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  • 18801.
    Östberg, Rasmus
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Computer science.
    Robustness of a neural network used for image classification: The effect of applying distortions on adversarial examples2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Powerful classifiers as neural networks have long been used to recognise images; these images might depict objects like animals, people or plain text. Distorted images affect the neural network's ability to recognise them, they might be distorted or changed due to distortions related to the camera.Camera related distortions, and how they affect the accuracy, have previously been explored. Recently, it has been proven that images can be intentionally made harder to recognise, an effect that last even after they have been photographed.Such images are known as adversarial examples.The purpose of this thesis is to evaluate how well a neural network can recognise adversarial examples which are also distorted. To evaluate the network, the adversarial examples are distorted in different ways and thereafter fed to the neural network.Different kinds of distortions (rotation, blur, contrast and skew) were used to distort the examples. For each type and strength of distortion the network's ability to classify was measured.Here, it is shown that all distortions influenced the neural network's ability to recognise images.It is concluded that the type and strength of a distortion are important factors when classifying distorted adversarial examples, but also that some distortions, rotation and skew, are able to keep their characteristic influence on the accuracy, even if they are influenced by other distortions.

  • 18802.
    Östblom, Jenny
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences.
    Materialkostnader i skolans textilslöjdundervisning: Hur lärare upplever prioriteringarna i textilslöjden2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 18803.
    Östblom, John
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Utredning av Valboåsens grundvattenmagasins förbindelse med Gavleån: En analys av halten löst syre genom mätningar2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Gävle municipality's water company is Gästrike Vatten AB. They manages the drinking water production for the City of Gävle. The production starts in the ridge of Valbo which extends between Överhärde (located in the south part of Valbo) and Strömsbro (located in the north part of Gavle). Purpose of this report is to measure the dissolved oxygen content in the aquifer throughout the whole area to investigate where the infiltration from the nearby Gavle River occurs. The aim of the study is to get a better understanding of the complexity of the Valbo ridge. The measurements will help to verify or modify the conceptual model of the directions of water flow in the Valbo ridge, developed by Midvatten AB. Dissolved oxygen content was measured through ground water pipes. To assess the pipes’ capacity and connection to the aquifer, slug tests were performed. The dissolved oxygen data were analyzed and compared with the conceptual model. The results showed that the dissolved oxygen content in the water supported the conceptual model to a large extent and also gave previously unknown information on some stretches of the ridge. The method shows great potential for additional future studies in Valbo ridge and elsewhere. To expand the study further, a need for more sampling of the aquifer throughout the areas that were not included in this study.

  • 18804.
    Österback, Julia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Public Health and Sport Science.
    En undersökning om pedagogers uppfattningar om pedagogisk måltid i förskolan: Med en induktiv studiedesign2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Österback, J. (2019). A survey about preschool teachers’ perceptions of pedagogic meal. Bachelor thesis in Public Health Science. Department of Occupational and Public Health Science. Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies. University of Gävle, Sweden.

     

    Aim: Examine preschool teacher’s perceptions about pedagogic meal.

    Design: The survey included an inductive approach, intensity sampling, semi-structured interviews and a qualitative content analysis.

    Results: The result was presented on the basis of four main categories; the first, The preschool teacher´s view of the pedagogic meal. The second, Factors in the environment that affect the educational meal with the subcategories Room and group size, How food is served, Space and time for the meal, Interruptions during meals. Subsequently, the category Socialization during the meal with two subcategories, Norms and rules & Learning strategies affect children's habits. Finally, the category Preschool teachers’ knowledge, background and development with the subcategories Learning strategies affect children's habits & skills development is needed.

    Conclusions: Further research is proposed to be quantitative research, a survey to test what emerged in the results of this study. This would provide a basis for creating guidelines and policies for how a pedagogical meal should be shaped more concretely.

     

    Keywords: pedagogic meal, meal environment, children's habits, resources, skills

  • 18805.
    Österberg, Jenny
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Söderström, Hanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Att vara anhörig till en demenssjuk person: en litteraturstudie som belyser livssituationen ur ett anhörigperspektiv2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: to examine the effects on the lives of people who are related to someone with dementia.

    Method: A literature review with descriptive design. The study was based on 13 articles collected in the databases PubMed and Cinahl.

    Result: The results showed a marked change in the lives of those related to a person diagnosed with dementia, and the life situation was affected in multiple ways. The type of relationship the relative and the ill person had before the disease could in some instances affect how the relative experienced the situation. The results demonstrated emotions like isolation, anger, powerlessness, as well as loss and guilt. In dealing with the role as caregiver factors like having a positive attitude and a good support system was mentioned. Very often the relatives would maintain their roles as caregivers as long as possible, but when the situation became untenable, the move to assisted living was inevitable.

    Conclusion: The results of the study showed that the overall impact on the lives of relatives of people diagnosed with dementia was negative. There is some research on how the lives of relatives of people with dementia are affected, but in order for nurses to give the best support possible, there is a need for even more research and publications on this topic.

  • 18806.
    Österberg, John
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Rahim, Namir
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    En beskrivning av hur personer med diabetes typ 2 upplever att genomgå livsstilsförändringar till följd av sjukdomen2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Diabetes är en av de sjukdomar som är mest växande globalt. I Sverige är det över 400 000 människor som lever med diabetes. Diabetessjukdomen finns i olika former och de vanligaste formerna är diabetes typ 1 och diabetes typ 2. Risken att bli drabbad av den sjukdomen ökar vid fetma, tobaks- och alkoholkonsumtion. Därför kan det bli nödvändigt att genomföra livsstilsförändring för att förbättra den mentala och fysiska hälsan hos personer som lever med diabetes typ 2.

     

    Syfte: Syftet med denna studie var att beskriva hur personer med diabetes typ 2 upplever att genomgå livsstilsförändringar till följd av sjukdomen. Syftet var också att beskriva datainsamlingsmetoderna i de inkluderade artiklarna i resultatet.

     

    Metod: En litteraturstudie med en deskriptiv design som baserades på 14 kvalitativa vetenskapliga artiklar.

     

    Huvudresultat: Resultatet för denna litteraturstudie baserades på möjligheter och svårigheter som påverkade upplevelsen av att genomgå livsstilsförändringar hos personer med diabetes typ 2. Utifrån möjligheter har fyra subteman identifierat: Kost och motion som motivationsfaktorer, erhållen kunskap, betydelsen av stöd från omgivningen och att ta personligt ansvar. I huvudteman svårigheter presenterades dessa subteman: Kost- och motions påverkan på det sociala och vardagliga livet, brist på kunskap samt krav och inre kamp.

     

    Slutsats: Flera personer fick blandade känslor utifrån upplevda möjligheter och svårigheter som de har stött på under livsstilsförändringen. Det blir viktigt att sjukvårdspersonal får en bättre helhetsförståelse kring patienters olika upplevelser av att genomgå en livsstilsförändring för att kunna optimera en personcentrerad vård, egenvårdsinsatser och tillgodose patienters egenvårdsbehov.

  • 18807.
    Östergren, Sofie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Public health science.
    Hinder och förutsättningar för nyanlända; ett perspektiv från människor som arbetar med nyanländas mottagande: En intervjustudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 18808.
    Östergårds, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Aburweileh, Hossam
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Vuxna patienters upplevelser av den palliativa vården i hemmet2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Every year, about 90 000 people in Sweden die and most of them are in need of palliative care. The individual should as far as possible be able to decide if he or she wants to die at home or in hospice care. Historically, palliative care was meant to treat people with cancer but has gradually evolved to treat several types of disorders.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe how adults perceive palliative care in their home, as well as to study the selected articles data collection method.

    Method: The present study has a descriptive design. The study results are based on eleven scientific articles, ten with qualitative approach, and one with a mixed approach. All articles were reviewed by both authors and color marked depending on the content. The articles were identified through databases CINAHL and Pubmed.

    Main Results: The palliative care at home was perceived largely as positive among patients. It was highly valued having their relatives close and to reside in their familiar home environment at the end of life. It also emerged that the palliative patients were concerned about being a burden to their families. By having paramedics in their home as well as support from relatives they were given the opportunity to be able to handle everyday activities on their own, which turned out to generate quality of life. Dignity of the palliative patients was described by the concepts of integrity, well-being and self-determination. Good communication and continuity was seen as important factors for the patients.

    Conclusion: Palliative patients who received care at home looked largely positive about the care they received. They felt that the cooperation between health care and their families was essential for safe care in their home. These patients' desire to be cared for and die at home should be a priority as it will lead to increased quality of life. Results of this study gives a clear indication of development areas in palliative care.

  • 18809.
    Österlind, Eva
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för pedagogik. Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap med inriktning mot tekniska, estetiska och praktiska kunskapstraditioner.
    Acting out of habits - can Theatre of the Oppressed promote change?: Boal's theatre methods in relation to Bourdieu's concept of habitus2008In: Research in Drama Education, ISSN 1356-9783, E-ISSN 1470-112X, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 71-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Habits make everyday life manageable, but can also become obstacles and cause problems. The tendency to repeat old patterns of behavior is a common problem for individuals and for society as a whole. Unreflexive habitual actions constitute an important aspect of social reproduction. In this article, two questions are addressed: Why is change so hard to achieve? Can Theatre of the Oppressed be used to promote change? A close reading of the French sociologist Bourdieu in relation to Boal's theatre methods is undertaken to answer these questions. Bourdieu's concept of habitus serves to explain the persistence of status quo; structural aspects are embedded in how we think and act, and are also inscribed in the body. These unconscious aspects of habitus are interesting in relation to theatre, where the conscious use of body language, inner dialogue and action are central. Looking at Boal's theatre methods in the light of Bourdieu's concept of habitus, Theatre of the Oppressed clearly has the potential to make social structures, power relations and individual habitus visible and, at the same time, provide tools to facilitate change. It is one of the few methods that offers an integrated approach to work on individual, group and social levels, and involves both the body and the mind. If the methods are practiced according to the principles outlined by Boal, they can be used not only to become aware of, but also to expand, habitus. As participants describe effects on their attitudes and actions, do they make changes in their daily lives? Are there any long-term effects of Theatre of the Oppressed? The work of Boal and others is promising, but to answer those questions more evidence is needed.

  • 18810.
    Österlind, Eva
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för pedagogik.
    Drama Research in Scandinavia2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 18811.
    Österlind, Eva
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för pedagogik. Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap med inriktning mot tekniska, estetiska och praktiska kunskapstraditioner.
    Drama Research in Sweden: Mapping the Field2008In: NJ (Drama Australia journal), ISSN 1445-2294, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 95-109Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A review of drama research in Sweden is presented, based on a descriptive analysis of Swedish doctoral dissertations. Bourdieu’s field-concept is used as a framework, and the results are discussed in relation to the perceived need for a research discipline in drama. How can Swedish drama research be described? Which theoretical perspectives and research methods are being used? The overview shows the academic disciplines that are hosting research of drama in education, and influences from their theoretical perspectives are briefly discussed. There is no autonomous field, but a domain of drama research which includes dissertations within the disciplines of Education and Literature. Conditions in Sweden are not as good compared to some other Nordic countries, where subject specific education and expert tutors are available at the research level. Is an autonomous research discipline unnecessary, or even impossible to achieve, taking into account the general tendencies towards inter- and cross-disciplines and ‘knowledge areas’ within higher education?

  • 18812.
    Österlind, Eva
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Educational drama. Stockholms universitet.
    Emotions – Aesthetics – Education2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Emotions are seen as a driving force in students’ learning, but students’ involvement can also be problematic. A subject matter that catches students’ attention can either lead to positive learning activities or lead to rejection if the subject matter is upsetting in a negative way. Here, this teaching dimension will be addressed in connection with Environmental Education.

    Three examples ­– a whole-class teaching event, an individual student’s learning process and an example of process drama – will be briefly presented in order to discuss how different instructional designs interact with students’ emotions. A conclusion is that emotionally-loaded subjects require an elaborated teaching strategy in order to develop deeper knowledge. When the teaching includes an aesthetic approach, like process drama, emotions are not seen as a problem but as an integrated, natural part of the whole.

  • 18813.
    Österlind, Eva
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för pedagogik.
    Evaluation of Theatre Projects for Social Change: When, How and Why?2008Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Theatre for Social Change (TfSC) is built on the audience’s active participation. TfSC is based on intentionality and a belief that the theatre form is powerful – the explicit purpose of TfSC is to promote change. Theatre  for Social Change projects often takes place outside the formal educational system. Projects based on external financial support often have to meet demands for evaluation, but is it possible to evaluate Drama and Theatre for Social Change in a way that is  meaningful for those who are involved and increases the body of knowledge?

    In this paper three projects of Theatre for Social Change in Sweden/EU, Serbia and Palestine are described, with focus on the evaluations. The examples are used to discuss the evaluator’s role(s) and position, when and how to evaluate, and the value of evaluations, primarily for project members and audiences but also for donors as well as for colleagues in the field of drama. As a result of the demands from external funders, substantial evaluation reports are written about drama/theatre projects around the world. Therefore it becomes important to develop and share ‘good practice’ in how to carry out credible evaluations that contribute to the development of drama and Theatre for Social Change.

  • 18814.
    Österlind, Eva
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för pedagogik.
    Forum Theatre: A way to promote active citizenship2008In: TmačaART Magazine, Vol. 10, no 39, p. 44-51Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Culture House Lätting is a local Swedish organization working with young persons who are unemployed or do part of their secondary education as apprentices in art work. One of the methods used by Lätting is Forum Theatre. Supported by the European Commission, Lätting created a project to increase active citizenship among young people from so called remote areas. Four workshops were held with participating youth organizations from four(five) countries and the process was carefully documented. A brief presentation of the project and its outcomes is followed by a discussion concerning evaluation.

  • 18815.
    Österlind, Eva
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för pedagogik.
    Is Forum Theatre a Way to Promote Active Citizenship – and how to answer that question?2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 18816.
    Österlind, Eva
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för pedagogik.
    Vanans makt och hur man bryter den: Ett möte mellan Bourdieus teorier om varför det bestående består och Boals teater för förändring.2007In: Drama Boreale 2006: Aktuell forskning i drama og teater / [ed] B. Rasmussen, Trondheim: Tapir Akademisk Forlag , 2007, p. 65-73Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 18817.
    Österlind, Eva
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för pedagogik.
    Josephson, Agneta
    Att bryta vanans makt: Ett möte mellan Bourdieu och Boal2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 18818.
    Österlind, Eva
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för pedagogik.
    Sternudd-Groth, Mia-Marie
    Instructional Design and Student Learning – Is There a Connection?: Process Drama compared with Individual Instruction and Whole Class Teaching2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 18819.
    Österlind, Eva
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för pedagogik.
    Sörling, Stig
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    Leadership in Work Organization based on Self-Management2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 18820.
    Österlund, Catharina
    et al.
    University of Umeå, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Clinical Oral Physiology, Umeå, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Evelina
    University of Umeå, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Clinical Oral Physiology, Umeå, Sweden.
    Hellström, Fredrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Häger, Charlotte K.
    University of Umeå, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Umeå, Sweden.
    Häggman-Henrikson, Birgitta
    University of Malmö, Faculty of Odontology, Orofacial Pain and Jaw Function, Malmö, Sweden.; Scandinavian Center for Orofacial Neurosciences (SCON), Malmö, Sweden.
    Jaw-Neck Movement Integration in 6-year old Children Differs from that of Adults2019In: Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, ISSN 0305-182X, E-ISSN 1365-2842Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A functional integration between the jaw and neck regions during purposive jaw movements is well described in adults, but there is a lack of knowledge of such integration during jaw function in children.; Objectives: To determine the movement integration between the jaw and neck during jaw motor tasks in 6-year-olds, whether there is a difference between children and adults.; Methods: Jaw and neck movements were recorded with an optoelectronic 3D system in 25 healthy 6-year-olds (12 girls, 13 boys) and 24 healthy adults (12 women, 12 men) during paced jaw opening-closing and self-paced gum chewing. Jaw and neck movement amplitudes, intra-individual variation in movement amplitude, ratio between neck-jaw movement amplitudes, and movement cycle time were analysed. Differences between children and adults were evaluated with Mann-Whitney U test for independent samples.; Results: Compared to adults, 6-year old children showed larger neck movement amplitudes (P=0.008) during chewing, higher intra-individual variability in amplitudes of jaw (P=0.008) and neck (P=0.001) movements, higher ratio between neck-jaw movement amplitudes for jaw opening-closing (P=0.026) and chewing (P=0.003), and longer jaw movement cycle time (P≤0.0001) during the jaw opening-closing task.; Conclusion: Despite integrated jaw-neck movements in 6-year old children, the movement pattern differs from that of adults and may be interpreted as an immature programming of jaw-neck motor behavior. The well-integrated movements observed in adults most likely develop over years, perhaps into adolescence, and needs further research including well controlled longitudinal studies to map this development in order to provide appropriate age-related clinical treatment for functional disorders. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.; This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  • 18821.
    Österlund, Elin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Har företagets lönsamhet en modererande effekt på relationen mellan skatteundandragande och Corporate Social Responsibility?: En kvantitativ studie på 460 publika europeiska bolag under en tioårsperiod2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Companies social responsibility has been discussed more frequently and CSR has grown to be an important question for companies and their stakeholders. As a response to this the question regarding companies’ responsibility to pay tax has also been lifted as a part of their social responsibility. Earlier studies has showed contradictory results regarding the relation between CSR and tax avoidance, and arguments regarding companies results has emerged as an moderating variable to the relation. The purpose of this study is to examine the correlation between CSR and European companies’ effective tax rate, and if the influence of profitability has any effect on this relation.

    Method: The study is assumes a positivistic research philosophy with a hypothetical-deductive approach. The study has a quantitative strategy and a longitudinal design, implemented with ten-year data of 460 public European companies, for the time period 2007-2016. The study is based on secondary data from the database Thomson Reuters Datastream. The data has been analyzed in two statistical programs, SPSS and STATA.

    Result & Conclusions: The result of the study gives some evidence that profitability has a moderating effect on the relationship between CSR and tax avoidance. Companies that has high profitability shows a greater positive relationship between CSR and tax avoidance, which indicates that they view tax and CSR as substitutes or as two opposite activities. The result regarding different institutions influence on this relationship, shows that there are differences depending in which institution the company is located. The conclusion from this study is therefore that profitability have a proven moderating effect on the relationship between CSR and tax avoidance, companies with high profitability does show greater tendencies to use more tax avoidance when their CSR-activities are higher, then does companies with less profitability.

    Contribution of the thesis: The study contributes to the empirical research for European companies, regarding the relationship between CSR and tax avoidance. It also contributes to the empirical research in this area of research, and whether or not the companies sectorial or institutional belonging effect the relationship between CSR and tax avoidance. The result contributes with valuable theoretical information to the contradictory research regarding the relationship between CSR and tax avoidance.

    Suggestions for future research: One suggestion for future research is to use other measurements for tax avoidance, when the description of tax avoidance is so wide. Another suggestion is to do a similar study where CSR is divided into its separate dimensions to see if there is differences between them, regarding the relation towards tax avoidance. From a population perspective there is a gap regarding the global research on this subject, one suggestion is therefore to perform a similar study, where public companies from all over the world is included. Then group the companies depending on which institution the belong to, to analyse the results from an institutional level from a global perspective.

  • 18822.
    Österlund, Emma
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Brandt, Therese
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Husköpares betalningsvilja2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte:

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att analysera vilka faktorer som påverkar en konsuments betalningsvilja vid köp av en fastighet. Detta ska vi ta reda på genom att se det ur ett perspektiv utifrån köpare av småhus.

    Metod:

    Metoden som används är en kvantitativ metod, denna metod ligger sedan som underlag till analysen. Analysunderlaget består av primärdata från fallstudien som grundas på enkäter som blivit utskickade till nyblivna husägare. Själva essensen i undersökningen består av att undersöka vilka faktorer som påverkar huspriserna mest, men undersökningen syftar även till att försöka svara på frågor som; Vad påverkar huspriser? Hur påverkar det? Vilka relationer finns mellan de olika faktorerna? Och slutligen, Vad påverkar husköparnas betalningsvilja?

    Resultat & slutsats

    : Resultatet från enkätundersökningen visar att husköpare i första hand tar hänsyn till läget på fastigheten, därefter följer pris, storlek och ränta. Inför ett husköp påverkar inkomsten hur betalningsmöjligheterna ser ut. Slutsatsen är att vi som från början tänkte analysera hur räntan påverkar huspriserna är glada att vi tänkte om eftersom alla prioriterade räntan väldigt lågt. Vi har även funnit att det finns genusskillnader gällande vad som prioriteras vid ett stundande husköp.

    Förslag till fortsatt forskning:

    Det hade varit intressant att gå djupare in i ämnet med hjälp av fler respondenter. Köparna tyckte att läget var det som ökade betalningsviljan mest och läget är ett väldigt diffust begrepp eftersom det är väldigt personligt vilket läge man föredrar.

  • 18823.
    Österlund, Liza
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences.
    Elever i årskurs 6 och deras inställning till ämnet Idrott och hälsa: En kvalitativ intervjustudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Våra barn och unga mår idag allt sämre fysiskt och psykiskt. I samband med det ökar även problemet med inaktiva och stillasittandet barn. Skolan är en viktig arena och ämnet Idrott och hälsa har en betydande roll för att skapa fysiskt aktiva barn och unga. För att minska stillasittandet bland unga behöver vi veta vad som får elever att vilja delta på idrottslektioner. Motivation ses som centralt för att kunna förstå det mänskliga beteendet. Därför var syftet med studien att undersöka elevers inställning och motivation till ämnet Idrott och hälsa. Studien undersökte även hur eleverna upplever sin idrottslärares förmåga att motivera till ett deltagande. Metoden i studien är semistrukturerade intervjuer, då intervjuer lämpar sig bra när man vill undersöka människors tankar, känslor eller upplevelser. I en storstad i Sverige har tre elever i årskurs 6 intervjuats. Resultatet visade att eleverna hade en positiv inställning till skolämnet Idrott och hälsa. Motivationen ökade när de tyckte någon aktivitet var rolig eller när de kände sig duktiga, vilket ökade känslan av meningsfullhet Alla tre elever upplevde sin idrottslärare motiverande genom att han var sträng och snäll. 

  • 18824.
    Österman Menander, Charlotta
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Jakobsson, Katarina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Dilemman i väntrummet: En etnografisk studie om interaktioner och dilemman i socialtjänstens väntrum2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    “Waiting room dilemmas- an ethnographical study of interactions and dilemmas in social welfare waiting rooms” 

    The social services activity is a balance between service and control. Uniting these parts is a challenge, and this study’s main intention is about how various social offices relates to this in their work with peoples waiting room experiences. The purpose of the study is by observations and interviews, to investigate what exists in a place like a public authority waiting room. Questions like what kind of interactions will take place and which dilemmas might occur are asked. The result shows that different approaches in how social workers do call clients up occur, the accessibility or lack of accessibility to computers, telephone and copying machine, clarifies the power imbalance that exists in governmental work. The result also shows that some waiting room interactions may be experienced as enforced and that the social services law is hard to maintain.

  • 18825.
    Österman Solborg, Amanda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    De mångbottnade männen och de enkla kvinnorna: En feministisk och genusinriktad undersökning av det manliga och kvinnliga i Stephen Kings Pestens tid2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 18826.
    Österström, Alina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    Intersex i media: En kvalitativ innehållsanalys av tidningarnas rapportering om intersexualitet2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 18827.
    Österström, Stina Lisa
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Ohlsén, Oscar
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Inre arbetsmotivation och engagemang i organisationen: en studie om skillnader mellan inhyrda och tillsvidareanställda läkare2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to examine if intrinsic motivation and work commitment to the organization differs between permanent doctors and hired doctors. The total of 63 doctors who participated in the study made an internet-based survey with 21 questions taken from the Basic Need Satisfaction at Work Scale and 3 questions from the section “work commitment” in QPS Nordic. The main results of the study showed that permanent doctors perceived a higher level of intrinsic motivation on all the three needs autonomy, competence and relatedness. Furthermore the result showed a tendency that permanent doctors perceived a higher level of work commitment to the organization then hired doctors.

  • 18828.
    Östgård, Kristina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Vårdpersonalens upplevelser av att vårda personer med Beteendemässiga och Psykiska Symtom vid Demens (BPSD)2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    More and more people suffer from dementia and a large part of these is affected by some point of one or several behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). BPSD creates great suffering for the affected but can also be difficult for the people around them to manage, relatives and health professionals, and is a big reason that a person moves in to a nursing facility. The aim of this study was to describe health professional’s experience of caring for persons with behavioral and psychological symptoms in dementia, BPSD. The study had a descriptive design with qualitative approach. Data were collected through six individual semi-structured interviews. By convenience sampling, nursing assistant working at a nursing facility for people with dementia in Sweden were recruited. Data were analyzed by qualitative content analysis. A theme emerged, “Difficulties to find a balance between need and resource”. The informants experienced their work in caring for people with BPSD as a great challenge but also as very awarding. The feeling of being inadequate, lacking knowledge or ability to handle certain situations or symptoms and lack of resources perceived as stressful by the informants. Aggressiveness and anxiety in individuals with BPSD were experienced as the most difficult to handle. The results also showed that the informants experienced working with persons with BPSD as exiting, interesting and fun and that they felt satisfaction in being there for the person with BPSD and to be able to contribute to their well-being. The conclusion in this study shows that informants experienced great challenges in their work to create wellbeing for people with BPSD. Support and education could increase the job satisfaction for the health personnel but also increase the quality of life for people with BPSD.

  • 18829.
    Östholm, John
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences. University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för datavetenskap.
    Spelkaraktär: En kreativ designprocess2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Designprocessen för en ”next-gen”-spelkaraktär är i dag förhållandevis invecklad och innehåller många olika moment innan den når sitt slutgiltiga stadium med en färdig karaktär som resultat. Den här artikeln dokumenterar designprocessen för en spelkaraktär från början till slut och kommer att se mycket till den kreativa men även den tekniska aspekten av detta arbete. Arbetet resulterar i en karaktär som modelleras, skulpteras, animeras och slutligen importeras till Unreal Editor 3.0.

  • 18830.
    Östlin, Anders
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Tjockleksmätning med ultraljud: Icke konventionell metod med signalbehandling2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Ultrasonic thickness gauging of steel tubes is typically performed by observing the time difference between two following echoes. This process is often connected to various problems regarding interference. This thesis describes how to avoid these problems by using signal processing and analyzing the signals in the frequency domain.

    To achieve these results a signal model that describes the necessary effects is derived. From this model different measurement methods to analyze and determine the thickness are developed.

    One of the methods proved to be useful.

  • 18831.
    Östlin, Carl Niclas
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Palmé, Fredrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Säljstöd: En kvalitativ fallstudie gällande samspelet mellan Self-Support, Core-team Support och External Support2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Abstrakt

     

    Titel: Säljstöd

    Nivå: Kandidatuppsats

    Författare: Fredrik Palmé och Niclas Östlin

    Handledare: Jens Eklinder Frick och Jonas Molin

    Datum: 2015 - januari

     

    Syfte: Tidigare forskning har visat att det finns lite eller ingen interaktion mellan säljstödsstrukturerna Self-Support, Core-Team Support och External-Support. Syftet med denna studie är därför att öka vår förståelse kring säljstödsstrukturer och se om det finns ett samspel mellan dem och om de kan kombineras, samt öka förståelsen för de fyra underliggande dimensionernas (workload, complexity, prequalification och customization) påverkan på valet av säljstöd.

    Metod: Studien är designad som en fallstudie med en kvalitativ ansats och ett hermeneutiskt perspektiv. Den teoretiska referensramen samlades in med hjälp av deduktion och det empiriska materialet samlades in genom semi-konstruerade intervjuer.

     Resultat och slutsats: Studien indikerar att det finns ett konstant samspel mellan de tre olika säljstödsstrukturerna. Valet av säljstöd beror  på säljarens upplevelser av de fyra dimensionerna och Self-Support, Core-team support och External-support är ofta kombinerade för att erbjuda det mest lämpliga stödet vid rätt tidpunkt.

     Förslag till vidare forskning: Eftersom ett av företagen var under omstrukturering och led av viss personalbrist, finns det möjligtvis en skillnad i appliceringen av säljstöd i ett företag som har lämplig mängd personal. Det vore även intressant att se vilken påverkan kommunikationen i ett mer centraliserat företag hade haft på valet av säljstöd.

     Uppsatsen bidrag: Studiens bidrag är den ökade förståelsen kring samspelet mellan olika säljstödsstrukturer. Det måste anses vara svårt att skapa ett ramverk för att bestämma vilket säljstöd som bör tillämpas, då varje säljsituation är unik och kan behöva en kombination av olika säljstöd för att vara tillräcklig.

     Nyckelord: Säljstöd, Self-Support, Tvärfunktionella grupper, Externt stöd, Arbetsbörda, Komplexitet, Anpassningsbarhet, Förkvalificering, Säljaktiviteter.  

  • 18832.
    Östlin, Kajsa
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Jansson, Sara
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Vuxna personers erfarenheter av att leva med diabetes mellitus typ 2: En litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Antal fall av diabetes mellitus typ 2 ökar i Sverige samt över hela världen. Okunskap om hur sjukdomen utvecklas och hanteras kan leda till komplikationer och andra sjukdomar.

    Syfte: Syftet med litteraturstudien var att beskriva vuxna personers erfarenheter av att leva med diabetes mellitus typ 2, samt att beskriva de inkluderade artiklarnas datainsamlingsmetod.

    Metod: Litteraturstudien har deskriptiv design. Studien inkluderar 12 kvalitativa artiklar funna i databaserna PubMed och Cinahl.

    Huvudresultat: I analysen av artiklarna framkom kategorier som besvarade vuxna personers erfarenheter av att leva med diabetes mellitus typ 2. Kategorierna var: Erfarenheter av att ha diagnostiseras med diabetes typ 2, Vuxna personers erfarenheter av kontroll och behandling av diabetes typ 2, Erfarenheter av kostförändringar i samband med diabetes typ 2 hos vuxna personer, Erfarenheter av sociala sammanhang hos vuxna personer med diabetes typ 2 och Erfarenheter och hanteringssätt att leva med sin diabetes typ 2. Resultatet reflekterar positiva och negativa erfarenheter i det vardagliga livet i hos personer med diabetes mellitus typ 2.

    Slutsater: Att få diabetes mellitus typ 2 medförde många olika känslor hos flera informanter. Diabetes påverkade vardagliga livet och krävde förändringar i den drabbades liv. Flera informanter erfor frustation över vården och många erfor stöd från familj och vänner. Rädsla för att drabbas av komplikationer till följd av sin sjukdom och inte få se sina barn växa upp gav motivation till att ta hand om sin sjukdom. 

  • 18833.
    Östlin, Nurtena
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Rasoulzadeh, Arezou
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Livskvalitet och copingstrategier hos ungdomar med cancer: : En litteraturstudie2011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 18834.
    Östling, Marcus
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences.
    Att arbeta med musik i förskolan: En enkät- och intervjustudie om musik som ett didaktiskt verktyg för lärande2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Music is not mentioned to a large extent in the curriculum for Swedish preschools (National Agency, 2016). Preschool teachers don’t have any guidelines to relate to in their planning and implementation of music activities. This creates a complexity when working with music. Because of this further knowledge is needed in this area and that is why this study aims to illustrate didactic considerations in the planning and implementation of music activities in the preschool. This can further lead to inspire others to implement music in the preschool. The study looks closer at how music is valued and used as a didactic learning tool. This is done with the help of a questionnaire aimed at active preschool teachers (30 participants) and one interview. The study has a didactic perspective as a theoretical starting point and the results are analyzed and connected to the didactic triangle (Wahlström, 2015) and the didactic questions what, why and how (Ferm Thorgersen, 2012).

     

    The result determines that music is a legitimate tool for developing children’s knowledge in several areas for example language, mathematics, science and movement. The result illustrates didactic considerations, how music activities are formed and the priority when planning and implementing music activities. The study also illustrates different ways of working with music and the preschool teachers relation to music. By contributing with new knowledge the study can therefore make it easier for others to work with music together with children in the preschool. If there are clear goals for learning and the activity is characterized by children’s influence can this lead to rewarding and fun music activities in the preschool.

  • 18835.
    Östlin-Gustafsson, Anethe
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences.
    Bildkommunikation med barn som har autism: En kvalitativ studie kring hur och varför bilder används som ett alternativ till verbal kommunikation2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 18836.
    Östlund, Amanda
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Hillberg, Cecilia
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Anhörigas upplevelser av att leva med närstående som drabbats av Alzheimers sjukdom: -En beskrivande litteraturstudie-2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract The aim of the study was to describe relative’s experiences of living with or near a person that has Alzheimer’s disease. The study builds on social, physical and psychic perspectives. The studies were based on 18 scientific articles that were quality checked with the aid of a review model. Articles were applied for through the databases Academic Search Elite, Cinahl and Vård I Norden Online. The selection criteria’s were that the articles replied on the study's aim, were written on Swedish or English and published between the years 2000 to 2008. The result showed that relatives were set to a dramatic change that were requiring, challenging and the relatives experienced dread, sorrow, stress and debt. The social network decreased and the result was often decreased loneliness and isolation. The result also showed that the relatives were in need of aid from family and friends, and from the healthcare. To summary the majority experienced that the burden increased of being relatives to a person with Alzheimer’s disease.

    Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease, family, relatives, experience.

  • 18837.
    Östlund, Annika
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences.
    Teknik i bruksmiljö2008Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 18838.
    Östlund, Ann-Sofi
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Distriktssköterskors upplevelser av och tillvägagångssätt vid ett motiverande samtal2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
  • 18839.
    Östlund, Ann-Sofi
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Uppsala universitet.
    Motivational Interviewing in Primary Care: Nurses' experiences and actual use of the method2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The overall aim of the present thesis was to describe and examine primary care nurses´ self-reports on training, use and performance as well as experiences and actual performance of MI.

    Method: One qualitative and three quantitative studies were conducted among primary care nurses. A study-specific questionnaire was sent to 980 primary care nurses and 673 (69%) responded (Study I). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 MI trained primary care nurses (Study II). MI sessions between 12 (Study III) respective 23 (Study IV) primary care nurses and patients (total 32 respective 50 sessions) were audio-recorded. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis, Motivational Interviewing Integrity Code, Motivational Interviewing Sequential Code for Observing Process Exchanges and statistical analysis.

    Results: The findings showed that primary care nurses reported and experienced lack of training in MI and lack of prerequisites for using MI (Study I-II), while training, knowledge, prerequisites and time were associated with use of MI. They also reported and experienced that MI facilitated their work with patients (Study I-II) as well as elicited their own ability to motivate and be empathetic (Study II). About half of the primary care nurses reported that they used MI (Study I), and none of the nurses (Study III) achieved the approved skill levels in MI in their recorded sessions. They overestimated their performance on six of eight aspects of MI (Study III). The most frequently used nurse talk in the recorded sessions was neutral, which is not consistent with MI. Questions and reflections directed toward change were most likely to be followed by change talk among patients (Study IV).

    Conclusions: Self-reported knowledge about MI and personal as well as workplace prerequisites for using it were associated with self-reported use of MI. Participating nurses´ experienced that MI requires openness, practice, support, feedback and willingness. The participating primary care nurses did not achieve approved levels of MI skills in their recorded MI sessions. Patients´ change talk is more likely to occur after open questions, complex reflections as well as after questions and reflections directed toward change.

  • 18840.
    Östlund, Ann-Sofi
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala universitet.
    Kristofferzon, Marja-Leena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala universitet.
    Häggström, Elisabeth
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala universitet.
    Wadensten, Barbro
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala universitet.
    Primary care nurses' performance in motivational interviewing: a quantitative descriptive study2015In: BMC Family Practice, ISSN 1471-2296, E-ISSN 1471-2296, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 89-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Motivational interviewing is a collaborative conversational style intended to strengthen motivation to change. It has been shown to be effective in addressing many different lifestyle problems as well as in chronic disease management, and many disease prevention guidelines promote use of motivational interviewing. The aim of the present study was twofold: to assess to what extent the primary care nurses in the study perform motivational interviewing according to the Motivational Interviewing Treatment Integrity Code and to investigate how the participating primary care nurses rated their own performance in motivational interviewing.

    Method: The study was based on twelve primary care nurses’ audio-recorded motivational interviewing sessions with patients (total 32 sessions). After each session, the nurses completed a questionnaire regarding their experience of their own performance in motivational interviewing. The audio-recorded sessions were analyzed using Motivational Interviewing Integrity Code 3.1.1.

    Results: None of the nurses achieved beginning proficiency in all parts of any motivational interviewing sessions and two nurses did not achieve beginning proficiency in any parts or sessions. Making more complex than simple reflections was the specific verbal behavior/summary score that most nurses achieved. Beginning proficiency/competency in “percent open questions” was the summary score that fewest achieved.

    Conclusion: Primary care nurses did not achieve beginning proficiency/competency in all aspects of motivational interviewing in their recorded sessions with patients, where lifestyle change was discussed. This indicates a need for improvement and thus additional training, feedback and supervision in clinical practice with motivational interviewing.

  • 18841.
    Östlund, Ann-Sofi
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala universitet.
    Wadensten, Barbro
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala universitet.
    Häggström, Elisabeth
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Kristofferzon, Marja-Leena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    District nurses' and registered nurses' training in and use of motivational interviewing in primary care settings2014In: Journal of Clinical Nursing, ISSN 0962-1067, E-ISSN 1365-2702, Vol. 23, no 15-16, p. 2284-2294Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims and objectives

    To examine to what extent district nurses and registered nurses have training in motivational interviewing, to what extent they use it and what prerequisites they have for using it; to compare district nurses and registered nurses, as well as to compare users and nonusers of motivational interviewing; and to examine possible relationships between use of motivational interviewing and the variables training, supervision and feedback in motivational interviewing and prerequisites for use.

    Background

    Motivational interviewing is an effective method for motivating patients to change their lifestyle, used increasingly in primary care.

    Design

    A cross-sectional survey study.

    Methods

    A study-specific questionnaire was sent to all district nurses and registered nurses (n = 980) in primary care in three counties in Sweden, from September 2011–January 2012; 673 (69%) responded. Differences between groups as well as relationships between study variables were tested.

    Results

    According to self-reports, 59% of the respondents had training in motivational interviewing and 57% used it. Approximately 15% of those who reported using it had no specific training in the method. More district nurses than registered nurses had training in motivational interviewing and used it. The following factors were independently associated with the use of motivational interviewing: training in and knowledge of motivational interviewing, conditions for using it, time and absence of ‘other’ obstacles.

    Conclusions

    Having knowledge in motivational interviewing and personal as well as workplace prerequisites for using it may promote increased use of motivational interviewing.

    Relevance to clinical practice

    Having the prerequisites for using motivational interviewing at the workplace is of significance to the use of motivational interviewing. In the context of primary care, district nurses seem to have better prerequisites than registered nurses for using motivational interviewing.

  • 18842.
    Östlund, Ann-Sofi
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Wadensten, Barbro
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Häggström, Elisabeth
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Lindqvist, Helena
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, MIC Lab, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kristofferzon, Marja-Leena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Primary care nurses' communication and its influence on patient talk during motivational interviewing2016In: Journal of Advanced Nursing, ISSN 0309-2402, E-ISSN 1365-2648, Vol. 72, no 11, p. 2844-2856Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    To describe what verbal behaviors/kinds of talk occur during recorded motivational interviewing sessions between nurses in primary care and their patients. The aim was also to examine what kinds of nurse talk predict patient change talk, neutral talk and/or sustain talk.

    Background

    Motivational interviewing is a collaborative conversational style. It has been shown to be effective, in addressing health behaviors such as diet, exercise, weight loss and chronic disease management. In Sweden, it is one of the approaches to disease prevention conversations with patients recommended in the National Guidelines for Disease Prevention. Research on the mechanisms underlying motivational interviewing is growing, but research on motivational interviewing and disease prevention has also been called for.

    Design

    A descriptive and predictive design was used.

    Methods

    Data were collected during 2011-2014. Fifty audio-recorded motivational interviewing sessions between 23 primary care nurses and 50 patients were analyzed using Motivational Interviewing Sequential Code for Observing Process Exchanges. The frequency of specific kinds of talk and sequential analysis (to predict patient talk from nurse talk) were computed using the software Generalized Sequential Querier 5.

    Findings

    The primary care nurses and patients used neutral talk most frequently. Open and negative questions, complex and positive reflections were significantly more likely to be followed by change talk and motivational interviewing-inconsistent talk, positive questions and negative reflections by sustain talk.

    Conclusions

    To increase patients’ change talk, primary care nurses need to use more open questions, complex reflections as well as questions and reflections directed toward change.

  • 18843.
    Östlund, Ann-Sofi
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap.
    Wadensten, Barbro
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap.
    Kristofferzon, Marja-Leena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap.
    Häggström, Elisabeth
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap.
    Motivational interviewing: Experiences of primary care nurses trained in the method2015In: Nurse Education in Practice, ISSN 1471-5953, E-ISSN 1873-5223, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 111-118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Motivational interviewing is a person-centered counseling style used to promote behavioral change regarding a wide variety of lifestyle problems. Use of motivational interview is growing worldwide and among many different healthcare professions, including primary care nursing. The study aim was to describe motivational interview trained nurses' experiences of motivational interviewing in primary care settings. The study had a qualitative descriptive design. It was carried out in Swedish primary care settings in two county council districts, with 20 primary care nurses trained in motivational interviewing. Half of them used the method in their work, half did not. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were used. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The nurses experienced that openness to the approach and an encouraging working climate are required to overcome internal resistance and to increase use of motivational interviewing. They also experienced mutual benefit: motivational interviewing elicits and develops abilities in both nurses and patients. For the nurses using it, motivational interviewing is perceived to facilitate work with patients in need of lifestyle change. Lack of training/education, support, interest and appropriate work tasks/patients are reasons for not using motivational interviewing.

  • 18844.
    Östlund, Christine
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Dimensionering och optimering av ett solcellssystem för en industribyggnad i Mellansverige: En simuleringsstudie2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When converting to renewable energy systems, solar power as an energy source is a potential option; in order to achieve the climate and energy goal with 100% renewable energy production in year 2040. This is something the government try to achieve by making installation of solar cells more attractive through allowances such as subventions and tax reduction. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of solar cell system on an industrial building in the midst of Sweden, in regard of economical-, technical- and climate related points of view. This was performed by replacing purchased electricity with locally produced electricity, where optimal circumstances for the solar power systems and the limits of the building has been taken into consideration during the dimensioning. With cost suggestions from a local authorized dealer the magnitude of the pay off time as a motivating factor was estimated. The local climate impact will be investigated through a litterature study, focusing on green house gas emissions. The dimensioning of the solar cell systems were based on empirical input from measurements in combination with documented data regarding the industrial building and simulated in the program Winsun PV. The study resulted in two different-sized systems with cost sheets that formed the basis for the calculated pay off time. System case 1 was dimensioned to keep the size of the nominal system effect to 255 kWp, this to avoid extra energy tax. The system gave an annual exchange of 228 MWh / year which gave the repayment period between 18 - 23 years. The system was simulated with an optimum angle of 39 ° in 15 ° azimuth direction of the modules. System case 2 was dimensioned to 1200 kWp in order to cover the effective usable surface of the roof, the system gave an annual exchange of 886 MWh / year and the repayment period was 22.5 - 25.1 years. The modules were simulated with the roof slope ± 4.7 ° in -15 ° azimuth direction. A further efficiency development for solar cell technology is required as well as an extended investment support from the County Administrative Board, to provide a more profitable exchange of solar cell systems in higher latitudes. If the solar cell system has a positive effect on the ecological footprint depends on where the solar cell is made and which electrical mix replaced by the produced solar energy.

  • 18845.
    Östlund, Christoffer
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Framkomlighet i entréer på Högskolan i Gävle för personer med nedsatt rörelseförmåga2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It is claimed that the modern society is built for everyone, yet many individuals with disabilities encounter problems in their everyday life that prevent them from feeling like a part of society. University of Gävle has been proven to have insufficiencies regarding availability. This has been exposed in surveys conducted by students in the Building Engineering Program.

    This thesis aims to identify the problems that exist at the ramps and entrances. To facilitate the investigation, the major entrances to the school were selected.

    The theoretical material consists of BBR 2014, Bygg ikapp 2014 and websites with related content. To find scientific articles websites such as Taylor & Francis Online, Academic Search Elite and Web of Science was used. These articles were discovered in the database in the library of The University of Gävle and the searches related to relevant literature that revolves around disabilities and accessibility in buildings.

    The study is based on two labs that has been named lab one and two. In lab one, the entrances were measured and this data was compared with previously established literature-data that describes what is acceptable when you are using a wheelchair. This data consists of measurements but also an inspection of existing resources. Lab two consisted of a practical test with a wheelchair and was based on an existing template used in checking accessibility. The purpose of the second test was to experience the problems firsthand and undergo these tests as a real-life experience.

    The results from both labs were very poor and many entrances showed major flaws at most checkpoints.

  • 18846.
    Östlund, Elin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Träd, Miljö och Människor: Om konsten att välja träd efter platsens förutsättningar2010Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats ger en bild över hur man kan göra för att hitta det rätta trädet för platsen.

  • 18847.
    Östlund, Eric
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Lernholt, Kim
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Physical Activity Toolkit: Utveckling av en tillgänglig mobilapplikation för kognitivt funktionsnedsatta2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 18848.
    Östlund, Frida
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Mossberg, Marianne
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Nyutexaminerade sjuksköterskor och stress: En litteraturstudie2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka nyutexaminerade sjuksköterskornas upplevelse av stress i yrket. Metoden som användes var en litteraturstudie som baserade sig på 17 artiklar. Resultatet blev tydligt att stressen var en nedbrytande faktor för de nyutexaminerade sjuksköterskorna. Upplevelsen att det förväntades av dem att vara en självständig sjuksköterska och kunna allt från början skapade stress. Den kliniska kunskapen och ledarskapsrollen har den nyutexaminerade sjuksköterskan för lite träning på och detta anses vara en brist i utbildningen. Stressen kan bli och var en början till utmattningssyndrom för många nyutexaminerade. Det var ett stort antal nyutexaminerade som hade tankar om att sluta redan tidigt i sjuksköterskeyrket. De sjuksköterskor som upplevde arbetsglädje och fick sina behov tillfredsställda kände inte av stressen på samma vis. Faktorerna som oftast kom upp som orsak att till öka stressen var när arbetsmiljö, ledning, bemanning och kontakten med kollegor inte fungerade. Slutsats Det är viktigt att vara medveten om stressen som nyutexaminerad sjuksköterska och ta ansvar för sin egen hälsa. Ledningen inom hälso- och sjukvården bör öka sin medvetenhet om sjuksköterskeyrkets risker.

  • 18849.
    Östlund, Hanna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Blad, Linda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Fysisk aktivitets inverkan på individers mentala hälsa som depression och nedstämdhet vid ischemisk hjärtsjukdom2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: One in five individuals with ischemic heart disease suffer from depressive disorders. Depression in individuals with ischemic heart disease leads to increased mortality. Previous research has shown that physical activity has an effect on people`s mental health in depression. Mortality in ischemic heart disease decreases and the need for cardiac rehabilitation increases.

    Aim: The purpose was to investigate the impact physical activity had on the mental health of individuals with ischemic heart disease, as well as describe the study groups of the included studies.

    Method: A descriptive literature study of 11 quantitative scientific articles. The articles were searched in the databases PubMed and Cinahl.

    Main results: Physical activity had a positive effect on depression and sedation in patients with ischemic heart disease. Only the physical exercise`s effect on depression was difficult to measure and prove, but research showed that improved fitness in many cases led to a reduction of depressive disorders. The effects of physical activity tended to differ between men and women. The number of participants in the studies was between 62-522 and more men than women participated. The majority of the studies had an average age of participants between 61-67.5 years.

    Conclusion: Physical activity improved the mental health of individuals with ischemic heart disease. It was difficult to prove that physical activity alone, was what affected mental health, because many aspects apart from physical activity, are part of a rehabilitation program. However, highlighting the importance of physical activity from more than one aspect should increase the conditions to motivate more people to participate in exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation. It will not only be a benefit to the patient but also a profit for the society.

  • 18850.
    Östlund, Johanna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    Öhman, Marie Louise
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    Supernatural: Fans, tolkningsprocesser och meningsskapande2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Titel: Supernatural- Fans, tolkningsprocesser och meningsskapande

    Nivå: C-uppsats inom Medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap

    Författare: Marie Louise Öhman och Johanna Östlund

    Handledare: Anna Edin

    Examinator: Eva Åsén Ekstrand

    Datum: juni 2013

    Syfte: Studera fansens tolkningar, engagemang och meningsskapande med fokus på den amerikanska TV-serien Supernatural.    

    Teori: Analysera fansens tolkningsprocesser utifrån Stuart Halls Encodning/Decoding- modell och de tre tolkningssätten, dominant, förhandlande och oppositionell läsning.  

    Metod: Kvalitativundersökning. Med ett antal enkätfrågor som besvarades av 43 respondenter. För att nå ut till fansen annonserade vi efter respondenter via internetforumet Tumblr.

    Resultat/slutsatser: Av våra respondenter gjorde majoriteten en förhandlande läsning av TV-serien. De förstår producenternas avsedda läsning men väljer ibland att (helt eller delvis) bortse från den genom alternativa tolkningar. Det här visar sig exempelvis genom att fansen skriver fanfiction och diskuterar avsnitten med andra fans.

    Nyckelord: Supernatural, fans, tolkning, meningsskapande, publiker, receptionsanalys

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