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  • 201.
    Arnfelt, Emma
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    En byggnads energiprestanda: En utredande och jämförande studie av Boverkets författningssamling BEN12017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report is an exploratory and comparative study of Boverkets constitution BEN1. In this study the constitution BEN1 is examined, why the constitution was established, when is it applicable and what advantages and disadvantages will come with it. Today the housing and service sector is using a major part of Europe’s final energy use, in addition to this, these sectors also represents a major part of the total carbon dioxide emissions. The EU-commission aims to reduce the housing and service sectors energy use and emissions. In 2002 the European parliament established directives and demands for buildings energy performance. These directives were changed in 2009-2010, which led to an inspection of the already existing Swedish constitution, this was found to be inadequate by the EU-commission. Sweden decided to create a new constitution in order to satisfy EU’s new directives and demands. The focus is on a normal usage of the building in a normal year in the new constitution, BEN1. 

    The reader should receive an idea and understanding about BEN1 and why it was established in this report. Beyond this, the study will show the changes that happen to a buildings energy performance after the constitution is applied and what advantages and disadvantages this could bring. 

    This study was performed by simulating the buildings energy use with the input from BEN1 in a simulation tool, IDA Indoor Climate and Energy. 

    The study shows that the energy performance will change but it also shows that further studies should be made in order to obtain a more carefully drawn and common conclusion.

  • 202.
    Arola, Helena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Den skötselextensiva trädgården: Åtgärdsförslag för en lättskött trädgård i samband med en nybyggd villa2011Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I samband med ett bygge av en privatvilla ställs man inför många val. Det är inte ovanligt att trädgården hamnar i skymundan i förhållande till alla interiöra beslut som ska fattas.

    Min utgångspunkt i den här uppsatsen är att det finns en efterfrågan på lättskötta trädgårdar bland ägare till nybyggda villor i Gävle. Genom intervjuer med tio familjer som nyligen ”blivit med trädgård” och genom intervjuer med människor med erfarenhet i byggbranschen har jag tagit fram åtgärdsförslag för den skötselextensiva trädgården.

  • 203.
    Arrese Foruria, Ander
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Analysis of a Low Energy Building with District Heating and Higher Energy Use than Expected2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis project, a building in Vegagatan 12, Gävle has been analysed. The main objective has been to find why it consumes more energy than it was expected and to solve theoretically the problems.This building is a low energy building certified by Miljöbyggnad which should use less than 55kWh/m2 year and nowadays it is using 62.23 kWh/m2. In order to find why the building is using more energy than the expected several different things has been measured and analyzed.First of all, the heat exchanger of the ventilation unit has been theoretically examined to see if it works as it should and it does. This has been done using the definition of the heat exchangers.Secondly, the heating system has been analysed by measuring the internal temperature of the building and high temperatures have been found (around 22°C) in the apartments and in the corridors. This leads to 5-10% more use of energy per degree.Thirdly, the position and the necessity of all the heaters have been checked. One of the heaters may not make sense, at least in the way the building has been constructed. This leads to bigger heating needs than the expected.Fourthly, the taps and shower heads have been checked to see if they were efficient. Efficient taps and shower heads, reduce the hot water use up to 40%. The result of this analysis has been that all taps and shower heads are efficient.Fifthly, the hot water system has been studied and some heat losses have been found because the lack of insulation of several pipes. Because of this fact 8.37kWh/m2 are lost per year. This analysis has been carried out with the help of an infra red camera and a TA SCOPE.Sixthly, the theoretical and real U values of the different walls have been obtained and compared (concrete and brick walls). As a conclusion, the concrete wall has been well constructed but, the brick wall has not been well constructed. Because of this fact 1 kWh/m2 of heat are lost every year. Apart from that, windows and thermal bridges have also been checked.

  • 204.
    Artieda Urrutia, Juan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Desiccant Cooling Analysis: Simulation software, energy, cost and environmentalanalysis of desiccant cooling system2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Desiccant cooling is a technology that, based on a open psychrometric cycle, is able to provide cooling using heat as the main energy carrier. This technology uses a considerably smaller amount of electricity than refrigerators based on the vapor-compression cycle, which is an electricity driven cycle. Electricity is often more expensive than other types of energy and has CO2 emissions associated with its generation , so desiccant cooling has the potential of achieving both economic and environmental benefits.

    In addition to this, the heat the desiccant cooling cycle needs to work can be supplied at relative low temperatures, so it can use heat coming from the district heating grid, from a solar collector or even waste heat coming from industries.

    The system which will be studied in this report is a desiccant cooling system based on the model designed by the company Munters AB. The systems relies on several components: a desiccant rotor, a rotary heat exchanger two evaporative humidifiers and two heating coils. It is a flexible system that is able to provide cooling in summer and heat during winter.

    This study performs a deep economic and environmental analysis of the desiccant cooling systems, comparing it with traditional vapor compression based systems:

    In order to achieve this objective a user-friendly software was created, called the DCSS – Desiccant Cooling Simulation Software – that simulates the operation of the system during a year and performs automatically all the necessary calculations.

    This study demonstrates that economic savings up to 54% percent can be achieved in the running costs of desiccant cooling systems when compared to traditional compressor cooling systems, and  reductions up to39% in the CO2 emissions. It also demonstrates that desiccant cooling is more appropriate in dry climate zones with low latent heat generation gains.

    In addition to that, the DSCC software created will help further studies about the physical, economic and environmental feasibility of installing desiccant cooling systems in different locations.

  • 205.
    Arushanyan, Yevgeniya
    et al.
    Division of Environmental Strategies Research, Department of Sustainable development, Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Architecture and Built Environment, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bjorklund, Anna
    Division of Environmental Strategies Research, Department of Sustainable development, Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Architecture and Built Environment, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Ola
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Finnveden, Göran
    Division of Environmental Strategies Research, Department of Sustainable development, Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Architecture and Built Environment, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Soderman, Maria Ljunggren
    Division of Environmental Systems Analysis, Department of Energy and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Sundqvist, Jan-Olov
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Stenmarck, Åsa
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Environmental Assessment of Possible Future Waste Management Scenarios2017In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 10, no 2, article id 247Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Waste management has developed in many countries and will continue to do so. Changes towards increased recovery of resources in order to meet climate targets and for society to transition to a circular economy are important driving forces. Scenarios are important tools for planning and assessing possible future developments and policies. This paper presents a comprehensive life cycle assessment (LCA) model for environmental assessments of scenarios and waste management policy instruments. It is unique by including almost all waste flows in a country and also allow for including waste prevention. The results show that the environmental impacts from future waste management scenarios in Sweden can differ a lot. Waste management will continue to contribute with environmental benefits, but less so in the more sustainable future scenarios, since the surrounding energy and transportation systems will be less polluting and also because less waste will be produced. Valuation results indicate that climate change, human toxicity and resource depletion are the most important environmental impact categories for the Swedish waste management system. Emissions of fossil CO2 from waste incineration will continue to be a major source of environmental impacts in these scenarios. The model is used for analyzing environmental impacts of several policy instruments including weight based collection fee, incineration tax, a resource tax and inclusion of waste in a green electricity certification system. The effect of the studied policy instruments in isolation are in most cases limited, suggesting that stronger policy instruments as well as combinations are necessary to reach policy goals as set out in for example the EU action plan on circular economy.

  • 206.
    Arvids, Mattias
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Samfälligheter: Föreningsförvaltning och Samfällighetsföreningsregistrets aktualitetsgrad2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Samfälligheter har en mycket viktig roll i Sverige för samverkan mellanfastigheter i förvaltningen av gemensamma resurser. Dessa kan förvaltas på två vis; genom föreningsförvaltning och delägarförvaltning. Föreningsförvaltninglämpar sig bäst för större samfälligheter som kräver många förvaltningsåtgärder och har många medlemmar. En sådan förening sköts genom en styrelse som är vald av medlemmarna. Styrelsens uppdrag går ut på att enligt lagstiftningen följa föreningens stadgar och stämmobeslut samt att se till att befintliga anläggningar förvaltas enligt anläggningsbeslutet och att nya anläggningar blir utförda. Detta uppdrag innebär dock vissa svårigheter; engagemanget sker på ideell grund och lagen innehåller inga närmare krav på styrelsens kompetens, vilket öppnar upp för olika former av problematik. Uppgifter om samfällighetsföreningarna står att finna i Samfällighetsföreningsregistret och Fastighetsregistret. Det förstnämnda har en bristande kvalité på sina uppgifter vilket utgör ett problem för såväl föreningarna som för utomstående.

    Med dessa förhållanden som bakgrund görs en studie på rådande lag och regelverk i området kombinerat med kvalitativa intervjuer av ordföranden vid samfällighetsföreningar. Syftet är att undersöka hur styrelsens uppdrag ser ut vid föreningsförvaltning, hur denna förvaltning fungerar i praktiken och vilka eventuella problem som står i vägen för optimalt fungerande samfällighetsföreningar, samt vilka åtgärder som kan tänkas ge Samfällighetsföreningsregistreten förbättrad registerkvalité.

    Resultatet av studien visar att det största problem området utgörs av medlemmarnas i många fall bristande engagemang samt styrelsernas avsaknad på specialkompetens. Det framkommer att de bäst lämpade åtgärderna för att avhjälpa bristen på kompetens utgörs av att upprätta dokument med lättöverskådlig information till styrelserna, men även till medlemmarna som på så vis skulle kunna ställa högre krav på styrelsens arbete och själva upptäcka fel och brister i förvaltningen. Även en del förtydligande av bestämmelserna i lagen anses vara lämpligt. För att öka medlemmarnas engagemang uppkommer inga konkreta förslag från det resonemanget som förs.

    Genom att erbjuda samfällighetsföreningarna möjligheten att registrera ändrade uppgifter på Internet samt ge dem en belöning för detta i slag av en medlemsförteckning bör styrelserna bli mer noggranna i detta avseende, vilket framkommer i studien. Den främsta orsaken till att samfällighetsföreningarna inte anmäler ändringar i tillfredsställande grad beror på bristande kunskap, vilket bör kunna avhjälpas genom att någon form av broschyr ges ut till styrelsemedlemmarna innehållande relevant information.

  • 207.
    arvidsson, emma
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Bakom Ladan: En skiss eller två på en hälsoträdgård på Wij Trädgårdar2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The research in the interdisciplinary field of natural-human-health-design has in recent decades gainedmomentum and led to new or new-old ways of thinking and acting in terms of planning and design of outdoorenvironments with the aim of health promotion. Concrete concept models and design guides have begun toemerge as a result of this research.The purpose of this work is to use these guides to develop a design proposal for a supposed health garden,with Wij Trädgårdar in Ockelbo as a base. This has been done in the form of a process description. The targetgroup for the design proposal is long-term unemployed and people who have come to Sweden as refugees.Since the specific design recommendations could not be found for the selected target group, the main materialwas general guidelines for health gardens in combination with guidelines for health gardens directed to targetgroups with stress-related problems, which is a broad target group for which there are relatively much currentresearch.The result is a process description of the progression towards a sketch on a health garden, designed for aspecific spot on Wij Trädgårdar, but available for use in other locations, provided adjustments is made to thespecific location. The sketch is supplemented with plant suggestions to different parts of the garden. A sketchof an alternative proposal is included as a smaller, faster and cheaper version of the main design proposal.

  • 208.
    Arístegui, Jesús Jaime
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Heat balance of a historical church: Air infiltration losses2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 209.
    Asami - Johansson, Yukiko
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Mathematics.
    A study of a problem solving oriented lesson structure in mathematics in Japan2011In: Proceedings of the  seventh Congress  of  the  European  Society  for  Research  in Mathematics Education (CERME 7), Rzeszów, Poland.: Universitetsforlaget, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents and analyses “Mondaikaiketsu no jugyou” which translates to “the problem solving oriented – approach”.  It is a set of didactic techniques with the aim of motivating the students’ positive attitude toward engaging in mathematical activities and fostering mathematical thinking. As an analytical tool, The Anthropological Theory of Didactics (ATD) will be applied.

  • 210.
    Asami - Johansson, Yukiko
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Mathematics.
    Applying problem solving oriented lesson structure in Swedish lower secondary school: With a viewpoint of the anthropological theory of didactics (ATD)2011In: Proceedings of the 44th congress of Japanese mathematical education / [ed] Japanese society for research in mathematics education, Tokyo: Japanese society for research in mathematics education , 2011, p. 1051-1052Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 211.
    Asami-Johansson, Yukiko
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Mathematics.
    Conditions and constraints for transferring Japanese structured problem solving to Swedish mathematics classroom2019In: Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 212.
    Asami-Johansson, Yukiko
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Mathematics. Linköpings universitet, Matematiska institutionen.
    Designing Mathematics Lessons Using Japanese Problem Solving Oriented Lesson Structure: A Swedish case study2015Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This licentiate thesis is concerned with applying the Japanese problem solving oriented (PSO) teaching approach to Swedish mathematics classrooms. The overall aim of my research project is to describe and investigate the viability of PSO as design tool for teaching mathematics. The PSO approach is a variation of a more general Japanese teaching paradigm referred to as “structured problem solving”. These teaching methods aim to stimulate the process of students’ mathematical thinking and have their focus on enhancing the students’ attitudes towards engaging in mathematical activities. The empirical data are collected using interviews, observations and video recordings over a period of nine months, following two Swedish lower secondary school classes. Chevallard’s anthropological framework is used to analyse which mathematical knowledge is exposed in the original Japanese lesson plans and in the lessons observed in the classrooms. In addition, Brousseau’s framework of learning mathematics is applied to analyse the perception of individual students and particular situations in the classroom.

    The results show that the PSO based lesson plans induce a complex body of mathematical knowledge, where different areas of mathematics are linked. It is found that the discrepancy between the Japanese and Swedish curriculum cause some limitations for the adaptation of the lesson plans, especially in the area of Geometry. Four distinct aspects of the PSO approach supporting the teaching of mathematics are presented.

  • 213.
    Asami-Johansson, Yukiko
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Mathematics.
    Japanese Mathematics Teachers’ Professional Knowledge: International case studies based on praxeological analysis2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis describes and studies the Japanese mathematics teachers’ professional knowledge and its dissemination. This theme is investigated in several concrete situations: the knowledge of teaching practice of school mathematics taught in the teacher education, the relation between the educational goals described in the national curriculum and concrete teaching methods discussed among the Japanese lower secondary teachers in service. The thesis investigates also critical phenomena, which arise in an attempt to transfer the Japanese teaching practice in a different teaching context.

  • 214.
    Asami-Johansson, Yukiko
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Mathematics. University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    The Didactic Notion of “Mathematical Activity” in Japanese Teachers’ Professional Scholarship: A case study of an open lesson2019In: International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, ISSN 0020-739X, E-ISSN 1464-5211Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 215.
    Asami-Johansson, Yukiko
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Mathematics.
    Attorps, Iris
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Mathematics.
    Japanese and Swedish Mathematics Teacher Educators’ Pedagogical Content Knowledge: An Institutional Perspective2019In: Educaçao Matemática Pesquissa, ISSN 1983-3156, no 21, p. 157-170Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 216.
    Asami-Johansson, Yukiko
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Mathematics.
    Attorps, Iris
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Mathematics.
    Laine, Anu
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Comparing the practices of primary school mathematics teacher education Case studies from Japan, Finland and Sweden2017In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE TENTH CONGRESS OF THE EUROPEAN SOCIETY FOR RESEARCH IN MATHEMATICS EDUCATION (CERME10) / [ed] Dooley, T.; Gueudet, G., Dublin, 2017, p. 1602-1609Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we have observed three different teacher educators’ lessons, concerning area determination of polygons in primary school teacher training courses in Japan, Finland and Sweden. The aim of this paper is to investigate the main elements of the lessons and to compare the differences between the countries. We focus on how the teacher educators relate the didactic construction of the lessons for prospective teachers to the school mathematical and didactical organisations by applying Chevallard’s anthropological theory of the didactic (ATD). The analysis shows how the curricula and the different traditions of teaching practice in each country influence the mathematical and didactical construction of the lessons.

  • 217.
    Asami-Johansson, Yukiko
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Mathematics. Department of Science Education, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Attorps, Iris
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Mathematics.
    Winsløw, C.
    Department of Science Education, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Comparing mathematics education lessons for primary school teachers: case studies from Japan, Finland and Sweden2019In: International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, ISSN 0020-739X, E-ISSN 1464-5211Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to investigate and compare lessons given in primary school teacher education in Japan, Finland and Sweden. We analyse one lesson from each country and compare them using a common framework. Chevallard’s anthropological theory of the didactic (ATD) is used to frame this analysis and in particular to model teacher educators' didactic organization of the lessons. The focus is on how the didactic organizations of the teacher educators relate to the mathematical and didactic organizations of primary school. Based on official documents and viewpoints of the teacher educators, we also discuss how the contents and descriptions of the national curricula, and the different traditions of the teaching practices in each country, influence the didactic organizations found in the lessons. 

  • 218.
    Askvärn, Elisabeth
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Kan växter lindra klimakteriebesvär?: Behandling av vasomotoriska symptom med hjälp av örtmedicin2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate the use of herbal medicine for vasomotor symptoms during menopause. The questions posed were which herbs that were used, what parts of the herbs that were used, and how the plant parts were prepared and utilized. The last question covered how much the plants alleviated the vasomotor symptoms.

    A review of the scientific literature was carried out. In the articles, 20 herbs and plants were used, but only five of them were said to relieve the vasomotor symptoms. The five plants were Actaea racemosa, Angelica sinensis, Ginkgo biloba, Glycine sp. and Pimpinella anisum.  The most commonly used parts of the herbs were the roots, often through extracts that were processed in order to increase the concentration and to transform the plant parts into powder. The powder was then for the most part transformed to tablets and capsules. Sometimes, information was missing, such as the scientific names of the plants, what parts of the plants that were used and how the herbs were prepared and utilized.

    On average, the herbs alleviated the vasomotor symptoms by 60 %. Most of the herbs appeared to relieve mild symptoms more than they alleviated strong symptoms. An exception was P. anisum, which decreased both the amount of and the strength of the flushes by 74 %.

    This literature study shows that there are plants that influence the vasomotor symptoms in a positive direction. At the same time, it shows that the information in the articles is sometimes incomplete and that the scientists do not always study if the herbs can give side effects.

    Herbal medicine could be an alternative for women who, for different reasons, cannot or do not want to take synthetic hormones or other pharmacological medicines. However, in order to make herbal medicine part of the treatment offered by public health care, longitudinal studies that also investigate possible side effects or risks are needed for securing the effect of the herbs on the human body.

  • 219.
    Aslani, Mohammad
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Computer science.
    Mesgari, Mohammad Saadi
    Division of Visual Information and Interaction, Department of Information Technology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Seipel, Stefan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Computer science. Faculty of Geodesy and Geomatics Engineering, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.
    Wiering, Marco
    Institute of Artificial Intelligence and Cognitive Engineering, University of Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands.
    Developing adaptive traffic signal control by actor-critic and direct exploration methods2018In: Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Transport, ISSN 0965-092X, E-ISSN 1751-7710, Vol. 172, no 5, p. 289-298Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Designing efficient traffic signal controllers has always been an important concern in traffic engineering. This is owing to the complex and uncertain nature of traffic environments. Within such a context, reinforcement learning has been one of the most successful methods owing to its adaptability and its online learning ability. Reinforcement learning provides traffic signals with the ability automatically to determine the ideal behaviour for achieving their objective (alleviating traffic congestion). In fact, traffic signals based on reinforcement learning are able to learn and react flexibly to different traffic situations without the need of a predefined model of the environment. In this research, the actor-critic method is used for adaptive traffic signal control (ATSC-AC). Actor-critic has the advantages of both actor-only and critic-only methods. One of the most important issues in reinforcement learning is the trade-off between exploration of the traffic environment and exploitation of the knowledge already obtained. In order to tackle this challenge, two direct exploration methods are adapted to traffic signal control and compared with two indirect exploration methods. The results reveal that ATSC-ACs based on direct exploration methods have the best performance and they consistently outperform a fixed-time controller, reducing average travel time by 21%.

  • 220.
    Aslani, Mohammad
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Computer science.
    Seipel, Stefan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Computer science. Faculty of Geodesy and Geomatics Engineering, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.
    Mohammad Saadi, Mesgari
    Division of Visual Information and Interaction, Department of Information Technology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Wiering, Marco A.
    Institute of Artificial Intelligence and Cognitive Engineering, University of Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands.
    Traffic signal optimization through discrete and continuous reinforcement learning with robustness analysis in downtown Tehran2018In: Advanced Engineering Informatics, ISSN 1474-0346, E-ISSN 1873-5320, Vol. 38, p. 639-655Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traffic signal control plays a pivotal role in reducing traffic congestion. Traffic signals cannot be adequately controlled with conventional methods due to the high variations and complexity in traffic environments. In recent years, reinforcement learning (RL) has shown great potential for traffic signal control because of its high adaptability, flexibility, and scalability. However, designing RL-embedded traffic signal controllers (RLTSCs) for traffic systems with a high degree of realism is faced with several challenges, among others system disturbances and large state-action spaces are considered in this research.

    The contribution of the present work is founded on three features: (a) evaluating the robustness of different RLTSCs against system disturbances including incidents, jaywalking, and sensor noise, (b) handling a high-dimensional state-action space by both employing different continuous state RL algorithms and reducing the state-action space in order to improve the performance and learning speed of the system, and (c) presenting a detailed empirical study of traffic signals control of downtown Tehran through seven RL algorithms: discrete state Q-learning(λ" role="presentation">), SARSA(λ" role="presentation">), actor-critic(λ" role="presentation">), continuous state Q-learning(λ" role="presentation">), SARSA(λ" role="presentation">), actor-critic(λ" role="presentation">), and residual actor-critic(λ" role="presentation">).

    In this research, first a real-world microscopic traffic simulation of downtown Tehran is carried out, then four experiments are performed in order to find the best RLTSC with convincing robustness and strong performance. The results reveal that the RLTSC based on continuous state actor-critic(λ" role="presentation">) has the best performance. In addition, it is found that the best RLTSC leads to saving average travel time by 22% (at the presence of high system disturbances) when it is compared with an optimized fixed-time controller.

  • 221.
    Aslani, Mohammad
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Computer science.
    Seipel, Stefan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Computer science. Division of Visual Information and Interaction, Department of Information Technology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Wiering, Marco
    Institute of Artificial Intelligence and Cognitive Engineering, University of Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands.
    Continuous residual reinforcement learning for traffic signal control optimization2018In: Canadian journal of civil engineering (Print), ISSN 0315-1468, E-ISSN 1208-6029, Vol. 45, no 8, p. 690-702Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traffic signal control can be naturally regarded as a reinforcement learning problem. Unfortunately, it is one of the most difficult classes of reinforcement learning problems owing to its large state space. A straightforward approach to address this challenge is to control traffic signals based on continuous reinforcement learning. Although they have been successful in traffic signal control, they may become unstable and fail to converge to near-optimal solutions. We develop adaptive traffic signal controllers based on continuous residual reinforcement learning (CRL-TSC) that is more stable. The effect of three feature functions is empirically investigated in a microscopic traffic simulation. Furthermore, the effects of departing streets, more actions, and the use of the spatial distribution of the vehicles on the performance of CRL-TSCs are assessed. The results show that the best setup of the CRL-TSC leads to saving average travel time by 15% in comparison to an optimized fixed-time controller.

  • 222.
    Aspenfelt, Zebastian
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Game art workflow: Open-source and comercial programs2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    For years, game companies have been using different programs for the creation of the newest most inspiring games. A short presentation about different programs used for game art is provided with key aspects in developing art for games in character production. One aim is to showcase the potential of open-source programs. Two projects with two different characters were created for games testing the workflow between open-source, free application and also commercial programs. The results of the projects are discussed and then the document focuses on explaining what the negative side of open-source programs is and why they should not be used. After the discussion, a conclusion is made explaining the similarities and differences between open-source and commercial programs.

  • 223.
    Asplund, Adam
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Resiliens i stadsutveckling: En kvalitativ jämförelse mellan teori och kommunal planering2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    We face a number of uncertainties, challenges and risks, known and unknown, many of which are linked to global changes. Urban development must be planned to become sustainable in the long term despite future changes and to succeed, planning must handle uncertainties. The current view of sustainability has resulted in a planning ideal that strives for sustainability as a vision of an ideal structure and design. The research on resilience question this by asking how something static can be sustainable in the face of uncertainties and future changes. The work towards sustainability must focus on increasing the capacity of cities to be resilient. Cities which are resilient have the capacity to adapt to future changes while retaining the same function, structure and identity.

    Näringen is an existing industrial area in Gävle which has been designated suitable for a larger urban development exploitation project. The study aims to investigate how resilience is incorporated into the planning and development process of Näringen. The study compared Gävle municipality's intentions and ambitions for the development of Näringen in relation to theoretical principles for increased resilience in urban environment. The comparison between theory and practice was done through a qualitative content analysis of policy documents and interviews with two officials.

    The findings show that the intentions and ambitions of Gävle municipality in some ways are in line with the principles for increased resilience in cities but miss important aspects within the principles. The municipality strives for novel and innovative ways of planning which the principles for resilience can contribute with. One problem which can lead to reduced sustainability and resilience is that socio-economic prerequisites and conditions are prioritized over natural geographical ones.

    Implementation of the principles in municipal planning is not easily achieved in all situations because the principles in some respects overlap depending on the scale. Gävle Municipality's view of sustainability is also not in line with the approach that the research of resilience advocates, that we all live and operate in complex social-ecological systems. Resilience deals with complex theories and attempts to implement resilience principles without an understanding for the complexity of systems can lead to an unsuccessful outcome. The resilience principle adaptive planning holds the potential for continuous learning about social-ecological systems and is considered the principle that should be prioritized in planning for sustainability through resilience.

  • 224.
    Asplund, Adrian
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering.
    Persson, Mathias
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering.
    Förändrad lagerlayout för ökad leveranssäkerhet: En fallstudie med hänsyn till den faktiska efterfrågan på Smurfit Kappa2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The purpose of the safety stock is to compensate customers uncertain forecasts. The task of operations is to be able to cover up customers fluctuations in demand. By being able to maintain a stable and competition strong delivery performance results in a safety stock to be used, however, it entails tied-up capital. The case the company has an ambition to produce larger quantities and then store it on an external warehouse that the authors have chosen to call the safety stock.  

    Purpose: The problem of actual demand is that research questions usually take into account normal demand. By trying to fill the knowledge gap, we arrive at this purpose. The purpose is to investigate how actual demand influences the design of stock layout in order to achieve the desired delivery reliability.

    Method: To be able to answer the purpose and our questions, an abductive approach has been used where theory collection has taken place from literature and articles while empirical data is collected from the case company Smurfit Kappa. During the collection of empiricism, interviews and observations have been carried out. The collected findings have been discussed with the theory to answer the purpose and questions and lead to our conclusions.

    Findings: In the current situation, the case produces the company only against client orders and that there are no products in stock. This will result in delivery times of between 8 – 9 weeks and delivery security. An existing surface is available today to create a safety layer, there is also the possibility of a larger space if desired.

    Conclusion: With a safety stock, the case company will be able to deliver the actual demand while reducing its delivery times and increasing delivery reliability.

     

    Keywords: safety stock, demand, external inventory.

  • 225.
    Assefa, Edom
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Ngabonziza, Bertrand
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Dagvattenhantering i urban miljö: Komplettering av befintliga avvattningssystem i Hemlingby2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to propose appropriate solutions that can complete Hemlingbys existing stormwater treatment systems. The solutions presented in this study has been developed with regards to the current situation, which includes water drainage systems and ponds. The study includes a survey of the current stormwater management within the district, as a result, the authors have localized two problem areas that should be investigated, i.e. are Hemlingbybäcken and Kryddstigen. The stormwater recipient i.e. Hemlingbybäcken is affected by human activities. Contaminates that affect the stream consist mainly of copper, lead and zinc. Due to the lack of stormwater storage capacity problems associated with stormwater flooding occurred from nearby buildings and industrial areas. Kryddstigen is an area in the district where business in technology and trade are located, these activities contribute to pollution that degrades groundwater and recipient conditions. The northern part of Hemlingby consist mostly of hard surfaces, which reduces the possibility of a natural infiltration of rain water, this in turn has caused an increased risk of flooding in the area. Gävle municipality have through earlier investigations identified some of the problems and tried to prevent them by implementing ponds that can delay incoming stormwater. Follow-up works proves that the ponds serve a larger catchment area than previously estimated, which adverse the ponds efficiency. Capacity problems have therefore arisen, for instance wetland ponds are sized to handle 10-yearsrain from a catchment area of 19 hectares. However, the existing wetland ponds can only handle a 2-yearsrain from a catchment area of 2400m3. This study presents open stormwater management as alternative solution, this has been proposed based on existing sewerage systems and ponds. Open stormwater solutions are applied mostly in urban environment to delay and locally dispose stormwater. This is done by vegetation which makes it possible to achieve a natural infiltration. The public can also take use of open stormwater solutions by turning an unattractive city to a beautiful one. It can also be beneficial to the community because open stormwater solutions contribute with an aesthetically pleasing environment and increasing biodiversity. The alternatives are described as follows: Green roofs, permeable ground surfaces, ditch with macadam basin and, rain gardens. These solutions are then assessed together with the existing solutions based on internal and external aspects concerning stormwater management. External aspects include legislation and stormwater policy, internal aspects take into account factors such as economy, technology, social and environment conditions. Assessment methodology that are presented in this study aims to evaluate and prepare documentation that is relevant for decision- making and the development of technical solutions based on the current situation. The evaluation method used in this study is inspired by PESTEL- analysis model. This method has been adapted to assess stormwater solutions. An overall description of what a PESTEL- analysis is given in this study as well as the interpretation and application of the assessment method. The result for single alternatives is presented and discussed with respect to existing solutions in the area of this study.

  • 226.
    Assefa, Getachew
    et al.
    Department of Industrial Ecology, School of Industrial Engineering and Management, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    Glaumann, Mauritz
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering. Division of Environmental Strategies Research, Department of Urban Planning and Environment, School of Architecture and the Built Environment, Stockholm.
    Malmqvist, Tove
    Division of Environmental Strategies Research, Department of Urban Planning and Environment, School of Architecture and the Built Environment, Stockholm.
    Eriksson, Ola
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Quality versus impact: Comparing the environmental efficiency of building properties using the EcoEffect tool2010In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 45, no 5, p. 1095-1103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are tools that are developed for the assessment of the environmental impact of buildings (e.g. ATHENA). Other tools dealing with the indoor and outdoor environmental quality of building properties (referred to as real estates in other literature) are also available (e.g. GBTool). A platform where both the aspects of quality and impact are presented in an integrated fashion are few. The aim of this contribution is to present how the performance of different building properties can be assessed and compared using the concept of environmental efficiency in a Swedish assessment tool called EcoEffect. It presents the quality dimension in the form of users' satisfaction covering indoor and outdoor performance features against the weighted environmental impact covering global and local impacts. The indoor and outdoor values are collected using questionnaires combined with inspection and some measurements. Life cycle methodology is behind the calculation of the weighted external environmental impact. A case study is presented to show the application of EcoEffect using a comparative assessment of Lindas and a Reference property. The results show that Lindas block is better in internal environment quality than the Reference property. It performs slightly worse than the Reference property in the external environmental impact due to emissions and waste from energy and material use. The approach of integrated presentation of quality and impact as in EcoEffect provides with the opportunity of uncovering issues problem shifting and sub-optimisation. This avoids undesirable situations where the indoor quality is improved through measures that result in higher external environmental impact. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 227.
    Assefha, Sabina
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Sandell, Matilda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Evaluation of digital terrain models created in post processing software for UAS-data: Focused on point clouds created through block adjustment and dense image matching2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Lately Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) are used more frequently in surveying. With broader use comes higher demands on the uncertainty in such measurements. The post processing software is an important factor that affects the uncertainty in the finished product. Therefore it is vital to evaluate how results differentiate in different software and how parameters contribute. In UAS-photogrammetry images are acquired with an overlap which makes it possible to generate point clouds in photogrammetric software. These point clouds are often used to create Digital Terrain Models (DTM). 

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate how the level of uncertainty differentiates when processing the same UAS-data through block adjustment and dense image matching in two different photogrammetric post processing software. The software used are UAS Master and Pix4D. The objective is also to investigate how the level of extraction in UAS Master and the setting for image scale in Pix4D affects the results when generating point clouds. Three terrain models were created in both software using the same set of data, changing only extraction level and image scale in UAS Master and Pix4D respectively. 

    26 control profiles were measured with network-RTK in the area of interest to calculate the root mean square (RMS) and mean deviation in order to verify and compare the uncertainty of the terrain models. The study shows that results vary when processing the same UAS-data in different software. 

    The study also shows that the extraction level in UAS Master and the image scale in Pix4D impacts the results differently. In UAS Master the uncertainty decreases with higher extraction level when generating terrain models. A clear pattern regarding the image scale setting in Pix4D cannot be determined. Both software were able to produce elevation models with a RMS-value of around 0,03 m. The mean deviation in all models created in this study were below 0,02 m, which is the requirement for class 1 in the technical specification SIS-TS 21144:2016. However the mean deviation for the ground type gravel in the terrain model created in UAS Master at a low extraction level exceeds the demands for class 1. This indicates all but one of the created models fulfil the requirements for class 1, which is the class containing the highest requirements.

  • 228.
    Astner, Frida
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Ohlsson, Mathilda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Kajplats för permanentboende på vatten: Vilken lagstiftning tillämpas vid upplåtelsen för boendeformen?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To live on a house boat is a housing form that still is establishing on the housing market, but the regulations about this are almost non-existent. You cannot find any legislation regarding living on the water today and there are doubts about what applies for grants of house boats at a berth. The rules about establishment of house boats falls between the “plan- och bygglagen” and the rules of the harbor, which makes it difficult to say which one of the grant agreement that is the most applicable for the property owner and the person who wants to live on the water. To get answers the questions in this thesis interviews were performed with different parties and different cadastral procedures were analyzed regarding water properties. The interviews were completed by phone interviews with a semi structured method and with a few respondents the questions were put through email. In this thesis a few different respondents were asked to answer the questions, this to see different perspectives of the grant of berth. The different respondents that answered the questions were a few contract managers, usufructuary, a real estate agent, a lawyer, a company which produce house boats and a cadastral surveyor. The analysis of the cadastral procedures gave a deeper understanding how property formation on water can be done. The respondents in this thesis perceived the Swedish law as incomplete as the authors of this thesis regarding living on the water. The results show that the law can be applied in different ways depending on which type of housing form it is. The study shows that the best solutions for floating houses should be property formation, that will make the house real property and will make financing of the house possible. When house boats, which are formed like ships, the study shows that the best solutions for this housing form is to apply ground lease in general with the longest grant as possible, which is 25 years. To have ground lease in general as a solution makes it hard for the house boat owners to get a loan.

  • 229.
    Astner, Linda
    et al.
    Gävle Hamn AB, Gävle, Sweden.
    Carpenter, Angela
    University of Leeds, UK.
    Lozano, Rodrigo
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Sammalisto, Kaisu
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Utilizing waste to create new port land2018In: Port Technology, Vol. 77, no Spring, p. 118-119Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the most recent port expansion and the major dredging and land creation project that has been undertaken in the Port of Gävle since 2007. This project has seen the deepening and widening of the fairway to accommodate larger vessels, as well as the construction of a new cargo terminal area due to open in late 2019. This land creation work has been undertaken using contaminated sediments dredged from deepening the shipping channel.

  • 230.
    Astner, Marcus
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Idrottslärares uppfattningar om inkludering och delaktighet för elever med ADHD i idrottsundervisningen2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte

    Syftet med det här arbetet är att undersöka faktorer som enligt idrottslärare påverkar förutsättningar till delaktighet och inkludering för elever med ADHD i idrottsundervisningen.

    Metod

    Urvalet utgörs av åtta stycken utbildade idrottslärare med erfarenheter av inkluderande undervisning och elever med ADHD. Studien har en kvalitativ karaktär med semistrukturerade intervjuer.

    Huvudresultat

    Resultatet visar att didaktiska aspekter, organisatoriska aspekter och kommunikativa aspekter inom den enskilda skolans organisation, påverkar möjligheter till inkludering och delaktighet i idrottsundervisningen för elever med ADHD, enligt idrottslärare.

    Slutsats

    Slutsatsen i denna rapport blir att det finns gemensamma, men samtidigt motstridiga uppfattningar om inkludering bland idrottslärare, samt att möjligheter till inkludering och delaktighet påverkas av enskilda skolors organisation.

  • 231.
    ATEGEKA, WINFRED KAKOOZA
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system. Royal Institute of Technology / KTH University.
    APPRAISAL OF FOOD RESIDUE (WASTE) BASED FUEL BRIQUETTES IN DOMESTIC COOKING APPLICATIONS: A CASE STUDY OF UGANDA2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The research focuses on developing and evaluating the performance of low cost, low technology food residue based fuel briquettes as an alternative to the widespread use of wood fuels (charcoal and firewood) for domestic cooking applications.

    In view of the declining accessibility of wood fuels, inadequate electrification coverage and ever-rising prices of cooking gas and kerosene in Uganda, harnessing energy from within reach, alternative sustainable energy sources such as food residues has been regarded as a viable solution to domestic cooking energy.

     

    In this research, both desktop reviews of earlier studies and laboratory investigations of the developed food residue based fuel briquettes have been considered. Carbonized sweet potato, banana (matooke) and cassava peelings were mixed in different proportions with either sweet potato or banana stem pulp (1 or 2kgs) and later densified using a hand operated molder to develop the food residue based briquettes. The drop test method was used to determine the resilience of the produced briquettes to disintegrating forces in particular during transportation and storage. An oxygen bomb calorimeter was used to determined the Higher Heating Value (HHV) of the briquettes and it ranged from 13.6 – 26 MJ/kg with cassava peelings char: sweet potato peelings char: sweet potato stem pulp 1kg giving the lowest HHV and cassava peelings char: sweet potato peelings char: banana stem pulp 2kg giving the highest HHV. Generally the tests results revealed that the type of natural binder used had an effect on both the HHV and mechanical strength of the produced briquettes.

  • 232.
    Attorps, Iiris
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Mathematics.
    Björk, Kjell
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Mathematics.
    Lingefjärd, Thomas
    Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik, Göteborgs universitet.
    Radic, Mirko
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Mathematics.
    Application of Variation Theory in Teaching and Learning of Taylor Polynomials with GeoGebra2012In: Proceedings of the 12th International Congress on Mathematics Education. Seoul. Korea, Seoul. Korea, 2012, p. 3479-3488Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on a teaching experiment regarding Taylor polynomial approximations at the level of university mathematics teaching. The experiment was carried by using the free dynamic mathematics software GeoGebra. A student group (n = 19) was taught Taylor polynomials with the assistance of GeoGebra while a control group (n = 18) was taught in a traditional way. The theoretical assumptions of this study rest on Variation theory. The data were gathered by doing a post test concerning Taylor polynomials. Our experiment revealed that the answers from the GeoGebra group in the post test were more varied compared with the results in the control group.

  • 233.
    Attorps, Iiris
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Mathematics.
    Björk, Kjell
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Mathematics.
    Radic, Mirko
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Mathematics.
    Generating the patterns of variation with GeoGebra: the case of polynomial approximations2016In: International journal of mathematical education in science and technology, ISSN 0020-739X, E-ISSN 1464-5211, Vol. 47, no 1, p. 45-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we report a teaching experiment regarding the theory of polynomial approximations at the university mathematics teaching in Sweden. The experiment was designed by applying Variation theory and by using the free dynamic mathematics software GeoGebra. The aim of this study was to investigate if the technology-assisted teaching of Taylor polynomials compared with traditional way of work at the university level can support the teaching and learning of mathematical concepts and ideas. An engineering student group (n = 19) was taught Taylor polynomials with the assistance of GeoGebra while a control group (n = 18) was taught in a traditional way. The data were gathered by video recording of the lectures, by doing a post-test concerning Taylor polynomials in both groups and by giving one question regarding Taylor polynomials at the final exam for the course in Real Analysis in one variable. In the analysis of the lectures, we found Variation theory combined with GeoGebra to be a potentially powerful tool for revealing some critical aspects of Taylor Polynomials. Furthermore, the research results indicated that applying Variation theory, when planning the technology-assisted teaching, supported and enriched students’ learning opportunities in the study group compared with the control group. 

  • 234.
    Attorps, Iiris
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Mathematics.
    Björk, Kjell
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Mathematics.
    Radic, Mirko
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Mathematics.
    Improving undergraduate mathematics teaching2010In: The proceedings of MADIF7; The 7th Swedish Mathematics  Education Research Seminar, Stockholm, January 26-27, 2010., 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 235.
    Attorps, Iiris
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Mathematics.
    Björk, Kjell
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Mathematics.
    Radic, Mirko
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Mathematics.
    The use of mathematics software in university mathematics teaching2011In: The proceedings of the Seventh Congress of the European Society for Research in Mathematics education. Poland.  University of Rzeszow. / [ed] M. Pytland, E. Swoboda & T. Rowland, 2011, p. 2188-2197Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we report on a teaching experiment regarding the definite integral concept in university mathematics teaching. The experiment was carried out at a Swedish university by using the free dynamic mathematics software GeoGebra. In our theoretical framework we apply Variation Theory, originating in the phenomenographic research tradition. The data of this study consist of the lecture plan and the engineering students’ answers to pre and post tests. In the analysis of the data we applied statistical methods. The experiment revealed that by using GeoGebra it is possible to create learning opportunities of the definite integral concept that support the students’ learning.

  • 236.
    Attorps, Iiris
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Mathematics.
    Björk, Kjell
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Mathematics.
    Radic, Mirko
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Mathematics.
    Tossavainen, Timo
    University of Eastern Finland.
    The Learning Study Model and the Teaching of the Definite Integral Concept2010In: Reports and Studies in Education, Humanities, and Theology / [ed] M. Asikainen, P. E. Hirvonen & K. Sormunen, Joensuu: University of Eastern Finland , 2010, p. 77-86Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, there have been several studies in mathematics education basing on the variation theory and the model of Learning Study that involves co-operation between teachers and researchers in an iterative process. Most of these studies have focused on the teaching and learning of elementary school mathematics rather than topics in advanced mathematics. In this paper, we discuss some challenges and possibilities of the Learning Study model and the variation theory when developing the teaching of mathematics at advanced levels. More precisely, we report on a series of teaching experiments on the definite integral concept. The experiments were carried out at a Swedish university. The data of this study consists of the documents on the observation of three lectures and the students’ answers to pre and post tests. Both engineering and teacher students participated. In the analysis of the data, we applied statistical methods. Although the series consisted only of three lectures, it revealed that the students’ understanding about certain – but not necessarily all – aspects of the definite integral concept can be enhanced by using the Learning Study model.

  • 237.
    Attorps, Iiris
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Mathematics.
    Björk, Kjell
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Mathematics.
    Radic, Mirko
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Mathematics.
    Tossavainen, Timo
    University of Eastern Finland, Finland.
    Varied ways to teach the definite integral concept2013In: International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education, ISSN 1306-3030, Vol. 8, no 2-3, p. 81-99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we report on a collaborative teaching experiment based on the Learning Study model (LS model) which grounds on the Variation Theory. Until today, most of such studies have focused on the teaching and learning of elementary school mathematics; ours was carried out in undergraduate mathematics education. In the following, we discuss how we managed to promote students’ conceptual learning by varying the treatment of the object of learning (the concept of definite integral and the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus) during three lectures on an introductory course in calculus. We also discuss the challenges and possibilities of the LS model and the Variation Theory in the development of the teaching of tertiary mathematics in general. The experiment was carried out at aSwedish university. The data of the study consists of the documents of the observation of three lectures and the students’ answers to the pre- and post-tests of each lesson. The analysis of learning results revealed some critical aspects of the definite integral concept and patterns of variations that seem to be effective to a significant degree. For example, we found several possibilities to use GeoGebra to enrich students’ learning opportunities.

  • 238.
    Attorps, Iiris
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Mathematics.
    Björk, Kjell
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Mathematics.
    Radic, Mirko
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Mathematics.
    Viirman, Olov
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Mathematics.
    Teaching Inverse Functions at Tertiary level2013In: CERME 8: Proceedings of the EightŠ Congress of the European Society for Research in Mathematics Education, Antalya: Middle East Technical University , 2013, p. 2524-2533Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is a part of an ongoing research that attempts to explain the relationship between the teachers’ instructional practise and students’ learning in the context of functions and function inverses. The question in this paper is how the use of technology as a pedagogical tool may contribute to the understanding of the inverse function concept. An engineering student group (n =17) was taught functions and inverse functions with the assistance of GeoGebra. In our theoretical framework we apply Variation theory together with the theory of Concept image and Concept definition. The data were gathered by doing a pre and post test concerning inverse functions. Our experiment revealed that students’ concept images in the post test were more developed compared with the results in the pre test.

  • 239.
    Attorps, Iiris
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Mathematics.
    Kellner, Eva
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Biology.
    School-€“University Action Research: Impacts on Teaching Practices and Pupil Learning2017In: International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, ISSN 1571-0068, E-ISSN 1573-1774, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 313-330Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to describe a design and implementation of a school–university action research project about teaching and learning biology and mathematics in primary school. Nine teachers in grades 1 to 6, in collaboration with two researchers, were using content representation (CoRe) in learning study (LS)-inspired cycle as pedagogical tools when planning, implementing, and reflecting on lessons and pupil learning. By using pre- and post-tests, the teachers acquired knowledge about pupil subject-specific knowledge and learning. Some examples are given on how the tools in the project influenced the teaching practices and pupil learning. This research design brought together university and school practitioners to work collaboratively in a professional learning community, which developed teaching and learning in biology and mathematics.

  • 240.
    Attorps, Iiris
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Mathematics.
    Nordlander, Edvard
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Nordström, Göran
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Physics.
    MST education in Swedish preschool2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study is part of the EU-Fp7 project SECURE. The research question in the present study is: How is the current Swedish MST curriculum for preschool implemented by the teachers, and perceived by the 5-year old learners?

    The introduction of a revised preschool curriculum in 2011 has given MST a prominent place in Swedish preschool, and may be intended by the authorities to change the weak positions and declining trends in the PISA and TIMSS surveys for Swedish school children. The new teaching task seems to be highly appreciated by the preschool teachers. However, the curriculum is quite ambitious, and a major concern is how the implementation will be done. The concept of ”emergent science” is discussed in order to induce positive attitudes towards MST.

    In this study, semi-structured interviews with teachers in 15 Swedish preschools are the main source of information combined with some interviews with learners and photographic materials. The method for the analysis uses a category system of which results from some of the categories are reported.

    The preschool teachers are aware of the new role as teachers rather than just child minders. The revised curriculum seems to increase the self-confidence for MST of the learners as well as the teachers. The teachers say that the learners are interested in MST and that it is a case of catching opportunities, which may lead to emergent science. The 5-year old learners confirm that they like the activities related to MST.

    Working with hypotheses and storyline activities is shown as an example how emergent science can be promoted in 5-year old children. Activities connected to ”emerging science” have been common in Swedish preschools for some time, but after the implementation of the revised curriculum teachers also verbalize this for themselves and the learners.

  • 241.
    Attorps, Iiris
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Mathematics.
    Nordlander, Edvard
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Nordström, Göran
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Physics.
    MST-utbildning i den svenska förskolan2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Svenska elever hamnar efter i PISA- och TIMSS-undersökningarna. I matematik har matningarna visat på sjunkande kunskaper sedan början av 2000-talet och i naturvetenskap ligger de svenska eleverna ständigt under det internationella genomsnittet. Detta är alarmerande för landet och skälen bör utredas.Som en del i EU-projektet SECURE inom ramprogrammet Fp7 presenteras resultat från lokal forskning om genomförandet av MST-kursplanerna och attityder till ämnena bland lärare och elever. Med MST avser vi matematik, naturvetenskap och teknik. Intervjuer och enkäter har utförts bland lärare och elever i 47 klasser i 15 skolenheter i några mellansvenska kommuner. De åldersgrupper som studerats är elever från åldersgrupperna 5, 8, 11 resp. 13 år. Vi fokuserar här på förskolans verksamhet, d.v.s. arbetet med 5-åringar.Som en följd av införandet 2011 av en reviderad läroplan för förskolan, kan vi se att MST har fått en framträdande plats i den svenska förskolan som verkar vara mycket uppskattad av förskollärarna. I den reviderade läroplanen framgår att förskollärare ska ansvara för att arbetet i barngruppen genomförs så att barnen stimuleras och utmanas i sin matematiska utveckling, samt stimuleras och utmanas i sitt intresse för naturvetenskap och teknik. Exempel på hur de skall gå tillväga finns också i läroplanen. Detta kan i praktiken uppfattas som en informell tidigareläggning av den obligatoriska skolan i Sverige, eftersom förskolan inte är obligatorisk men utnyttjas av de allra flesta. Det skulle därmed kunna innebära en vändpunkt för resultaten i grundskolan och förhoppningsvis ge avtryck i kommande PISA- och TIMSS-undersökningar.De förskollärare som intervjuats är medvetna om vikten av att undervisa MST i förskolan. Detta tydliggörs av några uttalanden från intervjuade förskollärare. 'Det som är nytt nu är att man pratar om lärare och att vi utbildar barnen.' 'Det här lärandet är för livet. Det är inte bara för individen. Verksamheten på förskolan bidrar till hela samhällsutvecklingen.' Även föräldrarnas förväntningar på förskolan har förändrats. 'Föräldrarna uppskattar resultaten i matematik och ser förskolan som en skolform snarare än förvaring av barn.'I denna presentation ges exempel på hur MST-ämnena undervisas på ett integrerat sätt i förhållande till den praxis som råder i svenska förskolan, samt i förhållande till ålder och mognad hos barnen.

  • 242.
    Attorps, Iiris
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Mathematics.
    Tossavainen, Timo
    University of Eastern Finland.
    Erfarenheter av ”Learning Studies” som ett pedagogiskt verktyg i skola och högskola2010In: Toisensa kohtaavat ainedidaktiikat [ Möte med ämnesdidaktik] / [ed] E. Ropo, H. Silfverberg & T. Soini, TampereTampereen yliopistopaino Oy - Juvenes Print, 2010, p. 25-33Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    I detta dokument diskuterar vi pågående projekt i matematikdidaktik vid Högskolan i Gävle. Syftet med projektet är att utveckla och testa metoder för att förbättra lärande i matematik från förskolan till universitetsnivån. Dessutom är syftet att utveckla en forskningsmiljö för lärande i matematik som kan fungera som en plattform för att utveckla lärarnas kompetens i matematik. Den övergripande forskningsfrågan är: Hur påverkar lärarens sätt att hantera lärandeobjekt (t.ex. funktionsbegrepp, integralbegrepp etc.) i klassrummet elevens/studentens lärande? Vilka är de kritiska aspekterna för studenternas lärande? Som ett teoretiskt ramverk använder vi Learning Study modellen designad av Marton et al. (2004). Modellen bygger på variationsteorin (Marton et al. 2004), som härrör från den fenomenografiska forskningstraditionen och som introducerades i Sverige under senare delen av 1960-talet och i början av 1970-talet. Resultaten av studierna antyder bl.a. att det är betydligt enklare att hitta olika typer av konkreta men användbara representationer av lärandeobjektet i undervisningen av den elementära matematiken jämfört med undervisningen av den högre matematiken. Troligen beror det på att universitetsmatematik är mer abstrakt och bygger på den tidigare erhållna kunskapen.

  • 243.
    Attorps, Iris
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Mathematics.
    Hector, Sören
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Mathematics.
    Radić, Mirko
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Mathematics.
    Creating the patterns of variation with GeoGebra when teaching derivative graphs for first year engineering students2015In: International Journal of Engineering ,Science and Innovative Technology, ISSN 0949-149X, E-ISSN 2277-3754, Vol. 31, no 6, p. 1605-1612Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigates how technology assisted and designed teaching influences engineering students’ understanding of the connection between the graph of a function and its derivatives. An engineering student group (n = 27) was taught with the assistance of GeoGebra while a control group (n =20) was taught in a traditional way. The data of the study consist of the documents and photos of the observation of two lectures and the students’ answers to the pre and post tests. In our theoretical framework we discuss the distinction between conceptual and procedural knowledge. When creating the teaching sequences we applied variation theory. In the analysis of the students’ pre and post tests results we applied statistical methods. Our experiment revealed that the GeoGebra-assisted teaching design created more opportunities for students to grasp the connection between a function and its derivatives.

  • 244. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Attorps, Iris
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Mathematics.
    Radic, Mirco
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Mathematics.
    Variationsteoretiskt perspektiv på matematikundervisningen2016In: Ämnesdidaktiska utmaningar - inom matematik, naturvetenskap och teknik / [ed] Mikael Björling, Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2016, 1, p. 15-26Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 245.
    Audi, Abdelrahman
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Jordá, Nathalie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Effektiviserad orderhantering av förrådsinköp: En fallstudie på BillerudKorsnäs2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Successful organizations are constantly working to improve and enhance their operations. There are multiple approaches that can create efficiency, however there are difficulties in identifying factors that are important to the company.

    The purpose of the case study is to analyze and enhance order handling for inventory items based on article priorities. In order to answer the purpose of the case study, data has primarily been collected through literature studies, interviews, and observations. Further more, statistics and documents has been provided by BillerudKorsnäs. Three interviews have been completed on different occasions with employees who works daily with order handling. Observations has taken place continuously to receive insight of the operations and current working methods. The theory chapter underlying the case study has been collected through research articles, course literature, and websites.

    The purchasing process from demand to delivery has been studied in the current status description. Multiple manual elements, challenges with the design of the business system, and difficulties maintaining correct information in the article registry are some aspects that were identified in the purchasing process.

    In conclusion, inventory items that are bound to purchase reservations, should have a higher degree of priority in order handling. Further more, factors as manual handling, standardized approaches, increased automation, and correct information in the business system, are of importance to achieve enhanced order handling. Methods that

  • 246.
    Augustsson, Fredrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Idrottslärares inställning till gym i undervisningen2013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 247.
    Aurora, Hägglund
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Dem matematiska problemlösningens roll i lärarens undervisning.2011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 248.
    Aurosell, Rickard
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Linde, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Utveckling av tjänsteplaneringssystem2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Högskolan i Gävle har inget gemensamt system för tjänsteplanering. Processen är ineffektivt och innefattar ifyllandet av Excel-ark. Detta arbete omfattar designen och skapandet av ett tjänsteplaneringssystem åt en tjänsteplanerare vid HiG. Det som efterfrågades var ett system som är smidigare och ger möjlighet att överblicka det som planerats. Systemet behövde bara stödja en användare. Ett system skapades som består av en databas och en användarapplikation som kommunicerar med databasen. Som databas användes MySQL och applikationen skrevs i Java. Befintliga datakällor på HiG med kurser och personal används för att minimera mängden manuell inmatning. Systemet är en fungerande lösning klart för användning som överträffade beställarens förhoppningar.

  • 249.
    Axelsson, Jessica
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Svenvall, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Integrating Autodesk Mayas muscle simulation with Kinect motion capture2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    In most of the animation pipelines today, motion capture and different simulations e.g. Autodesk Maya Muscle is used to get a more realistic feel of an animation. The main goal of this Thesis is to make a character appear and move in as natural a way as possible and exploring different methods on receiving a good result. It will answer different question on how to record movement and using that data together with a system that simulates muscles. To complete this process we will record using a Microsoft Kinect Camera, which is originally hardware for Xbox movement software. For our muscle simulation we used Autodesk Maya Muscle, where we built a muscle system. This will be research through finding information on each subject separately and trough experiments combing the two together

  • 250.
    Axelsson, Lydia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Matematikundervisningen: en del i något större eller en egen verksamhet?2010Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med undersökningen är att försöka skapa en bild av hur några lärare ser på matematikundervisningen, är den en del av den övriga undervisningen eller är den en egen verksamhet, ser lärarna några fördelar med att integrera matematiken med övrig undervisning och hur ser lärarna på begreppet ämnesintegration. Intervjuer har varit den metod som använts och resultatet har analyserats med en kvalitativ innehållsanalys. De intervjuade lärarna beskriver alla vikten av att föra samman matematikundervisningen med övrig undervisning och har olika sätt att göra detta på och gör det i olika hög utsträckning. Yttre påverkan såväl som egen planering upplevs vara hinder till integration mellan matematik och övriga ämnen. Alla intervjuade lärare är eniga om att matematiken egentligen är en del i något större men att den i skolan ofta kan upplevas som en egen verksamhet.

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