energi- och maskinteknik.
    Theoretical analysis of the performance of a small wind energy converter2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    This thesis has been done in Barcelona, Spain, in cooperation with the University of Gävle (HiG) and the Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC). At UPC there is a project carried out where the goal is to analyze the characteristics and performance of the wind turbine IT-100, with an intention to optimize it. This is carried out by assignment of Engineers Without Borders and Practical Action. The purpose of the thesis has been to present what power, value of tension and current the turbine will produce in different wind velocities.

     

    The IT-100 is built to generate electricity to the population in the countryside in, among other countries, Peru. The energy the turbine captures from the wind will be used to charge vehicle batteries that are used in the households as a source of electricity. This is an effective, cheap and environmental-friendly way of supplying households with electricity.

     

    The idea of using the energy in the wind has been known for thousands of years. It started with simple windmills for grinding grain and later more complicated machines like wind turbines were created. Wind power is one of the worlds cleanest sources of energy with as good as no emissions at all while in running.

     

    The result of the work with this thesis work is an Excel file where the, by the purpose requested, parameters are presented in relation to different wind velocities. With some conditions set from the start, some known values of reference and the rotor blades rotational speed as a key variable, these parameters were possible to calculate.

     

    During the work, the project came upon some difficulties such as; not enough information about the wind turbine, too little previous knowledge among the students and trouble with the Spanish language. However, on the whole the project has been successful and a good learning experience.

  • 18723.
    Wind, Hanna
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för pedagogik.
    Kostdebatten mellan Livsmedelsverket och lågkolhydratkostförespråkare (LCHF)2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Wind Hanna (2009) Kostdebatten mellan Livsmedelsverket och lågkolhydratkostförespråkare (LCHF). C-uppsats i pedagogik, Institutionen för Pedagogik, Didaktik och Psykologi, Högskolan i Gävle.

     

    Kostdebatten mellan Livsmedelsverket och läkaren Annika Dahlqvist har de senaste två åren fått stort utrymme i media. Syftet med den här uppsatsen är att med inspiration från diskursanalys beskriva och förklara dels Annika Dahlqvists kritik mot Livsmedelsverkets kostråd och hur Livsmedelsverket bemöter kritiken, dels hur parterna framställs i ett urval medieartiklar. Sex artiklar togs fram genom sökning på Google och Livsmedelsverkets hemsida. Artiklarna granskades och lästes noggrant. Ett längre textavsnitt från respektive analysmaterial presenteras och tolkas i en resultatanalys. Dahlqvist förespråkar en lågkolhydratkost med ett högt intag av mättat fett (LCHF) och kritiserar Livsmedelsverkets kostråd för att vara förlegade och till och med orsaka många människors död. Livsmedelsverket däremot står fast vid sina framtagna kostråd med argumentet att de är baserade på vetenskaplig forskning. Dahlqvist använder sig främst av skrämselpropaganda och kunskap i sin kritik mot Livsmedelsverket. Gemensamt för de båda huvudaktörerna och media är att de i debatten inte fokuserar på likheter utan endast det som skiljer kostråden.

     

    Nyckelord: kostdebatt, kostråd, Annika Dahlqvist, Livsmedelsverket, LCHF, medieforskning.

    Keywords: food conflict, food advice, Annika Dahlqvist, Livsmedelsverket, LCHF, media research.

  • 18724.
    Windahl, Katarina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Windahl Katarina Desirée.
    Distriktsköterskors erfarenheter och reflektioner av Motivernade samtal2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 18725.
    Winding, Sebastian
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    BAJT: Digital teknik i hemmiljö2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 18726.
    Winestedt, Nicklas
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Andersson, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Individuell mätning och debitering - Vad anser marknaden?2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 18727.
    Wingenblixt, Johan
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology.
    Gruppdynamik: Skillnader i synsätt mellan lärare och elever2006Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Som nämns i inledningen och i bakgrunden för valet av ämne så skulle en god gruppdynamik eller ett gott klassrumsklimat kunna borga för goda studieresultat. Det skulle även kunna, för vissa elever, bidra till att de ser tillbaka på sin tidigare skolgång som någonting positivt. Detta positiva minne skulle kunna motivera dem till att fortsätta att studera på ett högre stadium, exempelvis gymnasium eller högskola/universitet. Det är utifrån denna utgångspunkt som detta examensarbete har kommit till. Syftet med denna undersökning som får betraktas som en fallstudie har varit att både för framtida läsare och undertecknad att belysa eventuella skillnader i hur god gruppdynamik skapas och bibehålls. Detta är relevant för elever och lärare när det gäller skapandet av goda förutsättningar för att uppnå bra studieresultat. Det är också av intresse enär positiva studieresultat inte alltid är anledningen till att elever fortsätter att studera i framtiden. Det var viktigt för undersökningens existens att bilda sig en uppfattning om vilka ord och begrepp som kunde tänkas finnas med i begreppet ”gruppdynamik”. Detta gjordes dels för att skapa en större kunskap om vad gruppdynamik egentligen innebär och dels för att göra begreppet mer begripligt för de personer som skulle vara med i undersökningen. En artikel i ett vetenskapligt magasin låg till grund för den enkät som utvecklades för den fallstudie som lät göras där 17 elever och två av deras lärare deltog. De deltagande personerna skulle alltså bidra till att besvara problemformulering i detta examensarbete som lyder: Hur märks skillnader i synsätt mellan lärare och elever i hur man bäst får dynamiken i en grupp att fungera?

  • 18728.
    Wingh, Cathrine
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies.
    Bergqvist, Anneli
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies.
    Sjuksköterskans identifiering av smärta hos äldre personer med demenssjukdom: En litteraturstudie2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To describe from literature how nurses can identify pain in older people with dementia and to examine the instruments available to describe the pain. Method: The literature study was descriptive design. The literature search was done in PubMed and Cinahl databases. Results: The result was based on 14 scientific articles that show that there are many expressions of pain that nurses can use to identify pain in older people with dementia. The results showed that it is very difficult to identify pain in care of older persons with dementia, because they can not communicate as cognitively intact persons. It is therefore important that the nurse knows the patient to record deviations in behavior and body language, which may indicate pain. The results also showed that there are a variety of different sensors to estimate the pain in the elderly with dementia. Pain measurement instruments are divided into self-rating scales and observation scales. Conclusion: The identification of pain in this population requires that the nurse is attentive, have knowledge and experience and take the time for assessment. The pain assessment is observation scales to prefer demented individuals are less able to self-rate their pain.

  • 18729.
    Winkler, Petra
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Östman, Emilia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Predicerar delaktighet, arbetstrivsel och organisationsidentitet hur väl den anställde talar om organisationen?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to investigate whether it is possible to predict how well the employee speaks about the organization (measured by Employee Brand Equity Scale) based on the predictors of job satisfaction (measured by The Generic Job Satisfaction Scale), organizational identity (measured by Identification With a Psychological Group Scale) and participation (measured by Communication Satisfaction Questionnaire). A quantitative study was conducted on an organization in the steel industry. A survey was sent out and answered by 279 employees. A multiple linear regression analysis showed that the higher the participation, job satisfaction and organizational identity, the more increase regarding how well the employee speaks about the organization. The predictors together explained 61% of the response variable (how well the employee talks about the organization). How well the employee speaks about the organization could be explained most strongly by the predictor of job satisfaction followed by the predictors of organizational identity and participation.

  • 18730.
    Winkler Pettersson, Lars
    et al.
    Informationsteknologi, Uppsala universitet.
    Kjellin, Andreas
    Informationsvetenskap, Uppsala universitet.
    Lind, Mats
    Informationsvetenskap, Uppsala universitet.
    Seipel, Stefan
    Informationsvetenskap, Uppsala universitet.
    On the role of visual references in collaborative visualization2009In: Information Visualization, ISSN 1473-8716, E-ISSN 1473-8724, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 98-114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multi-Viewer Display Environments (MVDE) provide unique opportunities to present personalized information to several users concurrently in the same physical display space. MVDEs can support correct 3D visualizations to multiple users, present correctly oriented text and symbols to all viewers and allow individually chosen subsets of information in a shared context. MVDEs aim at supporting collaborative visual analysis, and when used to visualize disjoint information in partitioned visualizations they even necessitate collaboration. When solving visual tasks collaboratively in a MVDE, overall performance is affected not only by the inherent effects of the graphical presentation but also by the interaction between the collaborating users.

    We present results from an empirical study where we compared views with lack of shared visual references in disjoint sets of information to views with mutually shared information. Potential benefits of 2D and 3D visualizations in a collaborative task were investigated and the effects of partitioning visualizations both in terms of task performance, interaction behavior and clutter reduction. In our study of a collaborative task that required only a minimum of information to be shared, we found that partitioned views with a lack of shared visual references were significantly less efficient than integrated views. However, the study showed that subjects were equally capable of solving the task at low error levels in partitioned and integrated views. An explorative analysis revealed that the amount of visual clutter was reduced heavily in partitioned visualization, whereas verbal and deictic communication between subjects increased. It also showed that the type of the visualization (2D/3D) affects interaction behavior strongly. An interesting result is that collaboration on complex geo-time visualizations is actually as efficient in 2D as in 3D.

  • 18731.
    Winkler Pettersson, Lars
    et al.
    Informationsteknologi, Uppsala universitet.
    Seipel, Stefan
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för datavetenskap.
    Collaborative pixel-accurate interaction with PixelActiveSurface2007In: Extended Abstracts 2007, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 18732.
    Winnersjö, Rocio
    et al.
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institute, and Division of Public Health Sciences, Mid-Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Ponce de Leon, Antonio
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institute, and Departmento de Epidemiologia, Universidade do Estado de Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Soares, Joaquim F
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institute, and Division of Public Health Sciences, Mid-Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Macassa, Gloria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Public health science.
    Violence and self-reported health: does individual socioeconomic position matter?2012In: Journal of Injury and Violence Research, ISSN 2008-2053, E-ISSN 2008-4072, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 87-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Violence is a major public health problem. Both clinical and population based studies shows that violence against men and women has physical and psychological health consequences. However, elsewhere and in Sweden little is known of the effect of individual socioeconomic position (SEP) on the relation between violence and health outcomes. Objective: This study aimed to assess the effect of individual SEP on the relation between violence and three health outcomes (general health, pain and anxiety) among women in Stockholm County.

    METHODS: The study used data from the Stockholm Public Health Survey, a cross-sectional survey carried out in 2006 for the Stockholm County Council by Statistic Sweden. 34 704 respondents answered the survey, the response rate was sixty one percent. Analyses were carried out using descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis in SPSS v.17.0.

    RESULTS: Individual SEP increased the odds of reporting poor health outcomes among victimized women in Stockholm County. Regarding self-reported health women in low-SEP who reported victimization in the past twelve months had odds of 2,36 (95% CI 1.48-3.77) for the age group 18-29 years and 3.78 (95% CI 2.53-5.64) for the age group 30-44 years compared with women in high-SEP and non-victim. For pain the odds was 2,41 (95% CI 1,56-3,73) for the age group 18-29 years and 2,98 (95% CI 1,99-4,46) for women aged 30-44 years. Regarding anxiety the age group 18-29 years had odds of 2,53 (95% CI 1,58-4,03) and for the age group 30-44 years had odds of 3,87 (95% CI 2,55-5,87).

    CONCLUSIONS: Results showed that individual SEP (measured by occupation) matters to the relationship between violence and health outcomes such as general self-reported health, pain and anxiety. Women in lower SEP who experienced victimization in the past twelve months had increased odds of reporting poorer self-rated health, pain and anxiety compared to those in higher SEP with no experience of victimization. However, further exploration of the relationship between poverty, individual SEP is needed using other Swedish population samples.

  • 18733. Winqvist, Marianne
    et al.
    Öberg, Peter
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology, Ämnesavdelningen för socialt arbete.
    Äldreomsorgsforskning i Norden: en kunskapsöversikt (Bokrecension)2006In: Socialvetenskaplig tidskrift, ISSN 1104-1420, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 275-278Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 18734.
    Winsjansen, Frida
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Utredning av energibesparingspotential och lönsamhet hos kompressorsystem med värmeåtervinning: För integrering i industriellt uppvärmningssystem2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In order to meet the growing demand for energy in the future, while contributing to a long-term sustainable energy supply, resource and energy efficiency measures are required within several sectors. In 2016 the industry sector accounted for more than 50 percent of the global power demand. The use of existing resources, such as waste heat from compressed air production, is a possible efficiency measure. 

    Behind this thesis work is a request from the Sandvik AB Group to estimate savings potential and reinvestment costs in one of the industry's compressor centers, Götvalsverket. The reinvestment refers to two new compressors whose waste heat is integrated into the industry's existing district heating system and allows for reduced resource and energy costs as well as a reduction of CO2-emissions. 

    This work aims to investigate different compressor alternatives from an economic- and environmental perspective. This is done using collected data, a sensitivity analysis and profitability calculations with an attached LCC-analysis. The aim is to answer various questions regarding total investment cost, energy and resource saving as well as emission reduction.

    Two cases in production are investigated. The first according to the existing operation hours in Götvalsverket and the second case with an optimized operating time for the compressor units. 

    A literature review has also been conducted where several studies show that compressed air is an expensive alternative to energy production and that implementation of efficiency measures, including waste heat recovery, can be well-founded investments. Other benefits can also be linked to energy efficiency, such as improved production and an improved work environment for employees. 

    The result of the work showed that one alternative in particular stood out from the other compressor solutions, both from an economic and environmental point of view. This option did not offer the cheapest investment but the amount of recovered waste heat was much larger than for the other alternatives and therefore, energy savings reduced the payback period drastically. 

    The utilizing of existing resources such as waste heat, together with the industry sector’s reduced energy consumption, is considered a necessity in order to ensure the well-being of people, animals and nature in the future.

  • 18735.
    Winter, Kristoffer
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Fastighetsbranschen och energibesparing2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Att analysera och diskutera utifrån ett hållbarhetsperspektiv vad som är kostnads- och energieffektivt för ett mindre fastighetsföretag och resonera kring om det ger nöjdare hyresgäster.

     

    Metod: Litteraturstudier har genomförts för att ta reda på hur fastighetsbranschen och dess klimatpåverkan ser ut idag. Teori om kundnöjdhet för att se hur man skapar nöjda hyresgäster. I detta arbete har både, kvantitativ och kvalitativ metod används. En enkätundersökning till Winter Fastigheter AB:s hyresgäster, för att få en bild av hur de ser på sitt boende. Den kvalitativa metoden användes vid intervjuer med två privata fastighetsbolag i Oskarshamn för att se hur andra aktörer ser på fastighetsbranschen och energieffektivitet. Fallstudie på Winter Fastigheter AB:s fastighet Måsen 3, för att se vilka olika alternativ som finns för att förbättra fastighetens energiprestanda.

     

    Resultat & slutsats: Det finns stora pengar att tjäna, för små fastighetsföretag på effektivare energilösningar. Tilläggsisolering är ett alternativ som på kort tid blir en lönsam investering. För Winter Fastigheter AB:s fastighet Måsen 3 är den största investeringen att konvertera från direktverkande el till ett vattenburet system. Det finns möjlighet att utnyttja konverteringsbidraget som staten subventionerar för att minska installationskostnaden. Enkätundersökningen som jag genomfört visar att hyresgäster inte är beredda att betala mer i hyra för att boendet ska vara mer klimatvänligt. Däremot visar enkäten att hyresgästerna uppskattar en god kommunikation med fastighetsförvaltaren.

     

    Förslag till fortsatt forskning: Detta arbete har begränsats till Winter Fastigheter AB:s fastighet Måsen 3. För framtida studier bör man göra studier av större fastighetsbolag, som har fler fastigheter, där man kan få ett större underlag från fler hyresgäster.

     

    Uppsatsens bidrag: Jag ser detta arbete som ett hjälpmedel för mindre nystartade fastighetsföretag att få en bild av fastighetsbranschen och dess klimatpåverkan. Nystartade företag kan få insikt om hur hyresgästerna ser på klimatförbättringar i boendet. Man kan även se vilka olika energikällor som finns samt olika energibesparingsåtgärder. Uppsatsen visar även vilka bidrag man kan söka, för att minimera kostnaderna vid nyinstallationer av effektivare värmekällor.

  • 18736.
    Winter, Robert
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Weng, Xinmei
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Negotiation and auditing self-efficacy's effect on auditor objectivity: negotiation strategy functioning as a mediator2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Auditor objectivity in the auditing process is an important part of the IASB and FASB framework as well as in the SOX act. It is unclear whether auditor’s self-efficacy through selection of negotiation strategy affect the auditor’s objectivity. The purpose of the study is to improve the understanding of what impacts auditor objectivity and as a result show new strategies on how to increase it.

    Method: Deductive approach with a literature review as secondary data and a web-based questionnaire carried out among 3,264 Swedish auditors as primary data. Analysis was done with partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) and reported in the SmartPLS and SPSS software.

    Result & Conclusions: Prior negative negotiation experiences have a detrimental effect on both distributive and integrative negotiation self-efficacy. Distributive negotiation self-efficacy and auditing self-efficacy increase objectivity mainly through the mediation of contending strategy. No relationship between integrative negotiation self-efficacy and negotiation strategy or auditor objectivity was found, possibly due to weak theoretical constructs. No causal claims are posed on these relations. Bandura’s four main sources of influence on self-efficacy can be considered as guides on how to shield the auditor from the detrimental effect of failures and build up self-efficacy to perform better in negotiation.

    Suggestions for future research: Develop stronger constructs for PNE, ISE and expanding-the-agenda-of-issues strategy. Using multiple imputation instead of mean replacement for missing data is highly recommended. Gather at least 400 responses in order to gain stronger statistical power. Introduce a prior auditing experiences construct for ASE to raise awareness of potential differences in how prior experiences affect DSE, ISE and ASE.

    Contribution of the thesis: This paper uniquely contributes to the literature on factors influencing auditor objectivity. Its main use to auditors, accounting legislators, researchers etc. at the moment is to add to the discussion about objectivity.

  • 18737.
    Winter, Tomas
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Potentialstyrning i mellanspänningsnät: kalibrering av restströmskompensering och isolationsprovning2010Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The background to this work is the introduction of the RCC Ground Fault Neutralizer in countries that earlier have used solidly earthed medium voltage networks. The RCC Ground Fault Neutralizer is a protection system that is capable of handling earth faults without disconnecting the feeder. Since some equipment, that cannot be immediately replaced, only can withstand the full voltage for a limited time, the operating time of the system needs to be limited. This is also true during the commissioning when calibrating the system means that the voltage against earth needs to be increased.

    The primary purpose with this work is to create a possibility to automatically calibrate the settings for the inverter that are used when reacting to an earth fault. A goal with the new automatic calibration is that it should be faster than a preset time per phase. A second goal is to create a more user friendly control of the neutral voltage using the inverter. The purpose of this is to prepare the system for the possibility that PD measurement in combination with the control of the neutral voltage offers. This way isolation defects could be found and possibly also delayed.

    The solution that was chosen was as simple as possible and is a combination of setting the inverter to a calculated value and proportional control. This was implemented in the service software which is normally used for commissioning, surveillance and manual control.

    The solution was proven to be good enough to clear the goal that was set up for this work. The first tests were performed against a net model. After the solution had proven to be successful in the net model more test where performed on a system installed in a real substation. Also the PD control software was tested but only in the net model and because higher voltages is needed to test PD activity no real test with PD was performed. Hopefully this new software can be used to further develop this idea in the future.

  • 18738.
    Winter Vikström, Linda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Omsorgsarbete, arbetstillfredsställelse och känsla av sammanhang: Jämförelser av arbetstidsutformning, kön och utbildning2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Health care work includes emotionally demanding work tasks that can have a negative impact on health. A strong Sense of Coherence (SOC) and high job satisfaction effects health in a positive way, contributes to productivity and personal growth. The purpose of this study was to explore if differences in Sense of Coherence and job satisfaction are present regarding design of working hours, gender and education amongst employees in health care. A quantitative survey was used in the study. Job satisfaction was explored using Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionaire 2, dimensions health and wellbeing and work-family balance. SOC was explored using Antonovskýs short form life questionnaire. All employees, 283, in a department of municipal social-psychiatry and daily activities was invited to participate in the study. 112 answered the survey resulting in a response rate of 40%. Data was analysed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results showed no significant differences in SOC and job satisfaction regarding design of working hours, gender or education. There were no significant interactions between the variables.

  • 18739.
    Winterkvist, Frida
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    Religiositet – bara för män?: Sex kristna och tidigare kristna om Svenska kyrkan, patriarkala strukturer och om det finns ett förhållande mellan de två2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att igenom det resultat som kommit fram efter sex individuella intervjuer med tre kristna och tre icke-kristna som förlorat sin tro få fram om kristendomen besitter patriarkala strukturer. Syftet är också att ta reda på att om kristendomen i sådana fall gör det, vad det då kan finnas för underliggande anledning(ar) till att kvinnor söker sig till religion och män söker sig ifrån religion som den tidigare forskningen visar. Intervjuerna berör ämnen såsom patriarkat, patriarkala strukturer, intervjuobjektens egna syn på kristendomen och huruvida det finns en koppling mellan kristendomen och patriarkala strukturer. Intervjuobjekten får även svara med sina egna teorier till varför kvinnor söker sig till religion och män gör tvärtom. Den metod som använts för denna uppsats är att de intervjuobjekt som deltagit har haft den erfarenhet som krävts för att kunna delta, dvs att antingen ha en kristen tro eller att ha tappat en kristen tro. Resultatet av denna uppsats är mångfaldig och eftersom denna uppsats är småskalig har det ej kunnat uteslutits att ett annat och/eller ett mer konkret resultat kunnat varit möjligt om den varit bredare eller med fler intervjuobjekt. Slutsatsen blir därför att utifrån de intervjuade, tidigare forskning och nuvarande relevant media finns det tecken på att kristendomen, likt samhället i stort, fortfarande har patriarkala strukturer.

  • 18740.
    Winters, A Marian
    et al.
    Izala Klinieken Zwolle.
    Lindberg, Magnus
    Uppsala University.
    Sol, Berna G M
    University of Applied Sciences Utrecht.
    Validation of a Dutch self-efficacy scale for adherence to fluid allowance among patients on haemodialysis2013In: Journal of Renal Care, ISSN 1755-6686, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 31-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many haemodialysis patients have problems limiting their fluid intake, and this might be influenced by their self-efficacy. Thus interventions to improve patients' self-efficacy might lead to an improvement in their adherence to fluid restriction. The fluid intake appraisal inventory (FIAI) evaluates patients' self-efficacy with regard to fluid intake. The aim of this study was to translate and validate the FIAI for use in the Netherlands. Four translators, seven experts, and four haemodialysis patients participated in the translation part of the study. Thirty-three patients from one dialysis centre in the Netherlands completed the Dutch FIAI. The instrument had good content validity (interdialytic weight gain was found to be negatively correlated with self-efficacy), internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.982), and stability (Spearman's rho = 0.823). These findings indicate that the Dutch FIAI can be used in clinical practice as a self-efficacy screening instrument for adult haemodialysis patients on fluid restriction.

  • 18741.
    Winther, Emmah
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Skiftarbetande individers upplevelser av skiftarbetets fysiska och psykiska effekter samt effekter på mattider och matvanor.2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to learn about how shift workers experience how the shiftwork affect them both physically and psychologically and to study if they experience that their mealtimes and eating habits are affected by the shift work. The method used was a qualitative semi-structured interview. Content analysis was used to analyze the interviews. The results showed that the informants were affected by working shift both physically and psychologically. Physical symptoms reported were fatigue and insomnia. Reported psychological symptoms were fatigue, stress and low mood. All informants reported that both their mealtimes and eating habits were affected. The results showed that mealtimes were affected by sleep deprivation and variable schedule. The eating habits were reported to be unhealthier when the informants were working evening or night shift. The results showed that there are unhealthy impacts from shiftwork on individuals who are working shift, which motivates further research on risk factors and preventive measures.

  • 18742.
    Winther, Petter
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Spatiala klusteranalyser: Hur Getis Ord Gi* kan användas för att visualisera kluster i storleksordningen kvarter till stadsdel ur punktdata2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, suggestions are given for how the method Getis Ord Gi* can be used to analyze geographic data, find patterns and visualize results. Guidelines are also given for selecting parameters and how the parameters affect the visualization of the results.

    The method can be used to analyze the number of incidents spread over a large geographic area. The method allows users to identify concentrations of incidents. By focusing on concentrations instead of single incidents, municipalities and other agencies can more effectively respond to the needs of its citizens.

    The parameters that have been evaluated are search window distance band and the aggregation of data. Citizen service requests to the municipality of Gävle regarding trees during the years 2010 to 2013 have been used as test data. The research questions are as follows:

    1) How is the visualization of the results affected if data is aggregated as coincident points, overlaid on a grid or overlaid on district polygons?

    2) How is the visualization of the results affected if search window distance band is selected to incorporate only near surrounding points or to set to a distance where every point has at least one neighbor?

    3) How should the parameters data aggregation and search window distance band be set to visualize data clusters by the size of blocks up to districts?

    The findings of this study emphasize the importance of selecting parameters based on the question at hand. Several cases and guidelines for selecting parameters are outlined.

    The results show that method B1 (data overlaid on a grid and a search window distance band of 300 meters) gives the clearest visualization of clusters for the test data. Data overlaid on grid smoothers the effect of many incidents on single addresses and the resulting clusters are about the size of city blocks. The discussion part emphasizes how effects as the population density and the geography in the study area may affect the reulting visualisation.

  • 18743.
    Winzéll, Gina
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology.
    Vi lyssnar på barnen: Ett arbete om den fysiska miljön i förskolan, dess betydelse och barnens delaktighet2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att se hur den fysiska miljön i förskolan påverkar barns sätt att leka och agera, samt se om pedagogerna är medvetna om miljöns betydelse. Mina upplevelser om hur ointressant en förskolans miljö kan vara i färgsättning och utformning har inspirerat mig till detta arbete. Enligt Lpfö 98 och forskare bör miljön i förskolan vara innehållsrik, öppen och inbjudande och stimulera fantasi, kreativitet och lärande. Miljön ska ständigt reflekteras över och utvecklas utifrån barnen och deras intressen och kunskaper. Barnen bör även vara delaktiga i utformandet av miljön, direkt eller indirekt, för att det ska bli så bra som möjligt utifrån barnen.

    Studien har begränsats till en avdelning eftersom en kombination av undersökningsmetoder använts och det empiriska materialet annars skulle ha blivit ohanterligt. För att nå syftet har två olika observationer genomförts samt en kvalitativ intervju. Den första är en deltagande observation där jag tagits barnens perspektiv och tittat på lek-initiativ och tillgänglighet och den andra är en observation där jag tittar på hur barnen använder miljön och hur de leker. Den kvalitativa intervjun gjordes i grupp där de tre pedagogerna på den deltagande avdelningen medverkade. Resultaten har sedan kategoriserats för att lättare kunna sammanställas och visas som resultat.

    Resultatet visar att den fysiska miljön i förskolan påverkar barnen i deras vardag och att det finns en medvetenhet hos pedagogerna gällande betydelsen av miljön i förskolan. Resultatet visar även att för att miljön i förskolan ska bli så betydelsefull som möjligt för både verksamheten och barnen måste delaktighet, anpassad nivå av leksaker och material samt ständig reflektion av miljön finnas. Detta kan enbart förverkligas genom att pedagogerna i förskolan är medvetna om att makten ligger hos dem.

  • 18744.
    Wipa, Jill
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences.
    Religiös etik i miljöarbetet: En komparativ studie av Larry L. Rasmussens naturteologi och Dalai Lamas etik ur ett miljöetiskt perspektiv2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Religiös etik i miljöarbetet

    Uppsatsen bygger på en primär fråga och det är huruvida religion kan bidra med en etisk aspekt i miljöarbetet, jag har även försökt att besvara en sekundär frågeställning som avser hur miljön med hjälp av en religion ur miljöetiskt perspektiv kan förbättras för människor, djur och natur.

              För att besvara frågeställningen har jag använt mig av en komparativ studie där jag har jämfört Larry L Rasmussens Earth community, earth ethics och Dalai Lamas Etik för ett nytt millenium. Carolyn Merchants Naturens Död utgör min bakgrund och är det perspektiv jag antagit i undersökningen, jag valde författaren för att få en feministisk historisk analys av de händelser som lett fram till det moderna vetenskapssamhället och problemställningen vi står inför idag.

              Resultatet av undersökningen visar att det största ansvaret ligger på individen men att ett etiskt system baserat på världsreligionernas centrala värderingar kan vara till stor hjälp när eget ansvar och etiska överväganden ska avgöras. Kristendomen har genom dualism och mans-centrering skapat ett destruktivt förhållningssätt till naturen och kvinnor vilket bidragit till många av dagens miljöproblem, klassåtskillnader och andra orättvisor, därför måste kristendomen reformeras till att se människan som en del av naturen och ta beslut som har en helhet i åtanke då hela världen samverkar i ett enda system. Det är speciellt viktigt att kristendomen tar ett stort ansvar att förvandla den västerländska världen från en materialistisk till en ansvarstagande kultur, därefter kan den bidra ur ett miljöetiskt perspektiv.

              Dalai Lamas etik utgår från invidnivå och eget ansvar som inte förutsätter en religiös övertygelse av den anledningen att religion och andlighet är skilda saker. Religion är bön, ritualer och tro på en metafysisk sfär, andlighet har med den mänskliga andens egenskaper att göra det vill säga medkänsla, tålamod och ansvar.

    En etik som hjälper människor att ta ansvar och hantera lidande kan vara till stor hjälp för att bidra till psykologisk och emotionell hälsa i västländerna. Resultatet av undersökningen visar att religionens centrala värderingar och etik har mycket att bidra med ur ett miljöetiskt perspektiv, det bör dock skiljas ut från en särskild trosinriktning då etik, moral och ansvar inte ska förutsätta en religiös övertygelse av något slag.

  • 18745.
    Wirgell, Linnea
    University of Gävle, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences.
    "Authoritative" or "Neurotic": A Study of Adjectival Descriptions of the Three Main Characters in Bridget Jones's Diary, with Special Reference to Gender Differences 2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 18746.
    Wirgell, Linnea
    University of Gävle. University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies. University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    The Spotlight is on Gender Roles: A Study of Verb Dynamics and Gender in Spotlight 7/8/92010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the present study I have conducted a linguistic investigation of the textbook series Spotlight 7, 8 and 9 (Natur & Kultur 2008-2010) which is used in grades 7-9. The purpose of the investigation is to examine what gender roles are presented in the material. The theoretical approach is Halliday’s (2004) Functional Grammar Theory. The second part of the study presents a discourse analysis of three selected texts from Spotlight 7, 8 and 9 where the texts as well as the related pictures are analysed. The results from the whole study are compared to the goals on gender equality stated in the National Curriculum and the Educational Act.

                          The result of the study reveals that the gender roles presented in the teaching material are less stereotypic than hypothesized but that, in accordance with my hypotheses, males were represented to a higher extent than females and transgenders. This result suggests that the material only partly fulfills the demands on gender equality that is found in the National Curriculum and the Educational Act.

  • 18747.
    Wiréhn, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science.
    Att utveckla hälsa hos sina medarbetare: En kvalitativ studie av hälsofrämjares salutogena arbete inom en vård- och omsorgsorganisation2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den arbetsrelaterade ohälsan inom vård och omsorg är ett växande problem. Behovet av att utveckla hälsofrämjande arbete inom vård- och omsorgssektorn är därför stort. Ett hälsofrämjande arbete utifrån ett salutogent förhållningssätt kan vara en effektiv metod och har potentialen att långsiktigt bidra till bättre hälsa bland anställda inom vård och omsorgssektorn. Denna studie har gjorts i uppdrag åt en vård- och omsorgsorganisation som arbetar utifrån ett salutogent perspektiv för att främja hälsa bland anställda. Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka vilka erfarenheter Hälsofrämjare inom en vård- och omsorgsorganisation har av att arbeta hälsofrämjande utifrån ett salutogent perspektiv. För att undersöka studiens syfte användes en kvalitativ datainsamlingsmetod med semistrukturerad intervju som teknik. Resultatet visar att Hälsofrämjarna upplever utmaningar i form av att lyckas motivera andra, att vara den som kommer in med nya infallsvinklar och idéer och att få andra att ändra sitt sätt att tänka och agera. Tid, ekonomiska resurser och att skapa sammanhållning bland personal som inte arbetar under samma tak, är andra aspekter som också uppfattas som utmaningar. Kommunikation, personalens delaktighet och hälsofrämjarnas egen känsla av KASAM (hanterbarhet, begriplighet och meningsfullhet), är av stor betydelse för att de ska lyckas med sin uppgift.

  • 18748.
    Wisell, David
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment. Elektronik.
    A Baseband Time Domain Measurement System for Dynamic Characterisation of Power Amplifiers with High Dynamic Range over Large Bandwidth2004Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
  • 18749.
    Wisell, David
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Measurement techniques for characterization of power amplifiers2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis a sampling time domain measurement system primarily intended for measurements on radio frequency power amplifiers is discussed. The need for such a measurement system is established. Impairments due to non-ideal measurement instruments are discussed as well as methods to compensate for these impairments. Techniques to improve upon the raw measurement performance of the measurement instruments with regard to bandwidth, dynamic range, linear and nonlinear distortion are discussed. A method to simultaneously find the phase and amplitude ripple of a vector signal generator and a vector signal analyzer is presented. The method is verified with extensive measurements.

    Two techniques, frequency stitching and Zhu's generalized sampling theorem, to extend the effective measurement bandwidth of the measurement system is discussed and evaluated with measurements. They are both found to be able to extend the effective bandwidth for measurements of output signals of nonlinear power amplifiers with more than five times.

    The measurement system is used for sampled input - output measurements of power amplifiers and the obtained data are fitted to different behavioral power amplifier models including memory. Some different behavioral models are evaluated and compared for different kinds of power amplifiers. A neural network model and extensions to the well-known parallel Hammerstein model are specifically discussed. The parallel Hammerstein model are also used together with frequency stitching and Zhu's generalized sampling theorem.

    A general hardware and software structure of a versatile measurement system based on virtual instruments for measurements on power amplifiers is discussed in some detail. Special attention is given to the software architecture and to the concepts of hardware and software reusability.

    An automated, fast, accurate and production-friendly method for two-tone power and frequency sweep measurements, including measurement of the phase of the intermodulation products in addition to the amplitude, is also presented.

  • 18750.
    Wisell, David H.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik. Ericsson Telecom AB, Stockholm, Sweden; Signal Processing Lab, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rudlund, Björn
    Racomna AB, Uppsala, Sweden; Omicron AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rönnow, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik. WesternGeco AS, Asker, Norway.
    Characterization of memory effects in power amplifiers using digital two-tone measurements2007In: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, ISSN 0018-9456, E-ISSN 1557-9662, Vol. 56, no 6, p. 2757-2766Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, a novel method to measure the amplitude and phase of two-tone third-order intermodulation products generated in a high-power amplifier is presented. The method is based on the sampled input and output signals of the amplifier. The presented measurement setup and the associated algorithms for the calculation of the amplitudes and phases are considerably faster and simpler than the current methods. By making use of the sampled input and output signals of the amplifier and the signal processing techniques, the need for a nonlinear reference, a tunable attenuator, and a phase shifter in the existing measurement setups is eliminated, which makes it simple and easy to use. Hence, this is a substantial simplification of the measurement setup compared to what has been reported earlier. The proposed measurement setup is also suitable for fast automated measurements, which is of interest for many applications that are both laboratory and production oriented. In addition, a method to increase the bandwidth of the measured signal is used to overcome the bandwidth limitation set by the Nyquist criteria for sampled systems. Measurements are done on two base-station high-power amplifiers and are found to be in agreement with theory and reference measurements.

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