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  • 201.
    Stefan, Ioana
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Appropriability mechanisms, openness and firm performance2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is unclear how companies choose intellectual property protection mechanisms (IPPMs) in open innovation and how this choice affects firm performance. Our study addresses these gaps by using a data sample of 415 manufacturing firms from three European countries. The analysis covers eight IPPMs used in open innovation with four types of partners. Findings show that combinations of IPPMs vary according to partner openness. Moreover, companies using all kinds of IPPMs perform better than those relying on informal or semiformal IPPMs.

  • 202.
    Stefan, Ioana
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Global open innovation: the effects of IPRs and contracts2014In: Proceedings of the 15th CINet conference, 7-9 September 2014, Budapest, CINet , 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study set out to investigate the use of formal protection mechanisms (formal contracts and IPRs) in interorganisational R&D collaboration with various types of partners within and across national borders. Considering the scarcity of studies that analyse both IPRs and formal contracts in the context of open innovation with different partner types located both nationally and abroad, our study contributes with new evidence about the actual formal mechanisms that are used in R&D endeavours with external partners. Our results suggest that firms mainly engaged in R&D collaboration with local firms mainly rely on contracts and agreements as formal protection mechanisms, while companies with mostly international R&D partners seem to enable knowledge exchange in the context of open innovation by means of IPRs.

  • 203.
    Stefan, Ioana
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production. KTH.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    The whole nine yards: the moderating effects of appropriability intensity on the relationship between external search and performance2016Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 204.
    Stefan, Ioana
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Unravelling appropriability mechanisms and openness depth effects on firm performance across stages in the innovation process2017In: Technological forecasting & social change, ISSN 0040-1625, E-ISSN 1873-5509, Vol. 120, p. 252-260Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is to date abundant evidence about the way openness-performance liaisons are shaped, yet parallel streams of research point towards an intricate relationship between appropriability and openness. Accordingly, while openness may reveal ample opportunities, risks of e.g. misappropriation should also be accounted for in open innovation processes, as they might affect performance. Recent research highlights the scarcity of studies investigating openness, appropriability and performance, and suggests a further need to analyze this in different stages of the innovation process. This study therefore aims to investigate the effects of three groups of intellectual property protection mechanisms (formal, semi-formal and informal) and openness (in terms of collaboration depth with eight types of partners) on two types of innovation performance (efficiency and novelty) across innovation phases. The analysis is based on a sample of 340 manufacturing firms from three European countries. Findings show that in early stages of the innovation process, efficiency is positively linked to the use of semi-formal appropriability mechanisms, such as contracts, yet negatively related to the use of formal ones, such as patents. The latter potentially illustrates the high uncertainty and increased risks of imitation or misappropriation in early innovation phases. Informal appropriability mechanisms contribute to novelty in earlier as well as later stages. Results further indicate novelty is explained by university collaboration throughout the innovation process, while competitor collaboration positively associates with novelty in later innovation stages. Vertical collaborations with supplier and customers reveal contrasting effects, which could also have implications linked to imitation risks. Furthermore, the negative effects of formal appropriability mechanisms and supplier collaboration on innovation performance in distinct stages of the innovation process might have implications for the so-called paradox of disclosure.

  • 205.
    Stefan, Ioana
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Niss, Camilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Exploring the paradox of openness in high tech and low tech industries2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Firms relying on external sources of knowledge for innovation may encounter a paradox of openness concerning the need to both share and protect knowledge in collaborations. Based on an international survey of manufacturing firms this study attempts to illustrate various forms of the paradox by investigating the effects firms’ openness has on appropriability and performance in high and low tech industries. Findings reveal that the paradox is more likely to occur in the high tech industry cluster, thus hinting towards additional challenges firms in this cluster face in practice and underlining the need to include the technological dimension when researching the paradox. Moreover, in the majority of openness-appropriability combinations where we find a potential paradox of openness, firms do not succeed to overcome the paradox. The one exception in our sample is for the high tech firms when collaborating with suppliers and using formal appropriability. By pinpointing the different forms of the paradox this study also contributes to the ongoing debate concerning the role of intellectual property mechanisms in inbound open innovation.

  • 206.
    Stefan, Ioana
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Niss, Camilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Potential and realised knowledge integration mechanisms in open innovation2015In: R&D Management Conference: Book of Abstracts, Pisa: Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna , 2015, p. 186-186Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 207.
    Stefan, Ioana
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Niss, Camilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    The effects of appropriability on firm performance: the moderating effect of openness breadth2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 208.
    Stefan, Ioana
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    von Haartman, Robin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Patents in Logistics2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 209.
    Stefan, Ioana
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Fobbe, Lea
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Lozano, Rodrigo
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Open Business Model Innovation: Antecedents, Dynamics and Subsequent Challenges2018In: 2018 ISPIM Innovation Conference (Stockholm): Innovation, The Name of The Game / [ed] I. Bitran; S. Conn; K.R.E. Huizingh; O. Kokshagina; M. Torkkeli; M. Tynnhammar, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 210.
    Stefan, Ioana
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production. KTH, Industriell ekonomi och organisation .
    Hurmelinna-Laukkanen, Pia
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Vanhaverbeke, Wim
    Hasselt University, Belgium.
    Coping with tensions in open innovation: challenges and solutions to co-create and capture value2018In: Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 211.
    Steiner, Lars
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Sundström, Agneta
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Sammalisto, Kaisu
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    A Model for University Identity and Reputation Strategy Work2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 212.
    Steiner, Lars
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Sundström, Agneta
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Sammalisto, Kaisu
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    An analytical model for university identity and reputation strategy work2013In: Higher Education, ISSN 0018-1560, E-ISSN 1573-174X, Vol. 65, no 4, p. 401-415Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Universities face increasing global competition, pressuring them to restructure and find new identities. A multidimensional model: identity, image and reputation of strategic university identity and reputation work is developed. The model includes: organizational identity; employee and student attitudes; symbolic identity; influence from buildings, artefacts and reputation; and external stakeholders’ valuations. Image perceptions among employees, students and external stakeholders are proposed to have a transition-mediating function with respect to university identity. The model serves as an analytical tool for both academic scholars and university administrators in the strategic work with university identity, image and reputation, and aim to clarify the complex relations between these concepts.

  • 213.
    Sundström, Agneta
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Sammalisto, Kaisu
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Gyll, Janna
    Fiber Optic Valley, Hudiksvall, Sweden.
    Developing social sustainability for innovative industrial work environments2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 214.
    Söderberg, Lennart
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Supply Chain Management Maturity and Performance in SME2009In: Proceedings of the 16th International Annual EurOMA Conference, 14-17 June 2009, Göteborg., 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 215.
    Söderberg, Lennart
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Supply Chain Management Maturity and Performance in SMEs2010In: Operations Management Research, ISSN 1936-9735, E-ISSN 1936-9743, Vol. 3, no 1-2, p. 90-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Supply chain maturity models attempt to disseminate best practices in supply chain management (SCM). One basic idea behind these models is that increased maturity will lead to improved supply chain performance, which in turn will lead to improved financial performance. There is, however, little empirical evidence about the relationship between supply chain (SC) maturity and financial performance, specifically in SMEs. The results of this study indicate that there is a strong relationship between SCM maturity and SC performance in SMEs, as well as some relationships between SCM maturity and financial performance. One conclusion is that if firms use maturity indicators in the Supply Chain Operations Reference areas to improve their processes, they will most likely achieve positive effects on supply chain performance and probably also on financial performance.

  • 216.
    Söderberg, Lennart
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    What is the right governance type for your maintenance?2014In: : Proceedings of the 21th Euroma conference, 20-25 June, Palermo., 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 217.
    Söderberg, Lennart
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Kaulio, Matti
    Industriell ekonomi och organisation, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    A model for outsourcing and governing of maintenance within the process industry2017In: Operations Management Research, ISSN 1936-9735, E-ISSN 1936-9743, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 20-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many industrial firms motivate structural changes by an increased focus on core activities and reduced ownership of non-core activities. However, classifying maintenance activities as either core or non-core can be difficult, since maintenance is a support function strongly linked to the production core within a manufacturing firm. Based on a multiple case study that included four buying firms and four suppliers within the process industry, this paper investigates how the relative capabilities of the firms affect the governance decision about maintenance outsourcing. A conceptual framework built on a distinction between core-close and core-distant maintenance and between different maintenance capabilities is presented. The subsequent empirical analysis illustrates how the developed framework can be used for both analyzing and guiding firms’ decisions about outsourcing and governance regarding maintenance.

  • 218.
    von Haartman, Robin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Beyond Fisher’s Product-Supply Chain Matrix: Illustrating the Actual Impact of Technological Maturity on Supply Chain Design2012In: International Journal of Logistics Systems and Management, ISSN 1742-7967, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 318-333Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The literature suggests that supply chains should be designed based on product characteristics, with particular focus on technological maturity and its effect on the predictability of demand. However, other factors influence the predictability of demand and technological maturity has effects that go beyond demand forecasts. This paper discusses the actual challenges of designing a supply chain and, based on a single case study, illustrates how a leading technology-based company solves these problems. The study found that although technological maturity drives a change towards a more efficient supply chain, a partially separate supply chain had to be maintained for unpredictable demand.

  • 219.
    von Haartman, Robin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Do Customers Improve New Product Development Efficiency?: Revealing the Impact of Manufacturing-Based Absorptive Capacity2013In: International Journal of Business Performance Management, ISSN 1368-4892, E-ISSN 1741-5039, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 149-165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to collaborate with customers in new product development efficiently, companies need to maintain some inherent competence that allows them to both understand the external party’s processes and absorb external knowledge. The aim of this study was to operationalise absorptive capacity for manufacturing and examine its impact on new product development efficiency. A large scale survey was sent out to Swedish manufacturing companies and the data was analysed using hierarchical regression. The results show that it is not manufacturing competence per se that increases new product development (NPD) efficiency, but rather how the competence is leveraged through various integration mechanisms. The results indicate that the indirect ability to improve NPD efficiency should also be taken into account when a firm is deciding whether to invest in manufacturing or not.

  • 220.
    von Haartman, Robin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Manufacturing capabilities: expendable commodities or catalysts for effective supply chain management2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many large companies have for a long time been very successful in their industries by combining leading edge R&D and marketing with strong internal manufacturing capabilities. An alternative model is now getting increased attention, where R&D and marketing is conducted internally and manufacturing performed by outsourcing partners. This development is partly due to divergent views on the strategic role of manufacturing capabilities: expendable commodities that can be purchased from a low-cost provider versus resources essential for sustaining long-term competitive advantage. Although assessments of the strategic role of manufacturing capabilities have been performed previously, recent supply chain trends such as globalisation and fragmentation mean that they may no longer be relevant. The purpose of the thesis is to assess the strategic role of manufacturing capabilities for a product-owning firm, by focusing on what impact its internal manufacturing capabilities have on the effectiveness of the supply chain.

    Two methods have been used for the research: survey and case study. The survey is representative for the entire Swedish manufacturing sector, whereas the case studies are to some extent industry- or company-specific. Two companies were researched: one in the telecom equipment sector, the other a supplier to multiple sectors, including the telecom equipment sector. The results of the research have been presented in five scientific articles that are also found in the appendices.

    The thesis argues that in order to evaluate the strategic role of manufacturing capabilities, it is important to look at how they contribute to the focal firm’s competitive priorities. When the technology is new, the competitive priority tends to be innovation, and the role of manufacturing capabilities is to facilitate more efficient NPD. When products mature, low cost becomes the dominant competitive priority, and the role of manufacturing capabilities is to facilitate a high operational efficiency of the supply chain. Although the potential role of manufacturing capabilities is dependent on the firms’ competitive priorities, just possessing manufacturing capabilities will not automatically translate into high performance. Instead, the performance outcome is dependent on both the level of manufacturing capabilities and, even more importantly, how they are leveraged through the integration of customers, suppliers and the product development department.

    This thesis contributes to the discourse on the role of manufacturing in two ways. First, the thesis investigates how competitive priorities impact the role of manufacturing capabilities in the supply chain. Second, this thesis explores how manufacturing capabilities influence the efficiency of integration. The main theoretical contribution is to develop and test the concept of manufacturing absorptive capacity within the context of manufacturing capabilities’ role in the supply chain. The thesis concludes that manufacturing capabilities are almost inevitably seen as strategic because they help firms integrate external sources more efficiently, thereby achieving performance improvement in terms of both operational efficiency and efficient product development. When the performance improvement corresponds with the prevailing competitive priority, the supply chain can be said to be effective. Manufacturing capabilities can thus act as a catalyst for effective supply chain management.

  • 221.
    von Haartman, Robin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Manufacturing capabilities: Mere drivers of operational performance or critical for customer-driven innovation?2012In: Proceeding of 4th Joint World Conference on Production & Operations Management, 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In is becoming increasingly common that R&D and marketing is conducted internally and manufacturing performed by outsourcing partners, raising questions about the strategic role of internal manufacturing capabilities. This role can be evaluated by how they contribute to the focal firm’s competitive priorities. Based on a survey of 267 Swedish manufacturing firms, the paper show that when the competitive priority is innovation, the role of manufacturing capabilities is to facilitate more efficient product development in collaboration with customers. When operational efficiency is the dominant competitive priority, the role of manufacturing capabilities is naturally to provide high operational efficiency.

  • 222.
    von Haartman, Robin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Tillverkningskompetens: en förutsättning för innovativa försörjningskedjor?2013In: Innovation eller kvartalskapitalism?: Utmaningar för global svensk produktion / [ed] Lars Bengtsson och Johnny Lind, Stockholm: Liber, 2013, 1, p. 76-90Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 223.
    von Haartman, Robin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Boosting New Product Development Efficiency by Leveraging Firms' Manufacturing Absorptive Capacity2009In: Proceedings of the 16th International Annual EurOMA Conference, 14-17 June 2009, Göteborg, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 224.
    von Haartman, Robin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Global sourcing for innovation2013In: Proceedings of the 14th international CINet conference, 9-11 September, 2013, Nijmegen, Netherlands, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 225.
    von Haartman, Robin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Global sourcing for innovation and sustainable development2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The interest in global sourcing has increased significantly in recent years, but the effects on innovation are not well understood. The purpose of this paper is to empirically analyse the impact of global sourcing on innovation, while taking into account both purchasing proficiency and supply chain integration practices. Based on a large scale survey of purchasing managers in 679 firms in Europe and North America, the paper shows that global sourcing has no direct impact on innovation performance. However, firms that source globally are significantly better at using their purchasing proficiency, and supplier integration for increasing the innovation provided by their suppliers.

  • 226.
    von Haartman, Robin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Global sourcing’s impact on sustainability: Vile or virtue?2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Firms sourcing globally have been accused of committing, supporting or just turning a blind eye to a number environmental and social problem. Based on an international survey of 680 firms' purchasing departments, this paper provides empirical evidence on global sourcing's actual contribution to social and environmental sustainability. The findings show that the level of sustainability is not directly dependent on global purchasing, but firms purchasing globally are better at making use of their purchasing proficiency and are better at fulfilling their sustainability goals.

  • 227.
    von Haartman, Robin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Manufacturing competence: A key to successful supplier integration2009In: International Journal of Manufacturing Technology and Management (IJMTM), ISSN 1368-2148, E-ISSN 1741-5195, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 283-299Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Extensive involvement of suppliers in new product development and manufacturing development has often been associated with superior performance. Some authors have also alleged that companies need comprehensive internal competencies, or absorptive capacity, in order to fully benefit from external expertise. This paper analyses this relationship on an operational level in manufacturing companies. Based on a large-scale survey it is shown that companies with greater internal manufacturing competencies gain significantly from supplier involvement in terms of most performance indicators, whereas those with lesser internal competencies have little to gain from such external cooperation.

  • 228.
    von Haartman, Robin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi.
    Manufacturing competence and external integration: absorptive capacity in a first tier supplier2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 229.
    von Haartman, Robin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Sustainable global purchasing: assessing the relative impact of sustainability goals and programs2018In: International Journal of Business Performance Management, ISSN 1368-4892, E-ISSN 1741-5039, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 169-188Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Global purchasing and offshoring are established strategic means for lowering costs and improving competitiveness. However, firms purchasing globally have also been accused of committing, supporting or just turning a blind eye to a number of environmental and social misdemeanours, such as disregard for environmental regulation, poor working conditions and corruption. The purpose of this paper is to provide quantitative evidence, based on a large scale survey, on how global purchasing actually impacts sustainability performance. The paper finds that there are no significant differences in sustainability performance between firms purchasing globally and firms purchasing regionally. However, firms purchasing globally are significantly more likely to fulfil their sustainability goals compared to firms purchasing regionally. Moreover, only firms that purchase globally show a significant impact of sustainability programmes on supplier sustainability compliance. Global purchasing can thus aid in social and environmental responsibility if it is accompanied by ambitious sustainability targets and sustainability programmes.

  • 230.
    von Haartman, Robin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    The impact of global purchasing and supplier integration on product innovation2015In: International Journal of Operations & Production Management, ISSN 0144-3577, E-ISSN 1758-6593, Vol. 35, no 9, p. 1295-1311Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The interest in global purchasing has increased significantly in recent years, but the impact on product innovation is not well understood. The purpose of this paper is to empirically analyse the impact of global purchasing on product innovation sourced from suppliers, while taking into account how firms integrate their suppliers.

    Design/methodology/approach – The data used in this study are from the International Purchasing Survey, an international online survey on purchasing and supply management conducted in 2009. The data are analysed using factor and regression analyses.

    Findings – The paper shows that global purchasing has no direct impact on product innovation performance. However, supplier integration is more strongly associated with product innovation performance for firms purchasing globally compared to firms purchasing regionally.

    Practical implications – The implication is that when companies purchase globally, they must have a highly developed purchasing department in order to sustain a high level of innovation. For firms purchasing only regionally, the role of the purchasing department is diminished, at least in terms of contributing to innovation.

    Originality/value – This paper contributes to the discussion of potential advantages and disadvantages of global purchasing. First, the paper provides an explanation for the ambiguous results of previous research. Product innovation does not depend on whether firms are purchasing globally or not, it depends on how they purchase. This paper has showed that when purchasing globally, the role of the purchasing department becomes crucial for product innovation. The proficiency and activities of the purchasing department largely determine the success, in terms of supplier product innovation, of global purchasing.

  • 231.
    von Haartman, Robin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Niss, Camilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Digital or lean? Lean practices and adoption of digital technologies in assembly- and process-based industries2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 232.
    von Haartman, Robin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Niss, Camilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Lean practices as requisites for the use of digital technology in production2016In: Proceedings of the 23rd EurOMA conference: Trondheim, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lean production principles has for a long time been hailed as a solution for improving efficiency and competitiveness in manufacturing firms. Recently, however, advanced digital solutions have received more space in the spotlight. Does this mean that the era of Lean is over or just changed character? The purpose of this paper is to, based on a large scale survey of manufacturing units in Europe, explore the relationship between the use of Lean production practices and the technological practices associated with the use of digital technologies in production. The study shows that lean practices are strong predictors of firms’ introduction of digital technologies in production by manufacturing firms. The results indicate that lean, as defined in this paper, may indeed be a prerequisite for digital technologies used in production.

  • 233.
    von Haartman, Robin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Lozano, Rodrigo
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Öberg, Jakob
    Pettersson, Alexander
    Improving job engagement:: A survey of blue- and white-collar workers in an medium-sized manufacturing firm2018In: Proceedings of the 25th annual EurOMA conference, Budapest: International Annual EurOMA Conference, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Work engagement is important as it contributes performance. Previous studies have shown that blue-collar workers are less engaged than white-collar workers, which highlights the need to focus on ways to improve the work engagement of blue-collar workers. This paper tests whether different perceptions of job resources is an important driver of the differences in work engagement between white and blue-collar workers. Using a survey of 153 workers in a medium-sized manufacturing firm, the paper shows that job resources, especially work environment and career opportunities, have a great potential to increase the work engagement of blue-collar workers.

  • 234.
    von Haartman, Robin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production. Private person.
    Sammalisto, Kaisu
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Lozano, Rodrigo
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Blomqvist, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Mechanical Engineering.
    A Longitudinal Comparison of Sustainability Learning between Men and Women in Engineering and Nursing Programmes2017In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 9, no 8, article id 1464Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For many years, Higher education institutions have been engaging with sustainability, many focussing on environmental ones. In this context, two phenomena have arisen that have, usually, been studied separately: (1) engineering schools have been at the forefront of sustainability efforts; and (2) women have tended to be more concerned about of environmental sustainability than men are. This paper is aimed at analysing the differences in perception between engineering students and nursing students at the University of Gävle, Sweden. Engineering and nursing programmes are practice-oriented with different foci on sustainability and usually being dominated by male and female students, respectively. The data for this article were based on two surveys carried out during 2010 and 2013, in which the same students answered the same questions at the beginning and at the end of their studies. Principal component analysis and regressions were carried out to analyse the survey answers. The results show that engineering programmes and gender affect actions positively. The results also show that engineering students increased their sustainability performance significantly more than nursing students. To improve environmental sustainability, it is important to promote the presence of women in engineering schools, and at the same time, social science oriented programmes (such as nursing) could learn from the efforts and action taken by engineering schools, so that sustainability is taught and learnt in a more holistic way.

  • 235.
    von Haartman, Robin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Wang, Weihong
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Niss, Camilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Herdin, Gunnar
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    One size does not even fit one: supply chain strategies in the decline phase2016In: International Journal of Manufacturing Technology and Management (IJMTM), ISSN 1368-2148, E-ISSN 1741-5195Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Given that aligning supply chain strategies with changing product characteristics across the phases of the product life cycle is increasingly important, this study investigates the changes in supply and demand uncertainty when a product enters the decline phase and how these changes in turn affect the supply chain strategies applied. Based on four case studies, the analysis reveals that the uncertainties increase in three of four cases when the product enters the decline phase, and that the type of uncertainty, as well as the related challenges, depends on the products initial uncertainty of supply and demand. This implies that companies need to redesign their supply chain strategies towards either more lean or more agile supply chains, or combinations thereof, when the products are declining.

  • 236.
    Walldius, Åke
    et al.
    Centre for User Oriented IT Design, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sundblad, Yngve
    Centre for User Oriented IT Design, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Sandblad, Bengt
    Department of Human Computer Interaction, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Gulliksen, Jan
    Department of Human Computer Interaction, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    User certification of Workplace Software: Assessing both Artefact and Usage2009In: Behavior and Information Technology, ISSN 0144-929X, E-ISSN 1362-3001, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 101-120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article summarises activities and results from the quality assessment project 'Quality Assurance of IT Support at Work' (ITQ) which has been performed by Swedish researchers in close cooperation with trade unions 1999-2005. The ITQ project is part of a network, UsersAward, which works for the goal to develop and implement a strategy for good software products on the work floor. A main result of the ITQ project is the first version of a software certification programme, User Certified 2002, which is described in some detail. The underlying theoretical arguments for its design and the performed pilot projects which have informed its implementation are also presented. The outcome of performed certifications is discussed in terms of stakeholder response; in terms of whether to certify artefact, processes, or both; and in terms of the relationship between software certification, standardisation, and public procurement agreements. One conclusion from the project is that a viable software certification programme has to cover the software's built-in features, its deployment process, and its actual situated usage. A second conclusion is that the buying organisation has to implement integrative processes in which its organisational development and its implementation of IT systems are coordinated. Conclusions are also drawn with respect to the set of organisational patterns underlying the UsersAward initiative-certifications, user panels, user surveys, user conferences and a yearly IT Prize contest. Finally, implications and plans for the future, especially international research and union cooperation activities, and further development of the certification process are described.

  • 237.
    Wang, Weihong
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Niss, Camilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Herdin, Gunnar
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Supply Chain Strategies Beyond The Peak2013In: Proceedings of the 20th International AnnualEurOMA conference, Dublin, Ireland, 9-12 June 2013, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When customer demand becomes increasingly volatile and product life cycle shortens, a capability to dynamically adjust the supply chain during the product life cycle becomes more urgent. The study’s purpose is to extend knowledge of dynamic supply chain design and management when the product is in the decline phase of its life cycle. A case study from a global telecom company reveals several challenges for supply chain management and solutions for handling these challenges when a product is beyond the peak. The findings are summarized in a tentative model that specifies supply chain challenges and strategies over the life cycle.

     

    Keywords: Supply chain strategy, product life cycle, decline phase

  • 238.
    Wang, Weihong
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Niss, Camilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Herdin, Gunnar
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    von Haartman, Robin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Aligning supply chain strategies with products uncertainties in the decline phase2014In: Proceedings of the 21th Euroma conference, 20-25 June, Palermo, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 239.
    Wang, X.
    et al.
    Reliability Engineering Research Center of Guizhou Province, Guizhou University, China.
    Yang, J.
    Reliability Engineering Research Center of Guizhou Province, Guizhou University, China.
    Gong, M.
    Reliability Engineering Research Center of Guizhou Province, Guizhou University, China.
    Zhao, Ming
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production. Reliability Engineering Research Center of Guizhou Province, Guizhou University, China.
    Reliability analysis and evaluation of gas supply system2009In: ICMET'09 - Proceedings of the 2009 International Conference on Mechanical and Electrical Technology, Beijing, 2009, p. 245-249Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the reliability model and the evaluation methods were neatly used with combining the engineering practice of the noise laboratory supply system, and this study give a quantitative evaluation result of the reliability system. It provides the scientific basis for improving the engineering design and increasing the reliability. This research results can be extended to similar projects, such as fuel supply system. From an engineering point of view, it is an innovation that the filter in the system is identified to be a "series - parallel mixed" structure by considering its physical structure and performance requirement.

  • 240.
    Wang, Yuli
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Qu, Yulan
    University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Structural Project Need Good Communication2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 60 credits / 90 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis studys how work breakdown structure (WBS) in project planning could be of help for the case project. Moreover, and also want to analyze if and how This thesis aims to study how work breakdown structure (WBS) in project planning could be of help for the case project. Moreover. Finally it also analyzes if and how communication could be of help to solve delay problems by the use of WBS. All study is based on the theories of project management and communication. Case is from the real project of a recycle company in China.

  • 241.
    Wlazlak, Paraskeva
    et al.
    Department of Industrial Product Development, Production and Design, School of Engineering, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Säfsten, Kristina
    Department of Industrial Product Development, Production and Design, School of Engineering, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden and School of Innovation, Design; Engineering, Mälardalen University, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Hilletofth, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production. Department of Supply Chain and Operations Management, School of Engineering, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Original equipment manufacturer (OEM)-supplier integration to prepare for production ramp-up2019In: Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, ISSN 1741-038X, E-ISSN 1758-7786, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 506-530Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    Although prior research provides evidence that production ramp-up is often disrupted by supplier-related problems, it fails to discuss how the original equipment manufacturer (OEM) and various types of suppliers integrate their functions and operations to secure preparations for production ramp-up. The purpose of this paper is to investigate OEM-supplier integration in a new product development (NPD) project to prepare for production ramp-up.

    Design/methodology/approach

    The results presented in this paper are based on a real-time, longitudinal study of a single collaborative NPD project in the mechanical engineering industry. The NPD project involves seven suppliers and it is carried out in a large Swedish company (the OEM) and fits the theory-elaborating approach of this research.

    Findings

    This study argues that the aspect of timing in OEM-supplier integration, the OEM's research and development (R&D) attitude toward collaboration and the OEM's (R&D) operating procedure are challenges affecting the preparation for production ramp-up. The following three mechanisms to facilitate OEM-supplier integration in order to prepare for production ramp-up are also discussed: the mediator's role, the OEM's face-to-face meeting at the project level and suppliers? formal face-to-face meetings with the OEM and internally.

    Originality/value

    This paper elaborates on and extends prior research on production ramp-up by conducting an empirical analysis that incorporates supplier integration in NPD. It bridges the gap between the literature on production ramp-up and on supplier integration in NPD and clearly indicates that supplier integration is an important prerequisite for successful production ramp-up.

  • 242.
    Xiang, Tingting
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Xu, Sujing
    University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Core Enterprise's Partner Selection in a Green Supply Chain2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Core enterprise is the center of Green Supply Chain (GSC) and it helps partners to meet the environmental standards and to improve GSC’s performance. However there are two questions for core enterprise when it establishes GSC: What roles do core enterprise play in GSC? How does core enterprise improve GSC’s performance? What criterions are considered when core enterprise chooses partners in GSC?

     

    In order to answer these questions, this paper will use following methods: firstly, Analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and Analytic network process (ANP) have be used to study on three research companies (IKEA, TOYOTA and Apple); Secondly, six interviews with research companies’ employees.

     

    After case study, the results show that when core enterprise chooses partners, it will draw up some criterions and sub-standards for partners to fulfill. Furthermore, core enterprise plays the roles as GSC’s builder, director, coordinator, and designer in the system.

     

    Finally, this paper answered the research questions: Firstly, in order to improve the performance of GSC, core enterprise should direct all partners in GSC to save materials and recycle waste in each link of GSC. Secondly, core enterprise can use four criterions to choose partners. These criterions are: environmental management performance, product-related elements, production-service levels, and enterprise culture.

  • 243.
    Yang, J
    et al.
    Guizho University.
    Yang, L
    Guizho University.
    Zhao, Ming
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Gong, M
    Guizho University.
    Reliability Analysis of Hydraulic Oil System Based on L-M Method2012In: Application of Statistics and Management, ISSN 1002-1566, Vol. 6, p. 976-980Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 244.
    Yang, J
    et al.
    Guizhou University.
    Zhao, Ming
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Hu, W
    Guizhou University.
    Web Software Reliability Analysis Based on NHPP Model2012In: Jisuanji Gongcheng [Computer Engineering], ISSN 1000-3428, Vol. 38, no 14, p. 26-28Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     This paper proposes a Web Software Reliability Growth Model(SRGM) with BurrX Testing Effort Function(TEF) based on Non-homogeneous Poisson Process(NHPP) and develops its application to Web software reliability analysis. The incorporated TEF depicts the relationship between Web workload and calendar time, and solves the problem about high uneven of Web workload. By using the workload data and failure data from Web logs. Experimental results show that the proposed model can be used to describe the actual failure process more faithfully than G-O model, which is often used to analyze Web software.

  • 245.
    Yang, Jianfeng
    et al.
    Faculty of Information Engineering, Guizhou Institute of Technology, Guiyang, China .
    Liu, Yu
    Department of Systems Engineering and Engineering Management, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong .
    Xie, Min
    Department of Systems Engineering and Engineering Management, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong .
    Zhao, Ming
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Modeling and analysis of reliability of multi-release open source software incorporating both fault detection and correction processes2016In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 115, p. 102-110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Large software systems require regular upgrading that tries to correct the reported faults in previous versions and add some functions to meet new requirements. It is thus necessary to investigate changes in reliability in the face of ongoing releases. However, the current modeling frameworks mostly rely on the idealized assumption that all faults will be removed instantaneously and perfectly. In this paper, the failure processes in testing multi-release software are investigated by taking into consideration the delays in fault repair time based on a proposed time delay model. The model is validated on real test datasets from the software that has been released three times with new features. A comprehensive analysis of optimal release times based on cost-efficiency is also provided, which could help project managers to determine the best time to release the software. 

  • 246.
    Yang, Jian-feng
    et al.
    College of Computer Science & Information, Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025, China.
    Zhao, Ming
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Maximum likelihood estimation for software reliability with masked failure data2013In: Systems engineering and electronics, ISSN 1001-506X, Vol. 35, no 12, p. 2665-2669Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The masked data are the system failure data when the exact cause of the failures might be unknown. That is, it is the subset of components known to contain the component causing system failures. In general, the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) of parameters are difficult to find when there exist masked data, because superposition non-homogenous Poisson process (NHPP) software reliability model cannot be decomposed into the independent NHPP models. In this paper, the MLE of software reliability from masked data is studied based on superposition NHPP models. Finally, numerical example based on simulation data is given to illustrate a good performance of MLE.

  • 247. Yang, Jianfeng
    et al.
    Zhao, Ming
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production. Guizhou University, Guiyang, China.
    Hu, Wensheng
    Web software reliability modeling with random impulsive shocks2014In: Journal of Systems Engineering and Electronics, ISSN 1004-4132, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 349-356Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As the web-server based business is rapidly developed and popularized, how to evaluate and improve the reliability of web-servers has been extremely important. Although a large number of software reliability growth models (SRGMs), including those combined with multiple change-points (CPs), have been available, these conventional SRGMs cannot be directly applied to web software reliability analysis because of the complex web operational profile. To characterize the web operational profile precisely, it should be realized that the workload of a web server is normally non-homogeneous and often observed with the pattern of random impulsive shocks. A web software reliability model with random impulsive shocks and its statistical analysis method are developed. In the proposed model, the web server workload is characterized by a geometric Brownian motion process. Based on a real data set from IIS server logs of ICRMS website (www.icrms.cn), the proposed model is demonstrated to be powerful for estimating impulsive shocks and web software reliability.

  • 248.
    Yongjin, Zhang
    et al.
    Department of Civil Aviation Engineering, College of Civil Aviation, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing, China; Department of Applied Mathematics, School of Mathematics and Physics, Anhui University of Technology, Maanshan, China.
    Youchao, Sun
    Department of Civil Aviation Engineering, College of Civil Aviation, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing, China.
    Longbiao, Li
    Department of Civil Aviation Engineering, College of Civil Aviation, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing, China.
    Ming, Zhao
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Copula-based reliability analysis for a parallel system with a cold standby2018In: Communications in Statistics - Theory and Methods, ISSN 0361-0926, E-ISSN 1532-415X, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 562-582Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The traditional reliability models cannot well reflect the effect of performance dependence of subsystems on the reliability of system, and neglect the problems of initial reliability and standby redundancy. In this paper, the reliability of a parallel system with active multicomponents and a single cold-standby unit has been investigated. The simultaneously working components are dependent and the dependence is expressed by a copula function. Based on the theories of conditional probability, the explicit expressions for the reliability and the MTTF of the system, in terms of the copula function and marginal lifetime distributions, are obtained. Let the copula function be the FGM copula and the marginal lifetime distribution be exponential distribution, a system with two parallel dependent units and a single cold-standby unit is taken as an example. The effect of different degrees of dependence among components on system reliability is analyzed, and the system reliability can be expressed as the linear combination of exponential reliability functions with different failure rates. For investigating how the degree of dependence affects the mean lifetime, furthermore, the parallel system with a single cold standby, comprising different number of active components, is also presented. The effectiveness of the modeling method is verified, and the method presented provides a theoretical basis for reliability design of engineering systems and physics of failure.

  • 249.
    Zhang, Yongjin
    et al.
    College of Aerospace Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing, China; School of Mathematics and Physics, Anhui University of Technology, Maanshan, China.
    Sun, Youchao
    College of Aerospace Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing, China.
    Zhao, Ming
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    A combinatorial estimation approach for storage reliability with initial failures based on periodic testing data2017In: Communications in statistics. Simulation and computation, ISSN 0361-0918, E-ISSN 1532-4141, Vol. 46, no 4, p. 3319-3340Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Storage reliability that measures the ability of products in a dormant state to keep their required functions is studied in this paper. Unlike the operational reliability, storage reliability for certain types of products may not be always 100% at the beginning of storage since there are existing possible initial failures that are normally neglected in the models of storage reliability. In this paper, a new combinatorial approach, the non-parametric measure for the estimates of the number of failed products and the current reliability at each testing time in storage, and the parametric measure for the estimates of the initial reliability and the failure rate based on the exponential reliability function, is proposed for estimating and predicting the storage reliability with possible initial failures. The proposed method has taken into consideration that, the initial failure and the reliability testing data before and during the storage process, are available for providing more accurate estimates of both initial failure probability and the probability of storage failures. When storage reliability prediction that is the main concern in this field should be made, the non-parametric estimates of failure numbers can be used into the parametric models for the failure process in storage. In the case of exponential models, the assessment and prediction method for storage reliability is provided in this paper. Finally, numerical examples are given to illustrate the method. Furthermore, a detailed comparison between the proposed method and the traditional method, for examining the rationality of assessment and prediction on the storage reliability, is presented. The results should be useful for planning a storage environment, decision-making concerning the maximum length of storage, and identifying the production quality.

  • 250.
    Zhang, Yongjin
    et al.
    School of Mathematics and Physics, Anhui University of Technology, Maanshan, China.
    Zhao, Ming
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Zhang, Shitao
    School of Mathematics and Physics, Anhui University of Technology, Maanshan, China.
    Wang, Jiamei
    School of Mathematics and Physics, Anhui University of Technology, Maanshan, China.
    Zhang, Yanjun
    College of Mechanical Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, China.
    An integrated approach to estimate storage reliability with initial failures based on E-Bayesian estimates2017In: Reliability Engineering & System Safety, ISSN 0951-8320, E-ISSN 1879-0836, Vol. 159, p. 24-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Storage reliability that measures the ability of products in a dormant state to keep their required functions is studied in this paper. For certain types of products, Storage reliability may not always be 100% at the beginning of storage, unlike the operational reliability, which exist possible initial failures that are normally neglected in the models of storage reliability. In this paper, a new integrated technique, the non-parametric measure based on the E-Bayesian estimates of current failure probabilities is combined with the parametric measure based on the exponential reliability function, is proposed to estimate and predict the storage reliability of products with possible initial failures, where the non-parametric method is used to estimate the number of failed products and the reliability at each testing time, and the parameter method is used to estimate the initial reliability and the failure rate of storage product. The proposed method has taken into consideration that, the reliability test data of storage products containing the unexamined before and during the storage process, is available for providing more accurate estimates of both the initial failure probability and the storage failure probability. When storage reliability prediction that is the main concern in this field should be made, the non-parametric estimates of failure numbers can be used into the parametric models for the failure process in storage. In the case of exponential models, the assessment and prediction method for storage reliability is presented in this paper. Finally, a numerical example is given to illustrate the method. Furthermore, a detailed comparison between the proposed and traditional method, for examining the rationality of assessment and prediction on the storage reliability, is investigated. The results should be useful for planning a storage environment, decision-making concerning the maximum length of storage, and identifying the production quality.

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