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  • 18751.
    Wu, Sirui
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    A study on Extraction of Natural Cities from the Nightlight Imagery Using Head/tail breaks method2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With the high development of economic and demand for city research, an issue of detecting city boundaries plays an extremely important role in urbanization that promotes the progress of human civilization. Some critical applications such as land use, urban planning and city sprawl have been constantly discussed, which rely on the acquisition of city areas. For the better acquisition of city areas, choosing a proper method to capture city boundaries becomes significant where it greatly improves the value of city study. Although conventional data can be used to define the city boundaries, some drawbacks still exist when measuring the city boundaries in a global scale.

    Remote sensing (RS) data of nightlight imagery (2010) by Defense Meteorological Satellite Program’s Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS) acquired from National oceanic and atmospheric administration's National Geoscience Data Center (NOAA/NOGA) is applied to extract the city boundaries in fifty countries, of which these countries are chosen followed by the Gross Domestic Product that are ranked in top 50. In this case, the data distribution of nightlight imagery followed by heavy-tailed distribution. Head/tail break algorithm poses a possibility of calculating reasonable threshold and extracting the natural cities with the help of software based on the Geomatics information system (GIS). An extended study of power law is made by using of power law estimator from previous studies to check whether the extracted natural cities can match the power law distribution.

    Result shows that combination of the nightlight imagery data and the head/tail break is capable of extracting the city boundaries and a set of possible thresholds with visual inspection by using the head/tail break are executed. There is only one country, namely Belgium, cannot be processed due to its data properties. Result also address how well the natural cities of the fifty countries can be extracted in terms of visual inspection, among the chosen cities, 33 of countries boundaries can be better matched and 13 countries can fundamentally match the city boundaries. Meanwhile, an extended study of power law is provided and four countries have to be found that do not follow the power law distribution. From the result obtained, the study expects that integration of support data will efficiently increase the accuracy of extraction and more useful information can be acquired in further study. On the other hand, a comparative study of threshold decision needs to be verified, put it differently, whether using head/tail break with visual inspection on extracted city boundaries is helpful or not.

  • 18752.
    Wu, Sirui
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Zipf's Law for Natural Cities Extracted from Location-Based Social Media Data2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Zipf’s law is one of the empirical statistical regularities found within many natural systems, ranging from protein sequences of immune receptors in cells to the intensity of solar flares from the sun. Verifying the universality of Zipf’s law can provide many opportunities for us to further seek the commonalities of phenomena that possess the power law behavior. Since power law-like phenomena, as many studies have previously indicated, is often interpreted as evidence for studying complex systems, exploring the universality of Zipf’s law is also of potential capability in explaining underlying generative mechanisms and endogenous processes, i.e. self-organization and chaos theory.

    The main purpose of this study was to verify whether Zipf’s law is valid for city sizes, city numbers and population extracted from natural cities. Unlike traditional city boundaries extracted by applying census-imposed and top-down imposed data, which are arbitrary and subjective, the study established the new kind of boundaries of cities, namely, natural cities through using four location-based social media data from Twitter, Brightkite, Gowalla and Freebase and head/tail breaks rule. In order to capture and quantify the hierarchical level for studying heterogeneous scales of cities, ht-index derived from head/tail breaks rule was employed. Furthermore, the validation of Zipf’s law was examined.

    The result revealed that the natural cities had deviations in subtle patterns when different social media data were examined. By employing head/tail breaks method, the result calculated the ht-index and detected that hierarchy levels were not largely influenced by spatial-temporal changes but rather data itself. On the other hand, the study found that Zipf’s law is not universal in the case of using location-based social media data. Compared to city numbers extracted from nightlight imagery, the study found out the reason why Zipf’s law does not hold for location-based social media data, i.e. due to bias of customer behavior. The bias mainly resulted in the emergence of natural cities were much more frequent than others in certain regions and countries so that making the emergence of natural cities was not exhibited objectively. Furthermore, the study showed whether Zipf’s law could be well observed depends not only on the data itself and man-made limitations but also on calculation methods, data precisions and scales and the idealized status of observed data.

  • 18753.
    Wu, Xing
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    The Survey of Detection Methods and Testbeds For Cognitive Radio Application2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

       The need for RF spectrum for the rapidly growing broadband access services is evident. Cognitive radio is an emerging technology that aims to introduce secondary usage of the spectrum resources without interfering with the primary usage of the licensed users but with a lower priority.

       Signal detection for cognitive radios has drawn a lot of interest in the research community, where different algorithms are suggested. The most commonly used algorithms are energy detection, feature detection, eigenvalue based detection. Energy detection is the simplest and most common way to detect signals. It has fast sensing time but poor performance. The feature detection and eigenvalue based detection methods are more sophisticated and offer better performance but they are more complex and expensive. This thesis will present the pros and cons of each method and offer comparisons between them.

       To evaluate the performance of different algorithms used in cognitive radio, different research testbeds have been suggested in the literature. Some of the most frequently used testbeds are based on GNU-radio, WARP, or BEE2. GNU-radio is the simplest testbed and is free, but it has low bandwidth and poor performance. WARP and BEE2 are more advanced testbeds. They offer good performance and are easy to update, but they are more complex and expensive. These three testbeds will be described, compared, and their advantages and disadvantages will be observed in this thesis.

  • 18754.
    Wu, Xunxun
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment.
    Design of Passive UHF RFID Tag Antennas and Industry Application2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, there is a growing demand for reliable assets security and management in various industries. The company SolarWave is eager to implement a comprehensive security system to produce active protection for their expensive product: solar panels. This security system is not only including assets tracking, monitoring but also combined with a control system, which is used to binary control a switch of solar panel to be on in presence of the correct ID and off in absence of the correct ID. One of the technologies that made this concept viable is known as Radio Frequency Identification (RFID).

    The thesis project is a sub-project in the development project whose content is mentioned as above. It contains two main parts. One is the system solution for the company. The other is RFID tag design which is in parallel with the company solution in order to reach a scientific level of a master thesis.

    In this thesis, I systematically analyze the operating mechanism and characteristics of RFID, and propose both active and passive RFID solutions for the company. And I also suggest an alternative radio technology ZigBee which can be used instead or as a complement to RFID. Meanwhile, I propose two designs of RFID tag according to the specification of the solar panel. One is modified meandering antenna. This kind of antenna is very effective and popular in RFID tag design in order to minimize the size of antenna. The other is inductively coupled loop antenna. It is a very useful method for conjugate matching in RFID tag antenna. The required input resistance and reactance can be achieved separately by choosing appropriate geometry parameters. It makes the antenna easier to match to the tag chips. Both the RFID antenna designs are simulated on Ansoft HFSS 12.

  • 18755.
    Wändel, Björn
    University of Gävle, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för religionsvetenskap.
    Aspekter på meditation: en intervjustudie med jungianskt och yogafilosofiskt perspektiv2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Meditation, med ett ursprung från yoga, har blivit allt vanligare i friskvården mot fysiska stressymptom exempelvis för att minska muskelspänningar men även som ett verktyg för den egna personliga utvecklingen. Samtidigt som forskningsresultat visar på meditationens betydelse för fysisk kropp och det mentala finns rapporter från forskare som varnar för överdriven tilltro till undersökningar som inte verifierats eller varit undermåliga. Uppsatsens syfte har varit att studera meditation utifrån jungianskt och klassisk yogafilosofiskt perspektiv. Med detta som bakgrund har en intervjuundersökning gjorts för att få meditationsutövares svar på frågor om varför de börjat meditera, vilken effekt på den fysiska och mentala kroppen man upplever i samband med meditation och hur man vill beskriva meditationens betydelse för sin personliga utveckling. Metoden som använts är inspirerad av fenomenografi. Resultaten tyder på att de intervjuade från början fokuserat på meditationens betydelse för att minska stress, spänningar med mera, men efterhand även blivit intresserade av meditation för sin personliga utveckling. De intervjuade beskriver meditationen som ett led i att lära sig förstå dynamiken mellan det medvetna och det omedvetna och få förståelse för sin egen utveckling. Studien visar på betydelsen av god kvalitet på forskningen för att kunna påvisa effekten av meditation och dess möjligheter.

  • 18756.
    Wängermark, Ida
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Sjöholm, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Information och stöd till kvinnor med lindrig utvecklingsstörning före, under och efter graviditet i Bollnäs kommun.2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att utifrån en fiktiv fallbeskrivning undersöka vilken information och vilket stöd ensamlevande kvinnor som har en lindrig utvecklingsstörning får före, under och efter en graviditet i Bollnäs kommun. Vi intervjuade fyra olika verksamheter som kommer i kontakt med dessa kvinnor och vi använde oss av en halvstrukturerad kvalitativ intervjuform. Resultatet av studien visade att den förberedande och förebyggande informationen till kvinnor med lindrig utvecklingsstörning som ännu inte blivit gravida är knapphändiga hos alla de intervjuade verksamheterna. Under graviditet erbjuder ett par av verksamheterna kvinnorna stöd i form av samtal och praktisk föräldrautbildning. När barnet är fött finns till exempel olika typer av stödinsatser som beviljas av Socialtjänsten och stödet skräddarsys efter behov och problematik. Ett av de viktigaste stöden Socialtjänsten erbjuder är vistelse på HVB-hem. Resultatet i studien analyserades utifrån ett systemteoretiskt perspektiv.

  • 18757.
    Wängman, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology.
    Líndqvist, Ulrika
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology.
    Elevers uppfattningar om en skolas trygghetsplan2007Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Abstrakt

    Titel: Elevers uppfattningar om en skolas trygghetsplan ”Det är väl någonting som skolan har för att alla ska känna sig trygga”

    Författare: Anna Wängman & Ulrika Lindqvist

    Ty av arbete: Examensarbete (10p)

    Handledare: Ingegerd Gudmundson Examinator: Maud Söderlund

    Program: Lärarprogrammet, Högskolan i Gävle

    Datum: December 2007

    ________________________________________

    Syfte

    Studiens syfte var att undersöka vad elever vet om skolans trygghetsplan och hur elever uppfattar skolans förebyggande arbete mot mobbning och kränkningar. Den empiriska undersökningen avsåg att besvara syftet utifrån fyra underfrågor som berör området.

    Metod

    Två metoder användes i form av enkätundersökning och gruppintervju. Elever i en klass i år 9 svarade på en enkätundersökning om mobbning och kränkande behandling och förebyggandet av dessa samt skolans trygghetsplan. Tre elever i denna klass deltog sedan i en gruppintervju i ämnet.

    Resultat

    8 av 13 elever vet att skolan har en trygghetsplan men de vet inte vad som står i den. 9 av 13 elever vet inte vad en trygghetsplan är. Resultatet visar att eleverna uppfattar att skolan arbetar förebyggande med hjälp av kamratstödjarverksamhet och enkätundersökningar angående mobbning. Drygt en tredjedel av eleverna uppfattar inte att skolan arbetar förebyggande mot mobbning och kränkningar.

  • 18758.
    Wängman, Lars
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology.
    Nordström, Robert
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology.
    Lärares syn på progression i historia & matematikundervisningen: En intervjustudie med sex grundskollärare2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Utgångspunkten för detta examensarbete vilar på den nuvarande läroplanen (Lpo 94) och de texter som skrevs i samband med att denna konstruerades. I dessa texter framgår det att skolans urval när det gäller innehåll och organisering både inom och mellan skolformerna ska utgå från ett progressionstänkande. Samma tänkande ska även skolans undervisning utgå från. Studiens problemområde behandlar vilken roll lärarna får i åstadkommandet av progression och vad som ligger bakom progressionen i lärarnas undervisning. Med detta som grund har syftet varit att undersöka hur sex grundskollärare i historia och matematik ser på progression i sin undervisning med elever.

     

    Arbetets teoretiska bakgrund inleds med att belysa skolans förändrade kunskapssyn, från behaviorism till kognitivism, vidare mot en utvidgning av kunskapssynen. Därefter behandlas hur denna förändring påverkar teorier kring inlärning och lärande. Avsnittet belyser även att samarbete mellan skolformerna ska utvecklas för att underlätta elevernas utveckling och lärande. Den analytiska utgångspunkt som använts i resultatbearbetning och analysen kommer ur den teoretiska bearbetningen och syftar till att synliggöra om lärarna är aktiva eller passiva i sina val gällande innehåll och deras syn på progression.

     

    Studien är av kvalitativ karaktär och datainsamlingen består av semistrukturerade intervjuer. Intervjuerna berör de sex lärarnas arbetssätt, val av innehåll, hur de uppfattar kunskapsutveckling och tillämpar det i sin undervisning samt deras erfarenhet gällande rapportering och överlämning för att åstadkomma progression under elevernas skolgång.

     

    Studiens huvudsakliga resultat är att endast en lärare utgår från eleverna i sitt undervisningsinnehåll och sitt arbetssätt när det gäller progressionen hos eleverna. Bland vissa lärare framgår det att de till viss del är aktiva i sitt innehållsval och arbetssätt, dock utestängs eleverna från vad det ska arbetas om. En tydlig skillnad ses mellan dessa två ämnen angående detta, inom matematikämnet styrs innehållet av matematikboken och liknande kan ses när det gäller organiseringen av undervisningen. När det gäller överlämning och rapportering för att underlätta elevernas fortsatta progression uppvisas brister och problem, vilket i sin tur försvårar sammankopplingen mellan elevernas tidigare erfarenheter och det lärarna ska bidra med. Önskemål om en tydligare strukturering framkommer under intervjuerna från en del lärare när det gäller överlämning och vidare rapportering till andra lärare.

     

    En slutsats som kan ställas utifrån denna studie är att det inte hör till det vardagliga att lärarna reflekterar över progression i sin undervisning. Studien har även synliggjort de val lärare står inför i sin undervisning gällande arbetssätt och innehåll.

  • 18759.
    Wängman, Sölve
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Mihaljica, Milan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Hur bygger fastighetsbolagen relationer med sina hyresgäster?2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    We describe in this work - how the commercial real-estate companies build relationships with their tenants. We describe also how the tenants experience these relationships with the real-estate companies. This work acts about relationships and its build-upp and conserving. The literature about the working ways with relationships in the commercial real estate sector is not so extensive, despite an increased popularity of relationship-marketing since beginning of 1990s. We choosed to examine how the relationships functions nowadays with help of interviews targeted to contacts in five of us selected real-estate companies. We have applied questionnaires, direct and telephone interviews on 5-7 of the real-estate companies' tenants in order to examine their point of view, concerning common relationship with the real-estate company. Our method is edified with “triangel-method” - a research strategy where one uses several sources or methods around a certain research problem, in order to get more reliable results. The real estate companies’ usaly split the tenants to pasive or active and then suit their engagement according to this fact. This creates tenants who were doubtful if real-estate company wants to build long-term relations with them. Realy-estate companies’ can transferred these tenants to satisfied customers with increased engagements and understanding.In the resultes from survey appears a wish from “pasive” tenants about bigger engagements and more understanding from landlord. The survey points out even a big problem in the matter of mediating of rules from the tenancy-agreement to the tenant. Moust common problem is when tenants believe that the real-estate company will deal with things that they actually shall take care of themselves. Our conclusion is that the commercial real estate companies should produce better and clearer tenancy agreements. By using our helpdevice thet we named for “cover” can this mediating of rules from tenancy-agreement be mouch easier.In this way, the tenants' dissatisfaction due to misunderstandings can be limited, at the same time as they get one simple source of information about premises and its usage to enjoy. Our wish is that the commercial real-estate sector will have benifit of this survey. With this survey about relations in commercial real-estate branch, we wanted to create a discussion and increasd understanding about importance of making special literature for this subject. We even sudjest that it is of interest to introduce a course like “Relationsmarketing adapted for the commercial real-estate branch” that can be a part of programe “Economical real-estate management.”    

    Important keywords in this work

     Relationships, profitability, customer dialogue, customer satifaction, win-win, Facility Management, Green Building, word-of-mouth, word-of-mouse

    Words and its abbreviations that occur often in the work

    Relationship marketing (RM), Facility Management (FM), and Coustomer Relationship Management (CRM)

    Titel: Hur bygger fastighetsbolagen relationer med sina hyresgäster?

    Nivå: C-uppsats i ämnet företagsekonomi

    Författare: Milan Mihaljica och Sölve Wängman

    Handledare: Per-Arne Wikström

    Datum: 2010 den 28 Maj

    Sammanfattning

    Vi beskriver i detta arbete - hur de kommersiella fastighetsbolagen bygger relationer med sina hyresgäster. Vi beskriver även hur hyresgästerna upplever dessa relationer med fastighetsbolagen. Detta arbete handlar om relationer - dess byggande samt bevarande. Litteraturen kring arbetsätten med relationer i kommersiella fastighetsbranschen är inte så omfattande, trots en ökad popularitet av relationsmarknadsföring sedan början av 1990-talet. Vi valde att undersöka hur relationerna fungerar nuförtiden med hjälp av intervjuer riktade till kontaktpersoner i fem av oss utvalda fastighetsbolag. Vi har även tillämpat enkäter, direkt och telefonintervjuer med 5-7 av fastighetsbolagens hyresgäster, för att få med deras synvinkel angående den gemensamma relationen med fastighetsbolaget. Vår metod är uppbyggd med trianguleringsmetoden - en forskningsstrategi där man använder flera källor eller metoder kring ett visst forskningsproblem för att få ett tillförlitligare resultat. Fastighetsbolagen delar vanligen in hyresgästerna i passiva och aktiva, samt anpassar sitt engagemang därefter. Detta skapar hyresgäster som blir tveksamma om fastighetsbolaget ville bygga långsiktiga relationer med dem. Fastighetsbolagen kan omvandla dessa till nöjda kunder med ett ökat engagemang och förståelse. I resultaten från undersökningen framträder en önskan från ”passiva” hyresgäster om större engagemang och mer kundträffar med hyresvärden. Undersökningen påvisar även ett stort problem gällande förmedling av regler från hyreskontrakten till hyresgästen. Oftast förekommande problem är att hyresgästen tror att fastighetsbolaget skall åtgärda saker som de egentligen ska göra själva. Vår slutsats är att de kommersiella fastighetsbolagen bör framställa bättre och tydligare hyreskontrakt. Med användning av oss framtagna hjälpredan som vi kallar för ”pärmen” kan denna förmedling av kontraktsregler betydligt underlättas. Hyresgästernas missnöje orsakad av missförstånd kan då begränsas, samtidigt som de får en enkel informationskälla rörande lokalen och dess användning att nyttjas av. Vår önskan är att den kommersiella fastighetsbranschen skall ha nytta av denna undersökning. Vi vill även med denna undersökning av relationer i den kommersiella fastighetsbranschen, skapa en diskussion och en ökad förståelse för vikten att ta fram speciellanpassad litteratur i ämnet. Vi anser även att det skulle vara intressant att införa en kurs som exempelvis ”Relationsmarknadsföring anpassad för den kommersiella fastighetsbranschen” som kan vara med i programmet ”Ekonomisk fastighetsförvaltning”.

    Ord och dess förkortningar som förekommer ofta i arbetet: Relationsmarknadsföring (RM), Facility Management (FM), Fastighets företag, Customer Relationship Management (CRM), Nöjd Kund Index (NKI)

     

     

  • 18760.
    Wängsäter, Olle
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    Entreprenöriella skapelseberättelser: skisser från tidiga skeden i företags etableringsprocesser2006Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsarbetet bygger på 21 PM-arbeten från en högskolekurs i entreprenörskap där studenterna fått i uppgift att intervjua en entreprenör och komma tillbaka med en skapelseberättelse värd att berätta. PM-arbetet bygger på tre frågeställningar som bildar stommen i intervjuarbetet: 1. Hur fick entreprenören sin idé? 2. Hur utvecklades idén till en affärsidé? 3. Hur gick det till när företaget etablerades? Därutöver har studenterna i viss utsträckning kompletterat med frågeställningar utifrån egna intressen. Författaren av denna D-uppsats har skapat denna högskolekurs och arbetat som lärare i samma kurs under tre läsår. Studenterna är från Design och träteknikprogrammet vid Högskolan i Gävle.

    Syftet med uppsatsarbetet var att fördjupa förståelsen av entreprenörskap i allmänhet och tidiga skeden i företags etableringsprocesser i synnerhet. Den fördjupade förståelsen i entreprenörskap har resulterat i ett metaperspektiv för entreprenörskap där man med fördel kan betrakta entreprenörskap i första hand som en lärande process för uthållig företagsamhet, där alla förhållanden och fakta inte är känt före etableringsskedet och inte heller under själva etableringsprocessen. Beslutsunderlagen befinner sig i ett ständigt skapande av ett övergripande förhållningssätt som bygger på kreativitet och gränsöverskridande.

    En slutsats som kan dras av uppsatsarbetet är att förmågan att lära är viktigare än att följa en på förhand uppgjord plan. Modeller och teorier kan komplettera metaperspektivet av entreprenörskap som en lärande process för uthållig företagsamhet om de kombineras med såväl kreativa som kritiska förhållningssätt. På så sätt kan ett entreprenöriellt lärande leda till ett kreativt och kritiskt övertagande av tanketraditioner samt ge en träning i att bli kreativa konstruktörer av modeller och teorier i egna projekt, i egna företag eller i andra situationer där man kan bidra till att utveckla önskade kontexter och innehåll.

    Begreppet skapelseberättelse har visat sig fungera bättre än andra av författaren kända kunskapsformer för att fånga upp entreprenörandan och väsentligheterna i dynamiken under etableringsprocessen, utan att förstöra kontexten och känslan för sammanhanget. Underliggande mönster har blivit allt tydligare ju mer idéer, tankar och förhållningssätt har bearbetats i forskningsprocessen.

    I övrigt bekräftas tidigare forskningsarbeten genom detta uppsatsarbete. T.ex. vad som motiverar företagare att starta eget företag, bakgrundens betydelse vid etablering av företag, giltigheten av Gaddefors paradoxer (1996) som ett fruktbart tankesätt för entreprenörskap. Resultaten från frågeställningarna om idéer och idéutveckling antyder att de är avgörande element i ett företags skapande. Dock är de långt ifrån det enda elementet som krävs för en lyckad etablering. Många studentarbeten pekar på att t.ex. en stark motivation är ett väsenligt element och till och med viktigare än själva idén för att lyckas med etableringen, eftersom idén bör utvecklas och anpassas till en ständigt föränderlig omgivning. En entreprenör med stark motivation klarar av att byta den ursprungliga affärsidén om detta skulle krävas.

    Klofstens affärsplattform (1992) har utformats i första hand som en modell för teknikbaserade företag men har visat sig ha tillämpning även på företag inom många andra branscher. Grundstenarna i Klofstens affärsplattform är: Idé, Produkter, Marknad, Organisation, Kompetens, Drivkrafter, Kundrelationer, Övriga relationer. Enligt Klofsten krävs en relativt hög nivå av samtliga grundstenar för att bygga ett långsiktigt hållbart företag. Studenterna har i stort sett bekräftat modellen, men har i vissa sammanhang saknat t.ex. betydelsen av timing vid etableringen av företag, vilket inte finns med i Klofstens affärsplattform.

  • 18761.
    Wängsäter, Olof
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics.
    Entreprenöriella skapelseberättelser: skisser från tidiga skeden i företags etableringsprocesser2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsarbetet bygger på 21 PM-arbeten från en högskolekurs i entreprenörskap där studenterna fått i uppgift att intervjua en entreprenör och komma tillbaka med en skapelseberättelse värd att berätta. PM-arbetet bygger på tre frågeställningar som bildar stommen i intervjuarbetet: 1. Hur fick entreprenören sin idé? 2. Hur utvecklades idén till en affärsidé? 3. Hur gick det till när företaget etablerades? Därutöver har studenterna i viss utsträckning kompletterat med frågeställningar utifrån egna intressen. Författaren av denna D-uppsats har skapat denna högskolekurs och arbetat som lärare i samma kurs under tre läsår. Studenterna är från Design och träteknikprogrammet vid Högskolan i Gävle.

    Syftet med uppsatsarbetet var att fördjupa förståelsen av entreprenörskap i allmänhet och tidiga skeden i företags etableringsprocesser i synnerhet. Den fördjupade förståelsen i entreprenörskap har resulterat i ett metaperspektiv för entreprenörskap där man med fördel kan betrakta entreprenörskap i första hand som en lärande process för uthållig företagsamhet, där alla förhållanden och fakta inte är känt före etableringsskedet och inte heller under själva etableringsprocessen. Beslutsunderlagen befinner sig i ett ständigt skapande av ett övergripande förhållningssätt som bygger på kreativitet och gränsöverskridande.

    En slutsats som kan dras av uppsatsarbetet är att förmågan att lära är viktigare än att följa en på förhand uppgjord plan. Modeller och teorier kan komplettera metaperspektivet av entreprenörskap som en lärande process för uthållig företagsamhet om de kombineras med såväl kreativa som kritiska förhållningssätt. På så sätt kan ett entreprenöriellt lärande leda till ett kreativt och kritiskt övertagande av tanketraditioner samt ge en träning i att bli kreativa konstruktörer av modeller och teorier i egna projekt, i egna företag eller i andra situationer där man kan bidra till att utveckla önskade kontexter och innehåll.

    Begreppet skapelseberättelse har visat sig fungera bättre än andra av författaren kända kunskapsformer för att fånga upp entreprenörandan och väsentligheterna i dynamiken under etableringsprocessen, utan att förstöra kontexten och känslan för sammanhanget. Underliggande mönster har blivit allt tydligare ju mer idéer, tankar och förhållningssätt har bearbetats i forskningsprocessen.

    I övrigt bekräftas tidigare forskningsarbeten genom detta uppsatsarbete. T.ex. vad som motiverar företagare att starta eget företag, bakgrundens betydelse vid etablering av företag, giltigheten av Gaddefors paradoxer (1996) som ett fruktbart tankesätt för entreprenörskap. Resultaten från frågeställningarna om idéer och idéutveckling antyder att de är avgörande element i ett företags skapande. Dock är de långt ifrån det enda elementet som krävs för en lyckad etablering. Många studentarbeten pekar på att t.ex. en stark motivation är ett väsenligt element och till och med viktigare än själva idén för att lyckas med etableringen, eftersom idén bör utvecklas och anpassas till en ständigt föränderlig omgivning. En entreprenör med stark motivation klarar av att byta den ursprungliga affärsidén om detta skulle krävas.

    Klofstens affärsplattform (1992) har utformats i första hand som en modell för teknikbaserade företag men har visat sig ha tillämpning även på företag inom många andra branscher. Grundstenarna i Klofstens affärsplattform är: Idé, Produkter, Marknad, Organisation, Kompetens, Drivkrafter, Kundrelationer, Övriga relationer. Enligt Klofsten krävs en relativt hög nivå av samtliga grundstenar för att bygga ett långsiktigt hållbart företag. Studenterna har i stort sett bekräftat modellen, men har i vissa sammanhang saknat t.ex. betydelsen av timing vid etableringen av företag, vilket inte finns med i Klofstens affärsplattform.

  • 18762.
    Wängsäter, Olof
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics.
    Hur skapas entreprenörkulturer?: en studie av Hamrångebygden i norra Gävle kommun2004Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Många lokalsamhällen har problem med att skapa den nödvändiga förnyelsen för att samhället skall fortsätta att leva och utvecklas. Ett alternativ är att låta dessa lokalsamhällen somna in på ett naturligt sätt. Ett annat är att försöka stimulera det lokala entreprenörskapet så att det nödvändiga flödet av kontinuerlig återskapande och förnyelse uppstår igen. Under 2000-2003 arbetade jag som projektledare för ett lokalt utvecklingsprojekt i Hamrångebygden som ligger 3-5 mil norr om centrala Gävle. Där är denna problematik av central betydelse.

    Geografiskt ligger Hamrångebygden vackert inramat mellan Bottenhavskusten med dess skärgård och den stora gränsskogen mellan Gästrikland och Hälsingland - Ödmården.

    Bland de 3600 invånarna är den lokala identiteten stark och bygden har varit kontinuerligt bebodd sedan åtminstone 600-talet. Hamrånge Sockenbildning är från början av 1300-talet och rötterna i bondesamhället finns kvar, även om få arbetar heltid på sin gård numera.

    Hamrångebygden domineras av en brukskultur. Stora Enso med sitt pappersbruk och sågverk har sammanlagt cirka 500 anställda och är bygdens enda riktigt stora privata arbetsgivare. Sågverket anlades 1867 och pappersbruket 1925. I övrigt finns det cirka 120 aktiva småföretag i Hamrångebygden, från deltidsföretag till vägrestaurangen Hakke Gård med cirka 30 årsanställda. Den offentliga sektorn är även en betydelsefull arbetsgivare i bygden.

    Hamrångebygden är ett samlingsnamn för några större och mindre orter och byar där relationerna mellan de olika delarna i bygden pendlar mellan samarbete, likgiltighet och rivalitet. Ett rikt föreningsliv medför ett väl utbyggt socialt nätverk som binder samman olika intressen och bygden i sej. Det var en av de viktigaste anledningarna till att Gävle kommun tillsammans med EU, Länsstyrelsen och Arbetsförmedlingen satsade pengar i det lokala utvecklingsprojektet Affärsidé Hamrånge vilket jag varit projektledare för. Huvudprojektet omsatte tillsammans med sidoprojekt cirka 3 mkr under närmare tre år 2000-2003. Projektägare var Hamrånge Företagarförening tillsammans med Hamrångegruppen.

    Utgångspunkten i uppsatsarbetet har varit kulturen eftersom jag ser den som samhällsbyggandets moder. Vad jag kommit fram till är att ett långsiktigt utvecklingsarbete behöver ta avstamp i en entreprenörkultur som stimulerar och aktivt arbetar med konstant förnyelse av samhällets olika delar inom alla ekonomiska sektorer: marknad, offentlig ekonomi, ideell ekonom samt inom den social ekonomin. Entreprenörskap definierar jag som skapande av ny verksamhet och entreprenörkultur definieras som en omgivning som stöttar entreprenörer på ett aktivt och konstruktivt sätt.

    I uppsatsarbetet utvecklas en modell för hur entreprenörkulturer kan skapas. Det räcker inte med kulturarbete (t.ex. inspirations och attitydarbete) för att skapa en entreprenörkultur. Kulturarbete behöver kompletteras med såväl kapacitetsuppbyggande kompetensutveckling (t.ex. genom korta kurser och utbildning) liksom operativt stöd (t.ex. konsultinsatser och nätverk) under det kritiska uppbyggnadsskedet när företagsamma människor bygger upp sin entreprenöriella kapacitet. Långsiktighet är ytterligare en grundläggande förutsättning. Utan denna sammansatta utvecklingsansats riskerar utvecklingsarbetet att tappa hållbara resultat.

  • 18763.
    Wärenfeldt, Niclas
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi. University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics.
    Konsekvenser vid fastighetsförvärv med s.k paketering –AB till BRF2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta examensarbetes syfte är att identifiera och analyserar konsekvenserna vid ett fastighetsförvärv med så kallad paketering. Metoden som har använts för att genomföra denna uppsats har varit ett induktivt angreppssätt samt en kvalitativ ostrukturerad intervjumetod. Resultatet jag kom fram till var att valet av metod för att genomföra en s.k paketering får stora konsekvenser på räkenskaperna, däremot påverkas inte transparensen för den som förstår att läsa och tolka redovisningen rätt. Däremot ställer paketeringen och dess redovisningsmässiga konsekvenser betydligt större krav på läsaren.

  • 18764.
    Wärenfeldt, Niclas
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics.
    Risk förknippad med outsourcing inom fastighetsförvaltning2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study’s purpose is to identify and analyse the risk associated with outsourcing of services within real estate management. Completing this study I have used the method induction with qualitative personal interviews. A number of risks are identified, however, the advantages of outsourcing generally dominate over disadvantages. The companies studied are generally able to handle the risks associated with outsourcing.

  • 18765.
    Wärm, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies.
    Lindblom, Andreas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies.
    Ambulanssjuksköterskors upplevelser av sinarbetsmiljö i sitt dagliga arbete.: En kvalitativ intervjustudie2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Abstract:Ambulance nurses have in their everyday work a varied work environment, the pace of work can quickly shift from being calm and structured to be a severe acute situation.Objective: The aim of the study was to describe how professional nurses in the ambulance operations experience their physical and mental work environment in daily practice.Method: A qualitative interview study with semi structured questions was used. The study group consisted of two women and three men, ages between 27–42 years. The study was carried out on an ambulance station in central Sweden. Based on collected data, a qualitativecontent analysis was performed that resulted in three categories.Results: The result showed that the ambulance nurses regarded that it was a lot of heavy lifting. To manage all heavy lifts, without damaging the own body the participants considered it important to be in good physical and mental shape in order to perform their daily work.Conclusion: Ambulance nurses show great adaptability, comprehension and acceptance in their variant work environment. Support and understanding from colleagues at physical and mentally heavy duties is a very important part of their work and healthy work environment, simultaneously as they describe that they experience deficiencies in different work situations.Keyword: Ambulance, physics, mental, environment.

  • 18766.
    Wärn, Therese
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    Serie - och följetongstittande på nya plattformar: En studie som behandlar förändringen av seriekulturen och hur det påverkar människor i vardagen2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Utvecklingen av seriekulturen har genomgått en drastisk förändring i och med streamingtjänsternas intåg på marknaden. Konsumtionen av serier har skjutit i höjden och produktionsbolag sänder ut nya serier på löpande band. Människor har även funnit nya sätt att konsumera sina serier på. Men är denna utveckling positiv för människors vanor och levnadsmönster i vardagen?  Denna uppsats behandlar ett ännu relativt outforskat område inom mediekulturen och syftar till att skapa en språngbräda för framtida studier inom ämnet.

    Uppsatsen innehåller en hypotes om att människor idag har påverkats av den nya utvecklingen av streamingtjänster och att deras vanor och mönster har förändrats. Studien av denna hypotes grundar sig i en kvalitativ metodform och innefattar intervjuer med sju informanter som fått svara på frågor ur ett framtaget frågeformulär. Svarsresultaten har sedan analyserats och jämförts med varandra för att få fram skillnader och likheter mellan informanternas svar, och utifrån det har slutsatser och tankar för hypotesen dragits.

    Resultaten visar på att informanterna i någon form har påverkats av den nya förändringen och att de på ett visst plan styrs av behov när de väljer vilka serier de vill se på. 

  • 18767.
    Wärvik, Gun-Britt
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Runesdotter, Caroline
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education. Uppsala universitet.
    Co-production of knowledge on the educational Agora: media activities and 'logics'2019In: New Practices of Comparison, Quantification and Expertise in Education: Conducting Empirically Based Research / [ed] Elde Mølstad, C. & Pettersson, D., London & New York: Routledge, 2019, 1Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 18768.
    Wärvik, Gun-Britt
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Runesdotter, Caroline
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Pettersson, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education. Uppsala University.
    International comparisons in Swedish mass media2017In: Online Programme and Conference App, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The interest in large scale comparative studies of students’ assessment has increased considerably during the last decades and the results have been widely spread in Swedish media. Among the different international surveys of students’ assessment PISA is standing out in publicity, meaning that the results have received an extraordinary significance as an assessment of the education system and education policy. In earlier studies of Swedish media reporting on PISA (Pettersson, 2008; Runesdotter et al., 2015), we could observe a precipitous increase dedicated to the Swedish students’ performance. Particularly the deteriorating results in relation to other countries were focused and have contributed to a publicly embraced debate of the critical state of education in Sweden and demands for political measures in order to improve the education. A point of departure for this paper is that media creates certain conditions for how educational results are classified, regulated and communicated in society (Luhmann, 1996), and has thus become a powerful actor in the making of a comparativistic paradigm (Lindblad, Pettersson & Popkewitz, 2015) in education. We consider media as a conglomerate of actors participating in the intersection of science, educational policy, and society, the agora (Nowotny et al., 2003) where the results are communicated and measures proposed. The aim is to analyze how valid statements are produced on the basis of PISA-results: Which kind of actors are present, what kind of comparisons are made and which conclusions are drawn, what is selected by media to be in focus for the reporting. The analysis has a particular focus on the making of diversity and context, and the surveys from 2009, 2012 and 2015.

    References

    Lindblad, S., Pettersson, D. & Popkewitz, T.S. (2015): International Comparisons of School Results: A Systematic Review of Research on Large Scale Assessments in Education. Stockholm Vetenskapsrådet. Luhmann, N. (1996) Social Systems. Stanford University Press: Stanford. Nowotny, H., Scott, P. & Gibbons, M. (2003). Introduction:Mode 2'revisited: The new production of knowledge. Minerva, 41(3), 179-194. Pettersson, D (2008) Internationell kunskapsbedömning som inslag i nationell styrning av skolan. Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis. Uppsala Studies in Education No 120. Uppsala universitet: Uppsala. Runesdotter, C. Wärvik, G-B., Andersson, E. & Harling, M. (2015). Media attention and representations of national and international ranking lists in Sweden.ECER, 8-11 Sept 2015 in Budapest.

  • 18769.
    Wärvik, Gun-Britt
    et al.
    Gothenburg University.
    Runesdotter, Caroline
    Gothenburg University.
    Pettersson, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    PISA, Communicative Acts and the Media: The Discourse of "Failure" and "Success"2018In: NERA 2018 - 46th Congress: Educational Research: Boundaries, Breaches and Bridges: Abstracts, 2018, p. 107-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The interest in large-scale comparative studies of students’ assessment has increased considerably during the last decades and the results have been widely spread in media. Among the different international surveys of students’ assessment -PISA is standing out in publicity, meaning that the results have received an extraordinary significance as an assessment of the education system and education policy. The OECD seem to be well-aware of the importance of dissemination and one activity taking place in relation to the presentation of results are press-releases and “newsletters” presenting theresults for media, as well as for policymakers and others in a focused and simplified way. In the paper, we pay special attention to these activities which we consider to be communicative acts (cf. Luhmann, 1996). A point of departure for the paper is that media, through the communicative acts by OECDs strategy for dissemination, creates certain conditions for how educational results are classified, regulated and communicated in society (Luhmann, 1996), and has thus become a powerful actor in the making ofa comparativistic paradigm (Lindblad, Pettersson & Popkewitz, 2015) in education. We consider media as a conglomerate of actors participating in the intersection of science, educational policy, and society, the Agora (Nowotny et al., 2003) where the results are communicated and measures proposed. The aim is to analyze how valid statements are produced on the basis of PISA-results: Which kind of actors are present, what kind of comparisons are made and which conclusions are drawn, what is selected by the OECD and the media to be in focus for the reporting. The analysis has a particular focus on the making of diversity and context in terms of “failure” and “success”.

  • 18770.
    Wäsström, Olof
    University of Gävle, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för kultur- och religionsvetenskap.
    Synkronicitet som skelett?: hur synkronicitet ser ut och verkar i Kieslowskis film ”Blå”2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Det här är en jungiansk filmstudie med fokus på synkronicitet i handlingen från början till slutet. Hur manusförfattarna skildrar en människas försök att glömma och förneka delar av sin historia till att via omständigheter hon inte själv kan råda över, bland annat tack vare ett intensivt inflöde av omedvetet material som manifesteras via synkronistiska skeenden, slutligen kan förlösas och gå vidare i livet igen. En slags mild chockterapi som upprepas till dess att huvudpersonen ger upp sin ensidiga hållning och börjar tro på livet igen.

    Jag kommer också att komma in på något som jag här kallar länkade händelser eller objekt.

  • 18771.
    Wästgårds, Joel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Kostundervisning: En studie av läroplanernas inverkan på lärarnas arbetssätt och ämneskunskaper inom kost.2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 18772.
    Wågnert, Nadia
    University of Gävle, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences.
    Bilden av Hitlers maktövertagande i nordisk press2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att spegla den bild av Hitler och det nationalsocialistiska tyska arbetarpartiet som framkommer i tidningar mellan 23 januari 1933 till 6 februari 1933. För att kunna göra detta grundades undersökningarna på tre frågeställningar: Hur framställs Hitler och det nationalsocialistiska tyska arbetarpartiet i tidningarna? Går det att finna någon skillnad beroende på vilken politiska inriktningen tidningarna har? Går det att finna någon skillnad mellan länderna?

                         Källorna i studien består av åtta nordiska tidningar från Norge (Aftenposten och Arbeiderbladet), Danmark (Berlingske Tidende och ØstsJællands Folkeblad), Finland (Hufvudstadsbladet) och Sverige (Gefle Dagblad, Arbetarbladet och Norrlandposten). Bilden av Hitler har varierat genom tiderna och hans namn har förknippats med ord som bland annat diktator, ledare, beskyddare, människa och monster. Men genom att det fanns väldigt lite skrivet om Hitler under hans levnad blir tidningar ett sätt att närma sig vad hans samtida samhälle ansåg om honom. Studien är en komparativ och kvalitativ, där vikten inte ligger i att göra en så korrekt beskrivning utav specifika händelser som möjligt, utan istället att jämföra den bild som framkommer i tidningarnas nyhetsmaterial och ledare.

                          Den teoretiska grunden som undersökningen byggs på är attributionsteorin. Denna teori innebär att tolkandet av situationer görs genom att tillskriva någon (aktören) någonting alltifrån en egenskap till ett motiv eller att finna orsaker i aktörens omgivning, om de är dispositionella (interna) eller situationella (externa). Den tidigare forskningen utgörs av Stig Hadenius och Stefan Höjelids studier. Där påvisas det att det både fanns ett tydligt landsperspektiv såväl som ett partipolitisktperspektiv.

                          I studien fanns inget konkret landsperspektiv i likhet med Höjelids studie där tidningarna visade upp ett gemensamt tolkningsmönster då exempelvis tidningarna från Sverige visade upp stor variation i sitt förhållningssätt till Hitler och det nationalsocialistiska arbetarpartiet. Däremot i likhet med Hadenius studie visade tidningarna en partipolitisk aspekt. Men den partipolitiska aspekten var inte oproblematisk då det gick att finna i likhet med Hadenius studie en splittring mellan nyhetsmaterialet och ledarsidorna. I denna studie visade Gefle Dagblad denna typ av splitring, där ledaren var väldigt negativ till Hitlers agerande i Tyskland i förbjudandet av bland annat Vorwärts medan nyhetsmaterialet visade en annan sida.

                           I det empiriska materialet speglades både en positiv och negativ bild av Hitler och det nationalsocialistiska tyska arbetarpartiet. Dock så framkommer dessa ställningstaganden tydligare senare i studien. I det negativa nyhetsmaterialet och ledare beskrevs Hitler som en diktator och ansågs vara oparlamentarisk. Skulden som lades på Hitler och det nationalsocialistiska tyska arbetarpartiet för de händelser som ägde rum i Tyskland under den studerade perioden förklarades genom dispositionella faktorer. Däribland fanns tidningar som Arbetarbladet och Arbeiderbladet som tydligt speglade denna negativa vinkling. I de tidningar vars nyhetsmaterial och ledare som beskrev Hitler positivt fanns Berlingske Tidende och Aftenposten. Här lades istället skulden på kommunisterna och socialisterna och tidningarna blandar dispositionella och situationellt tolkningar. De övriga tidningarna (ØstsJællands Folkeblad, Hufvudstadsbladet, Norrlandsposten och Gefle Dagblad) hade blandade åsikter om Hitler. Där framkom det att den partipolitiska anknytningen var den mest sammanhängande och övergripande, i enlighet med Hadenius studie.

                          Många tidningar visade under perioden en kontinuitet i deras bild av Hitler och det nationalsocialistiska tyska arbetarpartiet. De som visade sig vara avvikande i studien gällande detta var ØstsJællands Folkeblad och Hufvudstadsbladet som ändrade sina åsikter efter maktövertagandet. Anledningen till detta kan ligga i det geografiska läget som kan skapa andra konflikter men också i den form Hitler kom till makten, denna parlamentariska form som sammanföll med deras egna politiska system var respektingivande.   

                          Hur än tidningen speglade Hitler går det att finna att mycket av den plats som fanns i tidningen ägnades åt honom. I detta skeende som studien porträtterar var det svårt att skilja Hitler och det nationalsocialistiska tyska arbetarpartiet åt.  Hitler namn uppfattades som en synonym till det nationalsocialistiska paritet och den ideologi de representerade.

  • 18773.
    Wågström, Britt-Mari
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology, Ämnesavdelningen för medicinsk vetenskap.
    Fynd av bakterier och svampar i blododlingar hos vuxna under år 2005 i Gävleborgs län: En epidemiologisk studie2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Occurrence of bacteraemia and fungemia is a serious condition with high mortality and the incidence is increasing worldwide. The aim of this study was to survey the occurrence of bacteria and fungi in blood cultures from adult patients domiciled in the county of Gävleborg during one year and also to calculate the incidence and mortality in the same geographical area.

    Method

    This is a descriptive epidemiologic study, based on all episodes of blood cultures analyzed at the Microbiology laboratory, Gävle hospital during 2005. Patients from 20 years of age, domiciled in the county of Gävleborg at the date of drawing the blood culture, where included in the study. Criteria of exclusion were negative blood cultures and cultures which were classified as contaminants.

    Results

    Altogether there were 4 564 blood cultures analyzed, resulting in 524 (11 %) positive cultures for further study. There were 442 patients (48 % women) involved in 499 episodes with confirmed bacteraemia or fungemia. Gram positive bacteria represented 52 %, gram negative 45 % and fungi 3 %. The most frequently isolated bacterium was Escherichia coli followed by Staphylococcus aureus. In women, Escherichia coli was the most common bacterium, and there was a significant difference between the genders (p= 0.004). In men, Staphylococcus aureus was the dominant species (p= 0.027). Streptococcus pneumoniae was more common in women (p= 0.005). The incidence of bacteraemia and fungemia in the county of Gävleborg was 235/100 000 inhabitants above the age of 20 (women, 223/100 000 men, 247/100 000). The incidence increased with age and the mean age was 70.2 years. The mortality within 30 days after the last positive blood culture was 22 % (97 patients). Escherichia coli was the most common bacteria diagnosed among those who died. The mortality in fungemia was 66 %. There was no significant difference in incidence or mortality between the two provinces Gästrikland and Hälsingland. Patients with bacteraemia and fungemia were initially cared for at all medical care units at the three hospitals in the county.

    Conclusion

    The incidence of bacteraemia/fungemia in the county of Gävleborg was 235/100 000 inhabitants. The most common bacteria in patients with confirmed bacteraemia were Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Increasing age was a contributing risk factor. Patients with fungemia had considerably higher mortality compared to patients with bacteraemia. There where no significant differences in mortality between the two provinces.

  • 18774.
    Wåhlstrand, Maria
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology. University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för pedagogik.
    Bardakci, Serap
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology. University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för pedagogik.
    Pedagogers sätt att hantera konflikter: - En jämförelse mellan två förskolor2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med detta arbete är att undersöka hur pedagoger arbetar med att hantera konflikter mellan barn, samt att jämföra två olika förskolor för att se vilka likheter och skillnader som finns. Studien bygger på ett frågeformulär med sex pedagoger på två olika förskolor samt en litteraturstudie som jämförs med pedagogernas svar i frågeformulären. I bakgrunden beskrivs bland annat ett teoretiskt perspektiv samt olika författares syn på konflikter och hantering av konflikter. Resultatet visar på en viss skillnad i arbetet med konflikthantering. Detta genom att olika tankar kring barns känslor har visats samt att pedagogerna på ena förskolan gärna håller sig mer i närheten av de barn som ofta hamnar i konflikter till skillnad från de pedagogerna på den andra för skolan. De likheter som visas är bland annat att alla pedagoger i denna studie är överrens om att barn kan till viss del lösa konflikter själva.

  • 18775.
    Xia, Guo
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    Hailun, Gao
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    The nurses’ experiences of hospice care: A descriptive literature review2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 18776.
    Xia, Wu
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    Jinan, Zheng
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    Quality of life among women with cervical cancer: A descriptive literature review2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 18777.
    Xia, Xiaolin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    A Comparison Study on a Set of Space Syntax based Methods: Applying metric, topological and angular analysis to natural streets, axial lines and axial segments2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, there has been an increasing interest in looking at urban environment as a complex system. More and more researchers are paying attention to the study of the configuration of urban space as well as human social activities within it. It has been found that correlation exists between the morphological properties of urban street network and observed human social movement patterns. This correlation implies that the influence of urban configurations on human social movements is no longer only revealed from the sense of metric distance, but also revealed from topological and geometrical perspectives. Metric distances, topological relationships and angular changes between streets should be considered when applying space syntax analysis to an urban street network. This thesis is mainly focused on the comparison among metric, topological and angular analyses based on three kinds of urban street representation models: natural streets, axial lines and axial segments. Four study areas (London, Paris, Manhattan and San Francisco) were picked up for empirical study. In the study, space syntax measures were calculated for different combinations of analytical methods and street models. These theoretical space syntax accessibility measures (connectivity, integration and choice) were correlated to the corresponding practical human movement to evaluate the correlations. Then the correlation results were compared in terms of analytical methods and street representation models respectively. In the end, the comparison of results show that (1) natural-street based model is the optimal street model for carrying out space syntax analysis followed by axial lines and axial segments; (2) angular analysis and topological analysis are more advanced than metric analysis; and (3) connectivity, integration and local integration (two-step) are more suitable for predicting human movements in space syntax. Furthermore, it can be hypothesized that topological analysis method with natural-street based model is the best combination for the prediction of human movements in space syntax, for the integration of topological and geometrical thinking.

  • 18778.
    Xian, Niu
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment.
    Can, Zhang
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment.
    An Exploratory Study of Outsourcing motives and effects in Sweden and ChinaIndependent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 18779.
    Xiang, Luo
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    A virtual Music fountain simulation based on particle system2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents a real-time simulation of a music fountain which is simulated in three dimensions by a particle animation system. In this system, gravity and wind are factors that affect the locus movement of particles. Using kinematic equations, the dynamic behaviors of particles is modeled. A specific contribution of the work presented here is that parameters for the motion equation are estimated from sound playing in real-time which controls the dynamic behavior of animated fountain. An open source programming language called Processing is used to implement the environment. Results of the system are demonstrated in form of its graphical output and performance benchmarks from run-time evaluation. The author investigates the influence of the parameters of particle system and music attributes on the animation of the music fountain simulation. The size, number, color, texture and transparency of particles can influence the quality of music fountain simulation. Using FFT function to get music parameters is the best way to figure out differences between different music.

  • 18780.
    Xiang, Tingting
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Xu, Sujing
    University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Core Enterprise's Partner Selection in a Green Supply Chain2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Core enterprise is the center of Green Supply Chain (GSC) and it helps partners to meet the environmental standards and to improve GSC’s performance. However there are two questions for core enterprise when it establishes GSC: What roles do core enterprise play in GSC? How does core enterprise improve GSC’s performance? What criterions are considered when core enterprise chooses partners in GSC?

     

    In order to answer these questions, this paper will use following methods: firstly, Analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and Analytic network process (ANP) have be used to study on three research companies (IKEA, TOYOTA and Apple); Secondly, six interviews with research companies’ employees.

     

    After case study, the results show that when core enterprise chooses partners, it will draw up some criterions and sub-standards for partners to fulfill. Furthermore, core enterprise plays the roles as GSC’s builder, director, coordinator, and designer in the system.

     

    Finally, this paper answered the research questions: Firstly, in order to improve the performance of GSC, core enterprise should direct all partners in GSC to save materials and recycle waste in each link of GSC. Secondly, core enterprise can use four criterions to choose partners. These criterions are: environmental management performance, product-related elements, production-service levels, and enterprise culture.

  • 18781.
    Xiao, Chuye
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Jiang, Xi
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Implementation of utility calculations based on utility difference proportions2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This pilot study presents an implementation of utility calculation that is based on utility difference proportions. To conduct a utility calculation for a consequence, one needs to evaluate utility difference proportions and to calculate utility values. The application can help decision makers to compare consequences pairwise and make decisions easier regarding to the final output utility value for each consequence. On the other hand, the application is limited to a specific case with specified preference ordering. The application can be further developed into a more real interactive analytic decision-making support tool in the future.

  • 18782.
    Xiao, Naiyuan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Comfort temperature analysis in a historical stone church2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis a church named Hamrånge, located North of the town Gävle in Sweden, has been studied. In this church thermal comfort is a problem that need to be considered. There is poor insulation and air leakage in the building envelope. And appearance doesn't allow to add any additional insulation, becauce people want to keep its original appearance. In cold weather the church is heated by bench heaters and radiators through direct electicity. 

  • 18783.
    Xiao, Naiyuan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Energy-efficiency building envelope technologies2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, the excessive emission of greenhouse gas CO2, it causing globalwarming, already poses a serious threat to human survival. The problem catches theattention all over the world, and promoting the development of building energyefficiency. In order to the sustainable development of human beings, in 1992 theUnited Nations framework convention on climate change (UFCCC) organizationpublished the Kyoto protocol. In the Kyoto protocol, the European countriescommitted that during 2008 and 2012 they would reduce the amount of greenhouseemissions to 8% compare to 1990.[2] Building envelope technologies can helphouseholder reduce the energy consumption use in the building. Building envelopetechnologies used in the project Brogåden – Alingsås which save the energyconsumption from 204 kWh/ m2a to 95 kWh/ m2a in Sweden. While the cost just838SEK/m² or 8% of the total building costs. In China the envelope technologies usedin the project student apartment in Shandong building university save the energyconsumption about 72% compare with the old student apartments.

  • 18784.
    Xiao, Yi
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Peng, Ronghe
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Rookie Plan: A New Type of Logistics Service Provider in China2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With the development of logistics market, the third party logistics can no longer solve all the problems in supply chain management, the appearance of fourth party logistics is a breakthrough solution to modern supply chain challenge. Since China has become the manufacturing center of the world, it attracts more attentions to its own logistics market. But at the same time, there are few studies on Chinese fourth party logistics.

    This purpose of the study is to research a fourth party logistics service provider in China, including the barriers and the recommendations to promote its development. The fourth party logistics assembles the resources, capabilities, and technologies of its own company and other companies to design, build and run comprehensive supply chain solutions (Foster 1999). The research objectives of the study are 1. Identify what is the smart logistics and the factors comprised smart logistics network in general. 2. Describe the Rookie plan and analysis its property and prospect. And 3. Classify the impact of smart logistics on customer satisfaction or requests, and formulate recommendations on how to improve the performance of Rookie plan.

    Due to such aims, this research pursues a hybrid method which consists both of survey and case study about the ‘Rookie Plan’. Hereby, not only the secondary data for theoretical framework establishment and information gathering of the case project is engaged, but also the primary data through questionnaire to the sellers on the ecommerce platform named ‘Taobao’. For enhancing the reliability and validity of the survey, the overall process is conducted base on a four step guideline, as well as four-phase data analysis method for analyzing the information. What is more, the overall analysis part is led by PEST model. The integration of all methods above confirm the reliability and validity of the research process.

    The results of survey show that there is a necessary to bring smart logistics into e-commerce, and there is a huge potential for the development of fourth party logistics.  This study has demonstrated that Rookie Plan, the new type of logistics service provider in China has obtained a significant achievement and bring the customers huge benefits, but it also faced some risks including it cannot guarantee all aspects of this plan can have well function, and the underdevelopment logistics infrastructure also hinder its development. As the reason of achieving a better development of Rookie plan and shining a light for other 4PL companies in China, the recommendations for Rookie Plan are strengthen the planning and construction of logistics infrastructure, promote the development of third party logistics service provider, and accelerate the integration of e-commerce and modern logistics industry. 

  • 18785.
    Xiao, Ziye
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Liu, Xingrui
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    CSR implementation in large enterprises: Comparision between China and Sweden2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has been widely talked about over decades. CSR is a concept proposed in Western Countries firstly and it asks for business to contribute sustainable economic development and to improve the quality of life by involving other stakeholders at the same time. The CSR among countries in Asia has beenspreadingin recent years. This thesis takes a closer comparison on the CSR between China and Sweden. As a case study with qualitative strategy, its main aims are to compare the driving forces, barriers, activities and deliverables in implementation of CSR in a Sweden-China context. Two Swedish enterprises and one Chinese enterprise are used as examples here in this study and both of their primary data by interview and secondary data by CSR or Sustainability Report are utilized.

    Theories refer to the implementation of CSR, the CSR in China and Sweden are used to establish the conceptual framework of this study. Empirical findings show that Chinese and Swedish enterprises both implement CSR in a similar way while the differences still exist. For instance, the Swedish enterprises stress the work on philanthropic responsibility to participate in local activities, while the Chinese enterprises contribute to the society by donation in natural disaster. Their activities, driving forces, barriers and deliverables are summarized in a model, respectively. Base on this fact, this thesis argues that the difference is due to the influence of cultural and political factors. Consequently, it leads to a situation that the Swedish enterprises have an advantage in implementation on caring of employees while the Chinese enterprises are good at making contributions to the larger society. This thesis can hopefully provide insightful comparison between the implementation of CSR in both Swedish and Chinese enterprises. As a conclusion, the study recommends that the future research should focus on CSR implementation of political influence.

  • 18786. Xiaohua, W.
    et al.
    Zhi, W.
    Zhao, Ming
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi.
    The relationship between developers and customers in agile methodology2008In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Computer Science and Information Technology, ICCSIT 2008, Singapore, 2008, p. 566-572Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Agile methods such as XP emphasize the adaptation to changes, the collaboration with customers and the role of individuals. The project manager, developer and customer should have a tactic to handle the uncertain factors and the management conflicts in software development process. XP ′ s on-site customer practice makes the customer play a important role in development process, and facilitate the broad collaboration between developer and customer. Based on the feature of XP project life cycle and practices, this paper explores respective activities and responsibilities between development team and customer team, and the issues in their collaboration. Some practices in which customer participates is addressed, the activities of both developer and customer are described, some probable problems when customer and programmer work together are presented, and a formal example is given. © 2008 IEEE.

  • 18787.
    Xie, Tian
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Multi-zone modeling of Thermal Comfort and Energy Consumption of a hospital ward: a summer case study2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Hospital is of interest when consider its especial function. Because of the obviously different between the normal residential buildings, the requirement of hospitals’ indoor climate strictly differs from other buildings.

    The author starts this report by briefly stating the building construction currently. Surrounded the topic of thermal comfort and energy consumption, many suggestion and options came out in this report to develop a better condition.

    Firstly, the introduction of the hospital buildings requires the background of the hospital object and the purpose to this report will be stated.

    Secondly, the simulation tool and how to use this tool simulate our real case are introduced.

    Then, the summer case is investigated by this tool after the model is proved to be validated.

    Finally, the improvement of establishing a better indoor environment is raised and the results of improvement and conclusion can be found. The final result will show the optimal solution that discovered by this study after compared different alternatives carefully.

  • 18788.
    Xie, ZhenYun
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    A Microstrip Antenna for Medical Application: Tissues Detection2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is going to design a microstrip antenna that can detect the different tissue, according to this clue, we suppose that it can be used in medical application, for example to detect the breast tumor. Our research and guess are based on the different electrical properties of the tissue.

    Follow the conductivity and permittivity of different tissue, a simple 3D breast structure is going to be modelled, and a tumor tissue will be defined too. Four types of antenna have been designed and simulated in HFSS.

    The antenna with best performance will be manufactured, which is the rectangular microstrip antenna with gap, it works under 2.45Ghz resonate frequency, and with dimension 37.26mm×28.83mm.

    Test S21 of antenna in Vector Network Analyser with different biological tissue, in order to make a simple prove that the antenna can detect the different tissue. The result shows when we use the different tissue’s size and quantity, the S21 changes. 

  • 18789.
    Xinlu, Yu
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Ming, Gong
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Left-behind Children in China: A qualitative study about the experience of left-behind children concerning their childhood2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of the thesis is to explore the negative life experience of left-behind children in a dynamic and integrated perspective taking left-behind children, their guardians, parents, school and other social communities into consideration. It explores the current situation of some left-behind children in China, and discusses the causes and negative effects on children‟s comprehensive development. A qualitative research method has been used because of the in-depth outcome accessible through face-to-face interview. Three left-behind children in different family compositions and one teacher were interviewed. The outcome of this study is discussed in multiple dimensions to explore consequences of left-behind children in China. The results suggest that parents’ migration can lead to more serious problems for the children than expected. The management of left-behind children requires concerted efforts from various social systems, not only parents, schools, children welfare center, and the whole nation, otherwise it would worsen deteriorated social issues.

  • 18790.
    Xintao, Liu
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Geoinformatik och Geodesi.
    Ban, Yifang
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Geoinformatik och Geodesi.
    Uncovering urban mobility patterns with massive floating car data2015In: Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, ISSN 0198-9715, E-ISSN 1873-7587Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban mobility patterns are crucial to understanding urban structures, with applications ranging from traffic forecasting to urban planning. This paper develops a bottom-up approach to assess urban mobility patterns in a quantitative manner based on over 14,200,000 GPS points obtained from 11,263 moving taxicabs in Wuhan, Hubei, China. These taxicabs are equipped with GPS devices and are continuously being driven; thus, the corresponding mobile data sets (i.e., floating car data) cover the entire urban open space and bear traffic characteristics. Consequently, such mobile data are unique and more suitable for urban mobility analysis. Instead of employing the commonly used trajectory methods, we divided the GPS points into moves and stops, focusing on the latter. We found that the time intervals for all of the stops demonstrate the scaling property; that is, the stops can be separated into far more short ones than long ones, which we believe to be typical of the traffic system. The long stops showed a cluster pattern in a self-organized way at different timelines. We extracted these spatiotemporal clusters in a natural way and found that their sizes bear a heavy-tailed distribution. We further analyzed their evolution in both time and space and then categorized them into hotspots and traffic jams, of which the distributions objectively and quantitatively suggest the dynamic and multiple nuclei of urban mobility patterns. This study also provides insights into research on mobile data from the perspective of a complex system.

  • 18791.
    Xintao, Liu
    et al.
    Department of Civil Engineering, Ryerson University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
    Ban, Yifang
    Division of Geoinformatics, Department of Urban Planning and Environment, Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Songnian, Li
    Department of Civil Engineering, Ryerson University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
    An across-country comparison of hierarchical spatial structures of cities2014In: Geomatica, ISSN 1195-1036, Vol. 68, no 3, p. 207-217Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the hierarchical structures of twenty-nine selected European countries from the perspectives of blocks and natural cities, and further makes an across-country comparison among them. Blocks are minimum cycles consisted of road segments in the road network of a whole country, and natural cities are defined as the aggregations of small blocks. We test the size distributions of blocks and natural cities at country level and find both exhibit heavy tailed distributions. Especially, the power law distribution of city sizes indicates the scaling property. Therefore, the cities in a country can be repeatedly grouped into a similar two-tier structure of head and tail via the head/tail division rule. The ascending tiers represent the small, middle, big and mega cities, respectively. Accordingly, a simple model is developed to evaluate and cross compare the degree of similarity and stability of the hierarchical structures of cities. Moreover, cities and blocks are the functional units of a country and the correlation coefficients between city sizes/number of blocks and the economic factors (i.e. GDP/population) are up to 0.87. We further conjecture that the compared results of hierarchies can serve as an indicator to assess that of country’s economic system.

  • 18792.
    Xinyu, Fang
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    Wenjie, Yang
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    Experience of family caregivers caring for person with dementia: – A descriptive literature review2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 18793.
    Xiong, Xin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment. University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för energi- och maskinteknik.
    Li, Shuang
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment.
    Energy Audit of a Building: Energy Audit and Saving Analysis2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The typical residential building is located at the crossing of S. Centralgatan Street and Nedre Akargatan Street in the city of Gavle. It is a quadrangle building of six floors with a yard in the middle. There are 180 apartments of five types in total, and at the first floor there is a kindergarten. There is a District Heating in the building and heating recovery system ventilation which use heat exchanger to reheat.

    Several solutions are used for reducing the heat loss. In the first step, the heat loss  and heat  in  has  been  calculated. There  are  several parameters  that involve the heat loss and heat in of whole building, so each parameter in the energy balance equation is extracted and calculated. And then the Energy Balance Sheet has been built. Among the heat loss part, the transmission is 1237MWh,  the  hot  tap  water  is  332MWh,  the  mechanical  ventilation  is 1041MWh, the natural ventilation is 325.7MWh.In the part of heat in, the DH is 1265.7MWh, the heat pump is 793MWh, the solar radiation is 562MWh, the internal heating is 315MWh.Later in the second step, after analyzing data of heat loss part, the improvements will be focused on the transmission and hot tap water parts because the heat loss in those two parts occupy the most. At the end of final step, the solutions have been discussed to optimize the heating system.

    As conclusion, there are several suggested solutions. The total reduction of heat loss after adjustment is 163MWh, accounts 5.6% of originally heat loss. The  heat  loss  of  the  building  has  been  reduced  from  2935.7MWh  to 2772.7MWh.

  • 18794.
    Xiuqun, Wang
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Sciences.
    Yuru, Yang
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Sciences.
    Persons’ experience before and after amputation: A descriptive review2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 18795.
    Xu, Hanbing
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Hou, Kailin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    A measurement system for static non-linearities2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Measuring static nonlinearities systems has been a hot topic in recent years. In this thesis, amplifier is a device as a static nonlinearities system. In most cases, amplifiers operate as a linear device under small signal conditions. However it becomes more nonlinear and distorting with increasing drive levels. It is applied in many fields, such as communication, mathematical, biology.

     

    This thesis is aiming to investigate the differences between linear and nonlinear modeling of circuits by modeling of a device and implementing a measurement system for electrical devices in MATLAB® as the tool. The approach to fulfill our aim is to find the coefficients of the model and getting the error between models and measured. In this thesis, the error is used to determine the goodness of fit in a specific model.

     

    Through working while following our project design, a comparison is made in the end between the modeling capabilities for two model structures: linear and polynomial, for two operation modes of an amplifier with lower and higher input power. 

  • 18796.
    Xu, Miaowen
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Guo, Xinlei
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Trust Building for Online Private Sellers: Case of Taobao in China2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim:The aim of our study is to analyzeelements of online trust building process from sellers’ standpoint based on case study of Chinese website: Taobao.

    Method:This study was conducted in qualitative method with 12 interviewees as online sellers from Taobao website. Data presentation involves tables and figures to help readers to understand trust building process and apply it in business.

    Result & Conclusions: Online trust building is dynamic and interactive. Three main elements of trust building are product, communication and 3rd party. Trust building process goes through three stages: knowledge-based trust, experience-based trust, and relationship-based trust.

    Suggestions for future research: Limitation of generality suggests further study in quantitative method. Since it is a single case study specific in China, comparison cross-culture or between websites is also suggested as future possibilitiesto test generalizability of this theoretic framework.

    Contribution & implication: This study provided atheoretic framework for online trust building process in real-world context. Management implication was suggested to focus on development of product, communication and 3rdparty service for sellers and website holder

  • 18797.
    Xu, Shuiai
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Automatic location of number plates at night time2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In transport information area, in order to improve control system, identifying vehicle plates is very important. For that reason we are focusing on recognizing the vehicle plate from an image. To distinguish one car from others, one should remove all area except the vehicle plate. Due to the extra difficulties, like limited light, distances, moving etc., it can be hard to detect the final vehicle plate. In this work, we have solved the location of vehicle plate at night time, by separating the objects from the background by using morphological processing and analyzing the characteristics of vehicle plates by using removal of noise and mathematical calculations. According to some characteristics of cars and vehicle plates we developed an algorithm to detect the number of final vehicle plate. This algorithm works fine, and the detected result is accurate.

  • 18798.
    Xu, Wenwen
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Supply Chain Financing: A Recipe to Ease SMEs' Financing2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 18799.
    XU, XIAODAN
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    YUAN, XIN
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Front-line employees make efforts on banks: an empirical case study in Chinese commercial banks2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In order to reduce the risks, banks has two ways to evaluate the loan exposure. One is credit rating, and the other one is pledge collaterals. Many literatures and financial regulations are emphasizing on the importance of credit rating. However, with the illustration of a plenty of empirical study, the pledging collaterals are the popular way which was using by “lazy” banks. Credit rating or pledging with collaterals is the gap between theories and practices. 

    The aim of this thesis is to figure the factors which make the gap between the theories and practices. At last, the front-line employees are paid attention on. Since front-line employees are the first and direct one who contact customers. Reliability and responsiveness has a space to develop by training first-line employees, moral hazard controlling, and sectoral specialization the credit inspection.

  • 18800.
    Xu, Zhengyan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Zhou, Yibing
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Specific Handwritten Chinese Character Recognition Based on Artificial Intelligence2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As internet techniques are developing more and more quickly, internet becomes the

    main way to communicate with the outside world. In this case, written information

    on paper needs to be converted to digital information urgently, increasing the need

    for handwritten character recognition. The aim of this work is to discuss methods

    that can be used to recognize handwritten Chinese characters. We study geometric

    features and clustering of handwritten Chinese characters from three aspects, which

    are handwritten character preprocessing, feature extraction and clustering. To test

    the correctness of our method, an application was built that could learn to recognize

    five medium-hard handwritten Chinese characters by using a neural network.

373374375376377378379 18751 - 18800 of 19523
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